The right Honble. Fr …

The right Honble. Francis Lo: Veru­lam, Viscount Sct Alban. Mortuus 9 Aprilis, Anno Dn̄i, 1626. Anno (que) Aesat 66.

‘Et vidit Deus lucem quod esset bona.’
Mundus Intellectualis


Written by the right Honble Francis Lo: Verulam Viscount Sct Alban.

Published after Ye Authors Death by W. RAWLEY Dr of Diui­nity [...]

LONDON Printed for W. Lee and are to be sould at the Great Turks head next to the Mytre Taurne in Fleetstreet

Anno [...]

TO THE MOST HIGH AND MIGHTY PRINCE CHARLES, BY THE GRACE OF GOD, King of Great Britaine, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c.

May it please your most Excellent Maiestie;

THe whole Body of the Natu­rall Historie, either designed, or written, by the late Lo. Viscount S. Alban, was dedica­ted to your Maiestie, in his Booke De Ventis, about foure yeeres past, when your Maiestie was Prince: So as there needed no new Dedication of this Worke, but only, in all humblenesse, to let your Maiestie know, it is yours. It is true, if that Lo. had liued; your Maiestie, ere long, had beene inuoked, to the Protection of another Historie; [Page] Whereof, not Natures Kingdome, as in this, but these of your Maiesties, (during the Time and Raigne of King Henry the Eighth) had beene the Subiect: Which since it died vnder the De­signation meerely, there is nothing left, but your Maiesties Princely Goodnesse, graciously to accept of the Vndertakers Heart, and Intenti­ons; who was willing to haue parted, for a while, with his Darling Philosophie, that hee might haue attended your Royall Commande­ment, in that other Worke. Thus much I haue beene bold, in all lowlinesse, to represent vnto your Maiestie, as one that was trusted with his Lordships Writings, euen to the last. And as this Worke affecteth the Stampe of your Maiesties Royall Protection, to make it more currant to the World; So vnder the Protection of this Worke, I presume in all humblenesse to approach your Maiesties presence; And to offer it vp into your Sacred Hands.

Your MAIESTIES most Loyall and Deuoted Subiect, W. RAWLEY.


WRITTEN BY THE RIGHT Honourable FRANCIS Lo. Verulam Viscount St. ALBAN.

Published after the Authors death, By WILLIAM RAWLEY Doctor of Diuinitie, late his Lordships Chaplaine.


LONDON, ¶Printed by I. H. for William Lee at the Turks Head in Fleet-street, next to the Miter. 1626.

To the Reader.

HAuing had the Honour to be conti­nually with my Lord, in compi­ling of this Worke; And to be em­ployed therein; I haue thought it not amisse, (with his Lordships good leaue and liking,) for the better satisfaction of those that shall reade it, to make knowne some­what of his Lordships Intentions, touching the Ordering, and Publishing of the same. I haue heard his Lordship often say; that if hee should haue serued the glory of his owne Name, he had been better not to haue published this Naturall History: For it may seeme an Indigested Heap of Particulars; And cannot haue that Lustre, which Bookes cast into Methods haue: But that he resolued to preferre the good of Men, and that which might best secure it, before any thing that might haue Relation to Himselfe. And hee knew well, that ther was no other way open, to vnloose Mens mindes, being bound; and (as it were) Maleficiate, by the Charmes of decei­uing Notions, and Theories; and therby made [Page] Impotent for Generation of VVorkes; But onely no wher to depart from the Sense, and cleare ex­perience; But to keepe close to it, especially in the beginning: Besides, this Naturall History was a Debt of his, being Designed and set downe for a third part of the Instauration. I haue also heard his Lordship discourse, that Men (no doubt) will thinke many of the Experiments conteined in this Collection, to bee Vulgar and Triuiall; Meane and Sordid; Curious and Fruitlesse: And therfore he wisheth, that they would haue perpe­tually before their Eyes, what is now in doing; And the Difference betweene this Naturall Hi­story, and others. For those Naturall Histories, which are Extant, being gathered for Delight and Vse, are full of pleasant Descriptions and Pictures; and affect and seeke after Admiration, Rarities, and Secrets. But contrariwise, the Scope which his Lordship intendeth, is to write such a Natu­rall History, as may be Fundamentall to the Ere­cting and Building of a true Philosophy: For the Illumination of the Vnderstanding; the Extracting of Axiomes; and the producing of many Noble Works, and Effects. For he hopeth, by this meanes, to acquit Himselfe of that, for which hee taketh Himselfe in a sort bound; And that is, the Ad­uancement of all Learning and Sciences. For ha­uing in this present VVorke Collected the Ma­terialls for the Building; And in his Novum Organum (of which his Lordship is yet to publish [Page] a Second Part,) set downe the Instruments and Directions for the Worke; Men shall now bee wanting to themselues, if they raise not Know­ledge to that perfection, whereof the Nature of Mortall men is capable. And in this behalfe, I haue heard his Lordship speake complainingly; That his Lordship (who thinketh hee deserueth to be an Architect in this building,) should be for­ced to be a VVork-man and a Labourer; And to digge the Clay, and burne the Brick; And more then that, (according to the hard Condition of the Israelites at the latter end) to gather the Strawe and Stubble, ouer all the Fields, to burn the Bricks withall. For he knoweth, that except hee doe it, nothing will be done: Men are so sett to despise the Meanes of their owne good. And as for the Basenes of many of the Experiments; As long as they be Gods VVorks, they are Honourable enough. And for the Vulgarnes of them; true A­xiomes must be drawne from plaine Experience, and not from doubtfull; And his Lordships course is, to make VVonders Plaine, and not Plaine things VVonders; And that Experience likewise must be broken and grinded, and not whole, or as it groweth. And for Vse; his Lordship hath often in his Mouth, the two kindes of Experi­ments; Experimenta Fructifera, and Experimen­ta Lucifera: Experiments of Vse, and Experiments of Light; And he reporteth himself, whether he were not a strange Man, that should thinke that [Page] Light hath no Vse, because it hath no Matter. Further, his Lordship thought good also, to add vnto many of the Experiments themselues, some Glosse of the Causes; that in the succeeding work of Interpreting Nature, and Framing Axiomes, all things may be in more Readines. And for the Causes herein by Him assigned; his Lordship perswadeth Himselfe, they are farr more certaine, then those that are rendred by Others; Not for any Excellency of his owne Witt, (as his Lord­ship is wont to say) but in respect of his continu­all Conuersation with Nature, and Experience. He did consider likewise, that by this Addition of Causes, Mens mindes (which make so much hast to find out the Causes of things;) would not think themselues vtterly lost, in a Vast VVood of Ex­perience, but stay vpon these Causes, (such as they are) a little, till true Axiomes may be more ful­ly discouered. I haue heard his Lordship say al­so, that one great Reason, why he would not put these Particulars into any exact Method, (though he that looketh attentiuely into them, shall finde that they haue a secret Order) was, because hee conceiued that other men would now thinke, that they could doe the like; And so goe on with a further Collection: which if the Method had been Exact, many would haue despaired to attaine by Imitation. As for his Lordships loue of Order, I can referr any Man to his Lord­ships Latine Booke, De Augmentis Scientiarum; [Page] which (if my Iudgment be any thing) is written in the Exactest Order, that I know any Wri­ting to bee. I will conclude with an vsuall Speech of his Lordships.This Epistle is the same, that should haue been prefix­ed to this Booke, if his Lordship had liued. That this Worke of his Na­turall History, is the World, as GOD made it, and not as Men haue made it; For that it hath nothing of Imagination.

W: Rawley.

I. Century.

DIGG a Pitt vpon the Sea shore, somewhat a­boue 1 the High-water Marke, and sincke it as deepe as the Low-Water marke; And as the Tide commeth in, it will fill with Water, Fresh and Po­table.Experiments in Consort, touching the Straining and Passing of Bo­dies, one through ano­ther: which they Call Per­colation. This is commonly practized vpon the Coast of Barbary, where other fresh Water is wan­ting. And CAESAR knew this well, when he was besieged in Alexandria: For by Digging of Pitts in the Sea shoare, hee did frustrate the Laborious Workes of the Enemies, which had turned the Sea-Water vpon the Wells of Alexandria; And so saued his Army, being then in Desperation. But Caesar mistooke the Cause, For he thought that all Sea-Sandes had Na­turall Springs of Fresh Water. But it is plaine, that it is the Sea-Water; because the Pitt filleth according to the Measure of the Tide: And the Sea-water passing or Strayning through the Sandes, leaueth the Saltnesse.

I remember to haue Read, that Triall hath beene made of Salt Water 2 passed through Earth; through Tenn Vessells, one within an other, and yet it hath not lost his Saltnesse, as to become potable: But the same Man saith, that (by the Relation of Another,) Salt Water drained through twenty Vessells, hath become Fresh. This Experiment seemeth to crosse that other of Pitts, made by the Sea side; And yet but in part, if it be true, that twentie Repetitions doe the Effect. But it is worth the Note, how poore the Imitations of Nature are, in Common course of Experiments, except they be led by great Iudgement, and some good Light of Axiomes. For first, ther is no small difference betweene a [Page 2] Passage of Water through twenty small Vessells; And through such a distance, as betweene the Low water, and High water Marke. Second­ly, there is a great difference betweene Earth and Sand. For all Earth hath in it a kinde of Nitrous Salt, from which Sand is more free: And besides Earth doth not straine the Water so finely, as Sand doth. But ther is a Third Point, that I suspect as much, or more, then the other Two: And that is, that in the Experiment of Transmission of the Sea-water into the Pitts, the Water riseth; But in the Experiment of Trans­mission of the Water through the Vessells, it falleth: Now certaine it is, that the Salter Part of Water, (once Salted throughout) goeth to the Bottome. And therfore no meruaile, if the Draining of Water by des­cent, doth not make it fresh: Besides, I doe somewhat doubt, that the very Dashing of the Water, that commeth from the Sea, is more pro­per to strike of the Salt part, then wher the Water slideth of her owne Motion.

3 It seemeth Percolation or Transmission, (which is commonly called Straining,) is a good kinde of Separation; Not onely of Thicke from Thin, and Grosse from Fine,; But of more subtile Natures; And vari­eth according to the Bodie through which the Transmission is made. As if through a wollen Bagg, the Liquour leaueth the Fatnesse; If through Sand, the Saltnesse; &c. They speake of Seuering Wine from Water, passing it through Iuy wood, or through other the like porous Body; But Non Constat.

4 The Gumm of Trees (which wee see to be commonly shining and cleare) is but a fine Passage or Straining of the Iuice of the Tree, through the Wood and Bark. And in like manner, Cornish Diamonds, and Rock Rubies, (which are yet more resplendent then Gumms) are the fine Exudations of Stone.

5 Aristotle giueth the Cause, vainely, why the Feathers of Birdes are of more liuely Colours, then the Haires of Beastes; for no Beast hath any fine Azure, or Carnation, or Greene Haire. He saith, It is, because Birds are more in the Beames of the Sunn, then Beasts; But that is ma­nifestly vntrue; For Cattle are more in the Sun then Birds, that liue commonly in the Woods, or in some Couert. The true Cause is, that the Excrementious Moisture of liuing Creatures, which maketh as well the Feathers in Birds, as the Haire in Beasts, passeth in Birds through a finer and more delicate Strainer, then it doth in Beastes: For Feathers passe through Quills; And Haire through Skin.

6 The Clarifying of Liquors by Adhesion is an Inward Percolation; And is effected, when some Cleauing Body is Mixed and Agitated with the Liquours; wherby the grosser Part of the Liquor sticks to that Cleauing Body; And so the finer Parts are freed from the Grosser. So the Apothecaries clarify their Sirrupes by whites of Eggs, beaten with the Iuices which they would clarify; which Whites of Eggs, gather all the Dreggs and grosser Parts of the Iuyce to them; And after the Sir­rupe being sett on the Fire, the whites of Egges themselues harden, and [Page 3] are taken forth. So Ippocrasse is clarified by mixing with Milke; And stirring it about; And then passing it through a Wollen Bagge, which they call Hippocrates Sleeue: And the Cleauing Nature of the Milke draweth the Powder of the Spices, and Grosser parts of the Liquour to it; And in the passage they stick vpon the Woollen Bagge.

The Clarifying of Water, is an Experiment tending to Health; be­sides 7 the pleasure of the Eye, when Water is Crystaline. It is effected by casting in and placing Pebbles, at the Head of a Current; that the Water may straine through them.

It may be, Percolation doth not onely cause Clearenesse and Splen­dour,8 but Sweetnes of Sauour; For that also followeth, as well as Clearenes, when the Finer Parts are seuered from the Grosser. So it is found, that the Sweates of Men that haue much Heat, and exercise much, and haue cleane Bodies, and fine Skins, doe smell sweet; As was said of Alexander; And we see, commonly, that Gumms haue sweet Odours.

TAke a Glasse, and put Water into it, and wett your Finger, and draw it round about the Lipp of the Glasse, pressing it somewhat hard; And after you haue drawne it some few times about; it will make the Water friske and sprinckle vp, in a fine Dew.Experiments in Consort touching Mo­tion of Bodies vpon their Pressure. This Instance doth excel­lently Demonstrate the Force of Compression in a Solid Body. For whensoeuer a Solid Body (as Wood, Stone, Mettall, &c.) is pressed,9 ther is an inward Tumult in the parts therof; seeking to deliuer them­selues from the Compression: And this is the Cause of all Violent Motion. Wherin it is strange in the highest Degree, that this Motion hath neuer been obserued, nor inquired; It being of all Motions, the most Common, and the Chiefe Roote of all Mechanicall Operations. This Motion worketh in round at first, by way of Proofe, and Search, which way to deliuer it selfe; And then worketh in Progresse, wher it findeth the Deliuerance easiest. In Liquours this Motion is visible: For all Liquours strucken make round Circles, and withall Dash; but in Solids, (which breake not,) it is so subtile, as it is inuisible; But ne­uertheless bewrayeth it selfe by many Effects; As in this Instance wher­of we speake. For the Pressure of the Finger furthered by the wetting (because it sticketh so much the better vnto the Lipp of the Glasse,) af­ter some continuance, putteth all the small Parts of the Glasse, into worke; that they strike the Water sharpely; from which Percussion that Sprinkling commeth.

If you strike or pierce a Solid Body, that is brittle, as Glasse, or Sugar, 10 it breaketh not onely, wher the immediate force is; but breaketh all a­bout into shiuers and fitters; The Motion, vpon the Pressure, searching all wayes; and breaking where it findeth the Body weakest.

The Powder in Shot, being Dilated into such a Flame, as endureth not 11 Compression; Moueth likewise in round, (The Flame being in the Nature of a liquid Body:) Sometimes recoyling; Sometimes breaking the Piece; [Page 4] But generally discharging the Bullett, because ther it findeth easiest De­liuerance.

12 This Motion vpon Pressure, and the Reciprocall therof, which is Motion vpon Tensure; we vse to call (by one common Name) Moti­on of Libertie; which is, when any Body, being forced to a Preter-Natu­rall Extent, or Dimension, deliuereth and restoreth it selfe to the Na­turall: As when a Blowne Bladder (Pressed) riseth againe; or when Leather or Cloath tentured spring backe. These two Motions (of which ther be infinite Instances,) we shall handle in due place.

13 This Motion vpon Pressure is excellently also demonstrated in Sounds; As when one Chimeth vpon a Bell, it soundeth; But as soon as he layeth his hand vpon it, the Sound ceaseth: And so, the Sound of a Virginall String, as soone as the Quill of the Iack falleth vpon it, stoppeth. For these Sounds are produced, by the subtile Percussion of the Minute parts, of the Bell, or String, vpon the Aire; All one, as the Water is caused to leape by the subtile Percussion of the Minute parts of the Glasse, vpon the Water, wherof we spake a little before in the 9th. Experiment. For you must not take it to be, the locall Shaking of the Bell, or String, that doth it. As we shall fully declare, when we come hereafter to handle Sounds.

TAke a Glasse with a Belly and a long Nebb; fill the Belly (in part) with Water: Take also another Glasse, whereinto put Claret Wine and Water mingled; Reverse the first Glasse, with the Belly vpwards, Stopping the Nebb with your fingar; Then dipp the Mouth of it with­in the Second Glasse, and remoue your Fingar: Continue it in that 14 posture for a time; And it will vnmingle the VVine from the Water: The VVine ascending and setling in the topp of the vpper Glasse; And the VVater descending and setling in the bottome of the lower Glasse. Experiments in Consort tou­ching Sepa­rations of Bo­dies by Weight The passage is apparent to the Eye; For you shall see the VVine, as it were, in a small veine, rising through the VVater. For handsomnesse sake (because the Working requireth some small time) it were good you hang the vpper Glasse vpon a Naile. But as soone as ther is ga­thered so much pure and vnmixed water in the Bottome of the Lower Glasse, as that the Mouth of the vpper Glasse dippeth into it, the Moti­on ceaseth

15 Let the Vpper Glasse be VVine, and the Lower VVater; ther follo­weth no Motion at all. Lett the Vpper Glasse be VVater pure, the Low­wer VVater coloured; or contrariwise; ther followeth no Motion at all. But it hath been tried, that though the Mixture of VVine and VVater, in the Lower Glasse, be three parts VVater, and but one VVine; yet it doth not dead the Motion. This Separation of VVater and VVine appea­reth to be made by Weight; for it must be of Bodies of vnequall Weight, or ells it worketh not; And the Heauier Body must euer be in the vpper Glasse. But then note withall, that the VVater being made pensile, and ther being a great VVeight of VVater in the Belly of the Glasse, sustained [Page 5] by a small Pillar of VVater in the Neck of the Glasse; It is that, which sesteth the Motion on worke: For VVater and VVine in one Glasse, with long standing, will hardly seuer.

This Experiment would be Extended from Mixtures of seuerall Li­quors, 16 to Simple Bodies, which Consist of seuerall Similare Parts: Try it therfore with Broyne or Salt water, and Fresh water; Placing the Salt water (which is the heauier) in the vpper Glasse; And see whether the Fresh will come aboue. Try it also with VVater thick Sugred, and Pure water; and see whether the water which commeth aboue, will loose his Sweetnes: For which purpose it were good ther were a little Cock made in the Belly of the vpper Glasse.

IN Bodies containing Fine Spirits, which doe easely dissipate, when you make Infusions, the Rule is; A short Stay of the Body in the Li­quour receyueth the Spiritt; And a longer Stay confoundeth it; be­cause it draweth forth the Earthy Part withall; which embaseth the finer.Experiments in Consort touching Iudi­cious & Accu­rate Infusions, both in Li­quors, and Aire. And therfore it is an Errour in Phisicians, to rest simply vpon the Length of stay, for encreasing the vertue. But if you will haue the In­fusion strong, in those kinde of Bodies, which haue fine Spiritts, your 17 way is, not to giue Longer time, but to repeat the Infusion of the Body oftner. Take Violetts, and infuse a good Pugill of them in a Quart of Vineger; Lett them stay three quarters of an houre, and take them forth; And refresh the Infusion with like quantity of new Violetts, se­uen times; And it will make a Vineger so fresh of the Flower, as if a Twelue-moneth after, it be brought you in a Saucer, you shall smell it before it come at you. Note, that it smelleth more perfectly of the Flower, a good while after, then at first.

This Rule, which wee haue giuen, is of singular vse, for the Prepara­tions 18 of Medecines, and other Infusions. As for Example; the Leafe of Burrage hath an Excellent Spiritt, to represse the fuliginous Vapour of Dusky Melancholy, and so to cure Madnes: But neuerthelesse, if the Leafe be infused long, it yieldeth forth but a raw substance, of no Vertue; Therfore I suppose, that if in the Must of Wine, or Wort of Beere, while it worketh, before it be Tunned, the Burrage stay a small time, and be often changed with fresh; It will make a Soueraigne Drink for Melancholy Passions. And the like I conceyue of Orenge Flowers.

Rubarb hath manifestly in it Parts of contrary Operations: Parts that 19 purge; And parts that binde the body: And the first lay looser, and the latter lay deeper: So that if you infuse Rubarb for an houre, and crush it well, it will purge better, and binde the Body lesse after the purging, then if it stood twenty foure houres; This is tried: But I con­ceiue likewise, that by Repeating the Infusion of Rubarb, seuerall times, (as was said of Violetts,) letting each stay in but a small time; you may make it as strong a Purging Medecine, as Scammony. And it is not a small thing wonn in Phisick, if you can make Rubarb, and other Mede­cines [Page 6] that are Benedict, as strong Purgers, as those that are not without some Malignity.

20 Purging Medecines, for the most part, haue their Purgatine Vertue, in a fine Spirit; As appeareth by that they indure not boiling, without much losse of vertue. And therfore it is of good vse in Phisick, if you can retaine the Purging Vertue, and take away the Vnpleasant tast of the Purger; which it is like you may doe, by this Course of Infusing oft, with little stay. For it is probable, that the Horrible and Odious Tast, is in the Grosser part.

21 Generally, the working by Infusions, is grosse and blinde, except you first try the Issuing of the seuerall Parts of the Body, which of them Issue more speedily, and which more slowly; And so by apportioning the time, can take and leaue that Quality, which you desire. This to know, ther be two waies; The one to try what long stay, and what short stay worketh, as hath been said: The other to try in Order, the succe­ding Infusions, of one and the same Body, successiuely, in seuerall Li­quors. As for example; Take Orenge-Pills, or Rose-Mary, or Cinna­mon, or what you will; And let them Infuse halfe an houre in VVater: Then take them out, and Infuse them againe in other VVater; And so the third time: And then tast and consider the First water, the Second, and the Third: And you will find them differing, not only in Strength and Weaknes, but otherwise in Tast, or Odour; For it may bee the First water will haue more of the Sent, as more Fragrant; And the Second more of the Tast, as more bitter or Biting, &c.

22 Infusions in Aire, (for so we may well call Odours) haue the same diuersities with Infusions in VVater; In that the seuerall Odours (which are in one Flower, or other Body) issue at seuerall times; Some earli­er, some later: So we finde that Violetts, Woodbines, Strawberries, yield a pleasing Sent, that commeth forth first; But soone after an ill Sent, quite differing from the Former; Which is caused, not so much by Mellowing, as by the late Issuing of the Grosser Spirit.

23 As we may desire to extract the finest Spirits in some Cases; So we may desire also to discharge them (as hurtfull) in some other. So VVine burnt, by reason of the Evaporating of the finer Spirit, enslameth lesse, and is best in Agues: Opium leeseth some of his poisonous Quallity, if it be vapoured out, mingled with Spirit of Wine, or the like: Sean leeseth somewhat of his windines by Decocting; And (generally) subtile or windy Spirits are taken off by Incension, or Evaporation. And euen in Infusions in things that are of too high a Spirit, you were better poure off the first Infusion, after a small time, and vse the latter.

BVbbles are in the forme of a Hemisphere; Aire within, and a little Skin of VVater without: And it seemeth somewhat strange, that the Aire should rise so swiftly, while it is in the VVater; And when it commeth to the topp, should be staid by so weake a Couer as that of 24 the Bubble is.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ap­petite of Con­tinuation in liquids. But as for the swift Ascent of the Aire, while is vnder [Page 7] the VVater, that is a Motion of Percussion from the VVater; which it selfe descending, driueth vpp the Aire; and no Motion of Leuity in the Aire. And this Democritus called Motus Plaga. In this Common Ex­periment, the Cause of the Enclosure of the Bubble is, for that the Ap­petite to resist Separation, or Discontinuance, (which in solide Bodies is strong) is also in Liquours, though fainter and weaker; As wee see in this of the Bubble: we see it also in little Glasses of Spittle that children make of Rushes; And in Castles of Bubbles, which they make by blowing into water, hauing obtained a little Degree of Tenacity by Mixture of Soape: Wee see it also in the Stillicides of water, which if ther be water enough to follow, will Drawe themselues into a small thredd, because they will not discontinue; But if ther be no Remedy, then they cast themselues into round Dropps; which is the Figure, that saueth the Body most from Discontinuance: The same Reason is of the Roundnes of the Bubble, as well for the Skin of water, as for the Aire within: For the Aire likewise auoideth Discontinuance; And ther­fore casteth it self into a Round Figure. And for the stopp and Arrest of the Aire a little while, it sheweth that the Aire of it selfe hath little, or no Appetite, of Ascending.

THE Reiection, which I continually vse, of Experiments, (though it appeareth not) is infinit; But yet if an Experiment be probable in the Worke, and of great Vse, I receyue it, but deliuer it as doubtfull. It was reported by a Sober Man, that an Artificiall Spring Experiment Solitary touch­ing the Making of Artificiall Springs. may be made thus: Finde out a hanging Ground, wher ther is a good quick Fall of 25 Raine-water. Lay a Half-Trough of Stone, of a good length, 3. or 4. foote deep within the same Ground; with one end vpon the high Ground, the other vpon the lowe. Couer the Trough with Brakes a good thicknes, and cast Sand vpon the Topp of the Brakes: You shall see, (saith he) that after some showers are past, the lower End of the Trough will runn like a Spring of water: which is no maruaile, if it hold, while the Raine-water lasteth; But he said it would continue long time after the Raine is past: As if the water did multiply it self vpon the Aire, by the helpe of the Coldnesse and Condensation of the Earth, and the Consort of the first Water.

THE French, (which put off the Name of the French Disease; vnto the Name of the Disease of Naples,) doe report, that at the Siege of Naples, ther were certaine wicked Merchants, that Barrelled vpp Mans flesh, Experiment Solitary touch­ing the Vene­mous Quality of Mans Flesh. (of some that had been, lately slaine in Barbary) and sold it for Tunny; And that vpon that foule and high Nourishment, was the 26 Originall of that Disease. Which may well be; For that it is certaine, that the Caniballs in the West Indies, eate Mans flesh; And the West Indies were full of the Pockes when they were first discouered: And at this day the Mortallest poisons, practised by the West Indians, haue some Mix­ture of the Bloud, or Fatt, or Flesh of Man: And diuers Witches, and [Page 8] Sorceresles, aswell amongst the Heathen, as amongst the Christians, haue fedd vpon Mans flesh, to aid (as it seemeth) their Imagination, with High and foule Vapours.

IT seemeth that ther be these waies (in likelihood) of Version of Va­pours, or Aire, into Water and Moisture. Experiment Solitary touch­ing the Version and Trans­mutation of Aire into Water. The first is Cold; which doth manifestly Condense; As wee see in the Contracting of the Aire in the Weather-Glasse; whereby it is a Degree nearer to water. Wee see it also in the Generation of Springs, which the Ancients thought (very 27 probably) to be made by the Version of Aire into water, holpen by the Rest, which the Aire hath in those Parts; wherby it cannot dissipate. And by the Coldnes of Rockes; for ther Springs are chiefly generated. Wee see it also in the Effects of the Cold of the Middle Region (as they call it) of the Aire; which produceth Dews, and Raines. And the Ex­periment of Turning water into Ice, by Snow, Nitre, and Salt, (wher­of wee shall speake hereafter,) would be transferred to the Turning of Aire into Water. The Second way is by Compression; As in Stillato­ries, wher the Vapour is turned back, vpon it self, by the Encounter of the Sides of the Stillatory; And in the Dew vpon the Couers of Boyling Potts; And in the Dew towards Raine, vpon Marble, and Wainscott. But this is like to doe no great effect; Except it be vpon Vapours, and grosse Aire, that are allready very neare in Degree to Water. The Third is that, which may be searched into, but doth not yet appeare; which is, by Mingling of moist Vapours with Aire; And trying if they will not bring a Returne of more Water, then the water was at first: For if so; That Increase is a version of the Aire: Therfore putt water into the Bottome of a Stillatory, with the Nebb stopped; Weigh the Water first; Hang in the Middle of the Stillatory a large Spunge; And see what Quantitie of Water you can crush out of it; And what it is more, or lesse, compared with the water spent; For you must vnder­stand, that if any Version can be wrought, it will be easeliest done in small Pores: And that is the Reason why wee prescribe a Spunge. The Fourth way is Probable also, though not Appearing; Which is, by Receiuing the Aire into the small Pores of Bodies; For (as hath been said) euery thing in small Quantity is more easy for version; And Tangible Bodies haue no pleasure in the Consort of Aire, but endeauour to sub­act it into a more Dense Body: But in Entire Bodies it is checked; be­cause if the Aire should Condense, ther is nothing to succeed: Ther­fore it must be in loose Bodies, as Sand, and Powder; which wee see, if they lye close, of themselues gather Moisture.

IT is reported by some of the Ancients; That Whelps, or other Crea­tures, if they be put Young, into such a Cage, or Boxe, as they can­not rise to their Stature, but may encrease in Breadth, or length; will growe accordingly, as they can gett Roome: which if it be 28 true, and faisible, and that the young Creature so pressed, and straigh­tened, [Page 9] doth not therupon die; It is a Meanes to produce Dwarfe Crea­tures, and in a very Strange Figure.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Helpes towards the Beauty and good Features of Persons. This is certaine, and noted long since; That the Pressure or Forming of Parts of Creatures, when they are very young, doth alter the Shape not a little; As the Stroaking of the Heads of Infants, between the Hands, was noted of Old, to make Macrocephali; which shape of the Head, at that time, was esteemed. And the Raising gently of the Bridge of the Nose, doth preuent the Defor­mity of a Saddle Nose. Which obseruation well weighed, may teach a Meanes, to make the Persons of Men, and Women, in many kindes, more comely, and better featured, then otherwise they would be; By the Forming and Shaping of them in their Infancy: As by Stroaking vp the Calues of the Leggs, to keepe them from falling downe too lowe; And by Stroaking vp the Forehead to keepe them from being low­foreheaded. And it is a common Practise to swath Infants, that they may growe more straight, and better shaped: And wee see Young Wo­men, by wearing straight Bodies, keepe themselues from being Grosse, and Corpulent.

ONions, as they hang, will many of them shoot forth; And so will Penniroiall; And so will an Herb called Orpin; with which they vse, in the Country, to trimme their Houses, binding it to a Lath, or Stick, and setting it against a wall.Experiments Solitary touch­ing the Con­densing of Aire, in such sort as it may put on Weight, and yield Nou­rishment. We see it like wise, more especially, in the greater Semper-vine, which will put out Branches, two or three yeares: But it is true, that commonly they wrapp the Root in a Cloth besmeared with Oyle, and renue it once in halfe a Yeare. The like is re­ported by some of the Ancients, of the Stalks of Lillies. The Cause 29 is; For that these Plants haue a Strong, Dense, and Succulent Moisture, which is not apt to exhale; And so is able, from the old store, without drawing helpe from the Earth, to suffice the sprouting of the Plant: And this Sprouting is chiefly in the late Spring, or early Sommer; which are the Times of Putting forth. We see also, that Stumps of Trtes, lying out of the ground, will put forth Sprouts for a Time. But it is a Noble Triall, and of very great Consequence, to try whether these things, in the Sprouting, doe increase Weight; which must be tried, by weighing them before they be hangd vp; And afterwards againe, when they are sprouted. For if they encrease not in Weight; Then it is no more but this; That what they send forth in the Sprout, they leese in some other Part: But if they gather Weight, then it is Magnale Na­turae; For it sheweth that Aire may be made so to be Condensed, as to be conuerted into a Dense Body; wheras the Race and Period of all things, here aboue the Earth, is to extenuate and turne things to be more Penumaticall, and Rare; And not to be Retrograde, from Pneu­maticall to that which is Dense. It sheweth also, that Aire can Nourish; which is another great Matter of Consequence. Note, that to try this, the Experiment of the Semper-viue must be made without Oiling the Cloth; For els, it may be, the Plant receiueth Nourishment from the Oile.

[Page 10] FLame and Aire doe not Mingle, except it be in an Instant; Or in the vitall Spiritts of vegetables, and liuing Creatures. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Cō ­mixture of Flame and Aire, and the great Force therof. In Gunpowder, the Force of it hath been ascribed, to Rarefaction of the Earthy Substance into Flame; And thus farr it is true: And then (forfooth) it is be­come another Element; the Forme wherof occupieth more place; And so, of Necessity, followeth a Dilatation: And therfore, lest two 30 Bodies should be in one place, ther must needes also follow an Expul­sion of the pellet; Or Blowing vp of the Mine. But these are Crude and Ignorant Speculations. For Flame, if ther were nothing els, except it were in very great quantity, will be suffocate with any hard Body, such as a Pellet is, Or the Barrell of a Gunn; So as the Flame would not expell the hard Body; But the hard Body would kill the Flame, and not suffer it to kindle, or spread. But the Cause of this so potent a Motion, is the Nitre, (which wee call otherwise Salt-Petre;) which hauing in it anotable Crude and windy Spirit, first by the Heate of the Fire suddainly dilateth it self; (And wee knowe that simple Aire, be­ing preternaturally attenuated by Heate, will make it self Roome, and breake and blowe vp that which resisteth it;) And Secondly, when the Nitre hath Dilated it self, it bloweth abroad the Flame, as an Inward Bellowes. And therfore wee see that Brimstone, Pitch, Camphire, Wilde-Fire, and diuers other Inflammable Matters, though they burne cruelly, and are hard to quench; Yet they make no such fiery winde, as Gun­powder doth: And on the other side, wee see that Quick Siluer, (which is a most Crude and Watry Body) heated, and pent in, hath the like force with Gunpowder. As for liuing Creatures, it is certaine, their Vitall Spi­ritts are a Substance Compounded of an Airy and Flamy Matter; And though Aire and Flame being free, will not well mingle; yet bound in by a Body that hath some fixing, they will. For that you may best see in those two Bodies, (which are their Aliments,) water, and Oyle; For they likewise will not well mingle of themselues, but in the Bodies of Plants, and liuing Creatures, they will. It is no maruaile therfore, that a small Quantity of Spiritts, in the Cells of the Braine, and Canales of the Sinewes, are able to moue the whole Body, (which is of so great Masse,) both with so great Force, as in Wrestling, Leaping; And with so great Swiftnes, As in playing Diuision vpon the Lute. Such is the force of these two Natures, Aire and Flame, when they incorporate.

TAke a small waxe Candle, and putt it in a Socket, of Brasse, or Iron; Then sett it vpright in a Porringer full of Spirits of Wine, heated: Then sett both the Candle, and Spiritt of Wine, on fire, and you shall see the Flame of the Candle, open it self, and become 4. or 5. times bigger 31 then otherwise it would haue been; and appeare in Figure Globular and not in Piramis. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Secret Nature of Flame. You shall see also, that the Inward Flame of the Candle keepeth Colour, and doth not waxe any whitt blewe towardes the Colour of the Outward flame of the Spiritt of Wine. This is a Noble [Page 11] Instance; where in two things are most remarkable; The one; that one Flame within another quencheth not; but is a fixed Body, and continu­eth as Aire, or Water doe. And therefore Flame would still ascend vp­wards in one greatnesse, if it were not quenched on the Sides: And the greater the Flame is at the Bottome, the higher is the Rise. The other, that Flame doth not mingle with Flame, as Aire doth with Aire, or Wa­ter with Water, but only remaineth contiguous; As it commeth to passe betwixt Consisting Bodies. It appeareth also, that the forme of a Pira­mis in Flame, which we vsually see, is meerely by Accident, and that the Aire about, by quenching the Sides of the Flame, crusheth it, and ex­tenuateth it into that Forme; For of it selfe it would be Round: And therefore Smoake is in the Figure of a Piramis Reuersed; For the Aire quencheth the Flame, and receiueth the Smoake. Note also, that the Flame of the Condle, within the Flame of the Spirit of Wine, is troubled; And doth not onely open and moue vpwards, but moueth wauing, and to and fro: As if Flame of his owne Nature (if it were not quenched,) would rowle and turne, as well as moue vpwards. By all which, it should seeme, that the Caelestiall Bodies, (most of them,) are true Fires or Flames, as the Stoicks held; More fine (perhaps) and Rarified, than our Flame is. For they are all Globular, and Determinate,; They haue Rotation; And they haue the Colour and Splendour of Flame: So that Flame aboue is Durable, and Consistent, and in his Naturall place; But with vs, it is a Stranger, and Momentany, and Impure; Like Vulcan that haked with his Fall.

Take an Arrow, and hold it in Flame, for the space of ten pulses; And when it commeth forth, you shall finde those Parts of the Arrow, which were on the Outsides of the Flame, more burned, blacked, and turned almost into a Coale; whereas that in the Middest of the Flame, will be, as if the Fire had scarce touched it.Experiment Solitory tou­ching the Diffe­rent force of Flame in the Middest and on the Sides. This is an Instance of great conse­quence for the discouery of the Nature of Flame; And sheweth mani­festly,32 that Flame burneth more violently towards the Sides, than in the Middest: And, which is more, that Heat or Fire is not violent or furious, but where it is checked, and pont. And therfore the Peripatetickes (how­soeuer their opinion of an Element of Fire aboue the Aire is iustly ex­ploded;) in that Point they acquit themselues well: For being oppo­sed, that if there were a Spbeare of Fire, that incompassed the Earth so neare hand, it were impossible but all things should be burnt vp; They answer, that the pure Elementall Fire, in his owne place, and not irritate, is but of a Moderate Heat.

It is affirmed constantly by many, as an vsuall Experiment; That a Lampe of Vre, in the Bottome of a Mine, will be tumbled, and stirred, by two Mens strength; which if you bring it to the Topp of the Earth, will aske Six Mens strength at the least to stirre it.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the De­crease of the Naturall motion of Grauity in great distance from the Earth; or within some depth of the Earth. It is a Noble Instance, and is fit to be tried to the full: For it is very probable, that the Motion 33 [Page 12] of Grauitie worketh weakly, both farre from the Earth, and also within the Earth: The former, because the Appetite of Vnion of Dense Bo­dies with the Earth, in respect of the distance, is more dull; The latter, because the Body hath in part attained his Nature, when it is some Depth in the Earth. For as for the Mouing to a Point or Place (which was the Opinion of the Ancients) it is a meere Vanity.

34 It is strange, how the Ancients tooke vp Experiments vpon credit, and yet did build great Matters vpon them.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Con­traction of Bo­dies in Bulke, by the Mixture of the more Li­quid Body with the more Solid. The Obseruation of some of the best of them, deliuered confidently, is That a Vessell filled with Ashes, will receiue the like quantity of Water, that it would haue done, if it had been empty. But this is vtterly vntrue; for the Water will not goe in by a Fifth part. And I suppose, that that Fifth part is the difference of the lying close, or open, of the Ashes; As we see that Ashes alone, if they be hard pressed, will lye in lesse roome: And so the Ashes with Aire be­tweene, lye looser; and with Water, closer. For I haue not yet found certainly, that the Water, it selfe, by mixture of Ashes, or Dust, will shrinke or draw into lesse Roome.

It is reported of credit, that if you lay good store of Kernells of Grapes, about the Root of a Vine; it will make the Vine come earlier, and prosper better.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ma­king Vines more fruitfull. It may be tried with other Kernells, laid about the Root of a Plant of the same kinde; As Figgs, Kernells of Apples, &c. The Cause 35 may be, for that the Kernells draw out of the Earth Iuice fit to nourish the Tree, as those that would be Trees of themselues, though there were no Root; But the Root being of greater strength, robbeth and deuoureth the Nourishment, when they haue drawne it: As great Fishes deuoure little.

The Operation of Purging Medicines, and the Causes thereof, haue béene thought to be a great Secret; And so according to the slothfull manner of Men, it is referred to a Hidden Propriety, a Specificall vertue, 36 and a Fourth Qualitie, and the like Shifts of Ignorance.Experiments in Consort touching Pur­ging Medicines. The Causes of Purging are diuers; All plaine and perspicuous; And throughly main­tained by Experience. The first is, That whatsoeuer cannot be ouer­come and disgested by the Stomacke, is by the Stomacke, either put vp by Vomit, or put downe to the Guts; And by that Motion of Expulsion in the Stomacke, and Guts, other Parts of the Body, (as the Orifices of the Veines, and the like) are moued to expell by Consent. For nothing is more fre­quent than Motion of Consent in the Body of Man. This Surcharge of the Stomacke, is caused either by the Qualitie of the Medicine, or by the Quantitie. The Qualities are three: Extreme Bitter, as in Aloes, Colo­quintida, &c. Loathsome and of horrible taste; As in Agarick, Black Helle­bore, &c. And of secret Malignity, and disagreement towards Mans Bo­die, many times not appearing much in the Taste; As in Scammony, Me­choacham, Antimony, &c. And note well, that if there be any Medicine, [Page 13] that Purgeth, and hath neither of the first two Manifest Qualities; it is to be held suspected, as a kinde of Poysons; For that it worketh either by Corrosion; or by a secret Malignitie and Enmitie to Nature: And therfore such Medicines are warily to be prepared, and vsed. The Quantitie of that which is taken, doth also cause Parging; As we see in a great Quan­titie of New Milke from the Cow; yea and a great Quantitie of Meat; For Surfets many times turne to Purges, both vpwards, and downwards. Therefore we see generally, that the working of Purging Medicines, com­meth two or three houres after the Medicines taken; For that the Sto­macke first maketh a proofe, whether it can concoct them. And the like happeneth after Surfets; or Milke in too great Quantitie.

A second Cause is Mordication of the Orifices of the Parts; Especi­ally 37 of the Mesentery veines; As it is seene, that Salt, or any such thing that is sharpe and biting, put into the Fundament, doth prouoke the Part to expell; And Mustard prouoketh Sneezing: And any Sharpe Thing to the Eyes, prouoketh Teares. And therfore we see that almost all Purgers haue a kinde of Twiching and vellication, besides the Griping which commeth of wind. And if this Mordication be in an ouer-high Degree, it is little better than the Corrosion of Poyson; And it commeth to passe sometimes in Antimony; Especially if it be giuen, to Bodies not repleat with Humors; For where Humors abound, the Humors saue the Parts.

The third Cause is Attraction: For I doe not deny, but that Purging 38 Medicines haue in them a direct Force of Attraction; As Drawing Pla­sters haue in Surgery: And we see Sage, or Bettony brused, Sneezing-pow­der, and other Powders or Liquors (which the Physitians call Errhines,) put into the Nose, draw Flegme, and water from the Head; And so it is in Apophlegmatismes, and Gargarismes, that draw the Rheume downe by the Pallate. And by this Vertue, no doubt, some Purgers draw more one Humour, and some another, according to the Opinion receiued: As Rubarb draweth Choller; Sean Melancholy; Agarick Flegme; &c. But yet, (more or lesse) they draw promiscuously. And note also, that besides Sympathy, between the Purger and the Humour, there is also an­other Cause, why some Medicines draw some Humour more than ano­ther. And it is, for that some Medicines work quicker than others: And they that draw quick, draw only the Lighter, & more fluide Humours; they that draw flow, worke vpon the more Tough, and Viscous Hu­mours. And therfore Men must beware, how they take Rubarb, and the like, alone, familiarly; For it taketh only the Lightest part of the Hu­mour away, and leaueth the Masse of Humours more obstinate. And the like may be said of Worme-wood, which is so much magnified.

The fourth Cause is Flatnosity; For Wind stirred moueth to expell:39 And we finde that (in effect) all Purgers haue in them a raw Spirit, or Wind; which is the Principall Cause of Tortion in the Stomach, and Belly. And therfore Purgers leese (most of them) the vertue, by Decoction vpon the Fire; And for that Cause are gluen chiefly in Infusion, Iuyce, or Powder.

[Page 14] 40 The fifth Cause is Compression, or Crushing: As when Water is Crushed out of a Spunge: So we see that Taking Cold moueth Loosenesse by Con­traction of the Skinn, and outward Parts; And so doth Cold likewise cause Rheumes, and Defluxions from the Head; And some Astringent Plasters crush out purulent Matter. This kind of Operation is not found in many Medicines: Mirabalanes haue it; And it may be the Barkes of Peaches; For this Vertue requireth an Astriction; but such an Astriction, as is not gratefull to the Body; (For a pleasing Astriction doth rather Binde in the Humours, than Expell them:) And therfore such Astri­ction is found in Things of an Harrish Taste.

41 The Sixth Cause is Lubrefaction, and Relaxation. As we see in Medi­cines Emollient; Such as are Milke, Honey, Mallowes, Lettuce, Mercuriall, Pelletory of the Wall, and others. There is also a secret Vertue of Relaxa­tion in Cold: For the Heat of the Body bindeth the Parts and Humours together, which Cold relaxeth: As it is seene in Vrine, Bloud, Pottage, or the like; which, if they be Cold, breake, and dissolue. And by this kinde of Relaxation, Feare looseneth the Belly; because the Heat retiring in­wards towards the Heart, the Gutts and other Parts are relaxed; In the same manner, as Feare also causeth Trembling in the Sinewes. And of this Kinde of Purgers are some Medicines made of Mercury.

42 The Seuenth Cause is Abstersion; which is plainly a Scouring off, or Incision of the more viscous Humors, and making the Humors more fluide; And Cutting betweene them, and the Part. As is found in Nitrous Wa­ter, which scoureth Linnen Cloth (speedily) from the Foulenesse. But this Incision must be by a Sharpnesse, without Astriction: Which wee finde in Salt, Worm-wood, Oxymel, and the like.

43 There be Medicines, that moue Stooles, and not Vrine; Some other, Vrine, and not Stooles, Those that Purge by Stoole are such as enter not at all, or little into the Mesentery Veines; But either at the first are not digestible by the Stomach, and therefore moue immediatly downwards to the Gutts; Or else are afterwards reiected by the Mesentery Veines, and so turne likewise downwards to the Gutts; and of these two kindes are most Purgers. But those that moue Vrine, are such, as are well dige­sted of the Stomach, and well receiued also of the Mesenfery Veines; So they come as farre as the Liuer, which sendeth Vrine to the Bladder, as the Whey of Bloud: And those Medicines being Opening and Piercing, doe fortifie the Operation of the Liuer, in sending downe the wheyey Part of the Bloud to the Reines. For Medicines Vrinatiue doe not worke by Reiection, and Indigestion, as Solutiue doe.

44 There be diuers Medicines, which in greater Quantity, moue Stock, and in smaller, Vrine: And so contrariwise, some that in greater Quan­tity, moue Vrine, and in Smaller, Stoole. Of the former sort is Rubarb, and some others. The Cause is, for that Rubarb is a Medicine, which the Sto­mach in a small Quantity doth digest, and ouercome, (being not Flatu­ous, nor Loathsome;) and so sendeth it to the Mesentery Veines; And so being opening, it helpeth downe Vrine: But in a greater Quantitie, [Page 15] the Stomach cannot ouercome it, and so it goeth to the Gutts. Pepper by some of the Ancients is noted to be of the second sort; which being in small Quantity, moueth wind in the Stomach and Gutts, and so expel­leth by Stoole; But being in greater Quantity, dissipateth the Wind; And it selfe gotteth to the Mesentery veines; And so to the Liuer, and Reines; where, by Heating and Opening, it sendeth downe Vrine more plen­tifully.

Wee haue spoken of Euacuating of the Body; wee will now speake something of the Filling of it by Restoratines in Consumptions, and Ema­ciating Diseases. Experiments in Consort touching Meats and Drinks that are most Nou­rishing. In Vegetables, there is one Part that is more Nourishing than another; As Graines, and Roots nourish more, than the Leaues; In so much as the Order of the Foliatanes was put downe by the Pope, as fin­ding Leaues vnable to Nourish Mans Body. Whether there be that dif­ference 45 in the Flesh of Liuing Creatures, is not well inquired: As whe­ther Liuers, and other Entrails, be not more Nourishing, than the Out­ward Flesh. We find that amongst the Romans, a Gooses Liuer was a great Delicacy; In so much as they had Artificiall Meanes to make it faire, and great; But whether it were more Nourishing, appeareth not. It is certaine, that Marrow is more Nourishing than Fat. And I conceiue that some Decoction of Bones, and Sinewes, stamped, and well strained, would bee a very Nourishing Broth: Wee finde also that Scotch Skinck, (which is a Pottage of strong Nourishment,) is made with the Knees, and Sinewes of B [...]est, but long boiled: letty also, which they vse for a Re­storatiue, is chiefly made of K [...]uckles of Veale. The Pulp that is within the Crafish or Crabb, which they spice and butter, is more Nourishing than the Flesh of the Crabb or Crafish. The Yolkes of Egges are clearely more Nourishing than the Whites. So that it should seeme, that the Parts of Liuing Creatures, that lye more Inwards, nourish more than the Outward Flesh: Except it bee the Braine; which the Spirits prey too much vpon, to leaue it any great Vertue of Nourishing. It seemeth for the Nourishing of Aged Men, or Men in Consumptions, some such thing should be Deuised, as should be halfe Chylus, before it be put into the Stomach.

Take two large Capons; perboile them vpon a soft fire, by the space 46 of an houre, or more, till in effect all the Bloud be gone. Adde in the Decoction the Pill of a Sweet Limon, or a good part of the Pill of a Ci­tron, and a little Mace. Cut off the Shanckes, and throw them away. Then with a good strong Chopping-knife, mince the two Capons, bones and all, as small as ordinary Minced Meat; Put them into a large neat Boul­ter; Then take a Kilderkin, sweet, and well feasoned, of foure gallons of Beere, of 8. [...]. strength, new as it commeth from the Tunning; Make in the Kilderkin a great Bung-hole of purpose: Then thrust into it, the Boulter (in which the Capons are) drawne out in length; Let it steepe in it three Dayes, and three Nights, the Bung-hole open, to worke; Then close the Bung-hole, and so let it continue, a Day and a halfe; Then [Page 16] draw it into bottles, and you may drinke it well after three dayes Bot­teling; And it will last six weeks (approued.) It drinketh fresh, flow­reth and mantleth exceedingly; It drinketh not newish at all; It is an excellent Drinke for a Consumption, to be drunke either alone, or Car­ded with some other Beere. It quencheth Thirst, and hath no whit of windinesse. Note, that it is not possible, that Meat and Bread, either in Broths, or taken with Drink, as is vsed, should get forth into the veines, and outward Parts, so finely, and easily, as when it is thus Incorporate, and made almost a Chylus aforehand.

47 Triall would bee made of the like Brew with Potado Roots, or Burr Roots, or the Pith of Artichoakes, which are nourishing Meats: It may be tried also, with other flesh; As Phesant, Partridge, Young Porke, Pigge, Venison, especially of young Deere, &c.

48 A Mortresse made with the Brawne of Capons, stamped, and strained, and mingled (after it is made) with like quantitie, (at the least,) of Almond Butter; is an excellent Meat to Nourish those that are weake; Better than Blanck-Manger, or Ielly: And so is the Cullice of Cocks, boyled thick with the like Mixture of Almond Butter: For the Mortresse, or Cul­lice, of it selfe, is more Sauoury and strong; And not so fit for Nouri­shing of weake Bodies; But the Almonds that are not of so high a taste as Flesh, doe excellently qualifie it.

49 Indian Maiz hath (of certaine) an excellent Spirit of Nourish­ment; But it must be throughly boyled, and made into a Maiz-Creame like a Barley Creame. I iudge the same of Rize, made into a Creame; For Rize is in Turky, and other Countries of the East, most fed vpon; But it must be throughly boyled in respect of the Hardnesse of it: And also because otherwise it bindeth the Body too much.

50 Pistachoes, so they be good, and not musty, ioyned with Almonds in Al­mond Milke; Or made into a Milke of themselues, like vnto Almond Milke, but more greene, are an excellent Nourisher. But you shall doe well, to adde a little Ginger, scraped, because they are not without some subtill windinesse

51 Milke warme from the Cow, is found to be a great Nourisher, and a good Remedy in Consumptions: But then you must put into it, when you milke the Cow, two little bagges; the one of Powder of Mint, the other of Powder of Red Roses; For they keepe the Milke somewhat from Turning, or Crudling in the stomach; And put in Sugar also, for the same cause, and partly for the Tasts sake; But you must drinke a good draught that it may stay lesse time in the stomach, left it Cruddle: And let the Cup into which you milke the Cow, bee set in a greater Cup of hot water, that you may take it warme. And Cow-milke thus prepared, I iudge to be better for a Consumption, than Asse-milke, which (it is true) turneth not so easily, but it is a little harrish; Marry it is more proper for Sharpnesse of Vrine, and Exulceration of the Bladder, and all man­ner of Lenifyings. Womans milke likewise is prescribed, when all faile; but I commend it not; as being a little too neere the Iuyce of Mans Bo­dy, [Page 17] to be a good Nourisher; Except it be in Infants, to whom it is Naturall.

Oyle of Sweet Almonds, newly drawen, with Sugar, and a little 52 Spice, spread vpon Bread tosted, is an Excellent Nourisher; But then to keepe the Oyle from frying in the Stomach, you must drinke a good draught of Milde Beere after it; And to keepe it from relaxing the Sto­mach too much, you must put in a little Powder of Cinnamon.

The Yolkes of Eggs are of themselues so well prepared by Nature for 53 Nourishment; As (so they be Potched, or Reare boiled) they need no other Preparation, or Mixture; yet they may be taken also rawe, when they are new laid, with Malmesey, or Sweet wine; You shall doe well to put in some few Slices of Eryngium Roots, and a little Amber-grice; For by this meanes, besides the immediate Facultie of Nourishment, such Drinke will strengthen the Backe; So that it will not draw downe the Vrine too fast; For too much Vrine doth alwaies hinder Nou­rishment.

Mincing of meat, as in Pies, and buttered Minced Meat, saueth the Grin­ding 54 of the Teeth; And therefore, (no doubt) it is more Nourishing; Especially in Age; Or to them that haue weake Toeth; But the Butter is not so proper for weake Bodies; And therfore it were good to moi­sten it with a little Claret wine, Pill of Limon, or Orenge, cut small, Sugar, and a very little Cinnamon, or Nutmegg. As for Chaetts, which are like­wise minced Meat, in stead of Butter, and Fat, it were good to moisten them, partly with Creame, or Almond, or Pistachomilke, or Barly, or Maiz Creame; Adding a little Coriander Seed, and Carraway Seed, and a very little Saffron. The more full Handling of Alimentation we reserue to the due place.

Wee haue hitherto handled the Particulars which yeeld best, and easiest, and plentifullest Nourishment; And now we will speake of the best Meanes of Conueying, and Conuerting the Nourishment.

The First Meanes is, to procure that the Nourishment may not be rob­bed,55 and drawen away; wherin that, which we haue already said, is ve­ry Materiall; To prouide, that the Reines draw not too strongly an o­uer-great Part of the Bloud into Vrine. To this adde that Precept of A­ristotle, that Wine be forborne in all Consumptions; For that the Spirits of the Wine, doe prey vpon the Roseide Iuyce of the Body, and inter-com­mon with the Spirits of the Body, and so deceiue and robbe them of their Nourishment. And therefore if the Consumption growing from the weaknes of the Stomach, doe force you to vse Wine; let it alwaies be burnt, that the Quicker Spirits may euaporate; or at the least quenched with two little wedges of Gold, six or seuen times repeated. Adde also this Prouision, That there be not too much Expence of the Nourishment, by Exhaling, and Sweating: And therfore if the Patient be apt to sweat, it must be gently restrained. But chiefly Hippocrates Rule is to bee fol­lowed; who aduiseth quite contrary to that which is in vse: Namely, that the Linnen, or Garment next the Flesh, be in Winter drie, and oft [Page 18] changed; And in Sommer seldome changed, and smeared ouer with Oyle; For certaine it is, that any Substance that is fat, doth a little fill the Pores of the Body, and stay Sweat, in some Degree. But the more cleanly way is, to haue the Linnen smeared lightly ouer, with Oyle of Sweet Almonds; And not to forbeare shifting as oft as is fit.

56 The Second Meanes is, to send forth the Nourishment into the Parts, more strongly; For which, the working must be by Strengthening of the Stomach; And in this, because the Stomach is chiefly comforted by Wine, and Hot things, which otherwise hurt; it is good to resort to Outward Applications to the Stomach: Wherin it hath beene tried, that the Quilts of Roses, Spices, Mastick, Wormewood, Mint, &c. are nothing so helpfull, as to take a Cake of New bread, and to bedew it with a little Sack, or Ale­gant; And to drie it; And after it be dried a little before the Fire, to put it within a cleane Napkin, and to lay it to the Stomach: For it is certaine, that all Flower hath a potent Vertue of Astriction; In so much as it hardeneth a peece of flesh, or a Flower, that is laid in it: And therefore a Bagge quilted with Bran, is likewise very good; but it drieth somewhat too much; and therefore it must not lye long.

57 The Third Meanes (which may be a Branch of the former) is to send forth the Nourishment the better by Sleepe. For we see, that Beares, and other Creatures that sleepe in the Winter, wax exceeding fat: And cer­taine it is, (as it is commonly beleeued) that Sleepe doth Nourish much; Both for that the Spirits do lesse spend the Nourishment in Sleepe, then when liuing Creatures are awake: And because (that which is to the pre­sent purpose) it helpeth to thrust out the Nourishment into the Parts. Therefore in Aged men, and weake Bodies, and such as abound not with Choller, a short Sleepe after dinner doth helpe to Nourish; For in such Bodies there is no feare of an ouer-hastie Disgestion, which is the Inconuenience of Postmeridian Sleepes. Sleepe also in the Morning, af­ter the taking of somewhat of easie Digestion; As Milke from the Cow, Nourishing Breth, or the like; doth further Nourishment: But this would bee done, sitting vpright, that the Milke or Broth may passe the more speedily to the bottome of the Stomach.

58 The Fourth Meanes is to prouide that the Parts themselues may draw to them the Nourishment strongly. There is an Excellent Obser­uation of Aristotle; That a great Reason, why Plants (some of them) are of greater Age, than Liuing Creatures, is, for that they yearely put forth new Leaues, and Boughes; whereas Liuing Creatures put forth (after their Period of Growth,) nothing that is young, but Haire and Nailes; which are Excrements, and no Parts. And it is most certaine, that what­soeuer is young, doth draw Nourishment better, than that which is Old; And then (that which is the Mystery of that Obseruation) young Boughes, and Leaues, calling the Sap vp to them; the same Nourisheth the Body, in the Passage. And this we see notably proued also, in that the oft Cutting, or Polling of Hedges, Trees, and Herbs, doth conduce much to their Lasting. Transferre therefore this Obseruation to the [Page 19] Helping of Nourishment in Liuing Creatures: The Noblest and Princi­pall Vse whereof is, for the Prolongation of Life; Restauration of some Degree of Youth; and Inteneration of the Parts: For certaine it is, that there are in Liuing Creatures Parts that Nourish, and Repaire easily; And Parts that Nourish and repaire hardly, And you must refresh, and re­new those that are easie to Nourish, that the other may be refreshed, and (as it were) Drinke in Nourishment, in the Passage. Now wee see that Draught Oxen, put into good Pasture, recouer the Flesh of young Beese; And Men after long Emaciating Diets, wax plumpe, and fat, and almost New: So that you may surely conclude, that the frequent and wise Vse of those Emaciating Diets, and of Purgings; And perhaps of some kinde of Bleeding; is a principall Meanes of Prolongation of Life; and Restoring some Degree of Youth: For as we haue often said, Death commeth vpon Liuing Creatures like the Torment of McZentius;

Mortua quinetiam iungebat Corporavinis,
Componens Manibus (que) Manus, at (que) Oribus Ora.

For the Parts in Mans Body easily reparable, (as Spirits, Bloud, and Flesh,) die in the Embracement of the Parts hardly reparable, (as Bones, Nerues, and Membranes;) And likewise some Entrails (which they reckon a­mongst the Spermaticall Parts) are hard to repaire: Though that Diui­sion of Spermaticall, and Menstrnall Parts, be but a Conceit. And this same Obseruation also may be drawne to the present purpose of Nou­rishing Emaciated Bodies: And therefore Gentle Frication draweth forth the Nourishment, by making the Parts a little hungry, and hea­ting them; whereby they call forth Nourishment the better. This Fri­cation I wish to be done in the Morning. It is also best done by the Hand, or a peece of Scarlet wooll, wet a little with Oile of Almonds, ming­led with a small Quantity of Bay-sals, or Saffron. We see that the very Currying of Horses doth make them fat, and in good liking.

The Fifth Meanes is, to further the very Act of Assimilation of Nou­rishment; 59 which is done by some outward Emollients, that make the Parts more apt to Assimilate. For which I haue compounded an Ointment of Excellent Odour, which I call Roman Ointment, vide the Receit. The vse of it would be betweene Sleepes; For in the latter Sleepe the Parts As­similate chiefly.

There be many Medicines, which by themselues would doe no Cure, but perhaps Hurt; but being applyed in a certaine Order, one after ano­ther, doe great Cures.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Filum Medicinale. I haue tried (my selfe) a Remedy for the Gout, which hath seldome failed, but driuen it away in 24. Houres space: It 60 is first to apply a Pultasse; Of which vide the Receit; And then a Bath or Fomentation, of which vide the Receit; And then a Plaister, vide the Re­ceit. The Pultasse relaxeth the Pores, and maketh the Humour apt to Ex­hale. The Fomentation calleth forth the Humour by Vapours; But yet in regard of the way made by the Pultasse. Draweth gently; And ther­fore draweth the Humour out; and doth not draw more to it; For it [Page 20] is a Gentle Fomentation, and hath withall a Mixture, (though very little) of some Stupefactine. The Plaister is a Moderate Astringent Plaister, which repelleth New Humour from falling. The Pultasse alone would make the Part more soft, and weake; And apter to take the Defluxion and Impression of the Humour. The Fomentation alone, if it were too weake, without way made by the Pultasse, would draw forth little; If too strong, it would draw to the Part, as well as draw from it. The Plaister alone, would pen the Humour already contained in the Part, and so exasperate it, as well as forbid new Humour. Therefore they must be all taken in Order, as is said. The Pultasse is to be laid to for two or three Houres: The Fomentation for a Quarter of an Houre, or somewhat bet­ter, being vsed hot, and seuen or eight times repeated: The Plaister to continue on still, till the Part be well confirmed.

There is a secret Way of Cure, (vnpractized;) By Assuetude of that which in it selfe hurteth.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Cure by Custome. Poysons haue beene made, by some, Familiar, as hath beene said. Ordinary keepers of the Sicke of the Plague, are sel­dome 61 infected. Enduring of Torture, by Custome, hath been made more casie: The Brooking of Enormous Quantity of Meats, and so of Wine or Strong Drinke, hath beene, by Custome, made to be without Surfet, or Drunkennesse. And generally Diseases that are Chronicall, as Coughes., Phthisickes, some kindes of Palseyes, Lunacies, &c. are most dangerous at the first: Therefore a wise Physitian will consider whether a Disease be Incurable; Or whether the Iust Cure of it be not full of perill; And if he finde it to bee such, let him resort to Palliation; And alleuiate the Symptome, without busying himselfe too much with the perfect Cure: And many times, (if the Patient be indeed patient,) that Course will exceed all Expectation. Likewise the Patient himselfe may striue, by little and little, to Ouercome the Symptome, in the Exacerbation, and so, by time, turne Suffering into Nature.

Diuers Diseases, especially Chronicall, (such as Quartan Agues;) are som­times cured by Surset, and Excesses; As Excesse of Meat, Excesse of Drinke, Extraordinary Fasting, Extraordinary Stirring, or Lassitude, & the like.Experiment Solitary touching Cure by Excesse. The 62 Cause is, for that Diseases of Cotinuance get an Aduētitious Strength frō Custome, besides their Materiall Cause from the Humours: So that the Breaking of the Custome doth leaue them only to their first Cause; which if it be any thing weake will fall off. Besides, such Excesses doe Excite and Spur Nature, which thereupon riseth more forcibly against the Disease.

There is in the Body of Man a great Consent in the Motion of the se­uerall Parts.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Cure by Motion of Con­sent. We see, it is Childrens sport, to proue whether they can rub vpon their Brest with one hand, and pat vpon their Fore-head with another; And straight-waies, they shall sometimes rubbe with both 63 Hands, or pat with both hands. We see, that when the Spirits, that come to the Nosthrills, expell a bad Sent, the Stomach is ready to Ex­pell [Page 21] by Vomit. We finde that in Consumptions of the Lungs, when Na­ture cannot expell by Cough, Men fall into Fluxes of the Belly, and then they dye. So in Pestilent Diseases, if they cannot be expelled by Sweat, they fall likewise into Loosenesse, and that is commonly Mortall. Ther­fore Physitians should ingeniously contriue, how by Motions that are in their Power, they may excite Inward Motions that are not in their Power, by Consent: As by the Stench of Feathers, or the like, they cure the Rising of the Mother.

Hippocrates Aphorisme, In Morbis minus, is a good profound Apho­risme. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Cure of Diseases which are contrary to Predist sition. It importeth, that Diseases, contrary to the Complexion, Age, Sexe, Season of the yeare, Diet, &c. are more dangerous, than those that are Concurrent. A Man would thinke it should be otherwise; For that, when the Accident of Sicknesse, and the Naturall Disposition, doe second the one the other, the Disease should be more forcible: And so (no 64 doubt) it is; if you suppose like Quantity of Matter. But that, which maketh good the Aphorisine, is; Because such Diseases doe shew a grea­ter Collection of Matter, by that they are able to ouercome those Naturall Inclinations to the Contrary. And therefore in Diseases of that kinde, let the Physitian apply himselfe more to Purgation, than to Alteration; Be­cause the Offence is in the Quantity; and the Qualities are rectified of themselues.

Physitians do wisely prescribe, that there be Preparatiues vsed before Iust Purgations; For certaine it is, that Purgers doe many times great Hurt, if the Body be not accommodated, both before, and after the Purging. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Preparations before Purging, and setling of the Body afterward. The Hurt that they doe, for want of Preparation before Pur­ging, is by the Sticking of the Humours, and their not comming faire away; Which causeth in the Body great Perturbations, and ill Acci­dents,65 during the Purging; And also, the diminishing, and dulling of the Working of the Medicine it selfe, that it purgeth not sufficiently. Therefore the worke of Preparation is double; To make the Humours fluide, and mature; And to make the Passages more open: For both those helpe to make the Humours passe readily. And for the former of these, Sirrups are most profitable; And for the Latter, Apozumes, or Preparing Broaths; Clisters also helpe, lest the Medicine stop in the Guts, and worke gripingly. But it is true, that Bodies abounding with Humours; And fat Bodies; And Open weather; are Preparatines in themselues; be­cause they make the Humours more fluide. But let a Physitian beware, how he purge after hard Frostie Weather, and in a Leane Body, without Preparation. For the Hurt, that they may doe after Purging; It is cau­sed by the Lodging of some Humours in ill Places: For it is certaine, that there be Humours, which somewhere placed in the Body, are quiet, and doe little hurt; In other Places, (especially Passages,) doe much mis­chiefe. Therefore it is good, after Purging, to vse Apozumes, and Broths, not so much Opening as those vsed before Purging, but Absterfine and [Page 22] Mundifying Clisters also are good to conclude with, to draw away the Reliques of the Humours, that may haue descended to the Lower Re­gion of the Body.

Bloud is stanched diuers waies.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Stocking of Bloud. First by Astringents, and Repercus­siue Medicines. Secondly by Drawing of the Spirits and Bloud inwards; which is done by Cold; As Iron, or a Stone laid to the neck doth stanch 66 the Bleeding at the Nose; Also it hath beene tryed, that the Testicles, being put into sharp Vineger, hath made a suddaine Recesse of the Spi­rits, and stanched Bloud. Thirdly by the Recesse of the Bloud by Sympathy. So it hath beene tried, that the part that bleedeth, be­ing thrust into the Body of a Capon, or Sheepe, new ript and bleed­ing, hath stanched Bloud; The Bloud, as it seemeth, sucking and drawing vp, by similitude of substance, the Bloud it meeteth with, and so it selfe going backe. Fourthly by Custome and Time; So the Prince of Au­range, in his first hurt, by the Spanish Boy, could finde no meanes to stanch the Bloud, either by Medicine or Ligament; but was faine to haue the Ori­fice of the Wound stopped by Mens Thumbes, succeeding one another, for the space at least of two Dayes; And at the last the bloud by Custome onely retired. There is a fifth Way also in vse, to let Bloud in an Aduerse Part, for a Revulsion.

It helpeth, both in Medicine, and Aliment, to Change and not to continue the same Medicine & Aliment still.Experiment So­litary touching Change of Ali­ments and Me­dicines. The Cause is, for that Nature by continuall Vso of any Thing, groweth to a Sacietie, and Dulnesse, ei­ther of Appetite, or Working. And we see that Assuetude of Things Hurt­full 67 doth make them leese their force to Hurt; As Poyson, which with vse some haue brought themselues to brooke. And therefore it is no maruaile, though Things helpfull, by Custome, leese their force to Helpe. I count Intermission almost the same thing with Change; For that, that hath beene intermitted, is after a fort new.

It is found by Experience, that in Diets of Guaiacum, Sarza, and the like (especially if they be strict,) the Patient is more troubled in the be­ginning, then after continuance; Which hath made some of the more 68 delicate Sort of patients, giue them ouer in the middest; Supposing that if those Diets trouble them so much at first, they shall not be able to endure them to the End.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Diets. But the Cause is, for that all those Diets, doe drie vp Humours, Rheumes, and the like; And they cannot Drie vp vntil they haue first attenuated; And while the Humour is attenuated, it is more Fluid, then it was before, and troubleth the Body a great deale more vntill it be dried vp, and consumed. And therefore Patients must expect a due time, and not checke at them at the first.

The Producing of Cold is a thing very worthy the Inqui­sition; both for Vse, and Disclosure of Causes.Experiments in Consort touching the Production of Cold. For Heat and [Page 23] Cold are Natures two Hands, whereby she chiefly worketh: And Heat we haue in readinesse, in respect of the Fire; But for Cold we must staie till it commeth; or seecke it in deepe Caues, or high Mountaines: And when all is done, we cannot obtaine it in any great degree: For Furnaces of Fire are farre hotter, then a Sommers Sunne; But Vaults, or Hills are not much Colder then a Winters Frost.

The first Meanes of Producing Cold, is that which Nature presenteth 69 vs withall; Namely the Expiring of Cold out of the Inward Parts of the Earth in Winter, when the Sun hath no power to ouercome it; the Earth being (as hath beene noted by some) Primum Frigidum. This hath beene asserted, as well by Auncient as by Moderne Philosophers: It was the Te­net of Parmenides. It was the opinion of the Authour of the discourse in Plutarch (for I take it that booke was not Plutarches owne) De prime Fri­gide. It was the opinion of Telesius, who hath renewed the Philosophy of Parmenides, and is the best of the Nouellists.

The Second Cause of Cold is the Contact of Cold Bodies; For Cold is 70 Actiue and Transitiue into Bodies Adiacent, as well as Heat: which is seene in those things that are touched with Snow or Cold water. And there­fore, whosoeuer will be an Inquirer into Nature, let him resort to a Con­seruatory of Snow and Ice; Such as they vse for delicacy, to coole Wine in Summer: Which is a Poore and Contemptible vse, in respect of other vses, that may bee made of such Conseruatories.

The Third Cause is the Primary Nature of all Tangible bodies: For it is 71 well to be noted, that all Things whatsoeuer (Tangible) are of themselues Cold; Except they haue an Accessory Heat by fire; Life; or Motion: For euen the Spirit of Wine, or Chy [...]icall Oyles, which are so hot in Ope­ration, are to the first Touch Cold; And Aire it selfe compressed, and Con­densed a little by blowing, is Cold.

The Fourth Cause is the Density of the Body; For all Dense Bodies are 72 Colder then most other Bodies; As Mettalls, Stone, Glasse; And they are lon­ger in Heating than Softer Bodies. And it is certaine, that Earth, Dense, Tangible, hold all of the Nature of Cold. The Cause is, for that all Matters Tangible being Cold, it must needs follow, that where the Matter is moist Congregate, the Cold is the greater.

The Fifth Cause of Cold, or rather of increase and vehemence of 73 Cold, is a Quicke Spirit inclosed in a Cold Body: As will appeare to any that shall attentiuely consider of Nature in many Instances. Wee see Nitre (which hath a Quicke Spirit) is Cold; more Cold to the Tongue, then a Stone; So Water is Colder then Oile, because it hath a Quicker Spirit; For all Oile, though it hath the Tangible Parts better digested then Water, yet hath it a duller Spirit: So Snow is Colder then Water, because it hath more Spirit within it: So we see that Salt put to Ice (as in the producing of the Artificiall Ice) increaseth the Actiuity of Cold: So some In [...]cta which haue [Page 24] Spirit of Life, as Snakes, and Silkwormes, are, to the touch, Cold. So Quick-filuer is the Coldest of Mettals, because it is Fullest of Spirit.

74 The Sixth Cause of Cold is the Chasing and Driuing away of Spirits, such as haue some Degree of Heat: For the Banishing of the Heat must needs leaue any Body Cold. This we see in the Operation of Opium, and Stupe­factiues, vpon the Spirits of liuing Creatures: And it were not amisse to trie Opium, by laying it vpon the Top of a Weather-glasse, to see whe­ther it will contract the Aire: But I doubt it will not succeed: For be­sides that the vertue of Opium will hardly penetrate thorow such a Bo­dy as Glasse, I conceiue that Opium, and the like, make the Spirits fly ra­ther by Malignity, then by Cold.

75 Seuenthly, the same Effect must follow vpon the Exhaling or Draw­ing out of the warme Spirits, that doth vpon the Flight of the Spirits. There is an Opinion, that the Moone is Magneticall of Heat, as the Sun is of Cold, and Moisture: It were not amisse therefore to trie it, with Warme waters; The one exposed to the Beames of the Moone; the other with some Skreene betwixt the Beames of the Moone and the water; As we vse to the Sunne for Shade; And to see whether the former will coole sooner. And it were also good to inquire, what other Meanes there may be, to draw forth the Exile heat, which is in the Aire; for that may be a Secret of great Power to Produce Cold weather.

We haue formerly set downe the Meanes of turning Aire into water, in the Experiment 27.Experiments in Cōsort to­uching the Ver­sion and Trans­mutation of Aire into water. But because it is Magnale Nature; And tendeth to the subduing of a very great effect; And is also of Manifold vse; we will adde some Instances in Consort that giue light thereunto.

76 It is reported by some of the Ancients, that Sailers haue vsed, euery Night, to hang Fleeces of wooll on the sides of their Ships, the Wooll to­wards the water; And that they haue crushed fresh Water out of them, in the Morning, for their vse. And thus much we haue tried, that a Quantitie of Wooll tied loose together, being let downe into a deepe Well; And hanging in the Middle, some three Fathome from the wa­ter, for a night, in the Winter time; increased in weight, (as I now re­member) to a fifth Part.

77 It is reported by one of the Ancients, that in Lydia, neare Pergamus, there were certaine Worke-men, in time of Warres, fled into Caues; And the Mouth of the Caues being stopped by the Enemies, they were fami­shed. But long time after the dead Bones were found; And some Ves­sels which they had carried with them; And the vessels full of Water; And that Water, thicker, and more towards Ice, than Common Water: which is a Notable Instance of Condensation, and Induration, by Buriall under Earth, (in Caues,) for long time; And of version also (as it should seeme,) of Aire into Water; if any of those vessels were Emptie. Trie therefore a small Bladder hung in Snow; And the like in Nitre; And the [Page 25] like in Quick-filuer: And if you finde the Bladders fallen, or shrunke; you may be sure the Aire is condensed by the Cold of those Bodies; As it would be in a Caue vnder Earth.

It is reported of very good credit, that in the East Indies, if you set a 78 Tub of Water open, in a Roome where Cloues are kept, it will be drawne dry in 24 houres; Though it stand at some distance from the Cloues. In the Countrey, they vse many times, in deceit, when their wooll is new shorne, to set some Pailes of water by, in the same Roome; to in­crease the weight of the wooll: But it may be, that the Heat of the Wooll, remaining from the body of the Sheepe; or the Heat gathered by the lying close of the wooll, helpeth to draw the watry Vapour; But that is nothing to the Version.

It is Reported also credibly, that Wooll new shorne, being laid casu­ally 79 vpon a Vessell of Verinyce, after some time, had drunke vp a great part of the Veriuyce, though the Vessell were whole without any Flaw and had not the Bung-hole open. In this Instance, there is (vpon the by) to be noted, the Percolation, or Suing of the Veriuyce through the wood; For Veriuyce of it selfe would neuer haue passed thorow the wood: So as, it seemeth, it must be first in a kinde of Vapour, before it passe.

It is especially to be noted, that the Cause, that doth facilitate the 80 Version of Aire into water, when the Aire is not in grosse, but subtilly mingled with Tangible Bodies, is, (as hath beene partly touched before,) for that Tangible Bodies haue an Antipathy with Aire; And if they finde and Liquid Body, that is more dense, neare them, they will draw it: And after they haue drawne it, they will condense it more, and in effect in­corporate it; For wee see that a Spunge, or Wooll, or Sugar, or a Woollen cloth, being put but in part, in Water, or Wine, will draw the Liquour higher, and beyond the place, where the Water or wine commeth. We see also, that Wood, Lute-strings, and the like, doe swell in moist Seasons: As appeareth by the Breaking of the Strings, the Hard Turning of the Pegs, and the Hard drawing forth of Boxes, and Opening of Wainseet deeres; which is a kinde of Infusion: And is much like to an Infusion in water, which will make wood to swell: As we see in the Filling of the Chops of Boules, by laying them in water. But for that part of these Experi­ments, which concerneth Attraction; we will reserue it to the proper Ti­tle of Attraction.

There is also a Version of Aire into water, seene in the Sweating of 81 Marbles, and other Stones. And of Wainsces before and in moist weather: This must be, either by some Moisture the Body yeeldeth; Or else by the Moist Aire thickned against the hard body. But it is plaine, that it is the latter; For that we see Wood painted with Oyle Colour, will sooner gather drops in a moist Night, than Wood alone: which is caused by the Smoothnesse and Closenesse; which letteth in no part of the Vapour, and so turneth it backe, and thickeneth it into Dew. We see also, that Breathing vpon a Glasse, or Smooth body, giueth a Dew; And in Frosty Mornings (such as we call Rime frosts) you shall finde drops of Dew vpon [Page 26] the Inside of Glasse-windowes; And the Frost it selfe vpon the ground is but a Version or Condensation, of the Moist vapours of the Night, into a watry substance: Dewes likewise, and Raine, are but the Returnes of Moist vapours Condensed; The Dew, by the Cold onely of the Sunnes departure, which is the gentler Cold; Raines, by the Cold of that, which they call the Middle Region of the Aire; which is the more violent Cold.

82 It is very probable (as hath beene touched) that that, which will turne Water into Ice, will likewise turne Aire Some Degree nearer vnto water. Therefore trie the Experiment of the Artificiall Turning water into Ice (whereof we shall speake in another place) with Aire in place of wa­ter, and the Ice about it. And although it be a greater Alteration to turne Aire into water, than water into Ice: yet there is this Hope, that by Continuing the Aire longer time, the effect will follow; For that Arti­ficiall Conuersion of water into Ice, is the worke of a few Houres; And this of Aire may be tried by a Moneths space, or the like.

Induration, or Lapidification, of Substances more Soft, is likewise another degree of Condensation; And is a great Altera­tion in Nature.Experiments in Consort, touching Indu­ration of Bodies. The Effecting and Accelerating thereof is very worthy to be inquired. It is effected by three Meanes. The first is by Cold; vvhose Property is to Condense, and constipate, as hath beene said. The Second is by Heat; which is not pro­per, but by consequence; For the Heat doth attenuate; And by Attenuation doth send forth the Spirit and moister Part of a Body; And vpon that, the more grosse of the Tangible Parts doe contract and serre themselues together; Both to A­uoid Vacuums (as they call it;) And also to Munite themselues against the Force of the Fire, which they haue suffered. And the Third is by Assimilation; when a Hard Body Assimilateth a Soft, being contiguous to it.

The Examples of Induration, taking them promiscuously, are many: As the Generation of Stones within the Earth, which at the first are but Rude Earth, or Clay: And so of Mi­neralls, which come (no doubt) at first, of luyces Concrete, which afterward indurate: And so of Porcellane, which is an Artificiall Cement, buried in the Earth a long time: And so the Making of Bricke, and Tile: Also the Making of Glasse, of a certaine Sand, and Brake-Roots, and some other Matters: Al­so the Exudations of Rock-Diamonds, and Crystall, which har­den [Page 27] with time: Also the Induration of Bead-Amber, which at first is a soft Substance; As appeareth by the Flies, and Spiders, which are found in it; And many more: But wee will speake of them distinctly.

For Indurations by Cold, there bee few Trialls of it; For wee haue 83 no strong or intense Cold here on the Surface of the Earth, so neare the Beames of the Sunne, and the Heauens. The likeliest Triall is by Snow, and Ice; For as Snow and Ice, especially being holpen, and their Cold acti­uated by Nitre, or Salt, will turne Water into Ice, and that in a few houres; So it may be, it will turne wood, or Stiffe Clay, into Stone, in longer time. Put therefore, into a Conseruing Pit of Snow, and Ice, (adding some quan­tity of Salt, and Nitre,) a Peece of Wood, or a Peece of Tough Clay, and let it lye a Moneth, or more.

Another Triall is by Metalline Waters, which haue virtuall Cold in 84 them. Put therefore Wood, or Clay, into Smiths water, or other Metalline water; And try whether it will not harden in some reasonable time. But I vnderstand it, of Metalline waters, that come by Washing, or Quen­ching; And not of Strong Waters that come by dissolution; for they are too Corrosiue to consolidate.

It is already found, that there are some Naturall Spring-waters, that 85 will Inlapidate Wood; So as you shall see one peece of Wood, whereof the Part aboue the Water shall continue Wood; And the Part vnder the Water shall be turned into a kinde of Grauelly Stons. It is likely those Wa­ters are of some Metalline Mixture; But there would be more particular Inquiry made of them. It is certaine, that an Egge was found, hauing li­en many yeeres in the bottome of a Moate, where the Earth had some­what ouergrowen it; And this Egge was comen to the Hardnesse of a Stone; And had the Colours of the white and Yolke perfect: And the Shell shining in small graines like Sugar, or Alablaster.

Another Experience there is of Induration by Cold, which is 86 already found; which is, that Metalls, themselues are hardned by often Heating and Quenching in Cold Water: For Cold euer worketh most po­tently vpon Heat Precedene.

For Induration by Heat it must be considered, that Heat, by the Exha­ling 87 of the Moister Parts, doth either harden the Body; As in Bricks, Tiles, Or if the Heat be more fierce, maketh the grosser part it selfe, Runne and Melt; As in the making of ordinary Glosse; And in the Vitri­fication of Earth, (As wee see in the Inner Parts of Farneces;) And in the Vitrification of Brick; And of Mettals. And in the former of these, which is the Hardening by baking, without Melting, the Heat hath these degrees; First it Indurateth; and then maketh Fragile; And lastly it doth Inciue­rate and Calcinate.

But if you desire to make an Induration with Toughnesse, and lesse 88 Fragility; A middle way would be taken; Which is that which Artistotle hath well noted; But would be throughly verified. It is, to decoct Bodies in [Page 28] water, for two or three dayes; But they must bee such Bodies, into which the Water will not enter; As Stone, and Metall. For if they be Bo­dies into which the Water will enter, then long Seething, will rather Soften than indurate them. As hath beene tried in Eggs &c. Therefore, Softer Bodies must be put into Bottles; And the Bottles hung into Water see­thing, with the mouths open, aboue the Water; that no Water may get in; For by this Meaues, the virtuall Heat of the Water will enter; And such a Heat, as will not make the Body adust, or fragile; But the Sub­stance of the Water will be shut out. This Experiment wee made; And it sorted thus. It was tried with a Peece of Free-stone, and with Pewter, put into the Water at large. The Free-stone we found receiued in some water; For it was softer, and easier to scrape, then a peece of the same Stone kept drie. But the Pewter into which no water could enter, became more white, and liker to Siluer, and lesse flexible, by much. There were also put into an Earthen Bottle, placed as before, a good Pellet of Clay, a Peece of Cheese, a Peece of Chalke, and a Peece of Free-stone. The Clay, came forth almost of the Hardnesse of Stone; The Cheese likewise very hard, and not well to be cut: The Chalke and the Free-stone much harder than they were. The colour of the Clay inclined not a whit to the Colour of Bricke, but rather to white, as in ordinary Drying by the Sunne. Note, that all the former Trialls were made by a Boyling vpon a good hot Fire, renewing the water as it consumed, with other hot water; But the Boy­ling was but for twelue houres onely; And it is like that the Experiment would haue beene more effectuall, if the Boyling had beene for two or three daies, as we prescribed before.

89 As touching Assimilation, (for there is a degree of Assimilation euen in Inanimate bodies) wee see Examples of it in some Stones in Clay­Grounds, lying neare to the top of the Earth, where Pebble is; In which you may manifestly see diuers Pebbles gathered together, and a Crust of Ce­ment or Stone betweene them, as hard as the Pebbles themselues: And it were good to make a Triall of purpose, by taking Clay, and putting in it diuers Pebble-Stones, thicke set, to see whether in continuance of time, it will not be harder then other Clay of the same lump, in which no Pebbles are set. Wee see also in Ruines of old Walls, especially towards the bottome, the Morter will become as hard as the Brick; wee see also, that the Wood on the sides of Vessles of Wine, gathereth a Crust of Tartar, har­der then the wood it selfe; And Scales likewise grow to the Teeth, harder then the Teeth themselues.

90 Most of all, Induration by Assimilation appeareth in the Bodies of Trees, and liuing Creatures: For no Nourishment that the Tree receiueth, or that the liuing Creature receiueth, is so hard as Wood, Bone, or Horne, &c. but is Indurated after by Assimilation.

The Eye of the vnderstanding, is like the Eye of the Sense: For as 91 you may see great Obiects through small Crannies, or Leuells, So you [Page 29] may see great Axiomes of Nature, through small and Contemptible In­stances. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ver­sion of water into Aire. The Speedy Depredation of Aire vpon watry Moisture, and Version of the same into Aire, appeareth in nothing more visible, than in the sudden Discharge, or vanishing, of a little Cloud of Breath, or Vapour, from Glasse, or the Blade of a Sword, or any such Polished Body; Such as doth not at all Detaine, or Imbibe the Moisture; For the Mistinesse scattereth and breaketh vp suddenly. But the like Cloud, if it were Oyly, or Fatty, will not discharge; Not because it sticketh faster; But because Aire preyeth vpon Water; And Flame, and Fire, vpon Oyle; And there­fore, to take out a Spot of Grease, they vse a Coale vpon browne Paper; because Fire worketh vpon Grease, or Oyle, as Aire doth vpon Water. And we see Paper oyled, or Wood oyled, or the like last long moist; but Wet with Water, drie, or putrifie sooner, The Cause is, for that Aire med­dleth little with the Moisture of Oyle.

There is an Admirable demonstration, in the same trifling Instance of the little Cloud vpon Glasse, or Gemmes or Blades of Swords, of the Force of Vnion, euen in the least Quantities, and weakest Bodies, how much it Conduceth to Preseruation of the present Forme; And the Resisting of 92 a New.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Force of Vnion. For marke well the discharge of that Cloud; And you shall see it euer breake vp, first in the Skirts, and last in the middest. We see likewise, that much Water draweth forth the Iuyce of the Body Infused; But little water, is imbibed by the Body: And this is a Principall Cause, why in Operation vpon Bodies, for their Version or Alteration, the Triall in great Quantities, doth not answer the Triall in small; And so decei­ueth many; For that (I say) the greater Body, resisteth more any Alte­ration of Forme, and requireth farre greater Strength in the Actiue Bo­dy, that should subdue it.

We haue spoken before, in the fifth Instance, of the Cause of Orient Colours, in Birds; which is by the Finenesse of the Strainer; we will now endeuour to reduce the same Axione to a Worke. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Pro­ducing of Fea­thers and Haires of diuers Colours. For this Writing of our Sylue Syluerum, is (to speake properly) not Neturall History, but a high kinde of Naturall Magicke. For it is not a Description only of Na­ture,93 but a Breaking of Nature, into great and strange Workes. Trie therefore, the Anointing ouer of Pigeons, or other Birds, when they are but in their downe; Or of Whelps, cutting their Haire as short as may be; Or of some other Beast; with some oyntment, that is not hurt­full to the Flesh; And that will harden, and sticke very close; And see whether it will not alter the Colours of the Feathers, or Haire. It is re­ceiued, that the Pulling off, the first Feathers of Birds, cleane, will make the new come forth white: And it is certaine, that White is a penurious Colour, & where Moisture is scant. So Blew Violets, & other Flowers, if they be starued, turne Pale and White; Birds, and Horses, by Age, or Scarres, turne white: And the Hoare Haires of Men, come by the same reason, And therefore in Birds, it is very likely, that the Feathers that [Page 30] come first, will be many times of diuers Colours, according to the Na­ture of the Bird; For that the Skin is more porous; But when the Skin is more shut, and close, the Feathers will come White. This is a good Experiment, not only for the Producing of Birds, and Beasts of strange Colours; but also, for the Disclosure of the Nature of Colours them­selues; which of them require a finer Porositie, and which a grosser.

It is a worke of Prouidence, that hath beene truly obserued by some; That the Yolke of the Egge, conduceth little to the Generation of the Bird; But onely to the Nourishment of the same: For if a Chicken be opened, when it is new hatched; you shall finde much of the Yolke remaining.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Nou­rishment of Li­uing Creatures before they be brought forth. And it is needfull, that Birds, that are shaped without the Females 94 Wombe; haue in the Egge, as well Matter of Nourishment, as Matter of generation for the Body. For after the Egge is laid, and seuered from the Body of the Hen; It hath no more Nourishment from the Hen; But onely a quickening Heat when shee sitteth. But Beasts, and Men need not the matter of Nourishment within themselues; Because they are shaped within the Wombe of the Female, and are Nourished continually from her Body.

It is an Inueterate and receiued Opinion, that Cantharides applyed to any Part of the Body, touch the Bladder, and exulcerate it, if they stay on long.Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching Sympa­thy and Anti­pathy for Medi­cinall vse. It is likewise Receiued, that a kinde of Stone, which they bring out of the West Indies, hath a peculiar force to moue Grauell, and to dissolue the Stone; In so much, as laid but to the wrest, it hath so forci­bly 95 sent downe Grauell, as Men haue beene glad to remoue it; It was so violent.

96 It is receiued and confirmed by daily Experience, that the Soales of the Feet haue great Affinity with the Head, and the Mouth of the Sto­mach: As we see, Going wet-shod, to those that vse it not, affecteth both: Applications of hot Powders to the Feet attenuate first, and after drie the Rheume: And therefore a Physitian, that would be Mysticall, prescri­beth, for the Cure of the Rheume, that a Man should walke Continual­ly vpon a Camomill Alley; Meaning, that he should put Camomill within his Sockes. Likewise Pigeons bleeding, applyed to the Soales of the Feet, ease the Head: And Soporiferous Medicines applied vnto them, prouoke Sleepe.

97 It seemeth, that as the Feet haue a Sympathy with the Head; So the Wrests and Hands, haue a Sympathy with the Heart; We see the Affects and Passions of the Heart, and Spirits, are notably disclosed by the Pulse: And it is often tried, that Iuyces of Stock-Gilly-Flowers, Rose-Campian, Garlicke, and other things; applied to the Wrests, and renewed; haue cured long Agues. And I conceiue, that washing with certaine Liquours, the Palmes of the Hands, doth much good: And they doe well in Heats of Agues, to hold in the Hands, Egges of Alablaster, and Balls of Crystall.

Of these things we shall speake more, when we handle the Title of Sym­pathy and Antipathy, in the proper Place.

[Page 31]The Knowledge of man (hitherto) hath beene determined by the View, or Sight; So that whatsoeuer is Inuisible, either in respect of the Finenesse of the Body it selfe; Or the Smallnesse of the Parts; Or of the Sub­tilty of the Motion; is little inquired.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Se­cret Processes of Nature. And yet these be the Things that Gouerne Nature Principally; And without which, you cannot make a­ny 98 true Analysis and Indication of the Proceedings of Nature. The Spirits or Pneumaticals, that are in all Tangible Bodies, are searce knowne. Sometimes they take them for Vacuum; wheras they are the most Actiue of Bodies. Sometimes they take them for Aire; From which they dif­fer exceedingly, as much as Wine from Water; And as Wood from Earth. Sometimes they will haue them to be Naturall Heat, or a Portion of the Element of Fire; Wheras some of them are crude, and cold. And Sometimes they will haue them to be the Vertues and Qualities of the Tangible Parts, which they see; whereas they are Things by themselues. And then, when they come to Plants and liuing Creatures, they call them Soules. And such Superficiall Speculations they haue; Like Pro­spectiues, that shew things inward, when they are but Paintings. Nei­ther is this a Question of Words, but infinitely materiall in Nature. For Spirits are nothing else but a Naturall Body, rarified to a Proporti­on, & included in the Tangible Parts of Bodies, as in an Integument. And they be no lesse differing one from the other, than the Dense or Tangible Parts: And they are in all Tangible Bodies whatsoeuer, more or lesse: And they are neuer (almost) at rest: And from them, and their Motions, prin­cipally proceed Arefaction, Colliquation, Concoction, Maturation, Putrefa­ction, Viuification, and most of the Effects of Nature: For, as we haue figured them in our Sapientiâ Veterum, in the Fable of Proserpina, you shall in the Infernall Regiment heare little Doings of Pluto, but most of pro­serpina: For Tangible Parts in Bodies are Stupide things; And the Spirits doe (in effect) all. As for the differences of Tangible Parts in Bodies, the industry of the Chymists hath giuen some light, in discerning by their Separations, the Oily, Crude, Pure, Impure, Fine, grosse Parts of Bodies, and the like. And the Physitians are content to acknowledge, that Herbs, and Drugs haue diuers parts; As that Opiums hath a Stupefactiue Part, and a Heating Part; The one mouing Sleepe, the other a Sweat fol­lowing; And that Rubarb hath Purging Parts, and Astringent Parts, &c. But this whole Inquisition is weakly and Negligently handled. And for the more subtill differences of the Minute Parts, and the Posture of them in the Body, (which also hath great Effects) they are not at all touched: As for the Motions of the Minute Parts of Bodies, which doe so great Ef­fects, they haue not beene obserued at all; because they are Inuisible, and incurre not to the Eye; but yet they are to be deprehended by Ex­perience: As Democritus said well, when they charged him to hold, that the World was made of such little Moats, as were seene in the Sunne; Atomus (saith he) necessitate Rationis & Experientia esse connincitur; Ato­mum enim nemo vnquam vidit. And therefore the Tumult in the parts of Solide Bodies, when they are compressed, which is the Cause of all [Page 32] Flight of Bodies thorow the Aire, and of other Mechanicall Motions, (as hath beene partly touched before, and shall be throughly handled in due place,) is not seene at all. But neuerthelesse, if you know it not, or enquire it not attentiuely and diligently, you shall neuer be able to dis­cerne, and much lesse to produce, a Number of Mechanicall Motions. A­gaine, as to the Motions Corporall, within the Enclosures of Bodies, wher­by effects (which were mentioned before) passe betweene the Spirits, and the Tangible Parts; (which are, Arefaction, Colliquation, Concoction, Maturation, &c.) they are not at all handled. But they are put off by the Names of Vertues, and Natures, and Actions, and Passions, and such other Logicall Words.

It is certaine, that all Powers in Nature, Heat is the chiefe; both in the Frame of Nature, and in the workes of Art. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Power of Heat. Certaine it is likewise, that the Effects of Heat, are most aduanced, when it worketh vpon a Bo­dy, 99 without losse or dissipation of the Matter; for that euer betrayeth the Account. And therefore it is true, that the power of Heat is best perceiued in Distillations, which are performed in close Vessels, and Re­ceptacles. But yet there is a higher Degree; For howsoeuer Distillati­ons doe keepe the Body in Cells, and Cloisters, without Going abroad; yet they giue space vnto Bodies to turne into Vapour; To returne into Liquour; And to Separate one part from another. So as Nature doth Expatiate, although it hath not full Liberty: wherby the true and Vl­time Operations of Heat are not attained. But if Bodies may be altered by Heat, and yet no such Reciprocation of Rarefaction, and of Condensa­tion, and of Separation, admitted; then it is like that this Proteus of Mat­ter, being held by the Sleeues, will turne and change into many Meta­worphoses. Take therefore a Square Vessell of Iron, in forme of a Cube, and let it haue good thicke and strong Sides. Put into it a Cube of Wood, that may fill it as close as may be; And let it haue a Couer of Iron, as strong (at least) as the Sides; And let it be well Luted, after the man­ner of the Chymists. Then place the Vessell within burning Coales, kept quicke kindled, for some few houres space. Then take the Vessell from the Fire, and take off the Couer, and see what is become of the Wood. I conceiue that since all Inflammation, and Euaporation are vtterly prohibi­ted, and the Body still turned vpon it Selfe, that one of these two Effects will follow: Either that the Body of the Wood will be turned into a kinde of Amalgama, Amalgama (as the Chymists call it;) Or that the Finer Part will bee turned into Aire, and the Grosser sticke as it were baked, and incrustate vpon the Sides of the Vessell; being become of a Denser Matter, than the Wood it selfe, Crude. And for another Triall, take also Water, and put it in the like Vessell, stopped as before; But vse a gentler Heat, and remoue the vessell sometimes from the Fire; And againe, after some small time, when it is Cold, renue the Heating of it: And repeat this Aloeration some few times: And if you can once bring to passe, that the Water, which is one of the Simplest of Bodies, be changed in Colour, Odour, or Taste, [Page 33] after the manner of Compound Bodies, you may be sure that there is a great Worke wrought in Nature, and a Notable Entrance made into strange Changes of Bodies, and productions: And also a Way made, to doe that by Fire, in small time, which the Sunne and Age do in long time. But of the Admirable Effects of this Distillation in Close, (for so we will call it) which is like the Wombes and Matrices of liuing creatures, where nothing Expireth, nor Separateth; We will speake fully, in the due place; Not that we Aime at the making of Paracelsus Pigmey's; Or any such Prodigious Follies; But that we know the Effects of Heat will be such, as will scarce fall vnder the Conceit of Man; If the force of it be altogether kept in.

There is nothing more Certaine in Nature, than that it is impossible for any Body, to be vtterly An­nibilated; But that, as it was the worke of the Omnipotency of God, to make Somewhat of Nothing; So it requireth the like Omnipotency, to turne Somewhat into Nothing. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Im­possibility of Annibilation. And therefore it is well said, by an Obscure Writer of the Sect of the Chymists; That 100 there is no such way to effect the Strange Transmutations of Bodies, as to endeuour and vrge by all meanes, the Reducing of them to Nothing. And herein is contained also a great Secret of Preseruation of Bodies from Change; For if you can prohibit, that they neither turne into Aire, be­cause no Aire commeth to them; Not goe into the Bodies Adiacent, be­cause they are vtterly Heterogeneall; Nor make a Round and Circulation within themselues; they will neuer change, though they be in their Na­ture neuer so Perishable, or Mutable. We see, how Flies, and Spiders, and the like, get a Sepulcher in Amber, more Durable, than the Monu­ment, and Embalming of the Body of any King. And I conceiue the like will be of Bodies put into Quick-siluer. But then they must be but thinne; As a leafe, or a peece of Paper, or Parchment; For if they haue a greater Crassitude, they will alter in their owne Body, though they spend not. But of this, We shall speake more, when we han­dle the Title of Conseruation of Bodies.

II. Century.

MVSICKE in the Practise, hath bin well pursued; And in good Va­riety; But in the Theory, and espe­cially in the Yeelding of the Causes of the Practique, very weakly; Be­ing reduced into certaine Mysti­call Subtilties, of no vse, and not much Truth.Experiments in Consort touching Mu­sicke. We shall therefore, after our manner, ioyne the Contemplatiue and Actiue Part together.

All Sounds, are either Musicall Sounds, which we call Tones; Wher­unto 101 there may be an Harmony; which Sounds are euer Equall; As Sing­ing, the Sounds of Stringed, and Wind-Instruments, the Ringing of Bells, &c. Or Immusicall Sounds; which are euer Vnequall; Such as are the Voice in Speaking, all Whisperings, all Voices of Beasts, and Birds, (except they bee Singing Birds;) all Percussions, of Stones, Wood, Parchment, Skins (as in Drummes;) and infinite others.

The Sounds that produce Tones, are euer from such Bodies, as are in 102 their Parts and Pores Equall; As well as the Sounds themselues are E­quall; And such are the Percussions of Metall, as in Bells; Of Glasse, as in the Fillipping of a Drinking Glasse; Of Aire, as in Mens voices whilest they Sing, in Pipes, Whistles, Organs, Stringed Instruments, &c. And of Water; as in the Nightingale-Pipes of Regalls, or Organs, and other Hydranlickes; [Page 36] which the Ancients had, and Nere did so much esteeme, but are now lost. And if any Man thinke, that the String of the Bowe, and the String of the Viall, are neither of them Equall Bodies; And yet produce Tones; he is in an errour. For the Sound is not created between the Bowe or Ple­ctrum, and the String; But between the String and the Aire; No more then it is between the Finger or Quill, and the String, in other Instruments. So there are (in effect) but three Percussions that create Tones; Percussions of Metalls, (comprehending Glasse, and the like;) Percussions of Aire; and Percussions of Water.

103 The Diapason or Eight in Musicke is the sweetest Concord; Insomuch, as it is in effect an Vnison; As we see in Lutes, that are strung in the Base Strings with two strings, one an Eight aboue another; Which make but as one Sound. And euery Eighth Note in Ascent, (as from Eight to Fifteene: from Fifteene to twenty two, and so in infinitum,) are but Scales of Diapason. The Cause is darke, and hath not beene rendred by any; And therfore would be better contemplated. It seemeth that Aire, (which is the Sub­iect of Sounds) in Sounds that are not Tones, (which are all vnequall, as hath beene said) admitteth much Varietie; As wee see in the Voices of Liuing Creatures; And likewise in the Voices of seuerall Men; (for we are capable to discerne seuerall Men by their Voices;) And in the Coniugation of Letters, whence Articulate Sounds proceed; Which of all others are most various. But in the Sounds which we call Tones, (that are euer Equall) the Aire is not able to cast it selfe into any such varietie; But is forced to recurre into one and the same Posture or Figure, onely differing in Great­nesse and Smalnesse. So we see Figures may be made of lines, Crooked and Straight, in infinite Varietie, where there is Inequalitie; But Circles, or Squares, or Triangles Equilaterall, (which are all Figures, of Equall lines) can differ but in Greater, or Lesser.

104 It is to be noted (the rather left any Man should thinke, that there is any thing in this Number of Eight, to create the Diapason), that this Com­putation of Eight, is a thing rather receiued, than any true Computation. For a true Computation ought euer to bee, by Distribution into equall Portions. Now there be interuenient in the Rise of Eight (in Tones) two Beemolls, or Halfe-notes; So as if you diuide the Tones equally, the Eight is but Seuen whole and equall Notes; And if you subdiuide that into Halfe Notes, (as it is in the Stops of a Lute), it maketh the Number of thirteene.

105 Yet this true; That in the ordinary Rises and Falles of the Voice of Man, (not measuring the Tone by whole Notes, and halfe Notes, which is the Equall Measure;) there fall out to be two Beemols (as hath beene said) betweene the Vnison and the Diapason: And this Varying is natu­rall. For if a Man would endeuour to raise or fall his Voice, still by Halfe­Notes, like the Stops of a Lute; or by whole Notes alone, without Halfes; as farre as an Eight; he will not be able to frame his Voice vnto it. Which sheweth, that after euery three whole Notes Nature requireth, for all Har­monicall vse, one halfe Note to be interposed.

106 It is to be considered, that whatsoeuer Vertue is in Numbers, for [Page 37] Conducing to Concent of Notes, is rather to bee ascribed to the Ante-Number, than to the Entire Number; As namely, that the Sound retar­neth after Six, or after Twelue; So that the Seuenth, or the Thirteenth, is not the Matter, but the Sixth, or the Twelfth; And the Seuenth and the Thirteenth are but the limits and Boundaries of the returne.

The Concords in Musick which are Perfect, or Semiperfect, betweene 107 the Vnison, and the Diapason, are the Fifth, which is the most Perfect; the Third next; And the Sixth which is more harsh: And as the Ancients esteemed, and so doe my selfe and some Other yet, the Fourth which they call Diatessaron. As for the Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth, and so in infinitum; they be but Recurrences of the Former; viz. of the Third, the Fifth, and the Sixth; being an Eight respectiuely from them.

For Discords, the Second, and the Seuenth, are of all others the most 108 odious, in Harmony, to the Sense; whereof the One is next aboue the Vnison, the Other next vnder the Diapason: which may shew, that Har­mony requireth a competent distance of Notes.

In Harmony, if there be not a Discord to the Base, it doth not disturbe 109 the Harmony, though there be a Discord to the Higher Parts; So the Dis­cord be not of the Two that are Odious; And therfore the ordinary Con­cent of Foure Parts consisteth of an Eight, a Fifth, and a Third to the Base: But that Fifth is a Fourth to the Treble, and the Third is a Sixth. And the Cause is, for that the Base striking more Aire, doth ouercome and drowne the Treble. (vnlesse the Discord be very Odious;) And so hideth a small Imperfection. For we see, that in one of the lower Strings of a Lute, there soundeth not the Sound of the Treble, not any Mixt Sound, but onely the Sound of the Base.

We haue no Musicke of Quarter-Notes; And it may be, they are not 110 capable of Harmony; For we see the Halfe-Notes themselues doe but interpose sometimes. Neuerthelesse we haue some Slides, or Relishes, of the Voice, or Strings, as it were continued without Notes, from one Tone to another, rising or falling, which are delightfull.

The Causes of that which is Pleasing, or Ingrate to the Hearing, may 111 receiue light by that, which is Pleasing or Ingrate to the Sight. There be two Things Pleasing to the Sight, (leauing Pictures, and Shapes aside, which are but Secondary Obiects; And please or displease but in Me­mory;) these two are, Colours, and Order. The Pleasing of Colour sym­bolizeth with the Pleasing of any Single Tone to the Eare; But the Plea­sing of Order doth symbolize with Harmony. And therfore we see in Garden-knots, and the Frets of Houses, and all equall and well-answering Figures, (as Globes, Pyramides, Cones, Cylinders, &c.) how they please; whereas Vnequall Figures are but Deformities. And both these Pleasures, that of the Eye, and that of the Eare, are but the Effects of Equality; Good Proportion, or Correspondence: So that (out of Question,) Equality, and Correspondence, are the Causes of Harmony. But to finde the Proportion of that Correspondence, is more abstruse; wherof notwithstanding we shall speake somewhat, (when we handle Tones,) in the generall Enquiry of Sounds.

[Page 38] 112 Tones are not so apt altogether to procure Sleep, as some other Sounds; As the Wind, the Purling of Water, Humming of Bees, a Sweet Voice of one that readeth, &c. The Cause whereof is, for that Tones, because they are Equall, and slide not, doe more strike and erect the Sense, than the other. And Ouermuch Attention hindreth Sleepe.

113 There be in Musick certaine Figures, or Tropes; almost agreeing with the Figures of Rhetoricke; And with the Affections of the Minde, and other Senses. First, the Diuision and Quauering, which please so much in Musick, haue an Agreement with the Glittering of Light; As the Moone­Beames playing vpon a Waue. Againe, the Falling from a Discord to a Concord, which maketh great Sweetnesse in Musick, hath an Agreement with the Affections, which are reintegrated to the better, after some dislikes: It agreeth also with the Taste, which is soone glutted with that which is sweet alone. The Sliding from the Close or Cadence, hath an Agreement with the Figure in Rhetoricke, which they call Praeter Expe­ctatum; For there is a Pleasure euen in Being deceined. The Reports, and Fuges, haue an Agreement with the Figures in Rhetorick, of Repetition, and Traduction. The Tripla's, and Changing of Times, haue an Agree­ment with the Changes of Motions; As when Galliard Time, and Measure Time, are in the Medley of one Dance.

114 It hath been anciently held, and obserued, that the Sense of Hearing, and the Kinds of Musick, haue most Operation vpon Manners; As to Incourage Men, and make them warlike; To make them Soft and Effe­minate; To make them Graue; To make them Light; To make them Gentle and inclined to Pitty, &c. The Cause is, for that the Sense of Hearing striketh the Spirits more immediatly, than the other Senses; And more incorporeally than the Smelling: For the Sight, Taste, and Feeling, haue their Organs, not of so present and immediate Accesse to the Spi­rits, as the Hearing hath. And as for the Smelling, (which indeed work­eth also immediatly vpon the Spirits, and is sorcible while the Obiect remaineth,) it is with a Communication of the Breath, or Vapour of the Obiect Odorate: But Harmony entring easily, and Mingling not at all, and Comming with a manifest Motion; doth by Custome of often Affe­cting the Spirits, and Putting them into one kinde of Posture, alter not a little the Nature of the Spirits, euen when the Obiect is remoued. And therefore we see, that Tunes and Aires, euen in their owne Nature, haue in themselues some Affinity with the Affections; As there be Merry Tunes, Dolefull Tunes, Solemne Tunes; Tunes inclining Mens mindes to Pitty; Warlike Tunes; &c. So as it is no Maruell, if they alter the Spi­rits; considering that Tunes haue a Predisposition to the Motion of the Spirits in themselues. But yet it hath been noted, that though this va­riety of Tunes, doth dispose the Spirits to variety of Passions, conforme vnto them; yet generally, Musick feedeth that disposition of the Spirits which it findeth. We see also that seuerall Aires, and Tunes, doe please seuerall Nations, and Persons, according to the Sympathy they haue with their Spirits.

[Page 39] Perspectiue hath been with some diligence inquired; And so hath the Nature of Sounds, in some sort, as far as concerneth Musick. Experiments in Consort touching Sounds; and first touching the Nullity, and Entity of Sounds. But the Nature of Sounds in generall, hath been su­perficially obserued. It is one of the subrillest Peeces of Na­ture. And besides, I practise, as I doe aduise; which is, after long Inquiry of Things, Immerse in Matter, to interpose some Subiect, which is Immateriate, or lesse Materiate; Such as this of Sounds; To the end, that the Intellect may be Recti­fied, and become not Partiall.

It is first to be considered, what Great Motions there are in Natute,115 which passe without Sound, or Noise. The Heauens turne about, in a most rapide Motion, without Noise to vs perceiued; Though in some Dreames they haue been said to make an excellent Musick. So the Mo­tions of the Comets, and Fiery Meteors (as Stella Cadens, &c.) yeeld no Noise. And if it be thought, that it is the Greatnesse of distance from vs, whereby the Sound cannot be heard; We see that Lightnings, and Coruscations, which are neere at hand, yeeld no Sound neither. And yet in all these, there is a Percussion and Diuision of the Aire. The Windes in the Vpper Region (which moue the Clouds aboue (which we call the Racke) and are not perceiued below) passe without Noise. The lower Windes in a Plaine, except they be strong, make no Noise; But amongst Trees, the Noise, of such Windes will be perceiued. And the Windes (ge­nerally) when they make a Noise, doe euer make it vnequally, Rising and Falling, and sometimes (when they are vehement,) Trembling at the Height of their Blast. Raine, or Haile falling, (though vehemently,) yeeldeth no Noise, in passing through the Aire, till it fall vpon the Ground, Water, Houses, or the like. Water in a Riuer (though a swift Streame) is not heard in the Channell, but runneth in Silence, if it be of any depth; But the very Streame vpon Shallowes, of Grauell, or Pebble, will be heard. And Waters, when they beat vpon the Shore, or are straitned, (as in the falls of Bridges;) Or are dashed against themselues, by Windes, giue a Roaring Noise. Any peece of Timber, or Hard Body, being thrust forwards by another Body Contiguous, without knocking, giueth no Noise. And so Bodies in weighing, one vpon another, though the Vpper Body presse the lower Body downe, make no Noise. So the Mo­tion in the Minute Parts of any solide Body, (which is the Principall Cause of Violent Motion, though vnobserued;) passeth without Sound; For that Sound, that is heard sometimes, is produced onely by the Break­ing of the Aire; And not by the Impulsion of the Parts. So it is ma­nifest; That where the Anteriour Body giueth way, as fast as the Poste­riour commeth on, it maketh no Noise; be the Motion neuer so great, or swift.

Aire open, and at large, maketh no Noise, except it be sharply per­cussed; 116 As in the Sound of a String, where Aire is percussed by a hard, [Page 40] and stiffe Body; And with a sharp loose; For if the String be not strai­ned, it maketh no Noise. But where the Aire is pent, and straitned, there Breath, or other Blowing, (which carry but a gentle Percussion,) suffice to create Sound; As in Pipes, and winde-Instruments. But then you must note, that in Recorders, which goe with a gentle Breath, the Concaue of the Pipe, were it not for the Fipple, that straitneth the Aire, (much more than the Simple Concaue;) would yeeld no Sound. For as for other winde­Instruments, they require a forcible Breath; As Trumpets, Cornets, Hun­ters-hornes, &c. Which appeareth by the blowne-cheeks of him that windeth them. Organs also are blowne with a strong winde, by the Bel­lowes. And note againe, that some kinde of winde-Instruments, are blowne at a small Hole in the side, which straitneth the Breath at the first Entrance; The rather, in respect of their Trauerse, and Stop aboue the Hole, which performeth the Fipples Part; As it is seene in Flutes, and Fifes, which will not giue Sound, by a Blast at the end, as Recorders, &c. doe. Likewise in all Whistling, you contract the Mouth; And to make it more sharp, Men sometimes vse their Finger. But in Open Aire, if you throw a Stone, or a Dart, they giue no Sound: No more doe Bullets, ex­cept they happen to be a little hollowed in the Casting; Which Hollow­nesse penneth the Aire: Not yet Arrowes, except they be ruffled in their Feathers, which likewise penneth the Aire. As for Small whistles, or Shepheards Oa [...] Pipes; they giue a Sound, because of their extreame Slendernesse, whereby the Aire is more pent, than in a Wider Pipe. Againe, the Voices of Men, and Liuing Creatures, passe through the throat, which penneth the Breath. As for the Iewes Harpe, it is a sharp Percussion; And besides, hath the vantage of penning the Aire in the Mouth.

117 Solide Bodies, if they be very softly percussed, giue no Sound; As when a man treadeth very softly vpon Boards. So Chests or Doores in faire weather, when they open easily, giue no Sound. And Cart-wheeles squeak not, when they are liquoured.

118 The Flame of Tapers, or Candles, though it be a swift Motion, and breaketh the Aire, yet passeth without Sound. Aire in Ouens, though (no doubt) it doth (as it were) boyle, and dilate it selfe, and is repercus­sed; yet it is without Noise.

119 Flame percussed by Aire, giueth a Noise; As in Blowing of the Fire by Bellowes; Greater, than if the Bellowes should blow vpon the Aire it selfe. And so likewise Flame percussing the Aire strongly, (as when Flame suddenly taketh, and openeth,) giueth a Noise; So, Great Flames, whiles the one impelleth the other, giue a bellowing Sound.

120 There is a Conceit runneth abroad, that there should be a white Powder, which will discharge a Peece without Noise; which is a dange­rous Experiment, if it should be true: For it may cause secret Murthers. But it seemeth to me vnpossible; For, if the Aire pent, be driuen forth, and strike the Aire open, it will certainly make a Noise. As for the white Powder (if any such thing be, that may extinguish, or dead the Noise,) [Page 41] it is like to be a Mixture of Petre, and Sulphur, without Coale. For Petre alone will not take Fire. And if any Man thinke, that the Sound may be extinguished, or deaded, by discharging the Pent Aire, before it com­meth to the Mouth of the Peece, and to the Open Aire; That is not pro­bable; For it will make more diuided Sounds; As if you should make a Crosse Barrell hollow, thorow the Barrell of a Peece, it may be, it would giue seuerall Sounds, both at the Nose, and at the Sides. But I conceiue, that if it were possible, to bring to passe, that there should be no Aire pent at the Mouth of the Peece, the Bullet might fly with small, or no Noise, For first it is certaine, there is no Noise in the Percussion of the Flame vpon the Bullet. Next the Bullet, in piercing thorow the Aire, ma­keth no Noise; As hath beene said. And then, if there be no Pent Aire that striketh vpon Open Aire, there is no Cause of Noise; And yet the Flying of the Bullet will not be stayed. For that Motion (as hath beene oft said) is in the Parts of the Bullet, and not in the Aire. So as triall must be made by taking some small Concaue of Metall, no more than you mean to fill with Powder; And laying the Bullet in the Mouth of it, halfe out into the Open Aire.

I heard it affirmed by a Man, that was a great Dealer in Secrets, but 121 he was but vaine; That there was a Conspiracy (which himselfe hindred,) to haue killed Queene Mary, Sister to Queene Elizabeth, by Burning­Glasse, when shee walked in Saint Iames Parke, from the Leads of the House. But thus much (no doubt) is true; That if Burning-Glasses could be brought to a great strength, (as they talke generally of Burning-Glas­ses, that are able to burne a Nauy,) the Percussion of the Aire alone, by such a Burning-Glasse, would make no Noise; No more than is found in Cornscations, and Lightnings, without Thunders.

I suppose, that Impression of the Aire with Sounds, asketh a time to 122 be conueighed to the Sense; As well as the Impression of Species visible: Or else they will not be heard. And therefore, as the Bullet moueth so swift, that it is Inuisible; So the same Swiftnesse of Motion maketh it In­audible: For we see, that the Apprehension of the Eye, is quicker than that of the Eare.

All Eruptions of Aire, though small and slight, giue an Entity of Sound; 123 which we call Crackling, Pussing, Spitting, &c. As in Bay-salt, and Bay­leaues, cast into the Fire; So in Chesnuts, when they leape forth of the Ashes; So in Greene Wood laid vpon the Fire, especially Roots; So in Candles that spit Flame, if they be wet; So in Rasping, Sneezing, &c. So in a Rose-leafe gathered together into the fashion of a Purse, and bro­ken vpon the Fore-head, or Backe of the Hand, as Children vse.

The Cause giuen of Sound, that it should be an Elision of the Aire (wherby, if they meane any thing, they meane a Cutting, or Diuiding, or else an Attenuating of the Aire) is but a Terme of Ignorance: And the Motion is but a Catch of the Wit vpon a few Instances; As the Manner is in the Philosophy Receiued.Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching Producti­on. Conseruation, and Dilation of Sounds; And the Office of the Aire there­in. And it is common with Men, that if they [Page 42] haue gotten a Pretty Expression, by a Word of Art, that Expression, goeth currant; though it be empty of Matter. This Conceit of Elision, appea­reth most manifestly to befalse, in that the Sound of a Bell, String, or the 124 like, continueth melting, some time, after the Percussion; But ceaseth straight-waies, if the Bell, or String, be touched and stayed: wheras, if it were the Elision of the Aire, that made the Sound, it could not be, that the Touch of the Bell, or String, should extinguish so suddenly that Mo­tion, caused by the Elision of the Aire. This appeareth yet more mani­festly, by Chiming with a Hammer, vpon the Out-side of a Bell; For the Sound will be according to the inward Concaue of the Bell; whereas the Elision, or Attenuation of the Aire, cannot be but onely betweene the Hammer, and the Out-side of the Bell, So againe, if it were an Elision, a broad Hammer, and a Bodkin, strucke vpon Metall, would giue a diuers Tone; As well as a diuers Loudnesse: But they doe not so; For though the Sound of the one be Louder, and of the other Softer, yet the Tone is the same. Besides, in Eccho's, (wherof some are as loud as the Originall Voice, there is no new Elision; but a Repercussion onely. But that which conuinceth it most of all, is, that Sounds are generated, where there is no Aire at all. But these and the like Conceits, when Men haue clea­red their vnderstanding, by the light of Experience, will scatter, and breake vp like a Mist.

125 It is certaine, that Sound is not produced at the first, but with some Locall Motion of the Aire, or Flame, or some other Medium; Nor yet with­out some Resistance, either in the Aire, or the Body Percussed. For if there be a meere Yeelding, or Cession, it produceth no Sound; As hath beene said. And therin Sounds differ from Light, and Colours; which passe thorow the Aire, or other Bodies, without any Locall Motion of the Aire; either at the first, or after. But you must attentiuely distinguish, be­tweene the Locall Motion of the Aire, (which is but Vehiculum Caussae, A Carrier of the Sounds,) and the Sounds themselues, Conueighed in the Aire. For as to the former, we see manifestly, that no Sound is produ­ced (no not by Aire it selfe against other Aire, as in Organs, &c.) but with a perceptible Blast of the Aire; And with some Resistance of the Aire strucken. For euen all Speech, (which is one of the gentlest Motions of Aire,) is with Expulsion of a little Breath. And all Pipes haue a Blast, as well as a Sound. We see also manifestly, that Sounds are carried with Wind: And therefore Sounds will be heard further with the Wind, than against the Wind; And likewise doe rise and fall with the Intension or Remission of the Wind. But for the Impression of the Sound, it is quite an­other Thing; And is vtterly without any Locall Motion of the Aire, Per­ceptible; And in that resembleth the Species visible: For after a Man hath lured, or a Bell is rung, we cannot discerne any Perceptible Motion (at all) in the Aire, a long as the Sound goeth; but only at the first. Nei­ther doth the Wind (as far as it carrieth a Voice,) with the Motion therof, confound any of the Delicate, and Articulate Figurations of the Aire, in Variety of Words. And if a Man speake a good loudnesse, against [Page 43] the Flame of a Candle, it will not make it tremble much; though most, when those Letters are pronounced, which contract the Mouth; As F, S,V, and some others. But Gentle Breathing, or Blowing without speaking, will moue the Candle far more. And it is the more probable, that Sound is without any Locall Motion of the Aire, because as it differeth from the Sight, in that it needeth a Locall Motion of the Aire at first; So it paralle­leth in so many other things with the Sight, and Radiation of Things visi­ble; Which (without all question) induce no Locall Motion in the Aire, as hath beene said.

Neuerthelesse it is true, that vpon the Noise of Thunder, and great 126 Ordnance; Glasse windowes will shake; and Fishes are thought to be frayed with the Motion, caused by Noise vpon the water. But these Ef­fects are from the Locall Motion of the Aire, which is a Concomitant of the Sound, (as hath beene said;) and not from the Sound.

It hath beene anciently reported, and is still receiued, that Extreme 127 Applanses, and Shouting of People assembled in great Multitudes, haue so rarified, and broken the Aire, that Birds flying ouer, haue fallen downe, the Aire being not able to support them. And it is beleeued by some, that Great Ringing of Bells in populous Cities, hath chased away Thunder: and also dissipated Pestilent Aire: All which may be also from the Concussion of the Aire, and not from the Sound.

A very great Sound, neare hand, hath strucken many Dease; And at 128 the Instant they haue found, as it were, the breaking of a Skin or Parch­ment in their Eare: And my Selfe standing neare one that Lured loud, and shrill, had suddenly an Offence, as if somewhat had broken, or beene dislocated in my Eare; And immediately after, a loud Ringing; (Not an ordinary Singing, or Hissing, but far louder, and differing;) so as I feared some Deafenesse. But after some halfe Quarter of an Houre it vanished. This Effect may be truly referred vnto the Sound: For (as is commonly receiued) an ouer-potent Obiect doth destroy the Sense; And Spirituall Species, (both Visible, and Audible,) will worke vpon the Sensories, though they moue not any other Body.

In Delation of Sounds, the Enclosure of them preserueth them, and 129 causeth them to be heard further. And wee finde in Roules of Parch­ment, or Trunckes, the Mouth being laid to the one end of the Rowle of Parchment, or Truncke, and the Eare to the other, the Sound is heard much further, than in the Open Aire; The Cause is, for that the Sound spendeth, and is dissipated in the Open Aire; But in such Concaues it is conserued, and contracted. So also in a Peece of Ordnance, if you speak in the Touch-hole, and another lay his Eare to the Mouth of the Peece, the Sound passeth, and is farre better heard, than in the Open Aire.

It is further to be considered, how it proueth and worketh, when 130 the Sound is not enclosed all the Length of his Way, but passeth part­ly through open Aire; As where you speake some distance from a Truncke; or where the Eare is some distance from the Truncke; at the other End; Or where both Mouth and Eare are distant from the Truncke. And [Page 44] it is tried, that in a long Truncke, of some eight or ten foot, the Sound is holpen, though both the Mouth, and the Eare be a handfull, or more, from the Ends of the Truncke; And somewhat more holpen, when the Eare of the Hearer is neare, than when the Mouth of the Speaker. And it is certaine, that the Voice is better heard in a Chamber from abroad, than abroad from within the Chamber.

131 As the Enclosure, that is Round about and Entire, preserueth the Sound; So doth a Semi-Concaue, though in a lesse degree. And therefore, if you diuide a Truncke, or a Cane into two, and one speake at the one end, and you lay your Eare at the other, it will carry the Voice further, than in the Aire at large. Nay further, if it be not a full Semi-Concaue; but if you doe the like vpon the Mast of a Ship, or a long Pole, or a Peece of Ordnance (though one speake vpon the Surface of the Ordnance, and not at any of the Bores;) the Voice will be heard further, than in the Aire at large.

132 It would be tried, how, and with what proportion of disaduantage, the Voice will be carried in an Horne, which is a line Arched; Or in a Trumpet, which is a line Retorted; Or in some Pipe that were Si­nuous.

133 It is certaine, (howsoeuer it crosse the Receiued Opinion) that Sounds may be created without Aire, though Aire be the most fauoura­ble Deferent of Sounds. Take a Vessell of Water, and knap a paire of Tongs some depth within the Water, and you shall heare the Sound of the Tongs well, and not much diminished; And yet there is no Aire at all present.

134 Take one Vessell of Siluer, and another of Wood, and fill each of them full of Water, and then knap the Tongs together, as before, about an handfull from the Bottome, and you shall finde the Sound much more Resounding from the Vessell of Siluer, than from that of Wood; And yet if there be not water in the Vessell, so that yo knap the Tongs in the Aire, you shall finde no difference, betweene the Siluer and Woodden Vessell. Whereby, beside the maine point of creating Sound without Aire, you may collect two Things: The one, that the Sound communi­cateth with the Bottome of the Vessell: The other, that such a Commu­nication passeth farre better, thorow Water, than Aire.

135 Strike any Hard Bodies together, in the Middest of a Flame, and you shall heare the Sound, with little difference, from the Sound in the Aire.

136 The Pneumaticall Part, which is in all Tangible Bodies, and hath some Affinity with the Aire, performeth, in some degree, the Parts of the Aire; As when you knocke vpon an Emptie Barrell, the Sound is (in part) created by the Aire on the Out-side; And (in part) by the Aire in the Inside; For the Sound will be greater or lesser, as the Barrell is more Emptie, or more full; But yet the Sound participateth also with the Spirit in the Wood, thorow which it passeth, from the Outside to the In­side: And so it commeth to passe, in the Chiming of Bells, on the Out­side; where also the Sound passeth to the Inside: And a number of o­ther [Page 45] like Instances, whereof we shall speake more, when we handle the Communication of Sounds.

It were extreame Grossenesse to thinke, (as wee haue partly touched 137 before,) that the Sound in Strings is made, or produced, betweene the Hand and the String, or the Quill and the String, or the Bow and the String: For those are but Vehicula Motûs, Passages to the Creation of the Sound; the Sound being produced betweene the String and the Aire; And that not by any Impulsion of the Aire from the first Motion of the String; but by the Returne or Result of the String, which was strained by the Touch, to his former Place: which Motion of Result is quicke and sharpe; Wheras the first Motion, is soft and dull. So the Bow tortureth the String continually, and thereby holdeth it in a Continuall Trepi­dation.

Take a Truncke, and let one whistle at the one End, and bold your Eare at the other, and you shall finde the Sound strike so sharpe, as you can scarce endure it.Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching the Mag­nitude, and Exi­luy, and Damps of Sounds. The Cause is, for that Sound diffuseth it selfe in round; And so spendeth it Selfe; But if the Sound, which would scatter in Open Aire, be made to goe all into a Canale; It must needs giue grea­ter force to the Sound. And so you may note, that Enclosures doe not 138 onely preserue Sound, but also Encrease and Sharpen it.

A Hunters Horne, being greater at one end, than at the other, doth 139 encrease the Sound more, than if the Horne were all of an equall Bore. The Cause is, for that the Aire, and Sound, being first contracted at the leffer End, and afterwards hauing more Roome to spread at the greater End; doe dilate themselues; And in Comming out strike more Aire; whereby the Sound is the Greater, and Baser. And euen Hunters Hornes, which are sometimes made straight, and not Oblique, are euer greater at the lower end. It would be tried also in Pipes, being made far larger at the lower End: Or being made with a Belly towards the lower End, And then issuing into a straight Concaue againe.

There is in Saint Iames Fields, a Conduit of Bricke, vnto which ioy­neth 140 a low Vault; And at the End of that, a Round House of Stone: And in the Bricke Conduit there is a Window; And in the Round House a Slit or Rift of some little breadth: If you crie out in the Rift, it will make a fearfull Roaring at the Window. The Cause is the same with the for­mer; For that all Concaues, that proceed from more Narrow to more Broad, doe amplifie the Sound at the Comming out.

Hawkes Bells, that haue Holes in the sides, giue a greater Ring, than 141 if the Pellet did strike vpon Brasse, in the Open Aire. The Cause is the same with the first Instance of the Trancke; Namely, for that the Sound Enclosed with the Sides of the Bell, commeth forth at the Holes vnspent, and more strong.

In Drums, the Closenesse round about, that preserueth the Sound 142 from dispersing, maketh the Noise come forth at the Drum-Hole, farre more loud, and strong, than if you should strike vpon the like Skin, ex­tended [Page 46] in the Open Aire. The Cause is the same with the two pre­cedent.

143 Sounds are better heard, and further off, in an Euening, or in the Night, than at the Noone, or in the Day. The Cause is, for that in the Day, when the Aire is more Thin, (no doubt) the Sound pierceth better; But when the Aire is more Thicke, (as in the Night) the Sound spendeth and spreadeth abroad lesse: And so it is a Degree of Enclosure. As for the Night, it is true also, that the Generall Silence helpeth.

144 There be two Kinds of Reflexions of Sounds; The one at Distance, which is the Eccho; Wherein the Originall is heard distinctly, and the Reflexion also distinctly; Of which we shall speake hereafter: The other in Concurrence; When the Sound Reflecting (the Reflexion being neare at hand) returneth immediatly vpon the Originall, and so iterateth it not, but amplifieth it. Therefore we see, that Musicke vpon the water soun­deth more; And so likewise Musicke is better in Chambers Wainscot­ted, than Hanged.

145 The Strings of a Lute, or Violl, or Virginalls, doe giue a far greater Sound, by reason of the Knot, and Board, and Concaue vnderneath, than if there were nothing but onely the Flat of a Board, without that Hollow and Knot, to let in the Vpper Aire into the Lower. The Cause is, the Communication of the Vpper Aire with the Lower; And Penning of both from Expence, or Dispersing.

146 An Irish Harpe hath Open Aire on both sides of the Strings: And it hath the Concaue or Belly, not along the Strings, but at the End of the Strings. It maketh a more Resounding Sound, than a Bandora, Orpharion, or Citterne, which haue likewise Wire-strings. I iudge the Cause to be, for that Open Aire on both Sides helpeth, so that there be a Concaue; Which is therefore best placed at the End.

147 In a Virginall, when the Lid is downe, it maketh a more exile Sound, than when the Lid is open. The Cause is, for that all Shutting in of Aire, where there is no competent Vent, dampeth the Sound. Which main­taineth likewise the former Instance; For the Belly of the Lute, or Vi [...]ll, doth pen the Aire somewhat.

148 There is a Church at Glocester, (and as I haue heard the like is in some other places;) where if you speake against a Wall, softly, another shall heare your Voice better a good way off, than neare hand. Enquire more particularly of the Frame of that Place. I suppose there is some Vault, or Hollow, or Isle, behinde the Wall, and some Passage to it towards the further end of that Wall, against which you speake; So as the Voice, of him that speaketh, slideth along the Wall, and then entreth at some Passage, and communicateth with the Aire of the Hollow; For it is pre­serued somewhat by the plaine wall; but that is too weake to giue a Sound Audible, till it hath communicated with the backe Aire.

149 Strike vpon a Bowstring, and lay the Horne of the Bow neare your Eare, and it will encrease the Sound, and make a degree of a Tone. The Cause is, for that the Sensory, by reason of the Close Holding, is per­cussed [Page 47] before the Aire disperseth. The like is, if yo hold the Horne betwixt your Teeth. But that is a plaine Delation of the Sound; from the Teeth, to the Instrument of Hearing; For there is a great Entercourse betweene those two Parts; As appeareth by this; That a Harsh Grating Tune setteth the Teeth on edge. The like falleth out, if the Horne of the Bow be put vpon the Temples; But that is but the Slide of the Sound from thence to the Eare.

If you take a Rod of Iron, or Brasse, and hold the one end to your 150 Eare, and strike vpon the other, it maketh a fat greater Sound, than the like Stroke vpon the Rod, not so made Contiguous to the Eare. By which, and by some other Instances, that haue beene partly touched, it should appeare; That Sounds doe not onely slide vpon the Surface of a Smooth Body, but doe also communicate with the Spirits, that are in the Pores of the Body.

I remember in Trinity Colledge in Cambridge, there was an Vpper 151 Chamber, which being thought weake in the Roofe of it, was supported by a Pillar of Iron, of the bignesse of ones Arme, in the middest of the Chamber; Which if you had strucke, it would make a little flat Noise in the Roome where it was strucke; But it would make a great Bombe in the Chamber beneath.

The Sound which is made by Buckets in a Well, when they touch vp­on 152 the Water; Or when they strike vpon the side of the Well; Or when two Buckets dash the one against the other; These Sounds are deeper, and suller, than if the like Percussion were made in the Open Aire. The Cause is, the Penning and Enclosure of the Aire, in the Concaue of the Well.

Barrells placed in a Roome vnder the Floare of a Chamber, make all 153 Noises in the same Chamber, more Full and Resounding.

So that there be fine wayes (in generall,) of Maioration of Sounds: En­closure Simple; Enclosure with Dilatation; Communication; Reflexi­on Concurrent; and Approach to the Sensory.

For Exility of the Voice, or other Sounds: It is certaine, that the 154 Voice doth passe thorow Solide and Hard Bodies, if they be not too thick. And thorow Water; which is likewise a very Close Body, and such an one, as letteth not in Aire. But then the Voice, or other Sound, is redu­ced, by such passage, to a great Weaknesse, or Exility. If therefore you stop the Holes of a Howkes Bell, it will make no Ring, but a flat Noise, or Rattle. And so doth the Aëtites, or Eagles Stone, which hath a little Stone within it.

And as for Water, it is a certaine Triall: Let a Man goe into a Bath, 155 and take a Paile, and turne the Bottome vpward, and carry the Mouth of it, (Euen,) downe to the Leuell of the Water; and so presse it downe vnder the Water, some handfull and an halfe, still keeping it euen, that it may not tilt on either side, & so the Aire get out: Then let him that is in the Bath, diue with his Head so far vnder Water, as he may put his Head into the Paile; & there wil come as much Aire bubling forth, as will make [Page 48] Roome for his Head. Then let him speak; and any that shal stand without, shal heare his Voice plainly; but yet made extreme sharp and exile, like the Voice of Puppets: But yet the Articulate Sounds of the Words will not be cō ­founded. Note that it may be much more handsomely done, if the Paile be put ouer the Mans head aboue Water, and then he cowre downe, and the Paile be pressed downe with him. Note that a Man must kneele or sit, that he may be lower than the Water. A Man would thinke, that the Si­cilian Poet had knowledge of this Experiment; For he saith; That Her­cules Page Hylas went with a Water-pot, to fill it at a pleasant Fountaine, that was neere the Shore, and that the Nymphs of the Fountaine fell in loue with the Boy, and pulled him vnder Water, keeping him aliue; And that Hercules missing his Page, called him by his Name, aloud, that all the Shore rang of it; And that Hylas from within the Water, answered his Master; But (that which is to the present purpose) with so small and exile a Voice, as Hercules thought he had beene three miles off, when the Fountaine (indeed) was fast by.

156 In Lutes, and Instruments of Strings, if you stop a String high, (where­by it hath lesse Scope to tremble) the Sound is more Treble, but yet more dead.

157 Take two Sawcers, and strike the Edge of the one against the Bottome of the other, within a Paile of Water; And you shall finde, that as you put the Sawcers lower, and lower, the Sound groweth more flat; euen while Part of the Sawcer is aboue the Water; But that Flatnesse of Sound is ioyned with a Harshnesse of Sound; which (no doubt) is caused by the Inequalitie of the Sound, which commeth from the Part of the Sawcer vnder the Water, and from the Part aboue. But when the Sawcer is wholly vnder the Water, the Sound becommeth more cleare, but farre more low; And as if the Sound came from a farre off.

158 A Soft Body dampeth the Sound, much more than a Hard; As if a Bell hath Cloth, or Silke wrapped about it, it deadeth the Sound more, than if it were Wood. And therefore in Clericalls, the Keyes are lined; And in Colledges they vse to line the Tablemen.

159 Triall was made in a Recorder, after these seuerall manners. The Bot­tome of it was set against the Palme of the Hand; stopped with Wax round about; set against a Damaske Cushion; Thrust into Sand; Into Ashes; Into Water, (halfe an Inch vnder the Water;) Close to the Bot­tome of a Siluer Basin; And still the Tone remained: But the Bottome of it was set against a Woollen Carpet; A Lining of Plush; A Locke of Wooll, (though loosely put in;) Against Snow; And the Sound of it was quite deaded, and but Breath.

160 Iron Hot produceth not so full a Sound, as when it is Cold; For while it is hot, it appeareth to be more Soft, and lesse Resounding. So likewise Warme Water, when it falleth, maketh not so full a Sound, as Cold: And I conceiue it is softer, and neerer the Nature of Oyle; For it is more slip­pery; As may be perceiued, in that it scowreth better.

161 Let there be a Recorder made, with two Fipples at each end one; The [Page 49] Truncke of it of the length of two Recorders, and the Holes answerable toward each end; And let two play the same Lesson vpon it, at an Vni­son; And let it be noted, whether the Sound be confounded; or ampli­fied; or dulled. So likewise let a Crosse be made, of two Trunckes (thorow-out) hollow; And let two speake, or sing, the one long-waies, the other trauerse: And let two heare at the opposite Ends; And note, whether the Sound be confounded; amplified; or dulled. Which two Instances will also giue light to the Mixture of Sounds; wherof we shall speake hereafter.

A Bellowes blowne in at the Hole of a Drum, and the Drum then 162 strucken, maketh the Sound a little flatter, but no other apparent Alte­ration. The Cause is manifest; Partly for that it hindreth the Issue of the Sound; And partly for that it maketh the Aire, being blowne together, lesse moueable.

The Loudnesse, and Softnesse of Sounds, is a Thing distinct from the Magnitude and Exility of Sounds; For a Base String, though softly struc­ken, giueth the greater Sound; But a Treble String, if hard strucken, will be heard much further off.Experiments in Consort touching the Loudnesse or Sofinesse of Sounds; and their Carriage at longer or shor­ter Distance. And the Cause is, for that the Base String striketh more Aire; And the Treble lesse Aire, but with a sharper Per­cussion.

It is therefore the Strength of the Percussion, that is a Principall Cause of the Loudnesse or Softnesse of Sounds: As in knocking harder or softer; 163 Winding of a Horne stronger or weaker; Ringing of a Hand-bell har­der 164 or softer, &c. And the Strength of this Percussion, consisteth, as much, or more, in the Hardnesse of the Body Percussed, as in the Force of the Bo­dy Percussing: For if you strike against a Cloth, it will giue a lesse Sound; If against Wood, a greater; If against Metall, yet a greater; And in Metals, if you strike against Gold, (which is the more pliant,) it giueth the flatter Sound; If against Siluer, or Brasse, the more Ringing Sound. As for Aire, where it is strongly pent, it matcheth a Hard Body. And therefore we see in discharging of a Peece, what a great Noise it maketh. We see also, that the Charge with Bullet; Or with Paper wet, and hard stopped; Or with Powder alone, rammed in hard; maketh no great difference in the Loudnesse of the Report.

The Sharpnesse or Quicknesse of the Percussion, is a great Cause of the 165 Loudnesse, as well as the Strength: As in a Whip, or Wand, if you strike the Aire with it; the Sharper and Quicker you strike it, the Louder Sound it giueth. And in playing vpon the Lute, or Virginalls, the quicke Stroke or Touch, is a great life to the Sound. The Cause is, for that the Quicke Striking cutteth the Aire speedily; wheras the Soft Striking doth ra­ther beat, than cut.

The Communication of Sounds (as in Bellies of Lutes, Emp­ty Vessells, &c.) hath beene touched obiter, in the Maioration of Sounds: But it is fit also to make a Title of it apart.Experiments in Consort touching the Communication of Sounds.

[Page 50] 166 The Experiment for greatest Demonstration of Communication of Sounds, is the Chiming of Bells; where if you strike with a Hammer vp­on the Vpper Part, and then vpon the Midst, and then vpon the Lower, you shall finde the Sound to be more Treble, and more Base, according vnto the Concaue, on the Inside; though the Percussion be onely on the Outside.

167 When the Sound is created betweene the Blast of the Mouth, and the Aire of the Pipe, it hath neuerthelesse some Communication with the Matter of the Sides of the Pipe, and the Spirits in them contained; for in a Pipe, or Trumpet, of Wood, and Brasse, the Sound will be diuers; So if the Pipe be couered with Cloth, or Silke, it will giue a diuers Sound, from that it would doe of it selfe; So, if the Pipe be a little wet on the In­side, it will make a differing Sound, from the same Pipe dry.

168 That Sound made within Water, doth communicate better with a hard Body thorow Water, than made in Aire, it doth with Aire; Vide Experimentum, 134.

We haue spoken before (in the Inquisition touching Musicke,) of Musicall Sounds, wherunto there may be a Concord or Discord in two Parts; Which Sounds vve call Tones: And likewise of Immusicall Sounds; And haue giuen the Cause, that the Tone proceedeth of Equality, and the other of Inequality. And we haue also expressed there, what are the Equall Bodies that giue Tones, and what are the Vnequall that giue none.Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching Equality, and Inequality of Sounds. But now we shall speake of such Inequality of Sounds, as procee­deth, not from the Nature of the Bodies themselues, but is Accidentall; Either from the Roughnesse, or Obliquity of the Passage; Or from the Doubling of the Percutient; Or from the Trepidation of the Motion.

169 A Bell, if it haue a Rift in it, whereby the Sound hath not a cleare Passage, giueth a Hoarse and Iarring Sound; So the Voice of Man, when by Cold taken the Wesill groweth rugged, and (as we call it) furred, becommeth hoarse. And in these two Instances, the Sounds are Ingrate; because they are meerely Vnequall: But, if they be Vnequall in Equality, then the Sound is Gratefull, but Purling.

170 All Instruments, that haue either Returnes, as Trumpets; Or Flexions, as Cornets; Or are Drawne vp, and put from, as Sackbuts; haue a Purling Sound; But the Recorder, or Flute, that haue none of these Inequali­ties, giue a cleare Sound. Neuerthelesse, the Recorder it selfe, or Pipe moistened a little in the Inside, soundeth more solemnly, and with a lit­tle Purling, or Hissing. Againe, a Wreathed String, such as are in the Base Strings of Banderaes, giueth also a Purling Sound.

171 But a Lute-string, if it be meerely Vnequall in his Parts, giueth a Harsh [Page 51] and Vntuneable Sound; which Strings we call False, being bigger in one Place than in another; And therefore Wire-strings are neuer False. We see also, that when we try a False Lute-string, wee vse to extend it hard betweene the fingers, and to fillip it; And if it giueth a double Species, it is True; But if it giueth a treble, or more, it is False.

Waters, in the Noise they make as they runne, represent to the Eare 172 a Trembling Noise; And in Regalls, (where they haue a Pipe, they call the Nightingale-Pipe, which containeth Water) the Sound hath a continuall Trembling: And Children haue also little Things they call Cockes, which haue Water in them; And when they blow, or whistle in them, they yeeld a Trembling Noise; Which Trembling of Water, hath an assini­ty with the Letter L. All which Inequalities of Trepidation, are rather pleasant, than otherwise.

173 All Base Notes, or very Treble Notes, giue an Asper Sound; For that the Base striketh more Aire, than it can well strike equally: And the Tre­ble cutteth the Aire so sharpe, as it returneth too swift, to make the Sound Equall: And therefore a Meane, or Tenor, is the sweetest Part.

We know Nothing, that can at pleasure make a Musicall, or Immu­sicall 174 Sound, by voluntary Motion, but the Voice of Man, and Birds. The Cause is, (no doubt) in the Weasill or Wind-pipe, (which we call Aspe­ra Arteria,) which being well extended, gathereth Equality; As a Blad­der that is wrinckled, if it be extended, becommeth smooth. The Ex­tension is alwaies more in Tones, than in Speech: Therefore the Inward Voice of Whisper can neuer a giue Tone: And in Singing, there is (manifest­ly) a greater Working and Labour of the Throat, than in Speaking; As appeareth in the Thrusting out, or Drawing in of the Chinne, when we sing.

The Humming of Bees, is an Vnequall Buzzing; And is conceiued, by 175 some of the Ancients, not to come forth at their Mouth, but to be an Inward[?] Sound, But (it may be) it is neither; But from the motion of their Wings; For it is not heard but when they stirre.

All Metalls quenched in Water, giue a Sibilation or Hissing Sound; 176 (which hath an Affinity with the letter Z.) notwithstanding the Sound be created betweene the Water or Vapour, and the Aire. Seething also, if there be but small Store of Water, in a Vessell, giueth a Hissing Sound; But Boyling in a full Vessell, giueth a Bubling Sound, drawing somewhat neare to the Cocks vsed by Children.

Triall would be made, whether the Inequality, or Interchange of the 177 Medium, will not produce an Inequality of Sound; As if three Bells were made one within another, and Aire betwixt Each; And then the outer­most Bell were chimed with a Hammer, how the Sound would differ from a Simple Bell. So likewise take a Plate of Brasse, and a Plancke of Wood, and ioyne them close together, and knock vpon one of them, and see if they doe not giue an vnequall Sound. So make two or three Par­titions or Wood in a Hogshead, with Holes or Knots in them; And marke the difference of their Sound, from the Sound of an Hogshead, without such Partitions.

[Page 52]It is euident, that the Percussion of the Greater Quantity of Aire, cau­seth the Baser Sound; And the lesse Quantity, the more Treble Sound. Experiments in Consort, touching[?] the [...] treble, and the [...] Base Tones, or Musi­call Sounds. The Percussion of the Greater Quantity of Aire, is produced by the Greatnesse of the Body Percussing; By the Latitude of the Concaue, by which the Sound 178 passeth; and by the Longitude of the same Concaue. Therfore we see that a Base string, is greater than a Treble; A Base Pipe hath a greater Bore than a Treble; And in Pipes, and the like, the lower the Note Holes be, and the further off from the Mouth of the Pipe, the more Base Sound they yeeld; And the nearer the Mouth, the more Treble. Nay more, if you strike an Entire Body, as an Andiron of Brasse, at the Top, it maketh a more Treble Sound; And at the Bottome a Baser.

179 It is also euident, that the Sharper or Quicker Percussion of Aire cau­seth the more Treble Sound; And the Slower or Heauier, the more Base Sound. So we see in Strings; the more they are wound vp, and strained; (And thereby giue a more quicke Start-backe;) the more Treble is the Sound; And the slacker they are, or lesse wound vp, the Baser is the Sound. And therfore a Bigger String more strained, and a Lesser String, lesse strained, may fall into the same Tone.

180 Children, Women, Eunuchs haue more small and shrill Voices, than Men. The Reason is, not for that Men haue greater Heat, which may make the Voice stronger, (for the strength of a Voice or Sound, doth make a difference in the Loudnesse or Softnesse, but not in the Tone;) But from the Dilatation of the Organ; which (it is true) is likewise caused by Heat. But the Cause of Changing the Voice, at the yeares of Puberty, is more obscure. It seemeth to be, for that when much of the Moisture of the Body, which did before irrigate the Parts, is drawne downe to the Spermaticall vessells; it leaueth the Body more hot than it was; whence commeth the Dilatation of the Pipes: For we see plainly, all Effects of Heat, doe then come on; As Pilosity, more Roughnesse of the Skinne, Hardnesse of the Flesh, &c.

181 The Industry of the Musitian, hath produced two other Meanes of Strayning, or Intension of Strings, besides their Winding vp. The one is the Stopping of the String with the Finger; As in the Necks of Lutes, Viols, &c. The other is the Shortnesse of the String; As in Harps, Virginalls, &c. Both these haue one, and the same reason; For they cause the String to giue a quicker Start.

182 In the Straining of a String, the further it is strained, the lesse Super­straining goeth to a Note; For it requireth good Winding of a String, before it will make any Note at all: And in the Stops of Lutes, &c. the higher they goe, the lesse Distance is betweene the Frets.

183 If you fill a Drinking-Glasse with Water, (especially one Sharp below, and Wide aboue,) and fillip vpon the Brim, or Outside; And after emp­ty Part of the Water, and so more and more, and still try the Tone by Fil­lipping; you shall finde the Tone fall, and be more Base, as the Glasse is more Empty.

[Page 53]The Iust and Measured Proportion of the Aire Percussed, to­wards the Basenesse or Treblenesse of Tones, is one of the greatest Secrets in the Contemplation of Sounds. Experiments in Consort touching the Proportion of Treble and Base Tones. For it discouereth the true Coincidence of Tones into Diapasons; Which is the Returne of the same Sound. And so of the Concords and Discords, be­tweene the Vnison, and Diapason; Which we haue touched before, in the Experiments of Musicke; but thinke fit to re­sume it here, as a principall Part of our Enquiry touching the Nature of Sounds. It may be found out in the Proportion of the Winding of Strings; In the Proportion of the Distance of Frets; And in the Proportion of the Concaue of Pipes, &c. But most commodiously in the last of these.

Try therfore the Winding of a String once about, as soone as it is 184 brought to that Extension, as will giue a Tone; And then of twice about; And thrice about, &c. And marke the Scale or Difference of the Rise of the Tone: Wherby you shall discouer, in one, two Effects; Both the Proportion of the Sound towards the Dimension of the Winding; And the Proportion likewife of the Sound towards the String, as it is more or lesse strained. But note that to measure this, the way will be, to take the Length in a right Line of the String, vpon any Winding about of the Pegge.

As for the Steps, you are to take the Number of Frets; And princi­pally 185 the Length of the Line, from the first Stop of the String, vnto such a Stop as shall produce a Diapason to the former Stop, vpon the same String.

But it will best (as it is said) appeare, in the Bores of Wind-Instruments: 186 And therfore cause some halfe dozen Pipes, to be made, in length, and all things else, alike, with a single, double, and so on to a sextuple Bore; And so marke what Fall of Tone euery one giueth. But still in these three last Instances, you must diligently obserue, what length of String, or Di­stance of Stop, or Concaue of Aire, maketh what Rise of Sound. As in the last of these (which (as we said) is that, which giueth the aptest demon­stration,) you must set downe what Encrease of Concaue goeth to the Making of a Note higher; And what of two Notes; And what of three Notes; And so vp to the Diapason: For then the great Secret of Numbers, and Proportions, will appeare. It is not vnlike, that those that make Re­corders, &c. know this already: for that they make them in Sets. And like­wise Bell-founders in fitting the tune of their Bells. So that Enquiry may saue Triall. Surely, it hath beene obserued by one of the Ancients, that an Empty Barrell knocked vpon with the finger, giueth a Diapason to the Sound of the like Barrellfull; But how that should be, I doe not well vn­derstand; For that the knocking of a Barrellfull, or Empty, doth scarce giue any Tone.

[Page 54] 187 There is required some sensible Difference in the Proportion of crea­ting a Note, towards the Sound it selfe, which is the Passiue: And that it be not too neare, but at a distance. For in a Recorder, the three vpper­most Holes, yeeld one Tone; which is a Note lower than the Tone of the first three. And the like (no doubt) is required in the Winding or Stop­ping of Strings.

There is another Difference of Sounds, which we will call Exteriour, and Interiour. Experiments in Consort touching Exte­riour, and Inte­riour Sounds. It is not Soft, nor Loud: Nor it is not Base, nor Treble: Nor it is not Musicall, nor Immusicall: Though it be true, that there can be no Tone in an Interiour Sound: But on the other side, in an Exteriour Sound, there may be both Musicall and Immusicall. We shall therfore enumerate them, ra­ther than precisely distinguish them; Though (to make some Adumbration of that we meane) the Interiour is rather an Impulsion or Contusion of the Aire, than an Elision or Section of the same. So as the Percussion of the one, towards the other, dif­fereth, as a Blow differeth from a Cut.

188 In Speech of Man, the Whispering, (which they call Susurrus in La­tine,) whether it be louder or softer, is an Interiour Sound; But the Spea­king out, is an Exteriour Sound; And therfore you can neuer make a Tone, not sing in Whispering; But in Speech you may: So Breathing, or Blowing by the Mouth, Bellowes, or Wind, (though loud) is an Interiour Sound; But the Blowing thorow a Pipe, or Concaue, (though soft) is an Exteriour. So likewise, the greatest Winds, if they haue no Coarctation, or blow not hollow, giue an Interiour Sound; The Whistling or hollow Wind yeeldeth a Singing, or Exteriour Sound; The former being pent by some other Body; The latter being pent in by his owne Density: And therfore we see, that when the Wind bloweth hollow, it is a Signe of Raine. The Flame, as it moueth within it selfe, or is blowne by a Bellowes, giueth a Murmur or Interiour Sound.

189 There is no Hard Body, but strucke against another Hard Body, will yeeld an Exteriour Sound, greater or lesser: In so much as if the Percussion be ouer-soft, it may induce a Nullity of Sound; But neuer an Interiour Sound; As when one treadeth so softly, that he is not heard.

190 Where the Aire is the Percutient, pent, or not pent, against a Hard Body, it neuer giueth an Exteriour Sound; As if you blow strongly with a Bellowes against a Wall.

191 Sounds (both Exteriour and Interiour,) may be made, as well by Suction, as by Emission of the Breath: As in Whistling, or Breathing.

It is euident, and it is one of the strangest Secrets in Sounds, that the whole Sound is not in the whole Aire onely; But the whole Sound is also in 192 euery small Part of the Aire. Experiments in Consort, touching Arti­culation of Sounds. So that all the curious Diuersity of Arti­culate [Page 55] Sounds, of the Voice of Man, or Birds, will enter at a small Cran­ny, Inconfused.

The Vnequall Agitation of the Winds, and the like, though they bee 193 materiall to the Carriage of the Sounds, further, or lesse way; yet they doe not confound the Articulation of them at all, within that distance that they can be heard; Though it may be, they make them to be heard lesse Way, than in a Still; as hath beene partly touched.

Ouer-great Distance confoundeth the Articulation of Sounds; As we 194 see, that you may heare the Sound of a Preachers voice, or the like, when you cannot distinguish what he saith. And one Articulate Sound will confound another; As when many speake at once.

In the Experiment of Speaking vnder Water, when the Voice is redu­ced 195 to such an Extreme Exility, yet the Articulate Sounds, (which are the Words,) are not confounded; as hath beene said.

I conceiue, that an Extreme Small, or an Extreme Great Sound, cannot 196 be Articulate; But that Articulation requireth a Mediocrity of Sound: For that the Extreme Small Sound confoundeth the Articulation by Con­tracting; And the Great Sound, by Dispersing: And although (as was for­merly said) a Sound Articulate, already created, will be contracted into a small Cranny; yet the first Articulation requireth more Dimension.

It hath beene obserued, that in a Roome, or in a Chappell, Vaulted be­low,197 and Vaulted likewise in the Roofe, a Preacher cannot be heard so well, as in the like Places not so Vaulted. The Cause is, for that the Sub­sequent Words come on, before the Precedent words vanish: And ther­fore the Articulate Sounds are more confused, though the Grosse of the Sound be greater.

The Motions of the Tongue, Lips, Throat, Pallat, &c. which goe to the 198 Making of the seuerall Alphabeticall Letters, are worthy Enquiry, and per­tinent to the present Inquisition of Sounds: But because they are subtill, and long to describe, we will refer them ouer, and place them amongst the Experiments of Speech. The Hebrewes haue beene diligent in it, and haue assigned, which Letters are Labiall, which Dentall, which Gutturall, &c. As for the Latines, and Grecians, they haue distinguished betweene Semi-vowels, and Mutes; And in Mutes, betweene Mute Tenues, Media, and Aspirata; Not amisse; But yet not diligently enough. For the spe­ciall Strokes, & Motions, that create those Sounds, they haue little enqui­red: As that the Letters, B. P. F. M. are not expressed, but with the Con­tracting, or Shutting of the Mouth; That the Letters N. and B. cannot be pronounced, but that the Letter N. will turne into M. As Hecatonba, will be Hecatomba. That M. and T. cannot be pronounced together, but P. will come betweene; as Emtus, is pronounced Emptus; And a Number of the like. So that if you enquire to the full; you will finde, that to the Making of the whole Alphabet, there will be fewer Simple Motions requi­red, than there are Letters.

The Lungs are the most Spongy Part of the Body; And therefore 199 ablest to contract, and dilate it selfe: And where it contracteth it selfe, [Page 56] it expelleth the Aire; which thorow the Artire, Throat, and Mouth, ma­keth the Voice: But yet Articulation is not made, but with the helpe of the Tongue, Pallate, and the rest of those they call Instruments of voice.

200 There is sound a Similitude, betweene the Sound that is made by Inanimate Bodies, or by Animate Bodies, that haue no Voice Articulate; and diuers Letters of Articulate Voices: And commonly Men haue giuen such Names to those Sounds, as doe allude vnto the Articulate Letters. As Trembling of Water hath Resemblance with the Letter L; Quenching of Hot Mettalls, with the Letter Z; Snarling of Dogs, with the Letter R; The Noise of Scritchowles, with the Letter Sh; Voice of Cats, with the Dyp­thong Eu; Voice of Cuckoes, with the Dypthong On; Sounds of Strings, with the Letter Ng: So that if a Man, (for Curiosity, or Strange­nesse sake,) would make a Puppet, or other Dead Body, to pronounce a Word; Let him consider, on the one Part, the Motion of the Instruments of Voice; and on the other part the like Sounds made in Ina­nimate Bodies; And what Conformity there is that causeth the Simili­tude of Sounds; And by that he may minister light to that Effect.

III. Century.

ALL Sounds (whatsoeuer) moue Round; That is to 201 say; On all Sides; Vpwards; Downwards; Forwards; and Backwards. Experiments in Consort, touching the Motions of Sounds, in what Lines they are Circular, Ob­lique, Straight; Vpwards, down­wards; For­wards; Back­wards. This appeareth in all Instances.

Sounds doe not require to bee conueyed to the Sense, in a Right Line, as Visibles doe, but may be Ar­ched; Though it be true, they moue strongest in a Right Line; Which neuerthelesse is not caused by the Rightnesse of the Line, but by the Shortnesse of the distance; Linea recta breuissima. And therefore we see, if a Wall be betweene, and you speake on the one Side, you heare it on the other; Which is not because the Sound Passeth thorow the Wall; but Archeth ouer the Wall. 202

If the Sound be Stopped and Reperenssed, it commeth about on the o­ther 203 Side, in an Oblique Line. So, if in a Coach, one side of the Boot be downe, and the other vp; And a Begger beg on the Close Side; you would thinke that he were on the Open Side. So likewise, if a Bell or Clocke, be (for Example) on the North-side of a Chamber; And the Window of that Chamber be vpon the South; He that is in the Cham­ber, will thinke the Sound came from the South.

Sounds, though they spread round, (so that there is an Orbe, or Spheri­call 204 Area of the Sound;) yet they moue strongest, and goe furthest in the Fore-lines, from the first Locall Impulsion of the Aire. And there­fore in Preaching, you shall heare the Preachers Voice, better, before the Pulpit, than behinde it, or on the Sides, though it stand open. So a Plarquebuz, or Ordnance, will be further heard, forwards, from the Mouth of the Peece, than backwards, or on the Sides.

It may bee doubted, that Sounds doe moue better, Downwards 205 [Page 58] than Vpwards, Pulpits are placed high aboue the People. And when the Ancient Generalls spake to their Armies, they had euer a Mount of Turfe cast vp, whereupon they stood: But this may be imputed to the Stops and Obstacles, which the voice meeteth with, when one speak­eth vpon the leuell. But there seemeth to be more in it: For it may bee, that Spirituall Species, both of Things Visible and Sounds, doe moue bet­ter Downewards than Vpwards. It is a strange Thing, that to Men stan­ding below on the Ground, those that be on the Top of Pauls, seeme much lesse then they are, and cannot bee knowne; But to Men aboue, those below seeme nothing so much lessened, and may bee knowne; yet it is true, that all things to them aboue, seeme also somewhat con­tracted, and better collected into Figure: as Knots in Gardens shew best from an Vpper window, or Tarras.

206 But to make an exact Triall of it, let a Man stand in a Chamber, not much aboue the Ground, and speake out at the window, through a Trunke, to one standing on the Ground, as softly as he can, the other laying his Eare close to the Truncke: Then viâ versa, let the other speake below keeping the same Proportion of Softnesse; And let him in the Chamber lay his Eare to the Trunck: And this may be the aptest Meanes, to make a Iudgement, whether Sounds descend, or ascend, better.

After that Sound is created, (which is in a moment,) wee finde it continueth some small time, melting by little and little.Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching the Las­ting and Peri­shing of Sounds; And touching the Time they require to their Generati­on, or Delation. In this there is a wonderfull Errour amongst Men, who take this to be a Continuance of the First Sound; whereas (in truth) it is a Renouation, and not a Con­tinuance: For the Body percussed, hath by reason of the Percussion, a Tre­pidation wrought in the Minute Parts; and so reneweth the Percussion of the Aire. This appeareth manifestly, because that the Melting Sound of a Bell, or of a String strucken, which is thought to be a Continuance, 207 ceaseth as soone as the Bell or String are touched. As in a Virginall, as soone as euer the Iacke falleth, and toucheth the String, the Sound cea­seth; And in a Bell, after you haue chimed vpon it, if you touch the Bell, the Sound ceaseth, And in this you must distingush, that there are two Trepidations: The one Manifest, and Locall; As of the Bell, when it is Pensile: The other Secret, of the Minute Parts; such as is descri­bed in the 9th Instance. But it is true, that the Locall helpeth the Secret great'y. We see likewise that in Pipes, and other winde Instruments, the Sound lasteth no longer, than the breath bloweth. It is true, that in Organs, there is a confused Murmur for a while, after you haue plaied; But that is but while the Bellowes are in Falling.

208 It is certaine, that in the Noise of great Ordnance, where many are shot off together, the Sound will be carried, (at the least) twenty Miles vpon the land, and much further vpon the Water. But then it will come to the Eare; Not in the Instant of the Shooting off, but it will come an Houre, or more later. This must needs be a Continuance of the First Sound; For there is no Trepidation which should renew it. And [Page 59] the Touching of the Ordnance would not extinguish the Sound the soo­ner: So that in great Sounds the Continuance is more than Momen­tany.

To try exactly the time wherein Sound is Delated. Let a Man stand in 209 a Steeple, and haue with him a Taper; And let some Vaile be put be­fore the Tapar; And let another Man stand in the Field a Mile off. Then let him in the Steeple strike the Bell; And in the same Instant withdraw the Vaile; And so let him in the Field tell by his Pulse what distance of Time there is, betweene the Light seene, and the Sound heards For it is certaine that the Delation of Light is in an Instant. This may be tried in farre greater Distances, allowing greater Lights and Sounds.

It is generally knowne and obserued, that Light, and the Obiect of 210 Sight, moue swifter than Sound; For we see the Flash of a Peece is seene sooner, than the Noise is heard. And in Flewing wood, if one be some distance off, he shall see the Arme lifted vp for a second Stroke, before he heare the Noise of the first. And the greater the Distance, the grea­ter is the Preuention: As we see in Thunder, which is farre off; where the Lightning Precedeth the Cracke a good space.

Colours, when they represent themselues to the Eye, fade not, nor 211 melt not by Degrees, but appeare still in the same Strength; But Sounds melt, and vanish, by little and little. The Cause is, for that Colours par­ticipate nothing with the Motion of the Aire; but Sounds doe. And it is a plaine Argument, that Sound participateth of some Locall Motion, of the Aire, (as a Cause Sinè quônon.) in that, it perisheth so suddenly; For in euery Section, or Impulsion of the Aire, the Aire doth suddenly re­store and reunite it selfe; which the Water also doth, but nothing so swiftly.

In the Trialls of the Passage, or Not Passage of Sounds, you must take heed, you mistake not the Passing By the Sides of a Body, for the Passing thorow a Body: And therefore you must make the Intercepting Body very close; For Sound will passe thorow a small Chincke.Experiments in Consort, touching the Passage and In­terceptions of Sounds.

Where Sound passeth thorow a Hard, or Close Body (as thorow Wa­ter; 212 thorow a Wall; thorow Metall, as in Hawkes Bells stopped; &c.) the Hard, or Close Body, must be but thinne and small; For else it deadeth and extinguisheth the Sound vtterly. And therefore, in the Experiment of Speaking in Aire vnder Water, the Voice must not be very deepe with­in the Water: For then the Sound pierceth not. So if you speake on the further side of a Close Wall, if the Wall be very thicke, you shall not be heard: And if there were an Hogshead emptie, whereof the Sides were some two Foot thicke, and the Bunghole stopped; I conceiue the Re­sounding Sound, by the Communication of the Outward Aire, with the Aire within, would be little or none, But onely you shall heare the Noise of the Outward Knocke, as if the Vessell were full.

[Page 60] 213 It is certaine, that in the Passage of Sounds thorow Hard Bodies, the Spirit of Pneumaticall Part of the Hard body it selfe, doth cooperate; But much better, when the Sides of that Hard Body are strucke, than when the Percussion is onely within, without: Touch of the Sides: Take therefore a Hawkes Bell, the holes; stopped vp, and hang it by a threed, within a Bottle Glasse; And stop the Mouth of the Glasse, very close with Wax; And then shake the Glasse, and see whether the Bell giue any Sound at all, or how weake? But note, that you must in stead of the Threed, take a Wire; Or else let the Glasse haue a great Belly; lest when you shake the Bell, it dash vpon the Sides of the Glasse.

214 It is plaine, that a very Long, and Downe-right Arch, for the Sound to passe, will extinguish the Sound quite; So that that Sound, which would be heard ouer a wall, will not be heard ouer a Church; Nor that Sound, which will be heard, if you stand some distance from the wall, will be heard if you stand close vnder the Wall.

215 Soft and Foraminous Bodies, in the first Creation of the Sound, will dead it; For the Striking against Cloth, or Furre, will make little Sound; As hath beene said: But in the Passage of the Sound, they will admit it better than Harder Bodies; As we see, that Curtaines, and Hangings, will not stay the Sound much; But Glasse-windowes, if they be very Close, will checke a Sound more, than the like Thicknesse of Cloth. Wee see also, in the Rumbling of the Belly, how easily the Sound passeth thorow the Guts, and Skin.

216 It is worthy the Enquiry, whether Great Sounds, (As of Ordnance, or Bells,) become not more Weake, and Exile, when they passe thorow Small Crannies. For the Subtilties of Articulate Sounds, (it may be,) may passe thorow Small Crannies, not confused; But the Magnitude of the Sound (perhaps,) not so well.

The Mediums of Sounds are Aire; Soft and Porous Bodies; Also Wa­ter. Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching the Me­dium of Sounds. And Hard Bodies refuse not altogether to be Mediums of Sounds. But all of them are dull and vnapt Deferents, except the Airè.

217 In Aire, the Thinner or Drier Aire, carrieth not the Sound so well, as 218 the more Dense; As appeareth in Night Sounds; And Euening Sounds; And Sounds in moist Weather, and Southerne Winds. The reason is already mentioned in the Title of Maioration of Sounds; Being for that Thinne Aire is better pierced; but Thicke Aire preserueth the Sound bet­ter from Wast; Let further Triall be made by Hollowing in Mists, and Gentle Showers: For (it may be) that will somewhat dead the Sound.

219 How farreforth Flame may be a Medium of Sounds, (especially of such Sounds as are created by Aire, and not betwixt Hard Bodies) let it be tried, in Speaking where a Bonsire is betweene; But then you must allow, for some disturbance, the Noise that the Flame it selfe maketh.

220 Whether any other Liquours, being made Mediums, cause a Diuer­sity of Sound from Water, it may be tried: As by the Knapping of the Tongs; Or Striking of the Bottome of a vessell, filled either with Milke, [Page 61] or with Oyle; which though they be more light, yet are they more vn­equall Bodies than Aire.

Of the Natures of the Mediums, we haue now spoken; As for the Dispo­sition of the said Mediums, it doth consist in the Penning, or not Penning of the Aire; Of which we haue spoken before, in the Title of Delation of Sounds: It consisteth also in the Figure of the Concaue, through which it passeth; Of which we will speake next.

How the Figures of Pipes, or Concaues, through which Sounds passe; Or of other Bodies deferent; conduce to the Varietie and Alteration of the Sounds; Either in respect of the Greater Quantitie, or lesse Quantitie of Aire, which the Con­caues receiue; Or in respect of the Carrying of Sounds longer or shorter way; Or in respect of many other Circumstances; they haue beene touched, as falling into other Titles. Experiments in Consort, what the Fi­gures of the Pipes, or Con­canes, or the Bodies Diferent conduce to the Sounds. But those Figures, which we now are to speake of, wee intend to be, as they concerne the Lines, through which Sound passeth; As Straight; Crooked; Angular; Circular; &c.

The Figure of a Bell pertaketh of the Pyramis, but yet comming off,221 and dilating more suddenly. The Figure of a Hunters Horne, and Cornet, is oblique; yet they haue likewise Straight Heroes; which if they be of the same Bore with the Oblique, differ little in Sound; Saue that the Straight require somewhat a stronger Blast. The Figures of Recorders, and Flates, and Pipes are straight; But the Recorder hath a lesse Bore, and a greater; Aboue, and below. The Trumpts hath the Figure of the Letter S: which maketh that Purling Sound, &c. Generally, the Straight Like hath the cleanest and roundest Sound, And the Crooked the more Hoarse, and larring.

Of a Sinnous Pipe, that may haue some foure Flexions, Triall would 222 be made, Likewise of a Pipe, made like a Crosse, open in the middest. And so likewise of an Angular Pipe: And see what will be the Effects of these seuerall Sounds. And so againe of a Circular Pipe; As if you take a Pipe perfect Round, and make a Hole whereinto you shall blow; And another Hole not farre from that; But with a Trauerse or Stope betweene them; So that your Breath may goe the Round of the Circle, and come forth at the second Hole. You may trie likewise Per [...]ssions of Solide Bodies of seuerall Figures; As Globes, Flare, Cobes, Croffes, Triangles, &c. And their Combinasions; As Flat against Flat; And Co [...]ex against Con­ [...]; And Conn [...] against Flat, &c. And marks well the diversities of the Sounds. Tri [...] the difference in Sound of seuerall Crasitudre of Hard Bodies percussed; And take knowledge of the [...] of the Sounds. I my selfe haue tried, that a Bell of Gold yeeldeth an excellent Sound, not infariour to that of Siluer, or Brasse, but rather better: yet wee see that a [Page 62] peece of Money of Gold soundeth farre more flat than a peece of Money of Siluer.

223 The Harpe hath the Concaue, not along the Strings, but acrosse the Strings; And no Instrument hath the Sound so Melting, and Prolonged, as the Irish Harpe. So as I suppose, that if a Virginall were made with a double Concaue; the one all the length as the Virginall hath; the other at the End of the Strings, as the Harpe hath; It must needs make the Sound perfecter, and not so Shallow, and Iarring. You may trie it, without any Sound-Board along, but only Harpe-wise, at one End of the Strings: Or lastly with a double Concaue, at Each end of the Strings one.

There is an apparent Diuersitie betweene the Species Visible, and Audi­ble, in this; That the Visible doth not mingle in the Medium, but the Au­dible doth.Experiments in Consort touching the Mixture of Sounds. For if wee looke abroad, wee see Heauen, a number of Stars, Trees, Hills, Men, Beasts, at once. And the Species of the one doth not 224 confound the other. But if so many Sounds came from seuerall Parts, one of them would vtterly confound the other. So wee see, that Voices or Consorts of Musicke doe make an Harmony by Mixture, which Colours doe not. It is true neuerthelesse, that a great Light drowneth a smaller, that it cannot be seene; As the Sunne that of a Gloworme; as well as a Great Sound drowneth a lesser. And I suppose likewise, that if there were two Lanthornes of Glasse, the one a Grimsin, and the other an Azure, and a Candle within either of them, those Coloured Lights would mingle and cast vpon a White Paper [...] Purple Colour. And euen in Colours, they yeeld a faint and weake Mixture: For white walls make Roomes more lightsome than blacke, &c. But the Cause of the Confu­sion in Sounds, and the Inconfusion in Species Visible, is, For that the Sight worketh in Right Lines, and maketh seuerall Cones; And so there can be no Coincidence in the Eye, or Visuall Point: But Sounds, that moue in Oblique and Arcuate Lines, must needs encounter, and disturbe the one the other.

225 The sweetest and best Harmony is, when euery Part, or Instrument, is not heard by it selfe, but a Conflation of them all; Which requireth to stand some distance off. Euen as it is in the Mixture of Perfumes; Or the Taking of the Smells of seuerall Flowers in the Aire.

226 The Disposition of the Aire, in other Qualities, except it be ioyned with Sound, hath no great Operation vpon Sounds: For whether the Aire be lightsome or darke, hot or cold, quiet or stirring, (except it be with Noise) sweet-smelling, or stinking, or the like: it importeth not much: Some petty Alteration or difference it may make.

227 But Sounds doe disturbe and alter the one the other: Sometimes the one drowning the other, and making it not heard; Sometimes the one larring and discording with the other, and making a Confusion; Some­times the one Mingling and Compounding with the other; and making an Harmony.

228 Two Voices of like lowdnesse, will not be heard, twice as farre, as one [Page 63] of them alone; And two Candles of like light, will not make Things seene twice as farre off, as one. The Cause is profound. But it seemeth that the Impressions from the Obiects of the Senses, doe mingle respectiu [...] ­ly, euery one with his kinde; But not in proportion, as is before demon­strated: And the reason may be, because the first Impression, which is from Priuatiue to Actiue, (As from Silence to Noise, or from Darknesse to Light,) is a greater Degree, than from Lesse Noise, to More Noise, or from Lesse Light, to More Light. And the Reason of that againe may be; For that the Aire, after it hath receiued a Charge, doth not receiue a Surcharge, or greater Charge, with like Appetite, as it doth the first Charge. As for the Encrease of Vertue, generally, what Proportion it beareth to the Encrease of the Matter, it is a large Field, and to be hand­led by it selfe.

All Reflexions Concurrent doe make Sounds Greater; But if the Body that createth, either, the Originall Sound, or the Reflexion, be cleane and smooth, it maketh them Sweeter.Experiments in Consort touching Me­lioration of Sounds. Triall may be made of a Lute, or Violl, with the Belly of polished Brasse, in stead of Wood. We see that euen in the Open Aire, the Wire String is sweeter, than the String of 229 Guts. And we see that for Reflexion, Water excelleth; As in Musick neare the Water; Or in Eccho's.

It hath beene tried, that a Pipe a little moistened on the inside, but yet 230 so as there be no Drops left, maketh a more solemne Sound, than if the Pipe were dry: But yet with a sweet Degree of Sibilation, or Purling. As we touched it before in the title of Equality. The Cause is, for that all Things Porous, being superficially wet, and (as it were) betweene dry and wet, become a little more Euen and Smooth; But the Purling, (which must needs proceed of Inequality,) I take to be bred betweene the Smoothnesse of the in ward Surface of the Pipe, which is wet; And the Rest of the Wood of the Pipe, vnto which the Wet commeth nor, but it remaineth dry.

In Frosty weather, Mosicke within doores soundeth better. Which 231 may be, by reason, not of the Disposition of the Aire, but of the Wood or String of the Instrument; which is made more Crispe, and so more porous and hollow: And we see that Old Lutes sound better than New, for the same reason. And so doe Lute Strings that haue beene kept long.

Sound is likewise Meliorated by the Mingling of open Aire with Pent 232 Aire; Therefore Triall may be made, of a Lute or Violl with a double Belly; Making another Belly with a Knot oliet the Strings; yet so, as there be Roome enough for the Strings, and Roome enough to play be­low that Belly. Triall may be made also of an Irish Harpe, with a Con­caue on both Sides; Whereas [...]seth to haue it but on one Side. The doubt may be, lest it should make too much Resounding; wherby one Note would ouertake anot [...]

If you sing into the Hole of a Drum, it maketh the Singing more 233 [Page 64] sweet. And so I conceiue it would, if it were a Song in Parts, sung into seuerall Drums; And for handsomnesse and strangeness sake, it would not be amisse to haue a Curtaine betweene the Place where the Drums are, and the Hearers.

234 When a Sound is created in a Wind-Instrument, betweene the Breath and the Aire, yet if the Sound be communicate with a more equall Bo­dy of the Pipe, it meliorateth the Sound. For (no doubt) there would be a differing Sound in a Trumpet, or Pipe of Wood; And againe in a Trum­pet or Pipe of Brasse. It were good to try Recorders and Hunters Hornes of Brasse, what the Sound would be.

235 Sounds are meliorated by the Intension of the Sense; where the Com­mon Sense is collected most, to the particular Sense of Hearing, and the Sight suspended: And therefore, Sounds are sweeter, (as well as greater,) in the Night, than in the Day; And I suppose, they are sweeter to blinde Men, than to Others: And it is manifest, that betweene Sleeping and Waking, (when all the Senses are bound and suspended) Musicke is farre sweeter, than when one is fully Waking.

It is Thing strange in Nature, when it is attentiuely considered; How Children, and some Birds, learne to imitate Speech. Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching the Imi­tation of Sounds. They take no Marke (at all) of the Motion of the Mouth of Him that speaketh; For 236 Birds are as well taught in Darke, as by Light. The Sounds of Speech are very Curious and Exquisite: So one would thinke it were a Lesson hard to learne. It is true, that it is done with time, and by little and lit­tle, and with many Essayes and Proffers: But all this dischargeth not the Wonder. It would make a Man thinke (though this which we shall say may seeme exceeding strange) that there is some Transmission of Spirits; and that the Spirits of the Teacher put in Motion, should worke with the Spirits of the Learner, a Pre-disposition to offer to Imi­tate; And so to perfect the Imitation by degrees. But touching Operati­ons by Transmissions of Spirits, (which is one of the highest Secrets in Nature,) we shall speake in due place; Chiefly when we come to en­quire of Imagination. But as for Imitation, it is certaine, that there is in Men, and other Creatures, a predisposition to Imitate We see how rea­dy Apes and Monkies are, to imitate all Motions of Man: And in the Catching of Dottrells, we see, how the Foolish Bird playeth the Ape in Gestures: And no Man (in effect) doth accompany with others, but he learneth, (ere he is aware,) some Gesture, or Voice, or Fashion of the other.

237 In Imitation of Sounds, that Man should be the Teacher, is no Part of the Matter; For Birds will learne one of another; And there is no Re­ward, by feeding, or the like, giuen them for the Imitation; And besides, you shall haue Parrots, that will not only Iimitate Voices, but Laughing, Knocking, Squeaking of a Doore vpon the Hinges, or of a Cart-wheele; And (in effect) any other Noise they heare.

238 No Beast can imitate the Speech of Men, but Birds onely; For the Ape [Page 65] it selfe that is so ready to imitate otherwise, attaineth not any degree of Imitation of Speech. It is true, that I haue knowne a Dog, that if one how led in his Eare, he would fall a how ling a great while. What should be the Aptnesse of Birds, in comparison of Beasts, to imitate the Speech of Man, may be further enquired. We see that Beasts haue those Parts, which they count the Instruments of Speech, (as Lips, Teeth, &c.) liker vn­to Man, than Birds. As for the Necke, by which the Throat passeth; we see many Beasts haue it, for the Length, as much as Birds. What better Gorge, or Attire, Birds haue, may be further enquired. The Birds that are knowne to be Speakers, are, Parrots, Pyes, layes, Dawes, and Rauens. Of which Parrots haue an adunque Bill, but the rest not.

But I conceiue, that the Apinesse of Birds, is not so much in the Con­formitie 239 of the Organs of Speech, as in their Attention. For Speech must come by Hearing, and Learning; And Birds giue more heed, and marke Sounds, more than Beasts; Because naturally they are more delighted with them, and practise them more; As appeareth in their Singing. We see also, that those that teach Birds to sing, doe keepe them Waking, to increase their Attention. We see also, that Cock-Birds, amongst Singing­Birds, are euer the better Singers; which may be, because they are more liuely, and listen more.

Labour, and Intention to imitate voices, doth conduce much to Imi­tation: 240 And therfore we see, that there be certaine P [...]nt [...]vimi that will represent the voices of Players of Enterludes, so to life, as if you see them not, you would thinke they were those Players themselues; and so the Voices of other Men that they heare.

There haue beene some, that could counterfeit the Distance of Voi­ces, 241 (which is a Secondary Obiect of Hearing,) in such sort; As when they stand fast by you, you would thinke the Speech came from a farre off, in a fearefull manner. How this is done, may be further enquired. But I see no great vse of it, but for Imposture, in counterseiting Ghosts or Spirits.

There be three Kindes of Reflexions of Sounds, A Reflexi­on Concurrent; A Reflexion Iterant, which we call Eccho; And a Super-reflexion, or an Eccho of an Eccho, wherof the first hath beene handled in the Title of Magnitude of Sounds: The Lat­ter two we will now speake of.Experiments in Consort, touching the Reflexion of Sounds.

The Reflexion of Species Visible, Mirrours, you may command; Be­cause 242 passing in Right Lines, they may be guided to any Point: But the Reflexion of Sounds is hard to master; Because the Sound filling great Spaces in Arched Lines, cannot be so guided: and therfore we see there hath not beene practised, any Meanes to make Artificiall Eccho's. And no Eccho already knowne returneth in a very narrow Roome.

The Naturall Eccho's are made vpon Walls, Woods, Rockes, Hills, and 243 Banckes; As for Waters, being neare, they make a Concurrent Eccho; But [Page 66] being further off, (as vpon a large Riuer) they make an Iterant Eccho: For there is no difference betweene the Concurrent Eccho, and the Iterant, but the Quicknesse, or Slownesse of the Returne. But there is no doubt, but Water doth helpe the Delation of Eccho; as well as it helpeth the Deluti­on of Originall Sounds.

244 It is certaine, (as hath beene formerly touched,) that if you speake thorow a Truncke, stopped at the further end, you shall finde a Blast re­turne vpon your Mouth, but no Sound at all. The Cause is, for that the Closenesse, which preferueth the Originall, is not able to preserue the Re­flected Sound: Besides that Eccho's are seldom created, but by loud Sounds. And therfore there is lesse hope of Artificiall Eccho's in Aire, pent in a narrow Concaue. Neuerthelesse it hath beene tried, that One leaning ouer a Well, of 25. Fathome deepe, and speaking, though but soft­ly, (yet not so soft as a whisper,) the Water returned a good Audible Ec­cho. It would be tried, whether Speaking in Caues, where there is no Is­sue, faue where you speake, will not yeeld Eccho's, as Wells doe.

245 The Eccho commeth as the Originall Sound doth, in a Round Orbe of Aire: It were good to try the Creating of the Eccho, where the Body Repercussing maketh an Angle: As against the Returne of a Wall, &c. Also we see that in Mirrours, there is the like Angle of Incidence, from the Obiect to the Glasse, and from the Glasse to the Eye. And if you strike a Ball side-long, nor full vpon the Surface, the Rebound will be as much the contrary way; Whether there be any such Re [...]ilience in Eccho's, (that is, whether a Man shall heare better, if he stand aside the Body Repercussing, than if he stand where he speaketh, or any where in a right Line betweene;) may be tried. Triall likewise would be made, by Standing nearer the Place of Repercussing, than he that speaketh; And againe by Standing further off, than hee that speaketh; And so Knowledge would be taken, whether Eccho's, as well as Originall Sounds, be not strongest neare hand.

246 There be many Places, where you shall heare a Number of Eccho's, one after another: And it is, when there is Variety of Hills, or Woods, some nearer, some further off: So that the Returne from the further, be­ing last created, will be likewise last heard.

247 As the Voice goeth round, as well towards the Backe, as towards the Front of him that speaketh; So likewise doth the Eccho; For you haue many Back-Eccho's to the Place where you stand.

248 To make an Eccho, that will report, three, or foure, or fiue Words, distinctly, it is requisite, that the Body Repercussing, be a good distance off: For if it be neare, and yet not so neare, as to make a Concurrent Ec­cho, it choppeth with you vpon the sudden. It is requisite likewise, that the Aire be not much pent. For Aire, at a great distance, pent, worketh the same effect with Aire, at large, in a small distance. And therefore in the Triall of Speaking in the Well, though the Well was deepe, the Voice came backe, suddenly; And would beare the Report but of two Words.

[Page 67]For Eccho's vpon Eccho's, there is a rare Instance thereof in a Place,249 which I will now exactly describe. It is some three or foure Miles from Paris, neere a Towne called Pont-charenton; And some Bird-bolt shot, or more, from the Riuer of Seane. The Roome is a Chappell, or small Church. The Walls all standing, both at the Sides, and at the Ends. Two Rowes of Pillars, after the manner of Isles of Churches, also standing; The Roofe all open, not so much as any Embowment neere any of the walls left. There was against euery Pillar, a Stacke of Billets, aboue a Mans Height; which the Watermen, that bring Wood downe the Seane, in Stacks, and not in Boats, laid there (as it seemeth) for their ease. Speaking at the one End, I did heare it returne the Voice thirteene seuerall times; And I haue heard of others, that it would returne six­teene times: For I was there about three of the Clocke in the After­noone: And it is best, (as all other Eccho's are) in the Euening. It is ma­nifest, that it is not Eccho's from seuerall places, but a Tossing of the Voice, as a Ball, to and fro; Like to Reflexions in Looking-glasses; where if you place one Glasse before, and another behinde, you shall see the Glasse be­hinde with the Image, within the Glasse before; And againe, the Glasse before in that; and diuers such Super-Reflexions, till the species speciei at last die. For it is euery Returne weaker, and more shady. In like manner, the Voice in that Chappell, createth speciem, speciei, and maketh succeeding Super-Reflexions; For it melteth by degrees, and euery Reflexion is wea­ker than the former: So that, if you speake three Words, it will (per­haps) some three times report you the whole three Words; And then the two latter Words for some times; And then the last Word alone for some times; Still fading, and growing weaker. And whereas in Eccho's of one Returne, it is much to heare foure or fiue Words; In this Eccho of so many Returnes, vpon the matter, you heare aboue twenty Words, for three.

The like Eccho vpon Eccho, but only with two Reports, hath beene 250 obserued to be, if you stand betweene a House, and a Hill, and lure to­wards the Hill. For the House will giue a Backe-Eccho; One taking it from the other, and the latter the weaker.

There are certaine Letters, that an Eccho will hardly expresse; As S, 251 for one; Especially being Principiall in a Word. I remember well, that when I went to the Eccho at Pont-Charenton, there was an Old Parisian, that tooke it to be the Worke of Spirits, and of good Spirits. For, (said he) call Saten, and the Eccho will not deliuer backe the Deuils name; But will say, Va [...]'on; Which is as much in French, as Apage, or A [...]oid. And thereby I did hap to finde, that an Eccho would not returne S, being but a Hissing and an Interiour Sound.

Eccho's are some more sudden, and chop againe, as soone as the Voice 252 is deliuered; As hath beene partly said: Others are more deliberate, that is, giue more Space betweene the Voice, and the Eccho; which is caused by the locall Nearenesse, or Distance: Some will report a longer Traine of Words; And some a shorter: Some more loud (full as loud as the Ori­ginall, [Page 68] and sometimes more loud;) And some weaker and fainter.

253 Where Eccho's come from seuerall Parts, at the same distance, they must needs make (as it were) a Quire of Eccho's, and so make the Report greater, and euen a Continued Eccho; which you shall finde in some Hills, that stand encompassed, Theater-like.

254 It doth not yet appeare, that there is Refraction in Sounds, as well as in Species Visible. For I doe not thinke, that if a Sound should passe through diuers Mediums, (as Aire, Cloth, Wood) it would deliuer the Sound, in a differing Place, from that vnto which it is deferred; which is the Proper Effect of Refraction. But Maioration, which is also the Worke of Refra­ction, appeareth plainly in Sounds, (as hath beene handled at full;) But it is not by Diuersitie of Mediums.

We haue obitèr, for Demonstrations sake, vsed in diuers Instances, the Examples of the Sight, and Things Visible, to il­lustrate the Nature of Sounds. Experiments in Cōsort tou­ching the Con­sent and Dissint between Visi­bles & Audibles, But wee thinke good now to prosecute that Comparison more fully.


255 BOth of them spread themselues in Round, and fill a whole Floare or Orbe, vnto certaine Limits: And are carried a great way: And doe languish and lessen by degrees, according to the Distance of the Obiects from the Sensories.

256 Both of them haue the whole Species in euery small Portion of the Aire, or Medium; So as the Species doe passe through small Crannies, without Confusion: As we see ordinarily in Leuels, as to the Eye; And in Cran­nies, or Chinks, as to the Sound.

257 Both of them are of a sudden and easie Generation and Delation; And likewise perish swiftly, and suddenly; As if you remoue the Light; Or touch the Bodies that giue the Sound.

258 Both of them doe receiue and carry exquisite and accurate Differences; As of Colours, Figures, Motions, Distances, in Visibles; And of Articu­late Voices, Tones, Songs, and Quauerings, in Audibles.

259 Both of them in their Vertue and Working, doe not appeare to emit any Corporall Substance into their Mediums, or the Orbe of their Vertue; Neither againe to raise or stirre any euident locall Motion in their Mediums, as they passe; But only to carrry certaine Spirituall Species; The Perfect Knowledge of the Cause whereof, being hitherto scarcely attained, wee shall search and handle in due place.

260 Both of them seeme not to generate or produce any other Effect in Na­ture, [Page 69] but such as appertaineth to their proper Obiects, and Senses, and are otherwise Barren.

But Both of them in their owne proper Action, doe worke three ma­nifest 261 Effects. The First, in that the Stronger Species drawneth the E [...]sser; As the Light of the Sunne, the light of a Glow-worme; The Report of an Ordnance, the Voice; The Second, in that an Obiect of Surcharge or Excesse destroyeth the Sense; As the Light of the Sunne the Eye, a vio­lent Sound (neare the Eare) the Hearing: The Third, in that both of them will be reuerberate; As in Mirrours; And in Eccho's.

Neither of them doth destroy or hinder the Species of the other, although 262 they encounter in the same Medium; As Light or Colour hinder not Sound; Nor [...]contr [...].

Both of them affect the Sense in Liuing Creatures, and yeeld Obiects of 263 Pleasure and Dislike: Yet neuerthelesse, the Obiects of them doe also (if it be well obserued) affect and worke vpon dead Things; Namely, such as haue some Conformity with the Organs of the two Senses; As Visibles worke vpon a Looking-glas­se, which is like the Pupill of the Eye; And Audibles vpon the Places of Eccho, which resemble, in some sort, the Ca­uerne and structure of the Eare.

Both of them doe diuersly worke, as they haue their Medium diuersly dis­posed. 264 So a Trembling Medium (as Smoake) maketh the Obiect seeme to tremble; and a Rising or Falling Medium (as Winds) maketh the Sounds to rise, or fall.

To Both, the Medium, which it the most Prop [...]out [...] and Conduci­ble,265 is Aire; For Glasse or Water, &c. are not comparable.

In Both of them, where the Obiect is Fine and Accurate, it conduceth 266 much to haue the Sense Intentiue, and Erect; In so much as you contract your Eye, when you would see sharply; And erect your Eare, when you would heare attentiuely; which in Beasts that haue Eares mouea­ble, is most manifest.

The Beames of Light, when they are multiplyed, and conglomerate, ge­nerate 267 Heat; which is a different Action, from the Action of Sight: And the Multiplication and Conglomeration of Sounds doth generate an ex­treme Rarefaction of the Aire; which is an Action materiate, differing from the Action of Sound; If it be true (which is anciently reported) that Birds, with great shouts, haue fallen downe.


268 THe Species of Visibles soeme to be Emissions of Beames from the Obiect seene; Almost like Odours; saue that they are more In­corporecall: But the Species of Audibles seeme to Participate more with Locall Motion, like Percussions or Impressions made vpon the Aire. So that whereas all Bodies doe seeme to worke in two manners; Either by the Communication of their Natures; Or by the Impressions and Signatures of their Motions; The Diffusion of Species Visible seemeth to participate more of the former Operation; and the Species Audible of the latter.

269 The Species of Audibles seeme to be carried more manifestly thorow the Aire, than the Species of Visibles: For (I conceiue) that a Contrary strong Wind will not much hinder the Sight of Visibles, as it will doe the Hearing of Sounds.

270 There is one Difference, aboue all others, betweene Visibles and Au­dibles, that is the most remarkable; As that wherupon many smaller Differences doe depend: Namely, that Visibles, (except Lights,) are carried in Right Lines; and Audibles in Ar [...] Lines. Heriee it commeth to passe, that Visibles doe not intermingle; and confound one another, as hath beene said before; But Sounds doe. Hence it commeth, that the Solidity of Bodies doth not much hinder the Sight, so that the Bodies be cleare. and the Pores in a Right Line as in Glasse, Crystall, Dia­monds, Water, &c. But a thin Scarse, or Handkerchiefe, though they be Bodies nothing so solide, hinder the Sight: Whereas (contrariwise) these Porous Bodies doe not much hinder the Hearing, but solide Bo­dies doe almost stop it, or at the least attenuate it. Hence also it com­meth, that to the Reflexion of Visibles, small Glasses suffice; but to the Reuerberation of Audibles, are required greater Spaces, as hath likewise beene said before.

271 Visibles are seene further off, than Sounds are heard; Allowing ne­uerthelesse the Rate of their Bignesse; For otherwise a great Sound will be heard further off, than a Small Body seene.

272 Visibles require (generally) some Distance betweene the Obiect, and the Eye, to bee better seene; Whereas in Audibles, the nearer the Ap­proch of the Sound is to the Sense, the better. But in this there may be a double Errour. The one, because to Seeing, there is required Light; And any thing that toucheth the Pupill of the Eye (all ouer,) excludeth the Light. For I haue heard of a Person very credible, (who himselfe was cured of a Cataract in one of his Eyes,) that while the Siluer Needle did worke vpon the Sight of his Eye, to remoue the Filme of the Cata­ract, [Page 71] he neuer saw any thing more cleare or perfect, than that white Needle: Which (no doubt,) was, because the Needle was lesser than the Pupill of the Eye; and so Cooke not the Light from it. The other Er­rour may be, for that the Obiect of Sight doth strike vpon the Pupill of the Eye, directly without any interception; wheras the Caue of the Eare doth hold off the Sound a little from the Organ: And so neuerthelesse there is some Distance required in both.

Visibles are s [...]if [...]lior carried to the Sense, than Audibles; As appea­reth 273 in Thunder and Lightning; Flame and Report of a Peece, [...] Moti­on of the Aire in Hewing of Wood. All which haue beene set downe heretofore, but are proper for this Title.

I conceiue also, that the Species of Audibles doe hang longer in the 274 Aire, than those of Visibles: For although euen those of Visibles, doe hang some time, as we see in Rings turned, that shew like Spheres; In Lute-strings fillipped, A Fire-brand caried along, which leaueth a Traine of Light behinde it; and in the Twilight; And the like: Yet I conceiue that Sounds stay longer, because they are carried vp and downe with the Winde: And because of the Distance of the Time, in Ordnance a dis­charged, and heard twenty Miles off.

In Visibles, there are not sound Obiects so odious and in grate to the 275 Sense, as in Audibles. For foule Sights doe rather displease, in that they exci [...]e the Memory of foule Things, than in the immediate Obiects. And therefore in [...] [...] those foule Sights doe not much offend; But in Audibles, the Grating of a Saw, when it is sharpned, doth offend so much, as it Fen [...] the Teeth on Edge. And any of the harsh Discords in Musicke, the Eare doth straight-waies refuse.

In Visibles, after great Light, if you come suddenly into the Darke; 276 Or contrariwise, out of the Darke into a Glaring light, the Eye is dazled for a time; and the Sight confused; not whether any such Effect be af­ter great Sounds, or after a deepe Silence, may be better enquired. It is an old Tradiribit, th [...] those that dwell heare the C [...]n [...] of Nil [...], are strucken deafe, But we finde no such effect, in Canno [...]ers, not Mil­lers, not those that dwell vpon Bridges.

It seemeth that the Impression of Colour is so weake, as it worketh not 277 but by a Cone of Direct Beames, or Right Lines; wherof the Basis is in the Obiect, and the Verticall Point in the Eye; So as there is a Corra­ [...]iation and Co [...]un [...] of Beames; And those Beames so sent forth, yet are not of any force to bege [...] the like borrowed or second Beames, ex­cept it be by Reflexion, wherof we speake not. For the Beames passe, and giue little Ta [...] to that [...]te, which is Adiacent; which if they did, we should see Colours out of a Right line. But as this is in Colours, so o­therwise it is in the Body of Light. For when there is a Skreene between the Candle and the Eye, yet the Light passeth to the Paper wheron One writeth; So that the Light is seene, where the Body of the Flame is not seene; And where any Colour (if it were placed where the Body of the Blame is) would not be seene. I iudge that Sound is of this Latter Na­ture: [Page 72] For when two are placed on both sides of a Wall, and the Voice is heard, I iudge it is not onely the Originall Sound, which passeth in an Arebed Line; But the Sound, which passeth aboue the Wall in a Right Line, begetteth the like Motion round about it, as the first did, though more weake.

All Concords and Discords of Musicke, are, (no doubt,) Sympathies, and Antipathies of Sounds. Experiments in Consort, touching the Sympathy or Antipathy of sounds, one with another. And so (likewise) in that Musicke, which we call Broken Musicke, or Consort Musicke; Some Consorts of Instruments are sweeter than others; (A Thing not suffciently yet obserued:) As the Irish Harpe, and Base Viall agree well: The Recorder and Stringed Musick 278 agree well: Organs and the Voice agree well; &c. But the Virginalls and the Lute; Or the Welch-Harpe, and, Irish-Harpe; Or the Voice and Pipes alone, agree not so well; But for the Melieration of Musicke, there is yet much lest (in this Point of Exquisite Consorts) to try and ehquire.

279 There is a Common Obseruation, that if a Lute, or Viall, be layed vpon the Backe, with a small Straw vpon one of the Strings; And ano­ther Lute or Viall be laid by it; And in the other Lute or Viall, the Vnison to that String be strucken; it will make the String, moue; Which will appeare both to the Eye, and by the Strawes Falling off. The like will be, if the Diapason or Eight to that String be strucken, either in the same Lute, or Viall, or in others lying by; But in one of these there is any Re­port of Sound, that can be discerned, but onely Motion.

280 It was deuised, that a Viall should haue a Lay of Wire Strings be­low, as close to the Belly, as a Lute; And then the Strings of Guts moun­ted vpon a Bridge, as in Ordinary Vialls; To the end, that by this means, the vpper Strings strucken, should make the lower resound by Sympathy, and so make the Musicke the better; Which, if it be to purpose, then Sympathy worketh, as well by Report of Sound, as by Motion. But this deuice I conceiue to be of no vse; because the vpper Strings, which are stopped in great variety, cannot maintaine a Diapason or Vnison, with the Lower, which are neuer stopped, But if it should be of vse at all; it must be in Instruments which haue no Stops; as Virginalls, and Harpes; wherin triall may be made of two Rowes of Strings, distant the one from the other.

281 The Experiment of Sympathy may be transferred (perhaps) from Instruments of Strings, to other Instruments of Sound. As to try if there were in one Steeple, two Bells of Vnison, whether the striking of the one would moue the other, more than if it were another Accord: And so in pipes, (if they be of equall Bore, and Sound,) whether a little Straw or Feather would moue in the one Pipe, when the other is blowne at an Vnison.

282 It seemeth, both in Eare, and Eye, the Instrument of Sense hath a Sympathy or Similitude with that which giueth the Reflexion; (As hath beene touched befor.) For as the Sight of the Eye is like a Crystall, or Glasse, or Water; So is the Eare a sinuous Caue, with a hard Bone, to [Page 73] stop and reuerberate the Sound; Which is like to the Places that re­port Eccho's.

When a Man Yawneth, he cannot Heare so well.Experiments in Consort, touching the Hindring or Helping of the Hearing. The Cause is, for that the Membrane of the Eare is extended; And so rather casteth off the Sound, than draweth it to.

We Heare better when we hold our Breath, than contrary; In so much as in all Listening to attaine a Sound a farre off, Men hold their Breath. The Cause is, For that in all Expiration, the Motion is Outwards; 283 And therefore, rather driueth away the voice, than draweth it: And 284 besides we see, that in all Labour to doe things with any strength, we hold the Breath: And listening after any Sound, that is heard with diffi­culty, is a kinde of Labour.

Let it be tryed, for the Helpe of the Hearing, (and I conceiue it like­ly 285 to succeed,) to make an Instrument like a Tunnell; The narrow Part whereof may be of the Bignesse of the Hole of the Eare; And the Broa­der End much larger, like a Bell at the Skirts; And the length halfe a foot, or more. And let the narrow End of it be set close to the Eare: And marke whether any Sound, abroad in the open Aire, will not be heard distinctly, from further distance; than without that Instrument; being (as it were) an Eare-Spectacle. And I haue heard there is in Spaine, an Instrument in vse to be set to the Eare, that helpeth somewhat those that are Thicke of Hearing.

If the Mouth be shut close, neuerthelesse there is yeelded by the 286 Roofe of the Mouth, a Murmur, Such as is vsed by dumbe Men: But if the Nostrills be likewise stopped, on such Murmur can be made; Except it be in the Bottome of the Pallate towards the Throat. Whereby it ap­peareth manifestly, that a Sound in the Mouth, except such as afore­said, if the Mouth be stopped, passeth from the Pallate, thorow the Nostrills.

The Repercussion of Sounds, (which we call Eccho,) is a great Argu­ment of the Spirituall Essence of Sounds. Experiments in Consort touching the Spirituall and Fine Nature of Sounds. For if it were Corporeall,) the Re­percussion should be created in the same maner, and by like Instruments, with the Originall Sound [...]. But we see what a Number of Exquisite Instru­ments must concurre in Speaking of Words, where of there is no such Matter in the Returning of them; But onely a plaine Stop, and Reper­cussion. 287

The Exquisite Differences of Articulate Sounds, carried along in the 288 Aire, shew that they cannot be Signalures or Impressions in the Aire, as hath beene well refuted by the Ancients. For it is true, that Seales make excellent Impressions: And so it may be thought of Sounds in their first Generation: But then the Delation and Continuance of them without any new Sealing, shew apparently they cannot be Impressions.

All Sounds are suddenly made, and doe suddenly perish; But nei­ther 289 that, nor the Exquisite Differences of them, is Matter of so great Admiration: For the [...]e [...]gs, and Warblings to Lutes, and Pipes, [Page 74] are as swift; And the Tongue, (which is no very fine Instrument,) doth in Speech, make no fewer Motions, than there be Letters in all the Words, which are vttered. But that Sounds should not onely be so speedily generated, but carried so farre euery way, in such a momenta­ny time, deserueth more Admiration. As for Example; If a Man stand in the middle of a Field, and speake aloud, he shall be heard a Furlong in round; And that shall be in Articulate Sounds; And those shall be Entire in euery little Portion of the Aire; And this shall be done in the Space of lesse than a Minute.

290 The Sudden Generation and Perishing of Sounds, must be one of these two Waies. Either that the Aire suffereth some Force by Sound, and then restoreth it selfe; As Water doth; Which being diuided, maketh manny Circles, till it restore it selfe to the naturall Consistence: Or o­therwise, that the Aire doth willingly imbibe the Sound as gratefull, but cannot maintaine it; For that the Aire hath (as it should seeme) a secret and hidden Appetite of Receiuing the Sound at the first; But then o­ther Grosse and more Materiate Qualities of the Aire straightwaies suffocate it; Like vnto Flame, which is generated with Alacrity, but straight quenched by the Enmity of the Aire, or other Ambient Bodies.

There be these Differences (in generall) by which Sounds are diuided; 1. Musicall, Immusicall; 2. Treble, Base; 3. Flat, Sharpe; 4. Soft, Loud; 5. Exteriour, Interiour, 6. Cleane, Harsb or Purling; 7. Articulate, Inarticulate.

We haue laboured (as may appeare,) in this Inquisition of Sounds, diligently; Both because Sound is one of the most Hid­den Portions of Nature, (as we said in the beginning:) And because it is a Vertue which may be called Incorporeall, and Immateriate; wherof there be in Nature but few. Besides, we were willing, (now in these our first Centuries,) to make a Pat­terne or President of an Exact Inquisition; And we shall doe the like hereafter in some other Subiects which require it. For we desire that Men should learne and perceiue, how seuere a Thing the true Inquisition of Nature is; And should accu­stome themselues, by the light of Particulars, to enlarge their Mindes, to the Amplitude of the World; And not reduce the World to the Narrownesse of their Mindes.

Metalls giue Orlens and Fine Colours in Dissolutions; As Gold giueth [Page 75] an excellent Yellow; Quick-Siluer an excellent Greene; Tinne giueth an excellent Azure: Likewise in their Putrefactions, or Rusts; As Vermilion, Verdegrease, Bise, Cirrus, &c.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ori­ent Colours, in dissolution of Metalls. And likewise in their vitrifica­tions. The Cause is, for that by their Strength of Body, they are able 291 to endure the Fire, or Strong Waters, and to be put into an Equall Posture; And againe to retaine Part of their principall Spirit; Which two Things, (Equall Posture, and Quicke Spirits) are required chiefe­ly, to make Colours lightsome.

It conduceth vnto Long Life, and to the more Placide Motion of the Spirits, which thereby doe lesse prey and consume the Iuyce of the Body; Either that Mens Actions bee free and voluntary; That no­thing bee done Inuitâ Mineruâ, but Secundum Genium: Or on the 292 other side, that the Actions of Men bee full of Regulation, and Com­mands within themselues: For then the Victory and Performing of the Command, giueth a good Disposition to the Spirits; Especi­ally if there bee a Proceeding from Degree to Degree; For then the Sense of Victory is the greater.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Prolonga­tion of Life. An example of the former of these, is in a Countrey life; And of the latter, in Monkes and Philosophers, and such as doe continually enioyne themselues.

It is certaine, that in all Bodies, there is an Appetite of Vnion, and Euitation of Solution of Continuity: And of this Appetite there bee many Degrees; But the most Remarkable, and fit to bee distinguished, are three.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Appetite of Vnion in Bo­dies. The first in Liquours; The second in Hard Bodies: And the third in Bodies Cleaning or Tenacious. In Liquours, 293 this Appetite is weake: We see in Liquours, the Thredding of them in Stillicides, (as hath beene said;) The Falling of them in Round Drops, (which is the forme of Vnion;) And the Staying of them, for a little time, in Bubbles and Froth. In the second Degree or Kinde, this Appetite is strong; As in Iron, in Stone, in Wood, &c. In the third, this Appetite is in a Medium betweene the other two: For such Bodies doe partly follow the Touch of another Body; And partly sticke and continue to themselues; And therefore they roape, and draw themselues in Threds; As wee see in Pitch, Glew, Bird­lime, &c. But note, that all Solide Bodies are Cleaning, more or lesse: And that they loue better the Touch of somewhat that is Tangible, than of Aire, For Water, in small quantity, cleaueth to any Thing that is Solide; And so would Metall too, if the weight drew it not off. And therefore Gold Foliate, or any Metall Foliate, cleaueth: But those Bodies which are noted to bee Clammy, and Cleauing, are such, as haue a more indifferent Appetite (at once,) to follow another Bo­dy; And to hold to Themselues. And therefore they are common­ly Bodies ill mixed; And which take more pleasure in a Forraine [Page 76] Body, than in preseruing their owne Consistence; And which haue lit­tle predominance in Drought, or Moisture.

Time, and Heat, are Fellowes in many Effects.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the like O [...]ons of Heat and Time. Heat drieth Bo­dies, that doe easily expire; As Parchment, Leaues, Roots, Clay, &c. And, so doth Time or Age arefie; As in the same Bodies, &c. Heat dissolueth and melteth Bodies, that keepe in their Spirits; As 294 in diuers Liquefactions; And so doth Time, in some Bodies of a sof­ter Consistence: As a manifest in Honey, which by Age waxeth more liquid: And the like in Sugar; And so in old Oyle, which is euer more cleare, and more hot in Medicinable vse. Heat causeth the Spirits to search some Issue out of the Body; As in the Volatility of Metalls; And so doth Time; As in the Rust of Metalls. But generally Heat doththat in small time, which Age doth in long.

Some Things which passe the Fire are softest at first, and by Time grow hard; As the Crumme of Bread.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the diffe­ring Operations of Fire, and Time. Some are harder when they come from the Fire, and afterwards giue againe, and grow soft, as the Crust of Bread, Bisket, Sweet Meats, Salt, &c. The Cause is, for that in those things which waxe Hard with Time, the 295 Worke of the Fire is a Kinde of Melting: And in those that waxe Soft with Time, (contrariwise,) the woke of the Fire is a Kinde of Baking; And whatsoeuer the Fire baketh, Time doth in some degree dissolue.

Motions passe from one Man to another, not so much by Exciting Imagination; as by Inuitation; Especially if there be an Aptnesse or Inclination before.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Motions by Inuitation. Therefore Gaping, or Yawning, and Stretching 296 doe passe from Man to Man; For that that causeth Gaping and Stret­ching is, when the Spirits are a little Heauy, by any Vapour, or the like. For then they striue, (as it were,) to wring out, and expell that which loadeth them. So Men drowzy, and desirous to sleepe; Or be­fore the Fit of an Ague; doe vse to Yawne and Stretch; And doe likewise yeeld a Voice or Sound, which is an Interiection of Expulsion: So that if another be apt and prepared to doe the like, he followeth by the Sight of another. So the Laughing of another maketh to Laugh.

There be some knowne Diseases that are Infectious; And Others that are not.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Infecti­ous Disease. Those that are Infectious, are; First, such as are chiefly in the Spirits, and not so much in the Humours; And therefore passe 297 easily from Body to Body: Such are Pestilences, Lippitudes; and such like. Secondly, such as Taint the Breath; Which wee see passeth ma­nifestly from Man to Man; And not inuisibly, as the Affects of the Spirits doe: Such are Consumptions of the Lungs, &c. Thirdly such as come forth to the Skinne; And therefore taint the Aire, or the Body [Page 77] Adiacent; Especially if they consist in an Vnctuous Substance, no apt to dissipate; Such are Scabs, and Lepronsie. Fourthly, such as are meerely in the Humours, and not in the Spirits, Breath, or Exhalations: And therefore they neuer infect, but by Touch onely; and such a Touch also, as commeth within the Epidermis; As the Venome of the French Poxe, And the Biting of a Mad Dog.

Most Powders grow, more Close and Coherent by Mixture of Wa­ter, than by Mixture of Oyle, though Oyle be the thicker Body; As Meale; &c.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the in­corporation of Powders and Liquours The Reason is the Congruity of Bodies; which if it be more, maketh a Perfecter Imbibition, and Incorporation; Which in most Powders is more betweene Them and Water, than betweene Them 298 and Oyle: But Printers Colours ground, and Ashes, doe better incorpo­rate with Oyle.

Much Motion and Exercise is good for some Bodies; And Sitting, and lesse Motion for Others.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Exer­cise of the Body. If the Body be Hot, and Void of Superflous Moistures, too much Motion hurteth: And it is an Errour in Physitians, to call too much vpon Exercise. Likewise Men ought to beware, that they 299 vse not Exercise, and a Spare Diet both: But if much Exercise, then a Plen­tifull Diet, And if Sp [...]ring Diet, then little Exercise. The Benefits that come of Exercise are, First, that it sendeth Nourishment into the Parts more forcibly. Secondly, that it helpeth to Exceme by Sweat, and so maketh the Parts assimilate the more perfectly. Thirdly, that it maketh the Sub­stance of the Body more Solide and Compact; And so lesse apt to be Con­sumed and Depredated by the Spirits. The Euills that come of Exer­cise, are: First, that it maketh the Spirits more Hot and Predatory. Se­condly, that it doth absorbe likewise, and attenuate too much the Moi­sture of the Body. Thirdly, that it maketh too great [...]sion, (especi­ally if it be violent,) of the Inward Parts; which delight more in Rest. But generally Exercise, if it be much, is no Friend to Prolongation of Life; Which is one Cause, why Women liue longer than Men, because they stirre lesse.

Some Food we may vse long, and much, without Glatting; As Bread, Flesh that is not fat, or rancke, &c.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Meats, that induce So­ciety. Some other, (though pleasant,) Glutteth sooner; As Sweet Meats, Fat Meats, &c. The Cause is, for that Appetite consisteth in the Emptinesse of Mouth of the Sto­macke; 300 Or possessing it with somewhat that is Astringent; and ther­fore Cold and Dry. But things that are Sweet and Fat, are more Fil­ling: And do swimme and hang more about the Mouth of the Sto­macke; And goe not downe so speedily: And againe turne sooner to Choler, which is hot, and euer abateth the Appetite. Wee see also, that another Cause of Society, is an Ouer-custome; and of Appetite is No­uelty: And therefore Meats, if the same be continually taken, induce Loathing. To giue the Reason of the Distast of Society, and of the Plea­sure [Page 78] in Nouelty; and to distinguish not onely in Meats and Drinkes, but also in Motions, Loues, Company, Delights, Studies, what they be that Custome maketh more gratefull; And what more tedious; were a large Field. But for Meats, the Cause is Attraction, which is quicker, and more excited towards that which is new, than towards that whereof there remaineth a Rel­lish by former vse. And (generally) it is a Rule, that whatsoeuer is somewhat Ingrate at first, is made Gratefull by Custome; But whatsoeuer is too Pleasing at first, grow­eth quickly to sa­tiate.

IV. Century.

ACCELERATION of Time, in Works of Nature, may well be esteemed Inter Magnalia Naturae. Experiments in Consort touching the Clarification of Liquours, and the Accelerating thereof. And euen in Diuine Miracles, Accelerating of the Time, is next to the Creating of the Matter. We will now therfore proceed to the En­quiry of it: And for Acceleration of Germination, we will referre it ouer, vn­to to the place, where we shall handle the Subiect of Plants, ge­nerally; And will now begin with other Accelerations.

Liquours are (many of them,) at the first, thicke and troubled; As 301 Must, Wort, Iuyces of Fruits, or Hearbs expressed, &c. And by Time they settle, and Clarifie. But to make them cleare, before the Time, is a great Worke; For it is a Spurre to Nature, and putteth her out of her pace; And besides it is of good vse, for making Drinkes, and Sances, Potable, and Seruiceable, speedily; But to know the [...] of Accelerating Cla­rification, we must first know the Causes of Clarification. The first Cause is, by the Separation of the Gresser Parts of the Liquour [...], from the Finer. The second, by the Equall Distribution of the Spirits of the Liquour, with the [...] Parts; For that [...] representeth Bodies Cleare and Vntrou­bled. [Page 82] The third, by the Resining the Spirit it selfe, which therby giueth to the Liquour more Splendour, and more Lustre.

302 First, for Separation; It is wrought by Weight; As in the ordinary Residence or Settlement of Liquours: By Heat: By Motion: By Precipi­tation, or Sublimation; (That is, a Calling of the seuerall Parts, either vp, or downe, which is a kinde of Attraction:) By Adhesion; As when a Bo­dy more Viscous is mingled and agitated with the Liquour: which Vis­cous Body (afterwards seuered) draweth with it the grosser Parts of the Liquour; And Lastly, By Percolation or Passage.

303 Secondly, for the Euen Distribution of the Spirits; It is wrought By Gentle Heat; And By Agitation or Motion; (For of Time we speake not, because it is that, we would anticipate & represent:) And it is wrought also, By Mixture of some other Body, which hath a vertue to open the Liquour, and to make the Spirits the better passe thorow.

304 Thirdly, for the Refining of the Spirit, it is wrought likewise By Heat; By Motion; And by Mixture of some Body which hath Vertue to attenuate. So therefore (hauing shewen the Causes) for the Accelerating of Clari­fication, in generall, and the Enducing of it; take these Instances, and Trialls.

305 It is in common Practise, to draw Wine, or Beere, from the Lees, (which we call Racking;) wherby it will Clarifie much the sooner: For the Lees, though they keepe the Drinke in Heart, and make it lasting; yet withall they cast vp some Spissitude: And this Instance is to be referred to Separation.

306 On the other side, it were good to try, what the Adding to the Liq­uour more Lees than his owne will worke; For thought the Lees doe make the Liquour turbide, yet they refine the Spirits. Take therfore a Vessell of New Beere; And take another Vessell of New Beere, and Rack the one Vessell from the Lees, and powre the Lees of the Racked Vessell into the vnracked Vessell, and see the Effect: This Instance is referred to the Refining of the Spirits.

307 Take New Beere, and put in some Quantitie of Stale Beere into it, and see whether it will not accelerate the Clarification, by Opening the Body of the Beere, and Cutting the Grosser Parts, wherby they may fall downe into Lees. And this Instance againe is referred to Separation.

308 The longer Malt, or Herbs, or the like, are Infused in Liquour, the more thicke and troubled the Liquour is; But the longer they be deco­cted in the Liquour, the clearer it is. The Reason is plaine, because in infusion, the longer it is, the greater is the Part of the Grosse Body, that goeth into the Liquour: But in Decoction, though more goeth forth, yet it either purgeth at the Top, or fettleth at the Bottome. And ther­fore the most Exact Way to Clarifie is; First to Infuse, and then to take off the Liquour, and Decoct it; as they doe in Beere, which hath Malt first Infused in the Liquour, and is afterwards boiled with the Hop. This also is referred to Separation.

309 Take Hot Embers, and put them about a Bottle filled with New Beere, [Page 83] almost to the very Neck: Let the Bottle be well stopped, lest it flie out: And continue it, renewing the Embers euery day, by the space of Ten Dayes; and then compare it with another Bottle of the same Beere set-by. Take also Lime both Quenched, and Vnquenched, and set the Bottles in them, vt Supra. This Instance is referred, both to the Euen Distribution, and also to the Refining of the Spirits by Heat.

Take Bottles, and Swing them; Or Carry them in a Wheels-Barrow, vp­on 310 Rough Ground; twice in a day: But then you may not fill the Bottles full, but leaue some Aire; For if the Liquour come close to the Stopple, it cannot play, nor flower: And when you haue shaken them well, either way, poure the Drinke into another Bottle, stopped close, after the vsuall manner; For if it stay with much Aire in it, the Drinke will pall; neither will it settle so perfectly in all the Parts. Let it stand sorce 24. houres: Then take it, and put it againe into a Bottle with Aire, vt supra: And thence into a Bottle Stopped, vt supra: And so repeat the same Operation for seuen dayes. Note that in the Emptying of one Bottle into another, you must doe it swiftly, lest the Drinke pall. It were good also, to trie it in a Bottle with a little Aire below the Neck, without Emptying. This Instance is referred to the Euen Distribution and Refining of the Spirits by Motion.

As for Percolation, Inward, and Outward, (which belongeth to Sepa­ration,)311 Triall would be made, of Clarifying by Adhesion, with Milks put into New Beere, and stirred with it: For it may be that the Grossar Part of the Beere will cleave to the Milke: The Doubt is, whether the Milke will feuer [...] ell againe; Which is soone tried. And it is vsuall in Clarifying Ippoerasse to put in Milke; Which after seuereth and carrieth with it the Grosser Parts of the Ippoerasse, as hath beene said elsewhere. Also for the better Clarification by Persolation, when they run New Beere, they vse to let it passe through a Strainer; And it is like the finer the Strainer is, the clearer it will be.

The Accelerating of Maturation Wee will now enquire of.Experiments in Consort touching Ma­turation, and the Accelerating thereof. And [...]ft touching the Maturation and Quickning or Drinks. And next touching the Maturation of Fruits. And of Maturation it selfe. It is of three Natures. The Matu­ration of Fruits. The Maturation of Drinkes: And the Matu­ration of Impostumes, and Vlcers. This last we referre to ano­ther Place, where wee shall handle Experiments Medicinall. There be also other Maturations, as of Metalls, &c. whereof we will speake as Occasion serueth. But we will begin with that of Drinkes, because it hath such a Affinitie with the Clarifi­cation of Liquours.

For the Maturation of Drinkes, it is wrought by the congregation of the 312 Spirits together, whereby they digest more perfectly the Grosser Parts: And it is effected partly, by the same meanes, that Clarification is, (wher­of wee spake before;) But then more, that an Extreme Clarification doth [Page 84] spread the Spirits so Smooth, as they become Dull, and the Drinke dead, which ought to haue a little Flouring. And therefore all your Cleare Amber Drinke is flat.

313 We see the Degrees of Maturation of Drinkes; In Must; In Wine, as it is drunke; And in Vinegar. Whereof Must hath not the Spirits well Con­gregated; Wine hath them well vnited; so as they make the Parts some­what more Oylie: Vinegar hath them Congregated, but more Ieiune, and in smaller Quantitie; The greatest and finest Spirit and Part being exha­led: For we see Vinegar is made by setting the Vessell of Wine against the hot Sun: And therefore Vinegar will not burne; For that much of the Fi­ner Parts is Exhaled.

314 The Refreshing and Quickning of Drinke Palled, or Dead, is by Enfor­cing the Motion of the Spirit: So wee see that Open Weather relaxeth the Spirit, and maketh it more liuely in Motion. Wee see also Bottelling of Beere, or Ale, while it is New, and full of Spirit, (so that it spirteth when the Stopple is taken forth) maketh the Drinke more quicke and windie. A Pan of Coales in the Cellar doth likewise good, and maketh the Drinke worke againe. New Drinke, put to Drinke that is Dead, prouoketh it to worke againe; Nay, which is more, (as some affirme,) A Brewing of New Beere, set by Old Beere, maketh it worke againe. It were good also to Enforce the Spirits by some Mixtures, that may excite and quicken them; As by Putting into the Bottles, Nitre, Chalke, Lime, &c. We see Creame is Matured, and made to rise more speedily, by Putting in Cold Water; which, as it seemeth, getteth downe the Whey.

315 It is tried, that the Burying of Bottles of Drinke well stopped, either in drie Earth, a good depth; Or in the Bottome of a Well within Water; And best of all the Hanging of them in a deepe Well somewhat aboue the Water, for some forthnights space, is an Excellent Meanes of making Drink fresh, and quicke: for the Cold doth not cause my Exhaling of the Spirits at all; As Heat doth, though it rarifieth the rest that remaine: But Cold ma­keth the Spirits vigorous, and irritateth them, whereby they Incorporate the Parts of the Liquour perfectly.

316 As for the Maturation of Fruits; It is wrought by the Calling forth of the Spirits of the Body outward, and so Spreading them more Smoothly: And likewise by Digesting, in some degree, the Grosser Parts: And this is Effected, by Heat; Motion; Attraction; And by a Rudiment of Putre­faction: For the Inception of Putrefaction hath in it a Maturation.

317 There were taken Apples, and laid in Straw; In Hay; In Flower; In Chalke; In Lime; Couered ouer with Onions; Couered ouer with Crabs; Closed vp in Wax; Shut in a Box; &c. There was also an Apple hanged vp in Smoake: Of all which the Experiments sorted in this Manner.

318 After a Moneths Space, the Apple Enclosed in Wax, was as Greene and Fresh as at the first Putting in, and the Kernells continued White. The Cause is, for that all Exclusion of Open Aire, (which is euer Predatory) maintaineth the Body in his first Freshnesse, and Moisture: But the In­conuenience [Page 85] is, that it tasteth a little of the Wax: Which, I suppose, in a Pomgranate, or some such thick-coated Fruit, it would not doe.

The Apple Hanged in the Smoake, turned like an Old Mellow Apple, 319 Wrinkled, Drle, Soft, Sweet Yellow within. The Cause is, for that such a degree of Heat, which doth neither Melt, nor Scorch, (For we see that in a greater Heat, a Roast Apple Softneth and Melteth; And Pigs feet, made of Quarters of Wardens, scorch and haue a Skin of Cole) doth Mellow, and not Adure: The Smoake also maketh the Apple (as it were) sprinkled with Soot, which helpeth to Mature. We see than in Drying of Peares, and Prunes, in the Ouen, and Remouing of them often as they begin to Sweat, there is a like Operation; But that is with a farre more Intense degree of Heat.

The Apples couered in the Lime and Ashes, were well Matured; As ap­peared 320 both in their Yellownesse, and Sweetnesse. The Cause is, for that that Degree of Heat which is in Lime, and Ashes, (being a Smoothe­ring Heat) is of all the rest most Proper; for it doth neither Liquefie, nor Atefie; And that is true Maturation, N [...] that the Taste of those Apples was good; And therefore it is the Experiment fittest for Vse.

The Apples, Conered with Crabs, and Onions, were likewise well Matu­red. 321 The Cause is, not any, Heat; But for that the Crab and the Onions draw forth the [...] of the Apple, and spread them equally thorow out the [...], which [...] away Hatdnesse [...] see f [...] one Apple [...]ath against another. And therefore in making of Cider, they turne the Ap­ples first vpon a heape. So one Cluster of Grapes, that toucheth another [...] it groweth ripeneth faster; [...] [...] [...] [...] [...]

The Apple [...] [...] [...] and the S [...] [...] apparently, though [...] [...] 322 [...] [...] in the [...] [...] more. The Cause is, for that the Hay and Straw haue a very low degree of Heat, but yet Close and Smoothering, and which drieth nor.

The Apple in the Close Box, was ripened also: The Cause is, for that all 323 Alfe, kept close; hath a degree of Warmth. As we see in W [...] [...] Plus [...], &c.

Note that all these were Compared with another Apple, of the same kinds, that lay of it Selfe: And in Comparison of that, were more Sweet, and more Yellow, and so appeared to be most Ripe.

Taken Apple, or P [...], or other like Fruit and Row [...] it vpon a Table 324 hard: We see in Common Experience, that the [...] doth Soften and Sweeten the Fruit presently▪ Which is Nothing but the S [...] [...] of the Spirits into the Parts; For the [...] [...] D [...] of the Spirits maketh the Ha [...]ishnesse: But this Hard Row [...] is betweene Con­coction, and a Simple Maturation; Therefore, if you should Rowle[?] them but gently, perhaps twice a day; And [...] some seuen dayes▪ it is like they would mature more finely, and like vnto the Naturall Matu­ration.

Take an Apple, and cut out a Peece of the Top, and couer it, to see 325 whether that Solution of Continuitie[?] will not hasten a Maturation ▪ We see [Page 86] that where a Waspe, or a Flie, or a Worme hath bitten, in a Grape, or any Fruit, it will sweeten hastily.

326 Take an Apple, &c. and pricke it with a Prinne full of Holes, not deepe, and smeare it a little with Sacke, or Cinnamon Water, or Spirit of Wine, euery day for ten dayes, to see if the Virtuall Heat of the Wine, or Strong Waters, will not Mature it.

In these Trialls also, as was vsed in the first, set another of the same Fruits by, to Compare them: And trie them, by their Yellownesse, and by their Sweetnesse.

The World hath beene much abused by the Opinion of Making of Gold: Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Ma­king of Gold. The Worke it selfe I iudge to be possible; But the Meanes (hitherto propounded) to effect it, are, in the Practise, full of Errour and Imposture; And in the Theory, full of vnsound Imaginations. For to say, that Nature hath an Intention to make all Metals Gold; And that, if she were de­liuered from Impediments, she would performe her owne Worke; And that, if the Crudities, Impurities, and Leprosities of Metals were cured, they would become Gold; And that a little Quantitie of the Medicine, in the Worke of Proiection, will turne a Sea of the Baser Metall into Gold, by Multiplying: All these are but dreames: And so are many other Grounds of Alchymy. And to helpe the Matter, the Alchymists call in likewise many Vanities, out of Astrologie; Naturall Magicke; Superstitious Interpretations of Scriptures; Auricular Traditions; Faigned Testimonies of Ancient Authors; And the like. It is true, on the other side, they haue brought to light not a few profitable Experiments, and thereby made the World some amends. But wee, when wee shall come to handle the Version and Transmutation of Bodies; And the Experiments concerning Metalls, and Mineralls; will lay open the true Wayes and Passages of Nature, which may leade to this great Effect. And wee commend the wit of the Chineses, who de­spaire of Making of Gold, but are Mad vpon the Making of Siluer: For certaine it is, that it is more difficult to make Gold, (which is the most Ponderous and Materiate amongst Metalls) of other Metalls, lesse Ponderous, and lesse Materiate; than (viâ versâ) to make Siluer of Lead, or Quick-Siluer; Both which are more Ponderous than Siluer; So that they [Page 87] need rather a further Degree of Fixation, than any Condensati­on. In the meanetime, by Occasion of Handling the Axiomes touching Maturation, we will direct a Triall touching the Ma­turing of Metalls, and therby Turning some of them into Gold; For we conceiue indeed, that a perfect good Concoction, or Dis­gestion, or Maturation of some Metalls, will produce Gold. And here we call to minde, that wee knew a Dutch-man, that had wrought himselfe into the beleese of a great Person, by vndertaking that he could make Gold: Whose discourse was, that Gold might be made; But that the Alchymists Ouer-fired the Worke: For (he said) the Making of Gold did require a very temperate Heat, as being in Nature a Subterrany worke, where little Heat commeth; But yet more to the Making of Gold, than of any other Metall; And therefore, that he would doe it with a great Lampe, that should carry a Temperate and Equall Heat: And that it was the Worke of many Moneths. The Deuice of the Lampe was folly; But the Ouer-firing now vsed; And the Equall Heat to be required; And the Making it a Worke of some good Time; are no ill Dis­courses.

We resort therefore to our Axiomes of Maturation, in Ef­fect touched before. The First is, that there be vsed a Tempo­rate Heat; For they are euer Temperate Heats that Disgest, and Mature: Wherein we meane Temperate, according to the Na­ture of the Subiect; For that may be Temperate to Fruits, and Liquours, which will not worke at all vpon Metalls. The Se­cond is, that the Spirit of the Metall be quickened, and the Tan­gible Parts opened: For without those two Operations, the Spirit of the Metall, wrought vpon, will not be able to disgest the Parts. The Third is, that the Spirits doe spread themselues Euen, and moue not Subsultorily; For that will make the Parts Close, and Pliant. And this requireth a Heat, that doth not rise and fall, but continue as Equall as may be. The Fourth is, that no Part of the Spirit be emitted, but detained: For if there be Emission of Spirit, the Body of the Metall will be Hard, and Churlish. And this will be performed, partly by the Temper of the Fire; And partly by the closenesse of the Vessell. The [Page 88] Fifth is, that there be Choice made of the likeliest and best Prepa­red Metall, for the Version: For that will facilitate the Worke. The Sixth is, that you giue Time enough for the Worke: Not to prolong Hopes (as the Alchymists doe;) but indeed to giue Nature a conuenient Space to worke in. These Principles are most certaine, and true; Wee will now deriue a direction of Triall out of them; Which may (perhaps) by further Medita­tion, be improued.

327 Let there be a Small Furnace made, of a Temperate Heat; Let the Heat be such, as may keepe the Metall perpetually Moulten, and no more; For that aboue all importeth to the Worke. For the Materiall, take Siluer, which is the Metall that in Nature Symbolizeth most with Gold; Put in also, with the Siluer, a Tenth Part of Quick-siluer, and a Twelfth Part of Nitre, by weight; Both these to quicken and open the Body of the Metall: And so let the Worke be continued by the Space of Six Mo­neths, at the least. I wish also, that there be, at some times, an Iniection of some Oyled Substance; Such as they vse in the Recouering of Gold, which by Vexing with Separations hath beene made Churlish: And this is, to lay the Parts more Close and Smooth, which is the Maine Worke. For Gold (as we see) is the Closest (and therefore the Heauiest) of Metalls: And is likewise the most Flexible, and Tensible. Note, that to thinke to make Gold of Quick-Siluer, because it is the heauiest, is a Thing not to be hoped; For Quick-Siluer will not endure the Mannage of the Fire. Next to Siluer, I thinke Copper were fittest to bee the Ma­teriall.

Gold hath these Natures: Greatnesse of Weight; Closenesse of Parts; Fixation; pliant [...]esse, or Softnesse; Immunity from Rust; Colour or Tincture of Yellow. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Na­ture of Gold. Therfore the Sure Way, (though most about,) to make 328 Gold, is to know the Causes of the Seuerall Natures before rehearsed, and the Axiomes concerning the same. For if a Man can make a Me­tall, that hath all these Properties, Let Men dispute, whether it be Gold, or no?

The Enducing and Accelerating of Putrefaction, is a Subiect of a very Vniuersall Enquiry: For Corruption is a Reciprocall to Generation. Experiments in Consort touching the Enducing and Accelerating of Putrefaction. And they Two, are as Natures two Termes or Bundaries; And the Guides to Life and Death, Putrefaction is the Worke of the Spirits of Bodies, which euer are Vnquiet to Get forth, and Congregate with the Aire, and to onioy the Sun­beames: The Getting forth, or Spreading of the Spirits, (which is a Degree of Getting forth,) hath fine Differing Operations. If [Page 89] the Spirits be detained within the Body, and moue more vio­lently, there followeth Colliquation; As in Metalls, &c. If more Mildely, there followeth Disgestion, or Maturation, As in Drinkes, and Fruits. If the Spirits be not meerely Detained, but Protrude a little, and that Motion be Confused, and Inor­dinate, there followeth Putrefaction; Which euer dissolueth the Consistence of the Body into much Inequality; As in Flesh, Rotten Fruits, Shining Wood, &c. And also in the Rust of Metalls. But if that Motion be in a certaine Order, there fol­loweth Viuification, and Figuration; As both in Liuing Crea­tures bred of Putrefaction, and in Liuing Creatures Perfect. But if the Spirits issue out of the Body, there followeth Deficcation, Induration, Consumption, &c. As in Bricke, Euaporation of Bo­dies Liquid, &c.

The Meanes to Enduce and Accelerate Putrefaction, are; First by Adding 329 some Crude pr Watry Moisture; As in Wetting of any Flesh, Fruit, Wood, with Water, &c. For contrariwise Vnctuous and Oyly Substances preserue.

The Second is by Inuitation or Excitation; As when a Rotten Apple 330 lyeth close to another Apple that is Sound; Or when Dung (which is a substance, already Putrified) is added to other Bodies. And this is also notably seene in Church-yards, where they bury much; Where the Earth will consume the Corps, in farre shorter time, than other Earth will.

The Third is, by Closenesse, and Stopping, which detaineth the Spirits,331 in Prison, more than they would; And thereby irritateth them to seeke Issue; As in Corne, and Cloaths, which waxe Musty; and therefore Open Aire (which they call Aer perstabilis) doth preserue: And this doth appeare more Euidently in Agnes, which come (most of them,) of Obstructions, and Penning the Humours, which thereupon Putrisie.

The Fourth is, by Solution of Continuity; As we see an Apple will rot 332 sooner, if it be Cut or Pierced; And so will Wood, &c. And so the Flesh of Creatures aliue, where they haue receiued any Wound.

The Fifth is, either by the Exhaling, or by the Driuing back of the 333 Principall Spirits, which preserue the Consistence of the Body; So that when their Gouernment is Dissolued, euery Part returneth to his Na­ture, or Homogeny. And this appeareth in Vrine, and Blond, when they coole, and thereby breake; It appeareth also in the Gangrene, or Mortification of Flesh, either by Opiates, or by Intense Colds. I conceiue also the same Effect is in Pestilences, for that the Malignity of the Infecting Vapour, daunceth the Principall Spirits, and maketh them fly, and leaue their Regiment; And then the Humours, Flesh, and Secondary Spirits, doe dissolue, and breake, as in an Anarchy.

[Page 90] 334 The Sixth is, when a Forraine Spirit, Stronger and more Eager than the Spirit of the Body, entreth the Body; As in the Stinging of Serpents. And this is the Cause (generally) that vpon all Poysons followeth Swelling: And we see Swelling followeth also, when the Spirits of the Body it selfe, Congregate too much; As vpon Blowes, and Bruises; Or when they are Pent in too much, as in Swelling vpon Cold. And we see also, that the Spirits comming of Putrefaction of Humours in Agues, &c. Which may be counted as Forraine Spirits, though they be bred within the Body, doe Extinguish and Suffocate the Naturall Spirits, and Heat.

335 The Seuenth is, by such a Weake Degree of Heat, as setteth the Spirits in a little Motion, but is not able, either to disgest the Parts, or to Issue the Spi­rits; As is seene in Flesh kept in a Roome that is not Coole; Whereas in a Coole and Wet Larder it will keepe longer. And wee see, that Viuisication (whereof Putrefaction is the Bastard Brother,) is effected by such Soft Heats; As the Hatching of Egges; The Heat of the Wombe, &c.

336 The Eight is, by the Releasing of the Spirits; which before were close kept by the Solidnesse of their Couerture, and thereby their Appetite of Issuing checked; As in the Artificiall Rusts induced by strong Wa­ters, in Iron, Lead, &c. And therefore Wetting hasteneth Rust, or Putre­faction of any thing, because it softeneth the Crust, for the Spirits to come forth.

337 The Ninth is, by the Enterchange of Heat and Cold, or Wet and dry; As wee see in the Moulding of Earth in Frosts, and Sunne; And in the more hasty Rotting of Wood, that is sometimes wet, sometimes dry.

338 The Tenth is, by Time, and the Worke Procedure of the Spirits them­selues, which cannot keepe their Station; Especially if they be lost to themselues; And there be not Agitation or Locall Motion. As wee see in Corne not stirred; And Mens Bodies not exercised.

339 All Moulds are Inceptions of Putrefaction; As the Moulds of Pyes, and Flesh; the Moulds of Orenges, and Limons; which Moulds afterwards turne into Wormes, or more odious Putrefactions: And therfore (com­monly) proue to be ill Odour. And if the Body be Liquid, and not apt to Putrifie totally, it will cast vp a Mother in the Top; As the Mothers of Distilled Waters.

340 Mosse is a kinde of Mould, of the Earth, and Trees. But it may be better sorted as a Rudiment of Germination; To which we referre it.

It is an Enquiry of Excellent vse, to Enquire of the Meanes of Preuenting or Staying Putrefaction, For therein consisteth the Meanes of Conseruation of Bodies; For Bodies haue two Kindes of Dissolutions; The one by Consumption, and Deficcation; The other by Putrefaction. Experiments in Consort, touching Pro­ [...] and Preuenting Pu­trefaction. But as for the Putrefactions [Page 91] of the Bodies of Men, and Liuing Creatures, (as in Agues, Wormes, Consumptions of the Lungs, Impostumes, and Vl­cers both Inwards and Outwards,) they are a great Part of Physicke, and Surgery: And therefore we will reserue the En­quiry of them to the proper Place, where we shall handle Me­dicinal Experiments of all Sorts. Of the rest we will now En­ter into an Enquiry: wherein much light may be taken, form that which hath beene said, of the Meanes to Enduce or Acce­lerate Putrefaction; For the Remouing that, which caused Put­refaction, doth Preuent and Auoid Putrefaction.

The First Meanes of Prohibiting or Checking Putrefaction, is Cold: 341 For so wee see Meat and Drinke will last longer, Vnputrified, or Vnsowred, in Winter, than in Summer: And we see that Flowers, and fruits, put in Conseruatories of Snow, keepe fresh. And this wor­keth by the Detention of the Spirits, and Constipation of the Tangible Parts.

The Second is Astriction: For Astriction prohibiteth Dissolution: As 342 we see (generally) in Medicines, whereof such as are Astringents doe in­hibite Putrefaction; And by the same reason of Astringency, some small Quantity of Oile of Vitrioll, will keepe Fresh Water long from Putre­fying. And this Astriction is in a substance that hath a Virtuall Cold; And it worketh (partly) by the fame Meanes that Cold doth.

The Third is, the Excluding of the Aire; And againe, the Exposing 343 to the Aire; For these Contraries, (as it commeth often to passe;) worke the same Effect, according to the Nature of the Subiect Matter. So we see, that Beere, or Wine, in Bottles close stopped, last long; That the Garners vnder Ground keepe Come longer than those aboue Ground; and that Fruit closed in Waxe keepeth fresh: And likewise Bodies put in Honey, and Flower, keepe more fresh; And Liquours, Drinkes, and Iuices, with a little Oyle cast on the Top keepe fresh. Contratiwise, we see that Cloth and Apparell, not Aired, doe breed Moathes, and Mould; And the Diuersity is, that in Bodies that need Detenties of Spirits, the Excluston of the Aire doth good; As in Drinkes, and C [...]: But in Bodies that need Emission of Spirits, to discharge some of the Superfluous Moisture, it doth hurt, for they require Atring.

The fourth is Motion, and Stirring; For Putrefaction asketh Rest; For 344 the Subtill Motion, which Putrefaction requireth, is disturbed by any A­gitation; And all Locall Motion keepeth Bodies Integrall, and their Parts together; As we see that Turning ouer of Corne in a Garner; Or Let­ting it runne like an Houre-glasse, from an vpper Roome into a Lower, doth keepe it Sweet; And Running Waters putrefie not; And in Mens Bodles. Exercise hindreth Putrefaction; And contrariwise Rest, and Want of Motion, or Stoppings, (whereby the Runne of Humours, or the Motion of Perspiration, is stayed,) further Putrefaction; As we part partly touched a little before.

[Page 92] 345 The Fifth is, the Breathing forth of the Aduentitious Moisture in Bodies; For as Wetting doth hasten Putrefaction; So Connenient Drying. (wherby the more Radicall Moisture is onely kept in,) putteth backe Putrefaction: So we see that Herbs, and Flowers, if they be dried in the Shade; Or dried in the hot Sunne, for a small time, keepe best. For the Emission of the Loose and Aduentitious Moisture, doth betray the Radicall Moisture; And carryeth it out for Company.

346 The Sixth is, the Strengthning of the Spirits of Bodies; For as a Great Heat keepeth Bodies from Putrefaction; But a Tepide Heat enclineth them to Putrefaction: So a Strong Spirit likewise preserueth, and a Weake or Faint Spirit disposeth to Corruption. So we finde that Salt-water cor­rupteth not so soone as Fresh: And Salting of Oisters, and Powdring of Meat, keepeth them from Putrefaction, It would be tried also, whe­ther Chalke put into Water, or Drinke doth not preserue it from Putre­fying, or speedy Souring. So wee see that Strong Beere, will last longer than Small; And all Things, that are hot and Aromaticall, doe helpe to preserue Liquours, or Powders, &c. Which they doe, as well by Strengthning the Spirits, as by Soaking out the loose Moisture;

347 The Seuenth is, Separation of the Cruder Parts, and thereby making the Body more Equall; for all vnperfect Mixture is apt to Putrefie; And Watry Substances are more apt to Putrefie, than Oyly. So we see Di­stilled Waters will last longer than Raw waters; And Things that haue passed the Fire, doe last longer, than those that haue not passed the Fire; As Dried Peares, &c.

348 The Eighth is, the Drawing forth continually of that part, where the Putrefaction beginneth: Which is (commonly) the Loose and watry Moi­sture; Not onely for the Reason before giuen, that it prouoketh the Ra­dicall Moisture to come forth with it; But because being detained in the Body, the Putrefaction taking hold of it, insecteth the rest: As we see in the Embalming dead Bodies; And the same Reason is of Preseruing Herbs, or Fruits, or Flowers, in Branne, or Meale.

349 The Ninth, is the Commixiture of any Thing that is more Oily, or Sweet: For such Bodies are least apt to Putrefie, the Aire working little vpon them; And they not putrefying preserue the rest. And therefore we see Syrrups, and Ointments, will last longer, than Iuyces.

350 The Tenth is, the Commixture of somewhat that is Dry; For Putrefa­ction beginneth first from the Spirits; And then from the Moisture; And that that is dry is vnapt to puttrefie: And therefore Smoake preserueth Flesh; As wee see in Bacon, and Neats-Tongues, and Martlemas Beese, &c.

351 The Opinion of some of the Ancients, that Blowne Aires doe pre­serue Bodies, longer than other Aires, seemeth to Mee Probable; For that the Blowne Aires, being Ouer-charged and Compressed, will hard­ly receiue the Exhaling of any Thing, but rather repulse it. It was tried in a Blowne Bladder, whereinto Flesh was put, and likewise a Flower, and it sorted not; For Dry Bladders will not Blow: And New Bladders ra­ther [Page 93] further Putrefaction: The way were therfore, blow strongly, with a Paire of Bellowes, into a Hogshead, putting into the Hogshead (be­fore) that which you would haue preserued; And in the instant that you withdraw the Bellowes, stop the Hole close.

The Experiments of Wood that Shineth in the Darke, we haue dili­gently driuen, and pursued.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Wood Shining in the Darke. The rather, for that of all Things, that giue Light here below, it is the most Durable. And hath least Apparent Mo­tion, Fire and Flame are in continuall Expence; Sugar shineth onely while it is in Scraping; And Salt-water while it is in Dashing; Glow­ing 352 [...]es haue their Shining while they liue or a little after; Onely Scales of Fishes (Putrified) seeme to be of the same Nature with Shining Wood; And it is true, that all Putrefaction hath with it an Inward Motion, as well as Fire, or Light. The Triall sorted thus. 1. The Shining is in some Peeces more Bright, in some more Di [...]; but the most Bright of all doth not attaine to the Light of a Glow-w [...]. 2. The Woods that haue beene tried to shine, are chiefly Sallow, and Willow; Also the A [...], and Husle; It may be, it holdeth in others. 3. Both Roots, and Bodies doe shine, but the Roots better. 4. The Colour of the Shining Part, by Day­light, is in some Peeces White, in some Peeces inclining to Red; Which in the Countrey they call the White, and Red Garret. 5. The Part that Shineth, is, (for the most part) somewhat Safe, and Moist to feele to; But some was sound to be Firme and Hard; So as it might be figured into a Crosse, or into Beads, &c. But you must not looke to haue an I­mage, or the like, in any Thing that is Lightsome; For euen a face in Iron red Hot will not be seene, the Light confounding the small diffe­rences of Lightsome and Darksome, which shew the figure. 6. There was the Shining Part pared off, till you came to that, that did not Shine; But within two Dayes the Part Contiguous began also to Shine, being laid abroad in the Dew; So as it seemeth the Putrefaction spreadeth. 7. There was other dead Wood of like kinde, that was Laid abroad, which Shined not at the first; But after a Nights lying abroad began to Shine. 8. There was other Wood, that did First Shine; And being laid dry in the House, within fiue or six daies, Lost the Shining; And laid abroad a­gaine, Recouered the Shining: 9. Shining woods, being laid in a Dry Roome, within a Seuen night, lose their Shining; But being laid in a Cellar, or Darke Roome, kept the Shining. 10. The Boring of Holes, in that kinde of Wood, and then laying it abroad, seemeth to conduce to make it Shine: The Cause is, for that all Solution of Continuity doth helpe on Putrefaction, as was touched before. 11. No Wood hath beene yet tried to Shine, that was cut downe aliue, but such as was Rotted, both in Stocke, and Root, while it grew. 12. Part of the Wood that Shined, was Steeped in Oyle, and retained the Shining a Forthnight. 13. The like suc­ceeded in some Steeped in Water, and much better. 14. How long the Shining will continue, if the Wood be laid abroad euery Night, and taken in and Sprinckled with Water in the Day, is not yet tryed. 15. Triall was [Page 94] made of laying it abroad in Frostie weather, which hurt it not. 16. There was a great Peece of a Root which did shine, and the Shining Part was Cut off, till no more Shined; Yet after two Nights, though it were kept in a drie Roome, it got a Shining.

The Bringing, forth of liuing Creatures may be accelerated in two Re­spects: The one, if the Embryon ripeneth and perfecteth sooner: The other if there be some Cause from the Mothers Body, of Expulsion or Put­ting 353 it downe: whereof the Former is good, and argueth Strength; The Latter is ill, and commeth by Accident or Disease.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Acce­leration of Birth And therefore the Ancient Obseruation is true, that the Childe borne in the Seuenth Mo [...]th, doth commonly well; But Borne in the Eighth Moneth, doth (for the most part) die. But the Cause assigned is Fabulous; Which is, that in the Eighth Moneth, should be the Returne of the Raigne, of the Planet Saturne: which (as they say) is a Planet Maligne; whereas in the Se­uenth is the Raigne of the Moone, which is a Planet Propitious. But the true Cause is, for that where there is so great a Preuention of the Ordinary time, it is the lustinesse of the Childe; But when it is lesse, it is some In­disposition of the Mother.

To Accelerate Growth or Stature, it must proceed; Either from the Plentie of the Nourishment; Or from the Nature of the Nourishment; Or from the Quickening and Exciting of the Naturall Heat. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Acce­leration of growth and Stature. For the first, Excesse of Nourishment is hurtfull; For it maketh the Childe Corpulent; And Growing in Breadth, rather than in Heighth. And you may take 354 an Experiment from Plants, which, if they spread much, are seldome tall. As for the Nature of the Nourishment; First, it may not be too Drie; And therefore Children in Dayrie Countries doe wax more tall, than where they feed more vpon Bread, and Flesh. There is also a receiued Tale; That Boyling of Dasie Roots in Milke (which it is certaine are great Driers) will make Dogs little. But so much is true, that an Ouer-drie Nourishment in Childhood putteth backe Stature. Secondly, the Nou­rishment must be of an Opening Nature; For that Attenuateth the Iuice, and furthereth the Motion of the Spirits, vpwards. Neither is it with­out cause, that Xenophon, in the Nouriture of the Persian Children, doth so much commend their Feeding vpon Cardamon; which (hee saith) made them grow better, and be of a more Actiue Habit. Cardamon is in Latine Nasturtium; And with vs Water-Cresses; Which, it is certaine, is an Herbe, that whilest it is young, is Friendly to Life. As for the Quic­kening of Naturall Heat, it must be done chiefly with Exercise; And there­fore (no doubt) much Going to Schoole, where they sit so much, hin­dreth the Growth of Children; whereas Countrey People, that goe not to Schoole, are commonly of better Stature. And againe Men must be­ware, how they giue Children, any thing that is Cold in Operation; For euen Long Sucking doth hinder both Wit, and Stature. This hath beene tried, that a Whelpe, that hath beene fed with Nitre in Milke, hath be­come [Page 95] very little, but extreme liuely: For the Spirit of Nitre is Cold. And though it be an Excellent. Medicine, in Strength of yeares, for Pro­longation of Life; yet it is, in Children and young Creatures, an Ene­my to Growth: And all for the same Reason, For Heat is requisite to Growth: But after a Man is come to his Middle Age, Heat consumeth the Spirits; which the Coldnesse of the Spirit of Nitre doth helpe to condense, and correct.

There be two Great Families of Things; You may terme them by seuerall Names; Sulphureous and Mercuriall, which are the Chymists Words: (For as for their Sal, which is their Third Principle, it is a Compound of the other two;) Inflam­mable and Not Inflammable; Mature and Crude; Oily and Wa­try. Experiments in Consort touching Sul­phur and Mer­cury, two of Pa­racel [...]es Princi­ples. For we see that in Subterranies there are, as the Fathers of their Tribes, Brimstone and Mercury: In Vegetables, and Li­uing Creatures there is Water and Oyle: In the Inferiour Order of Pneumaticalls there is Aire and Flame: And in the Superiour, there is the Body of the Starre, and the Pure Sky. And these Paires, though they be vnlike in the Primitiue Differences of Matter, yet they seeme to haue many Consents: For Mercury and Sulphure are principall Materialls of Metalls; Water and Oyle, are principall Materialls of Vegetables, and Animals; And seeme to differ but in Maturation, or Concoction: Flame (in Vulgar Opinion) is but Aire Incensed; And they both haue Quicknesse of Motion, and Facility of Cession, much alike: And the Interstellar Sky, (though the Opinion be vaine, that the Starre is the Denser Part of his Orbe,) hath notwithstan­ding so much Affinity with the Starre, that there is a Rotation of that, as well as of the Starre. Therefore, it is one of the grea­test Magnalia Naturae, to turne Water, or Watry Iuyce, into Oile or Oily Iuyce: Greater in Nature, than to turne Siluer, or Quick-siluer, into Gold.

The Instances we haue, wherein Crude and Watry Substance tur­neth 355 into Fat and Oily, are of foure kindes. First in the Mixture of Earth and Water; which mingled by the helpe of the Sunne, gather a Nitrous Fatnesse, more than either of them haue seuerally; As we see, in that they put forth Plants, which need both Iuyces.

The Second is in the Assimilation of Nourishment, made in the Bo­dies 356 of Plants, and Liuing Creatures; Where of Plants turne the Iuyce of meere Water and Earth, into a great deale of Oily Matter: Liuing Crea­tures, [Page 96] though much of their Fat, and Flesh, are out of Oily Aliments, (as Meat, and Bread,) yet they Assimilate also in a Measure their Drinke of VVater, &c. But these two Wayes of Version of Water into Oyle, (namely by Mixture, and by Assimilation) are by many Passages, and Perco­lations, and by long Continuance of soft Heats, and by Circuits of Time.

357 The third is in the Inception of Putrefaction; As in Water Corrupted; And the Mothers of Waters Distilled; Both which haue a kinde of Fat­nesse, or Oyle.

358 The Fourth is in the Dulcoration of some Metalls; As Saccharum Saturni, &c.

359 The Intention of Version of Water into a more Oily Substance, is by Disgestion; For Oile is almost Nothing else but Water disgested; And this Disgestion; is principally by Heats Which Heat must be either Outward, or Inward: Againe, it may be by Prouocation, or Excitation; Which is caused by the Mingling of Bodies already Oily, or Disgested; For they will somewhat Communicate their Nature with the rest. Disgestion al­so is strongly effected by direct Assimilation, of Bodies Crude into Bodies Disgested; As in Plants, and Liuing Creatures, whose Nourishment is far more Crude than their Bodies: But this Disgestion is by a great Com­passe, as hath beene said. As for the more full Handling of these two Principles, whereof this is but a Taste; (the Enquiry of which is one of the Profoundest Enquiries of Nature,) We leaue it to the Title of Ver­sion of Bodies; And likewise to the Title of the First Congregations of Mat­ter; Which like a Generall Assembly of Estates, doth giue Law to all Bodies.

A Chameleon is a Creature about the Bignesse of an Ordinary Li­zard: His Head vnproportionably bigge; His Eyes great: He moueth his Head without the writhing of his Necke, (which is inflexible,) as a 360 Hogge doth: His Backe crooked; His Skin Spotted with little Tumours, lesse Eminent nearer the Belly; His Taile slender, and long: On each Foot he hath fiue Fingers; three on the Outside, and two on the Inside; His Tongue of a maruellous Length in respect of his Body, and hol­low at the end; Which he will launch out to prey vpon Flses. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Chamele­ons. Of Co­lour Greene, and of a dusky Yellow, brighter and whiter towards the Belly; Yet spotted with Blew, White, and Red. If hee be laid vpon Greene, the Greene predominateth; If vpon Yellow, the Yellow; Not so if he be laid vpon Blew, or Red, or White; Onely the Greene Spots receiue a more Orient Lustre: Laid vpon Blacke, he looketh all Blacke, though not without a Mixture of Greene. He feedeth not only vpon Aire, (though that be his principall Sustenance;) For sometimes hee taketh Flies, as was said; yet some that haue kept Chameleons a whole yeare together, could neuer perceiue that euer they fed vpon any Thing else but Aire; And might obserue their Bellies to swell after they had exhausted the Aire, and closed their Iawes; Which they open com­monly [Page 97] against the Rayes of the Sunne. They haue a foolish Tradition in Magicke, that if a Chameleon be burnt vpon the Top of a House, it will raise a Tempest; Supposing (according to their vaine Dreames of Sym­pathies) because he nourisheth with Aire, his Body should haue great vertue to make Impression vpon the Aire.

It is reported by one of the Ancients, that in Part of Media, there are Eruptions of Flames out of Plaines; And that those Flames are cleare, and cast not forth such Smoake, and Ashes, and Pummice, as Mountaine Flames doe.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Subterra­ny Fires. The Reason (no doubt) is, because the Flame is not pent, as it is in Mountaines, and Earth-quakes which cast Flame. There be also 361 some Blinde Fires, vnder Stone, which flame not out, but Oile being pow­red vpon them, they flame out. The Cause whereof is, for that it see­meth, the Fire is so choaked, as not able to remoue the Stone, it is Heat, rather than Flame; Which neuerthelesse is sufficient to Enflame the Oyle.

It is reported, that in some Lakes, the Water is so Nitrous, as if Foule Cloaths be put into it, it scoureth them of it selfe: And if they stay any whit long, they moulder away.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Nitre. And the Scouring Vertue of Nitre is 362 the more to be noted, because it is a Body Cold; And we see Warme Wa­ter scoureth better than Cold. But the Cause is, for that it hath a Sub­till Spirit, which seuereth and diuideth any thing that is soule, and Vis­cous, and sticketh vpon a Body.

Take a Bladder, the greatest you can get; Fill it full of Winde, and tye it about the Necke with a Silke thred waxed; And vpon that put likewise Wax very close; So that when the Neck of the Bladder dryeth, no Aire may possibly get in, nor out.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Congea­ling of Aire. Then bury it three or foure foot 363 vnder the Earth, in a Vault, or in a Conferuatory of Snow, the Snow being made hollow about the Bladder; And after some Forthnights distance, see whether the Bladder be shruncke: For if it be, then it is plaine, that the Coldnesse of the Earth, or Snow, hath Condensed the Aire, and brought it a Degree nearer to Water: Which is an Experiment of great Consequence.

It is a Report of some good credit, that in Deepe Caues, there are Pensile Crystall, and Degrees of Crystall that drop from aboue; And in some other, (though more rarely) that rise from below.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Congea­ling of Water into Crystall. Which though it be chiefly the Worke of Cold, yet it may be, that Water, that pas­seth thorow the Earth, gathereth a Nature more clammy, and fitter to 364 Congeale, and become Solide, than Water of it selfe. Therfore Triall would be made, to lay a Heape of Earth, in great Frosts, vpon a Hollow Vessell, putting a Canuase betweene, that it falleth not in: And poure Water vpon it, in such Quantitie, as will be sure to soake thorow; And see whether it will not make an harder Ice in the bottome of the Vessell, [Page 98] and lesse apt to dissolue, than ordinarily. I suppose also, that if you make the Earth narrower at the bottome, than at the Top, in fashion of a Su­gar Loafe Reuersed, it will helpe the Experiment. For it will make the Ice, where it Issueth, lesse in Bulke; And euermore Smalnesse of Quan­tity is a Helpe to Version.

Take Damaske Roses, and pull them; Then dry them vpon the Top of an House, vpon a Lead or Tarras, in the hot Sunne, in a cleare day, betweene the Houres (onely) of twelue and two; or there abouts.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Preser­uing of Rose­leaues, both in Colour, & Smell. Then put them into a Sweet Dry Earthen Bottle, or a Glasse, with narrow Mouthes, stuffing them close together, but without Bruising: Stop the 365 Bottle, or Glasse, close, and these Roses will retaine, not onely their Smell Perfect, but their Colour fresh, for a yeare at least. Note, that Nothing doth so much destroy any Plant, or other Body, either by Putrefaction, or Arefaction, as the Aduentitious Moisture, which hangeth loose in the Body, if it be not drawne out. For it betrayeth and tolleth forth the In­nate and Radicall Moisture, along with it, when it selfe goeth forth. And therefore in Liuing Creatures, Moderate Sweat doth preserue the Iuyce of the Body. Note that these Roses, when you take them from the Dry­ing, haue little or no Smell; So that the Smell is a Second Smell, that is­sueth out of the Flower afterwards.

The Continuance of Flame, according vnto the diuersity of the Bo­dy Enflamed, and other Circumstances, is worthy the Enquiry; Chiefly, for that though Flame be (almost) of a Momentany Lasting, yet it recei­ueth the More, and the Lesse: we will first therefore speake (at large) of 366 Bodies Enflamed, wholly, and Immediately, without any Wieke to helpe the Inflammations. Experiments in Consort, touching the Continuance of Flame. A Spoonefull of Spirit of Wine, a little heated, was taken, and it burnt as long as came to 116. Pulses. The same Quanti­ty of Spirit of Wine, Mixed with the Sixth Part of a Spoonefull of Nitre, burnt but to the space of 94. Pulses. Mixed with the like Quantity of Bay-salt, 83. Pulses. Mixed with the like Quantity of Gunpowder, which dissolued into a Blacke water, 110. Pulses. A Cube, or Pellet of Yellow Waxe, was taken, as much as halfe the Spirit of Wine, and set in the Mid­dest, and it burnt onely to the space of 87. Pulses. Mixed with the Sixth Part of a spoonefull of Milke, it burnt to the space of 100. Pulses; And the Milke was crudled. Mixed with the Sixth Part of a spoonefull of Water, it burnt to the space of 86. Pulses; With an Equall Quantity of Water, onely to the space of 4. Pulses. A small Pebble was laid in the Middest; and the Spirit of Wine burnt to the space of 94. Pulses. A Peece of Wood, of the Bignesse of an Arrow, and about a Fingers length, was set vp in the Middest, and the Spirit of Wine burnt to the space of 94. Pulses. So that the Spirit of Wine Simple, endured the longest; And the Spirit of Wine with the Bay-salt, and the Equall Quan­tity of Water, were the shortest.

367 Consider well, whether the more speedy Going forth of the flame, be­caused, [Page 99] by the Greater Vigour of the Flame in Burning; Or by the Resi­stance of the Body mixed, and the Auersion thereof to take Flame: Which will appeare by the Quantitie of the Spirit of Wine, that remaineth after the Going out of the Flame. And it seemeth cleerely to be the latter; For that the Mixture of Things least apt to burne, is the Speediest in going out. And note, by the way, that Spirit of Wine burned, till it goe out of it selfe, will burne no more; And tasteth nothing so hot in the Mouth, as it did; No nor yet sowre, (as if it were a degree towards Vinegar,) which Burnt Wine doth; but flat and dead.

Note, that in the Experiment of Wax aforesaid, the Wax dissolued in 368 the burning, and yet did not incorporate it selfe, with the Spirit of Wine, to produce one Flame; but wheresoeuer the Wax floated, the Flame for­sooke it, till at last it spread all ouer, and put the Flame quite out.

The Experiments of the Mixtures of the Spirit of Wine enflamed, are 369 Things of discouerie, and not of Vse: But now wee will speake of the Continuance of Flames, such as are vsed for Candles, Lamps, or Tapers; consisting of Inflammable Matters, and of a Wieke that prouoketh Infla­mation. And this importeth not only Discouerie, but also Vse and Pro­fit; For it is a great Sauing, in all such Lights, if they can be made as faire and bright as others, and yet last longer. Wax Pure made into a Candle, and Wax Mixed seuerally into Candle-stuffe, with the Particulars that follow; (viz Water, Aqua-vitae, Milke, Bay-salt, Oyle, Butter, Nitre, Brimstone, Saw-dust,) Euery of these bearing a Sixth Part to the Wax; And euery of these Candles mixed, being of the same Weight and Wieke with the Wax Pure, proued thus in the Burning, and Lasting. The Swif­test in Consuming was that with Saw-dust; Which first burned faire, till some part of the Candle was consumed; and the Dust gathered about the Snaste; But then it made the Snaste bigge, and long, and to burne dus­kishly, and the Candle wasted in halfe the time of the Wax Pure. The next in Swiftnesse, were the Oyle, and Butter, which consumed, by a Fifth part, swifter than the Pure Wax. Then followed in Swiftnesse the Cleare Wax it selfe. Then the Bay-Salt, which lasted about an Eighth part longer than the Cleare Wax. Then followed the Aqua-vita, which lasted about a Fifth part longer than the Cleare Wax. Then followed the Milke, and Water, with little difference from the Aqua-vita, but the Water slow­est. And in these foure last, the Wieke would spit forth little Sparks. For the Nitre, it would not hold lighted aboue some Twelue Pulses; But all the while it would spit out Portions of Flame, which afterwards would goe out into a vapour. For the Brimstone, it would hold lighted, much about the same time with the Nitre; But then after a little while, it would harden and cake about the Snaste; So that the Mixture of Bay-Salt with Wax, will winne an Eighth part of the time of lasting, and the Water a Fifth.

After the Seuerall Materialls were tried, Triall was likewise made of 370 seuerall Wickes; As of Ordinary Cotton; Sowing Thred; Rush; Silke; Straw; and Wood. The Silke, Straw, and Wood, would flame a little, till [Page 100] they came to the Wax, and then goe out: of the Other Three, the Thred consumed faster than the Cotton, by a Sixth part of Time: The Cotton next: Then the Rush consumed flower than the Cotton, by at least a third part of time. For the Bignesse of the Flame, the Cotton, and Thred, cast a Flame much alike; and the Rush much lesse, and dimmer. Quare, whe­ther Wood, and Wiekes both, as in Torches, consume faster, than the Wiekes Simple?

371 We haue spoken of the Seuerall Materialls, and the Seuerall Wiekes: But to the lasting of the Flame, it importeth also; Not only what the Ma­teriall is, but in the same Materiall, whether it be Hard, Soft, Old, New, &c. Good Housewines, to make their Candles burne the longer, vse to lay them (one by one) in Bran, or Flower, which make them harder, and so they Consume the flower: Insomuch, as by this meanes, they will out-last other Candles, of the same Stuffe, almost Halfe in Halfe. For Bran and Flower haue a Vertue to Harden: So that both Age, and lying in the Bran, doth helpe to the Lasting. And wee see that Wax Candles last longer than Tallow Candles, because Wax is more firme, and hard.

372 The Lasting of Flame also dependeth vpon the easie Drawing of the Nourishment; As we see in the Court of England, there is a Seruice which they call All-night; which is (as it were) a great Cake of Wax, with the Wieke in the Middest; whereby it commeth to passe, that the Wieke fetcheth the Nourishment further off. Wee see also that Lamps last lon­ger, because the Vessell is farre broader, than the Bredth of a Taper, or Candle.

373 Take a Turretted Lampe of Tinne, made in the forme of a Squire; The Heighth of the Turret being thrice as much, as the length of the lower part, whereupon the Lampe standeth: Make only one Hole in it, at the End of the Returne furthest from the Turret. Reuerse it, and fill it full of Oile, by that Hole; And then set it vpright againe; And put a Wieke in at the Hole; And lighten it: You shall finde, that it will burne flow, and a long time. Which is caused, (as was said last before,) for that the Flame fetcheth the Nourishment a Farre off. You shall finde also, that as the Oile wasteth, and descendeth, so the Top of the Turret, by little and little, filleth with Aire; which is caused by the Rarefaction of the Oile by the Heat. It were worthy the Obseruation, to make a Hole, in the Top of the Turret, and to trie, when the Oile is almost consumed, whe­ther the Aire made of the Oile, if you put to it a Flame of a Candle, in the letting of it forth, will Enflame. It were good also to haue the Lampe made, not of Tinne, but of Glasse, that you may see how the Vapour, or Aire gathereth, by degrees, in the Top.

374 A fourth Point, that importeth the lasting of the Flame, is the Close­nesse of the Aire, wherein the Flame burneth. Wee see, that if Wind bloweth vpon a Candle, it wasteth apace. We see also, it lasteth longer in a Lanthorne, than at large. And there are Traditions of Lamps, and Can­dles, that haue burnt a very long time, in Caues, and Tombes.

375 A Fifth Point, that importeth the Lasting of the Flame, is the Nature [Page 101] of the Aire, where the Flame burneth; whether it be Hot or Cold; Moist or Drie. The Aire, if it be very Cold, irritateth the Flame, and ma­keth it burne more fiercely; (As Fire scorcheth in Frostie weather;) And so furthereth the Consumption. The Aire once heated, (I conceiue) maketh the Flame burne more mildly, and so helpeth the Continuance. The Aire, if it be Drie, is indifferent: The Aire, if it be Moist, doth in a Degree quench the Flame: (As wee see Lights will goe out in the Dumps of Mines:) And howsoeuer maketh it burne more dully: And so hel­peth the Continuance.

Burialls in Earth serue for Preseruation; And for Condensation; And for Induration of Bodies. Experiments in Consort touching Bu­rialls or Insusi­ons of diuers Bodies in Earth. And if you intend Condensation, or Induration you may burie the Bodies so, as Earth may touch them: As if you will make Artificiall Porcellane, &c. And the like you may doe for Conserua­tion, if the Bodies be Hard, and Solid; As Clay, Wood, &c. But if you 376 intend Preseruation of Bodies, more Soft and Tender, then you must doe one of these two: Either you must put them in Cases, whereby they may not touch the Earth; Or else you must vault the Earth, whereby it may hang ouer them, and not touch them; For if the Earth touch them, it will doe more hurt, by the Moisture, causing them to putrifie, than good by the virtuall Cold, to conserue them; Except the Earth be very Drie, and Sandie.

An Orenge, Limon, and Apple, wrapt in a Linnen Cloth, being buried 377 for a Forthnights Space, foure Foot deepe within the Earth, though it were in a Moist Place, and a Rainie Time, yet came forth, no wayes Mouldie, or Rotten, but were become a little harder than they were; Otherwise fresh in their Colour; But their Iuyce somewhat flatted. But with the Buriall of a Forthnight more they became Putrified.

A Bottle of Beere, buried in like manner, as before, became more 378 liuely, better tasted, and Clearer, than it was. And a Bottle of Wine in like manner. A Bottle of Vinegar, so buried, came forth more liuely, and more Odoriferous, smelling almost like a Violet. And after the whole Moneths Buriall, all the Three came forth, as fresh and liuely, if not better, than before.

It were a profitable Experiment, to presrue Orenges, Limons, and Pom­granates, 379 till Summer; For then their Price will be mightily increased. This may be done, if you put them in a Pot or Vessell, well couered, that the Moisture of the Earth come not at them; Or else by putting them in a Conseruatorie of Snow. And generally, whosoeuer will make Experi­ments of Cold, let him be prouided of three Things; A Conseruatorie of Snow; A good large Vault, twenty foot at least vnder the Ground; And a Deepe Well;

There hath beene a Tradition, that Pearle, and Cora [...], and Turchois­Stone, 380 that haue lost their Colours, may be recouered by Burying in the Earth: Which is a thing of great profit, if it would sort: But vpon Triall of Six Weekes Buriall, there followed no Effect. It were good to trie it, [Page 102] in a Deepe Well; Or in a Conseruatory of Snow, where the Cold may be more Constringent; And so make the Body more vnited, and thereby more Resplendent.

Mens Bodier are heauier, and lesse disposed to Motion, when S [...] ­ther [...] Winds blow, than when Northerne. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the [...] in M [...] [...] from se­ [...] winds. The Cause is, for that when the Southerne Winds blow, the Humours doe (in some Degree) melt, and waxe fluide, and so flow into the Parts; As it is seene in Wood, and 381 other Bodies, which, when the Southerne Winds blow, doe swell. Besides, the Motion and Actiuity of the Body consisteth chiefly in the Sinewes, which, when the Southerne Wind bloweth, are more relaxe.

It is commonly seene, that more are Sick in the Summer, and more Dye in the Winter; Except it be in Peslilent Diseases, which commonly raigne in Summer, or Autumne. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Winter and Summer [...] The Reason is, because Diseases are bred (indeed) chiefly by Heat; But then they are Cured most by Sweat, and 382 Purge; which in the Summer commeth on, or is prouoked, more Easily: As for Pestilent Diseases, the Reason why most Dye of them in Summer, is because they are bred most in the Summer; For otherwise those that are touched are in most Danger in the Winter.

The Generall Opinion is, that Yeares Hot and Moist, are most Pesti­lent; Vpon the Superficiall Ground, that Heat and Moisture cause Pu­trefaction. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Pesil [...] ­all Seasons. In England it is found not true; For, many times, there haue 383 beene great Plagues in Dry Yeares. Whereof the Cause may be, for that Drought in the Bodies of Islanders, habituate to Moist Aires, doth Exas­perate the Humours, and maketh them more apt to Putrifie, or En­flame: Besides, it tainteth the Waters (commonly,) and maketh them lesse wholesome. And againe in Barbary, the Plagues breake vp in the Summer-moneths, when the Weather is Hot and Dry.

Many Diseases, (both Epidemicall, and others,) breake forth at Parti­cular times. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching an Enour [...] about [...] Dis­eases. And the Cause is falsely imputed to the Constitution of the Aire, at that time, when they breake forth, or raigne; whereas it proc [...]e­deth (indeed) from a Precedent Sequence, and Series of the Seasons of the Yeare: And therefore Hippocrates, in his Prognosticks, doth make good 384 Obseruations, of the Diseases, that ensue vpon the Nature, of the Prece­dent foure Seasons of the Yeare.

Triall hath beene made, with Earthen Bottles well stopped, hanged in a Well of Twenty Fathome deepe, at the least; And some of the Bet­tles haue beene let downe into the Water, some others haue hanged a­boue, within about a fathome of the Water; And the Liquours so tried haue beene, Beere, (not New, but Ready for drinking,) and Wine, and 385 Milke. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the A [...] ­ [...] or Preser­uation of Li­quours in Wells, or deepe Vaults. The Proofe hath beene, that both the Beere, and the Wine, (as well within Water, as aboue,) haue not beene palled or deaded at all; But [Page 103] as good, or somewhat better, than Bottles of the same Drinks, and Stale­nesse, kept in a Celler. But those which did hang aboue Water, were ap­parently the best; And that Beere did flower a little; whereas that vnder Water did not, though it were Fresh. The Milke sowred, and began to Purrifie. Neuerthelosse it is true, that there is a Village neare Blois, where in Deepe Canes they doe thicken Milke; In such sort, that it becommeth very pleasant; Which was some Cause of this Triall of Hanging Milke in the Well: But our proofe was naught; Neither doe I know, whether that Milke in those Caues, be first boysed; It were good therefore to try it with Milke Sodden, and with Creame; For that Milke of it selfe is such a Compound Body, of Creame, Curds, and Whey, as it is eas [...]ly Tur­ned, and Dissolued. It were good also to try the Beere, when it is in Wort, that it may be seene, whether the Hanging in the Well, will Accele­rate the Ripening and Clarifying of it.

Diuers, we see, doe Stut. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Stutting The Cause may be, (in most,) the Refri­geration of the Tongue; Whereby it is lesse apt to moue. And therfore we see, that Naturalls doe generally Stut: And we see that in those that 386 Stut, if they drinke Wine moderately, they Stut lesse, because it heateth: And so we see, that they that Stut, doe Stut more in the first Offer to speake, than in Continuance; Because the Tongue is, by Motion, some­what heated. In some also, it may be, (though rarely,) the Drinesse of the Tongue; which likewise maketh it lesse apt to moue, as well as Cold; For it is an Affect that commeth to some Wise and Great Men; As it did vnto Moses, who was Ling [...]epr apedita; And many Stutters (we finde) are very Cholericke Men; Choler Enducing a Drinesse in the Tongue.

Smells, and other Odours, are Sweeter in the Aire, at some Distance, than neare the Nose; As hath beene partly touched heretofore.Experiments in Consort, touching Smells. The Cause is double: First the finer Mixture, or Incorporation of the Smell: For we see that in Sounds likewise, they are Sweetest, when we cannot 387 heare euery Part by it selfe. The other Reason is, for that all Sweet Smells haue ioyned with them, some Earthy or Crude Odours; And at some distance the Sweet, which is the more Spirituall, is Perceiued; And the Earthy reacheth not so farre.

Sweet Smells are most forcible, in Dry Substances, when they are 388 Broken; And so likewise in Orenges, or Limons, the Nipping of their Rinde, giueth out their Smell more: And generally, when Bodies are Moued or Stirred, though not Broken, they Smell more; As a Sweet­Bagge waued. The Cause is double: The one, for that there is a Grea­ter Emission of the Spirit, when Way is made: And this holdeth in the Breaking, Nipping, or Crushing; It holdeth also, (in some Degree) in the Mouing: But in this last, there is a Con [...]urrence of the Second Cause; Which is the Impulsion of the Aire, that bringeth the Sent faster vp­on vs.

The daintiest Smells of Flowers, are out of those Plants, whose Leaues 389 [Page 104] smell not; As Violets, Roses, Wall-flowers, Gilly-flowers, Pinckes, Wood­bines, Vine-flowers, Apple-Bloomes, Lime-Tree Bloomes, Beane-Bloomes, &c. The Cause is, for that where there is Heat and strength enough in the Plant, to make the Leaues Odorate, there the Smell of the Flower is ra­ther Euanide and Weaker, than that of the Leaues; As it is in Rose-Ma­ry-Flowers, Lauender-Flowers, and Sweet-Briar-Roses. But where there is lesse Heat, there the Spirit of the Plant, is disgested and refined, and feuered from the Grosser Iuyce, in the Esstorescence, and not before.

390 Most Odours Smell best, Broken or Crusht, as hath beene said; But Flowers Pressed or Beaten, doe leese the Freshnesse and Sweetnesse of their Odour. The Cause is, for that when they are Crushed, the Grosser and more Earthy Spirit commeth out with the Finer, and troubleth it; Whereas in stronger Odours there are no such Degrees of the Issue of the Smell.

It is a Thing of very good Vse, to Discouer the Goodnesse of Waters, Experiments in Consort touching the Goodnesse and Choice of Water. The Taste, to those that Drinke Water onely, doth somewhat: But other Experiments are more sure. First, try Waters by Weight; Wherein you may finde some difference, though not much: And the Lighter you 391 may account the Better.

392 Secondly, try them by Boyling vpon an Equall Fire: And that which consumeth away fastest, you may account the Best.

393 Thirdly, try them in Seuerall Bottles, or Open Vessels, Matches in euery Thing else, and see which of them Last Longest, without Stench, or Corruption. And that which holdeth Vnputrified longest, you may likewise account the Best.

394 Fourthly, try them by Making Drinkes Stronger, or Smaller, with the same Quantity of Mault; And you may conclude, that that Water, which maketh the Stronger Drinke, is the more Concocted, and Nou-rishing; though perhaps it be not so good for Medicinall vse. And such Water (commonly) is the Water of Large and Nanigable Riuers: And like­wise in Large and Cleane Ponds of Standing Water: For vpon both them, the Sunne hath more power, than vpon Fountaines, or Small Riuers. And I concelue that Chalke-water is next them the best, for going fur­thest in Drinke: For that also helpeth Concoction; So it be out of a Deepe Well; For then it Cureth the Rawnesse of the Water; But Chalkie Water, towards the Top of the Earth, is too fretting; As it appeareth in Laun­dry of Cloaths, which weare out apace, if you vse such Waters.

395 Fifthly, The Houswiues doe finde a Difference in Waters, for the Bearing, or Not Bearing of Soape: And it is likely that the more Fat Wa­ter will beare Soape best; For the Hungry Water doth kill the Vnctuous Nature of the Soape.

396 Sixthly, you may make a Iudgement of Waters, according to the Place, whence they Spring, or Come: The Rain-Water is, by the Physi­tians, esteemed the Finest, and the best; But yet it is said to putrifie soo­nest; which is likely, because of the Finenesse of the Spirit: And in Con­seruatories [Page 105] of Raine-water, (such as they haue in Venice, &c.) they are and not so Choice waters; The worse, (perhaps,) because they are Couered aloft, and kept from the Sunne. Snow-water is held vnwhole­some; In so much as the People, that dwell at the Foot of the Snow­Mountaines, or otherwise vpon the Ascent, (especially the Women,) by drinking of Snow-water, haue great Bagges hanging vnder their Throats. Well-water, except it be vpon Chalke, or a very plentifull Spring, maketh Meat Red; which is an ill Signe. Springs on the Tops of High-Hills are the best: For both they seeme to haue a Lightnesse, and Appetite of Mounting; And besides they are most pure and Vn­mingled; And againe are more Percolated thorow a great Space of Earth. For Waters in Valleyes, ioyne in effect vnder Ground with all Waters of the same Leuell; Whereas Springs, on the Tops of Hills, passe thorow a great deale of Pure Earth, with lesse Mixture of other Waters.

Seuenthly, Iudgement may be made of Waters by the Soyle where­upon 397 the Water runneth; As Pebble is the Cleanest, and best tasted; And next to that Clay-water; And Thirdly, Water vpon Chalke; Fourth­ly that vpon Sand; And Worst of all vpon Mudde. Neither may you trust Waters that Taste Sweet, For they are commonly found in Ri­sing Grounds of great Cities; which must needs take in a great deale of Filth.

In Peru, and diuers Parts of the West Indies, though vnder the Line, the Heats are not so Intolerable, as they be in Barbary, and the Skirts of the Torrid Zone. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Tem­perate Heat vn­der the AEqui­noctiall. The Causes are, First the Great Brizes, which the Motion of the Aire in great Circles, (such as are vnder the Gir­dle of the World,) produceth; Which doe refrigerate; And there­fore 398 in those Parts Noone is nothing so hot, when the Brizes are great, as about Nine or Ten of the Clocke in the Fore-Noone. Another Cause is, for that the Length of the Night, and the Dewes thereof, doe compense the Heat of the Day. A third Cause is the Stay of the Sunne; Not in Respect of Day and Night, (for that wee spake of before,) but in Respect of the Season; For vnder the Line, the Sunne crosseth the Line, and maketh two Summers, and two Winters; But in the Skirts of the Torrid Zone, it doubleth, and goeth backe againe, and so maketh one Long Summer.

The Heat of the Sunne maketh Men Blacke in some Countries, as in AEthiopia, and Ginny, &c.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Colo­ration of Blacke and Tawney Moores. Fire doth it not, as wee see in Glasse­Men, that are continually about the Fire. The Reason may be, be­cause Fire doth licke vp the Spirits, and Bloud of the Body, so as they Exhale; So that it euer maketh Men looke Pale, and Sallow; But the Sunne, which is a Gentler Heat, doth but draw the Bloud 399 [Page 106] to the Outward Parts; And rather Concooteth it, than Soaketh it; And therefore wee see that all AEthiapes are Fleshy, and Plumpe, and haue great Lips; All which betoken Moisture retained, and not drawne out. Wee see also, that the Negroes are bred in Coun­tries that haue Plenty of Water, by Riuers, or otherwise: For Meroe, which was the Metropolis of AEthiopia, was vpon a great Lake: And Congo, where the Negroes are, is full of Riuers. And the Confines of the Riuer Niger, where the Negroes also are, are well watered: And the Region about Capo Verde, is likewise Moist, in so much as it is pestilent through Moisture: But the Countries of the Abyssenes, and Barbary, and Peru. where they are Tawney, and Oliuaster, and Pale, are generally more Sandy, and Dry. As for the AEthiopes, as they are Plumpe, and Fleshy; So (it may bee) they are San­guine, and ruddy Coloured, if their blacke Skinne would suffer it to be seene.

Some Creatures doe moue a good while after their Head is off; As Birds; Some a very little time; As Men, and all beasts; Some moue, though cut in feuerall Pieces; As Snakes, Eeles, Wormes, Flies, &c.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Motion after the Inflant of Death. First therefore it is certaine, that the Immediate Cause 400 of Death, is the Resolution or Extinguishment of the Spirits; And that the Destruction or Corruption of the Organs, is but the Me­diate Cause. But some Organs are so peremptorily necessary, that the Extinguishment of the Spirits doth speedily follow; But yet so, as there is an Interim of a Small Time. It is reported by one of the Ancients, of credit, that a Sacrificed Beast hath lowed, after the Heart hath beene feuered; And it is a Report also of Credit, that the Head of a Pigge hath beene opened, and the Braine put into the Palme of a Mans hand, trembling, without breaking any part of it, or feuering it from the Marrow of the Back-bone; During which time the Pigge hath beene, in all appearance, starke dead, and with­out Motion; And after a small Time the Braine hath beene repla­ced, and the Skull of the Pigge closed, and the Pigge hath a little after gone about. And certaine it is, that an Eye vpon Reuenge hath beene thrust forth, so as it hanged a pretty distance by the Vi­suall Nerue; And during that time the Eye hath beene without any Power of Sight; And yet after (being replaced) recouered Sight. Now the Spirits are chiefly in the Head, and Cells of the Braine which in Men, and Beasts are Large; And therefore, when the Head is off, they moue little or Nothing. But Birds haue small Heads, and therefore the Spirits are a little more dispersed in the Sinewes, whereby Motion remaineth in them a little longer; In so much as it is Extant in Story, that an Emperour of Rome, to shew the Cer­tainty of his Hand, did Shoote a great Forked Arrow at an Estrich, as shee ranne swiftly vpon the Stage, and strooke off her Head; [Page 107] And yet shee continued the Race, a little way, with the Head off. As for Wormes, and Flies, and Eeles, the Spirits are diffused al­most all ouer; And therefore they moue in their Seuerall Pieces.

V. Century.

WE will now enquire of Plants or Vege­tables: And we shall doe it with dili­gence.Experiments in Consort, touching the Acceleration of Germination. They are the principall Part of the Third Dayes Worke. They are the first Producat, which is the Word of Animation: For the other Words are but the Words of Essence; And they are of excellent and generall Vse, for Food, Medicine, and a Number of Mechanicall Arts.

There were sowen in a Bed, Turnip-Seed, Radish-Seed, Wheat, Cucum­ber-Seed, 401 and Pease. The Bed we call a Hot-Bed, and the Manner of it is this. There was taken Horse-dung, old, and well rotted; This was laid vpon a Banke, halfe a foot high, and supported round about with Planks; And vpon the Top was cast Sifted Earth, some two Fingers deepe; And then the Seed Sprinkled vpon it, hauing beene steeped all night in Water Mixed with Cow dung. The Turnip-Seed, and the Wheat came vp halfe an Inch aboue Ground, within two dayes after, without any Watring. The Rest the third day. The Experiment was made in October; And (it may be) in the Spring, the Accelerating would haue beene the speedier. This is a Noble Experiment; For without this helpe, they would haue [Page 110] beene foure times as long in comming vp. But there doth not occurre to me, at this present, any vse thereof, for profit; Except it should be for Sowing of Pease; which haue their Price very much increased, by the early Comming. It may be tried also with Cherries, Strawberries, and other Fruit, which are dearest, when they come early.

402 There was Wheat, steeped in Water mixed with Cow-Dung; Other in Water mixed with Horse-Dung; Other in Water mixed with Pigeon-Dung; Other in Vrine of Man; Other in Water mixed with Chalke powdred; Other in Water mixed with Soot; Other in Water mixed with Ashes; Other in Water mixed with Bay-Salt; Other in Claret Wine; Other in Malmsey; Other in Spirìt of Wine. The Proportion of the Mixture was, a fourth Part of the Ingredients to the Water; Saue that there was not of the Salt aboue an eighth Part. The Vrine, and Wines, and Spirit of Wine, were Simple without Mixture of Water. The Time of the Steeping was twelue houres. The Time of the Yeare October. There was also other Wheat sowen vnsteeped, but watred twice a day with Warme water. There was also other Wheat sowen Simple to compare it with the rest. The Euent was; That those that were in the Mixture of Dung, and Vrine, and Soot, Chalke, Ashes, and Salt, came vp within fix dayes: And those that afterwards proued the Highest, Thickest, and most Lustie, were; First the Vrine; And then the Dungs, Next the Chalke; Next the Soot; Next the Ashes; Next the Salt; Next the Wheat Simple of it selfe, vnsteeped, and vnwatered; Next the Watered twice a day with warme water; Next the Claret Wine. So that these three last were slower than the ordinary Wheat of it selfe; And this Culture did rather retard, than aduance. As for those that were steeped in Malmsey, and Spirit of Wine, they came not vp at all. This is a Rich Experiment for Profit; For the most of the Steel pings are Cheape Things; And the Goodnesse of the Crop is a great Matter of Gaine; If the Goodnesse of the Crop answer the Earlinesse of the Comming vp: As it is like it will; Both being from the vigour of the Seed; Which also partly appeared in the Former Experiments, as hath beene said. This Experiment would be tried in other Graines, Seeds, and Kernells: For it may be some Steeping will agree best with some Seeds. It would be tried also with Roots steeped as before, but for longer time. It would be tried also in Seuerall Seasons of the yeare, especially the Spring.

403 Strawberries watered now and then, (as once in three dayes,) with Water, wherein hath beene steeped Sheepes-dung, or Pigeons-dong, will preuent and come early. And it is like, the same Effect would follow in other Berries, Herbs, Flowers, Graines, or Trees. And therefore it is an Experiment, though vulgar in Strawberries, yet not brought into vse generally: For it is vsuall to helpe the Ground with Mucke; And like­wise to Recomfort it sometimes with Mucke put to the Roots; But to water it with Mucke water, which is like to be more Forcible, is not pra­ctised.

404 Dung, or Chalke, or Bloud, applied in Substance, (seasonably,) to the [Page 111] Roots of Trees, doth set them forwards. But to doe it vnto Herbs, without Mixture of Water or Earth, it may be these Helpes are too Hot.

The former Meanes of Helping Germination, are either by the Good­nesse 405 and Strength of the Nourishment; Or by the Comforting, and Exci­ting the Spirits in the Plant, to draw the Nourishment better. And of this latter kinde, concerning the Comforting of the Spirits of the Plant, arealso the experiments that follow; Though they be not Applicati­ons to the Root, or Seed. The Planting of Trees warme vpon a Wall, against the South, or South-East Sunne, doth hasten their Comming on, and Ripening; And the South-East is found to be better than the South­West, though the South-West be the Hotter Coast. But the cause is chiefly, for that the Heat of the Morning succeedeth the Cold of the Night: and partly, because (many times) the South-west Sunne is too Parching. So likewise the Planting of them vpon the Backe of a Chimney, where a Fire is kept, doth hasten their Comming on, and Ripening: Nay more, the Drawing of the Boughes into the Inside of a Roome, where a Fire is continually kept, worketh the same Effect; Which hath beene tried with Grapes; In so much as they will come a Moneth earlier, than the Grapes abroad.

Besides the two Meanes of Accelerating Germination, formerly descri­bed; 406 That is to say, the Mending of the Nourishment; and Comforting of the Spirit of the Plant; there is a Third; Which is the Making way for the Easie Comming to the Nourishment, and Drawing it. And therefore Gentle Digging and Loosening of the Earth about the Roots of Trees; And the Remening Herbs and Flowers into new Earth, once in two yeares, (which is the same thing, For the new Earth is euer looser,) doth great­ly further the Prospering, and Earlinesse of Plants.

But the most admirable Acceleration by Facilitating the Nourishment, 407 is that of Water. For a Standard of a Damaske Rose with the Root on, was set in a Chamber, where no Fire was, vpright in an Earthen Pan, full of Faire Water, without any Mixture, halfe a foot vnder the Water, the Standard being more then two foot high aboue the Water: Within the Space of ten dayes, the Standard did put forth a faire Greene lease, and some other little Buds, which stood at a stay, without any Shew of decay or withering, more then seuen Daies. But afterwards that Leafe faded, but the young Buds did sprout on; which afterward opened into faire Leaues, in the space of three Moneths; And continued so a while after, till vpon Remouall wee left the Triall. But note that the Leaues were somewhat paler, and lighter-coloured, than the Leaues vse to be abroad. Note that the first Buds were in the End of October; And it is likely that if it had beene in the Spring time, it would haue put forth with greater strength, and (it may be) to haue growne on to beare Flowers. By this Meanes, you may haue, (as it seemeth,) Roses set in the middest of a Poole, being supported with some stay; Which is Mat­ter of Rarenesse and Pleasure, though of small Vse. This is the more [Page 112] strange, for that the like Rose-Standard was put, at the same time, into Wa­ter, mixed with Horse-dung, the Horse-dung about the fourth Part to the Water, and in foure Moneths space (while it was obserued) put not forth any Leafe, though diuers Buds at the first, as the other.

408 A Dutch Flower, that had a Bulbous Root, was likewise put, at the same time, all vnder Water, some two or three Fingers deepe; And within seuen dayes sprouted, and continued long after, further Grow­ing. There were also put in, a Beet-Root, a Borrage-Root, and a Raddish­Root, which had al their Leaues cut almost close to the Roots; And within six weekes had faire Leaues; And so continued, till the end of Nouember.

409 Note that if Roots, or Pease, or Flowers, may be Accelerated in their Comming and Ripening, there is a double Profit; The one in the high Price that those Things beare when they come early: The other in the Swiftnesse of their Returnes: For in some Grounds which are strong, you shall haue a Raddish, &c. come in a Month; That in other Grounds will not come in two; And so make double Returnes.

410 Wheat also was put into the Water, and came not forth at all; So as it seemeth there must be some Strength and Bulke in the Body, put into the Water, as it is in Roots; For Graines, or Seeds, the Cold of the Water will mortifie. But casually some Wheat lay vnder the Pan, which was somewhat moistned by the Suing of the Pan; which in six weekes (as a­foresaid) looked mouldy to the Eye, but it was sprouted forth halfe a Fingers length.

411 It seemeth by these Instances of Water, that for Nourishment, the Water is almost all in all, and that the Earth doth but keepe the Plant vp­right, and saue it from Ouer-heat, and Ouer-cold; And therefore is a Comfortable Experiment for good Drinkers. It proueth also that our former Opinion; That Drinke incorporate with Flesh, or Roots, (as in Capon-Baere, &c.) will nourish more easily, than Meat and Drinke taken seuerally.

412 The Nousing of Plants (I conceiue) will both Accelerate Germination, and bring forth Flowers and Plants in the Colder Seasons: And as wee House Hot-Countrey Plants, as Limons, Orenges, Myrtles, to saue them; So we may House our owne Countrey Plants, to forward them, and make them come in the Cold Seasons; In such sort, that you may haue Vio­lets, Strawberries, Pease, all Winter: So that you sow, or remoue them at fit times. This Experiment is to be referred vnto the Comforting of the Spirit of the Plant, by Warmth, as well as Housing their Boughes, &c. So then the Meanes, to Accelerate Germination, are in Particular eight, in Generall three.

To make Roses, or other Flowers come late, it is an Experiment of Pleasure.Experiments in Consort, touching the Putting backe or Retardation of Germination. For the Ancients esteemed much of Rosa Sera. And indeed the Nouember-Rose is the sweetest, hauing beene lesse exhaled by the Sunne. The Meanes are these. First, the Cutting off their Tops, imme­diately 413 after they haue done Bearing; And then they will come againe [Page 113] the same yeare about Nouember: But they will not come iust on the Tops, where they were cut, but out of those Shoots, which were as it were,) Water-Boughes. The Cause is, for that the Sap, which otherwise would haue fed the Top, (though after Bearing,) will, by the discharge of that, diuert vnto the Side-Sprouts; And they will come to beare, but later.

The Second is the Pulling off the Buds of the Rose, when they are 414 Newly knotted; For then the Side-Branches will beare. The Cause is the same with the former: For Cutting off the Tops, and Pulling off the Buds, worke the same Effect, in Retention of the Sap for a time, and Diuer­sion of it to the Sprouts, that were not so forward.

The Third is the Cutting off some few of the Top-Roughes in the 415 Spring-time, but suffering the lower Boughes to grow on. The Cause is, for that the Boughes doe helpe to draw vp the Sap more strongly; And we see that in Powling of Trees, many doe vse to leaue a Bough or two on the Top, to helpe to draw vp the Sap. And it is coparated also, that if you graft vpon the Bough of a Tree, and cut off some of the old Boughes, the new Cions will perish.

The Fourth is by Laying the Roots bare about christmus, some dayes.416 The Cause is plaine, for that it doth [...] the Sap, from going vpwards, for a time; Which Arrest is after wards released by the Couering of the Root a gaine with Earth; And then the Sap getteth vp, but later.

The Fifth is the Re [...] of the Tree, some Moneth before it Buddes.417 The cause is, for that some time will be required after the Re [...]e, for the Reselting; before it can draw the Iuycs: And that time being lost, the Blossome u [...] needs some forth later.

The Sixth is the Grasting of Kaser in May, which commonly Gar­diners 418 doe not till Inly; And then they beare not till the Next Yeare; But if you graft them in May, they will beare the same yeare, but late.

The Seuenth is, the Girding of the Body of the Tree about with some 419 Pack-threed; For that also, in a degree, restraineth the Sap, and ma­keth it come vp, more late, and more Slowly.

The Eighth in, the Planting of them [...] Shade, or in a Hedge; The 420 Cause is, partly the Keeping out of the Sunne, which hasteneth the Sap to rise; And partly the Robbing of them of Nourishment, by the S [...]uffe in the Hedge. These Meanes may be practised vpon other, both Trees, and Flowers, M [...]

Men haue entertained a Conceit that sheweth prettily; Namely,421 that if you grast a Late Comming Fruit, vpon a Stocke of a Fruit-tree that [...] early, the Graft will beare Fruit Early. At a Peach vpon a Cher­ry; And contrariwise, if an Early-Comming Fruit vpon a Stocke of a Fruit-Tree that Commeth late, the Grafe will beare Fruit late; As a Cher­ry vpon a Peach. But these are but Imaginations, and vntrue. The Cause is, for that the Cions ouerroleth the Stocke quite; And the Stocke is but Passue onely, and giueth Aliment, but no Motion to the Graft.

[Page 114]We will speake now, how to make Fruits, Flowers, and Ro [...] larger; in more plenty; and sweeter; than they vse to be; And how to make the Trees themselues, more Tall; more Spread; and more Hasty and Sudden; than they vse to be.Experiments in Consort touching the Melioration of Fruits, Trees, and Plants. Wherein there is no doubt, but the former Experiments of Ac­celeration, will serue much to these Purposes. And againe, that these Experiments, which we shall now set downe, doe serue also for Acceleration; because both Effects proceed from the Encrease of vigour in the Tree, But yet to auoid Confusion; And because some of the Meanes are more proper for the one Effect, and some for the other, wee will handle them apart.

422 It is an assured Experience, that an Heape of flint, or Stone, laid about the Bottome of a Wilde-Tree, (as an Oake, Elme, Ash, &c.) vpon the first Planting, doth make it prosper double as much, as without it. The Cause is, for that it retaineth the Moisture, which falleth at any time vpon the Tree, and suffereth it not to be exhaled by the Sunne. Againe, it keepeth the Tree warme, from Cold Blasts and Frosts, as it were in an House. It may be also, there is somewhat in the Keeping of it steady at the first. Quare, if Laying of Straw some Height about the Body of a Tree, will not make the Tree forwards. For though the Root giueth the Sap, yet it is the Body that draweth it. But you must note, that if you lay Stones about the stalke of Lettuce, or other Plants, that are more soft, it will ouer-moisten the Roots, so as the Wormes will eat them.

423 A Tree, at the first Setting, should not be Shaken, vntill it hath taken Root fully: And therefore some haue, put two little Forkes about the Bottome of their Trees, to keepe them vpright; But after a yeares Roo­ting, then Shaking doth the Tree good, by Loosening of the Earth, and (perhaps) by Exercising (as it were) and Stirring the Sap of the Tree.

424 Generally, the Cutting away of Boughes and Suckers at the Root and Body, doth make Trees grow high; And contrariwise, the Powling and Cutting of the Top, maketh them grow spread, and bushy. As wee see in Pollards, &c.

425 It is reported, that to make hasty Growing Coppice-Woods, the way is, to take Willow, Sallow, Poplar, Alder, of some seuen yeares growth; And to set them, not vpright, but a-slope, a reasonable depth vnder the Ground; And then, instead of one Root, they will put forth many, and so carry more Shoots vpon a Stemme.

426 When you would haue many new Roots of Fruit-trees, take a Low Tree, and bow it, and lay all his Branches a-flat vpon the Ground, and cast Earth vpon them; And euery Twigge will take Root. And this is a very profitable Experiment for Costly Trees; (for the Boughtes will make [Page 115] Stockes without charge;) Such as are Apricots, Peaches, Almonds, Cor­nelians, Mulberries, Figs, &c. The like is continually practised with Vines, Roses, Muske-Roses, &c.

From May to Iuly you may take off the Barke of any Bough, being of 427 the Bignesse of three or foure Inches, and couer the bare Place, some­what aboue, and below, with Loame well tempered with Horse-dung, binding it fast downe. Then cut off the Bough about Alhollontide in the bare place, and set it in the Ground; And it will grow to be a faire Tree in one Yeare. The Cause may be, for that the Baring from the Barke keepeth the Sap from descending towards Winter, and so holdeth it in the Bough; And it may be also that the Loame and Horse-Dung ap­plied to the bare place, doe moisten it, and cherish it, and make it more apt to put forth the Root. Note, that this may be a generall Meanes for keeping vp the Sap of Trees in their Boughes; Which may serue to other Effects.

It hath beene practised in Trees, that shew faire, and beare not, to 428 Bore a Hole thorow the Heart of the Tree, and thereupon it will beare. Which may be for that the Tree before had too much Repletion, and was oppressed with his owne Sap; For Repletion is an Enemy to Gene­ration.

It hath beene practised in Trees, that doe not beare, to cleaue two 429 or three of the Chiese Roots, and to put into the Cleft a small Pebble, which may keepe it open, and then it will beare. The Cause may be, for that a Root of a Tree may be (as it were,) Hide-bound, no lesse than the Body of the Tree; But it will not keepe open without somewhat put into it.

It is vsually practised, to set Trees that require much Sunne, vpon 430 Walls against the South; As Apricots, Peaches, Plums, Vines, Figs, and the like. It hath a double Commodity; The one, the Heat of the Wall by Reflexion; The other, the Taking away of the Shade; For when a Tree groweth round, the vpper Boughes ouer-shadow the lower; But when it is spread vpon a Wall, the Sunne commeth alike, vpon the vpper, and lower Branches.

It hath also beene practised (by some) to pull off some Leanes from 431 the Trees so spread, that the Sunne may come vpon the Bough and Fruit the better. There hath beene practised also a Curiosity, to set a Tree vpon the North-Side of a Wall, and at a little height, to draw him tho­row the Wall, and spread him vpon the South-Side: Conceiuing that the Root and lower Part of the Stocke should enioy the Freshnesse of the Shade; And the Vpper Boughes, and Fruit, the Comsort of the Sunne. But it sorted not; The Cause is, for that the Root requireth some Comsort from the Sunne, though vnder Earth, as well as the Body: And the Lower Part of the Body more than the Vpper, as wee see in Compassing a Tree below with Straw.

The Lownesse of the Bough, where the Fruit commeth, maketh the 432 Fruit greater, and to ripen better; For you shall euer see in Apricots, [Page 116] Peaches, or Melo-Cotones, vpon a wall, the greatest Fruits towards the Bottome. And in France the Grapes that make the Wine, grow vpon low Vines, bound to small Stakes. And the raised Vines in Arbours make but Veriuyce. It is true, that in Italy, and other Countries, where they haue hotter Sunne, they raise them vpon Elmes, and Trees; But I con­ceiue, that if the French Manner of Planting low, were brought in vse there, their Wines would be stronger and sweeter. But it is more charge­able in respect of the Props. It were good to try whether a Tree graf­ted somewhat neare the Ground, and the lower boughes onely main­tained, and the higher continually proined off, would not make a lar­ger Fruit.

433 To haue Fruit in Greater Plenty, the way is, to graft, not onely vpon young Stockes, but vpon diuers Boughes of an old Tree; for they will beare great Numbers of Fruit; Whereas if you graft but vpon one Stocke, the Tree can beare but few.

434 The Digging yearely about the Roots of Trees, which is a great means, both to the Acceleration and Melioration of Fruits, is practised in nothing but in Vines; Which if it were transferred vnto other Trees, and Shrubs, (as Roses, &c.) I conceiue would aduance them likewise.

435 It hath beene knowne, that a Fruit-Tree hath beene blowne vp (al­most) by the Roots, and set vp againe, and the next yeare bare excee­dingly. The Cause of this, was nothing but the Looseming of the Earth, which comforteth any Tree, and is fit to be practised, more than it is, in Fruit-Trees: For Trees cannot be so fitly remoued into New Grounds, as Flowers and Herbs may.

436 To reuiue an Old Tree, the Digging of it about the Roots, and Ap­plying new Mould to the Roots, is the way. We see also that Draught­Oxen, put into fresh Pasture, gather new and tender Flesh; And in all Things, better Nourishment than hath beene vsed, doth helpe to re­new; Especially, if it be not onely better, but changed, and differing from the former.

437 If an Herbe be cut off from the Roots, in the beginning of Winter, and then the Earth be troden and beaten downe hard, with the Foot and Spade, the Roots will become of very great Magnitude in Summer. The Reason is, for that the Moisture being forbidden to come vp in the Plant, stayeth longer in the Root, and so dilateth it. And Gardiners vse to tread downe any loose Ground, after they haue sowne Onions, or Turnips, &c.

438 If Panicum be laid below, and about the Bottome of a Root, it will cause the Root to grow to an Excessiue Bignesse. The Cause is, for that being it selfe of a Spungy Substance, it draweth the Moisture of the Earth to it, and so feedeth the Root. This is of greatest vse for Onions, Turnips, Parsnips, and Carrets.

439 The Shifting of Ground is a Meanes to better the Tree, and Fruit; But with this Caution; That all Things doe prosper best, when they are aduanced to the better: Your Nursery of Stockes ought to be in a more [Page 117] Barren Ground, than the Ground is whereunto you remoue them. So all Grasiers preferre their Cattell from meaner Pastures to better. We see also, that Hardnesse in Youth lengthneth Life, because it lea­ueth a Cherishing to the better, of the Body, in Age: Nay in Exer­cises, it is good to begin with the hardest, as Dancing in Thicke Shooes, &c.

It hath beene obserued, that Hacking of Trees in their Barke, both 440 downe-right, and acrosse, so as you make them rather in slices, than in continued Hacks, doth great good to Trees; And especially deliue­reth them from being Hide-bound, and killeth their Mosse.

Shade to some Plants conduceth to make them large, and prosperous,441 more than Sun; As in Strawberries, and Bayes, &c. Therefore amongst Strawberries, sow here and there some Barrage-Seed; And you shall finde the Strawberries vnder those Leaues farro more large than their Fellowes. And Bayes you must plant to the North; Or defond them from the Sunne by a Hedge-Row; And when you sow the Berries, weed not the Borders, for the first halfe yeare; For the Weed giueth them Shade.

To increase the Crops of Ph [...], there would be considered, not only 442 the Increasing the Lust of the Earth, or of the Plant, but the Sauing also of that which is spilt. So they haue lately made a Triall, to Set Wheat; which neuerthelesse hath beene left off, because of the trouble and paines; Yet so much is true, that there is much saued by the Setting, in comparison of that which is Sewen; Both by keeping it from being picked vp by Birds; And by Auoiding the Shallow lying of it, where­by much that is sowen taketh no Root.

It is prescribed by some of the Ancients, that you take Small Trees, 443 vpon which Figs or other Fruit grow, being yet vnripe, and couer the Trees in the Middle of Autamne with dung, vntill the Spring; And then take them vp in a warme day, and replant them in good Ground; And by that meanes, the former yeares Tree will be ripe, as by a new Birth; when other Trees of the fame kinde, doe but blossome. But this seemeth to haue no great Probabilitie.

It is reported, that if you take Nitre, and mingle it with Water, to the 444 thicknesse of Honey, and therewith anoint the Bud, after the Vine is cut, it will sprout forth within eight dayes. The Cause is like to be, (if the Experiment be true,) the Opening of the Bud, and of the Parts Contigu­ous, by the Spirit of the Nitre; For Nitre is (as it were) the Life of Vegetables.

Take Seed, or Kernells of Apples, Peares, Orenges; Or a Peach, or a 445 Plum Stone, &c. And put them into a Squill, (which is like a great Onion,) and they will come vp much earlier than in the Earth it selfe. This I conceiue no be as a Kinde of Grafting in the Root; For as the Stocke of a Graft yeeldeth better prepared Nourishment to the Graft, than the Crude Earth; So the Squill doth the like to the Seed. And I suppose the same would be done, by Putting Kernells into a Turnip, or [Page 118] the like; Saue that the Squill is more Vigorous, and Hot. It may be tried also, with putting Onion-Seed into an Onion-Head, which thereby (perhaps) will bring forth a larger, and earlier Onion.

446 The Pricking of a Fruit in seuerall places, when it is almost at his Big­nesse, and before it ripeneth, hath beene practised with successe, to ri­pen the Fruit more suddenly. Wee see the Example of the Biting of Waspes, or Wormes, vpon Fruit, whereby it (manifestly) ripeneth the sooner.

447 It is reported, that Alga Marina (Sea-weed) put vnder the Roots of Coleworts, and (perhaps) of other Plants, will further their Growth. The vertue (no doubt) hath Relation to Salt, which is a great Helpe to Fertilitie.

448 It hath beene practised, to cut off the Stalkes of Cucumbers, imme­diately after their Bearing, close by the Earth; And then to cast a pret­tie Quantitie of Earth vpon the Plant that remaineth; and they will beare the next yeare Fruit, long before the ordinary time. The Cause may be, for that the Sap goeth downe the sooner, and is not spent in the Stalke or Lease, which remaineth after the Fruit. Where note, that the Dying, in the winter, of the Roots of Plants, that are Annuall, seemeth to be partly caused by the Ouer-Expence of the Sap into Stalke, and Leaues; which being preuented, they will super-annate, if they stand warme.

449 The Pulling off many of the Blossomes from a Fruit-Tree, doth make the Fruit fairer. The Cause is manifest; For that the Sap hath the lesse to nourish. And it is a Common Experience, that if you doe not pull off some Blossomes, the first time a Tree bloometh, it will blossome it selfe to death.

450 It were good to trie, what would be the Effect, if all the Blossomes were pulled from a Fruit-Tree; Or the Acornes and Chesnut-buds, &c. from a Wilde Tree, for two yeares together. I suppose that the Tree will either put forth, the third yeare, bigger, and more plentifull Fruit; Or else, the same yeares, larger Leaues, because of the Sap stored vp.

451 It hath beene generally receiued, that a Plant Watered with Warme Water, will come vp sooner and better, than with Cold Water, or with Showers. But our Experiment of Watering Wheat with Warme Water (as hath beene said) succeeded not; which may be, because the Triall was too late in the Yeare, vix. in the End of October. For the Cold then comming vpon the Seed, after it was made more tender by the Warme Water, might checke it.

452 There is no doubt, but that Grafting (for the most Part) doth melio­rate the Fruit. The Cause is manifest; For that the Nourishment is bet­ter prepared in the Stocke, than in the Crude Earth: But yet note well, that there be some Trees, that are said to come vp more happily from the Kernell, than from the Graft; As the Peach, and Melocotone. The Cause I suppose to he, for that those Plants require a Nourishment of great Moisture; And though the Nourishment of the Stocke be finer, [Page 119] and better prepared, yet it is not so moist, and plentifull, as the Nou­rishment of the Earth. And indeed we see those Fruits are very Cold Fruits in their Nature.

It hath beene receiued, that a Smaller Peare, grafted vpon a Stocke 453 that beareth a greater Peare, will become Great. But I thinke it is as true, as that of the Prime-Fruit vpon the Late Stocke; And è conuerso; which we reiected before: For the Cions will gouerne. Neuerthelesse it is probable enough, that if you can get a Cions to grow vpon a Stocke of another kinde, that is much moister than his owne Stocke, it may make the Fruit Greater, because it will yeeld more plentifull nourish­ment; Though it is like it will make the Fruit Baser. But generally, the Grafting is vpon a dryer Stock; As the Apple vpon a Crab; The Peare vp­on a Thorne; &c. Yet it is reported, that in the Low-Conntries they will graft an Apple-Cions vpon the Stocke of a Colewort, and it will beare a great flaggy Apple: The Kernell of which, if it be set, will be a Colewort, and not an Apple. It were good to try, whether an Apple-Cions will pro­sper, if it be grafted vpon a Sallow, or vpon a Poplar, or vpon an Alder, or vpon an Elme, or vpon an Horse-Plumme, which are the moistest of Trees. I haue heard that it hath beene tryed vpon an Elme, and suc­ceeded.

It is manifest by Experience, that Flowers Remoued wax greater, be­cause 454 the Nourishment is more easily come by, in the loose Earth. It may be, that Oft Regrafting of the same Cions, may likewise make Fruit greater; As if you take a Cions, and graft it vpon a Stocke the first yeare; And then cut it off, and graft it vpon another Stocke the second yeare; and so for a third; Or fourth yeare; And then let it rest, it will yeeld afterward, when it beareth, the greater Fruit.

Of Grafting there are many Experiments worth the Noting, but those we reserue to a proper Place.

It maketh Figs better, if a Fig-Tree, when it beginneth to put forth 455 Leaues, haue his Top cut off. The Cause is plaine, for that the Sap hath the lesse to seed, and the lesse way to mount: But it may be, the Figge will come somewhat later, as was formerly touched. The same may be tried likewise in other Trees.

It is reported, that Mulberries will be fairer, and the Trees more 456 fruitfull, if you bore the Truncke of the Tree thorow, in seuerall places, and thrust into the Places bored, Wedges of some Hot Trees, as Turpen­tine, Mastick-Tree, Guaiacum, Inniper, &c. The Cause may be, for that Ad­uentiue Heat doth cheare vp the Natiue Iuyce of the Tree.

It is reported, that Trees will grow greater, and beare better Fruit, 457 if you put Salt, or Lees of Wine, or Bloud to the Root. The Cause may be the Encreasing the Lust or Spirit of the Root; These Things being more forcible, than ordinary Composts.

It is reported by one of the Ancients, that Artichoakes will be lesse 458 prickly, and more tender; if the Seeds haue their Tops dulled, or gra­ted off vpon a Stone.

[Page 120] 459 Herbes will be tenderer, and fairer; if you take them out of Beds, when they are newly come vp, and remoue them into Pots, with better Earth. The Remoue from Bed to Bed was spoken of before; But that was in seuerall yeares; This is vpon the sudden. The Cause is the same with other Remoues, formerly mentioned.

460 Coleworts are reported by one of the Ancients, to prosper exceeding­ly, and to be better tasted, if they be sometimes watred with Salt-Water; And much more with Water mixed with Nitre; The Spirit of which is lesse Adurent than Salt.

461 It is reported, that Cucumbers will proue more Tender, and Dainty, if their Seeds be Steeped (a little) in Milke; The Cause may be, for that the Seed being mollified with the Milke, will be too weake to draw the gros­ser Iuyce of the Earth, but onely the finer. The same Experiment may be made in Artichoakes, and other Seeds, when you would take away, either their Flashinesse, or Bitternesse. They speake also, that the like Effect followeth, of Steeping in Water mixed with Honey; But that see­meth to me not so probable, because Honey hath too quicke a Spirit.

462 It is reported that Cucumbers will be lesse Watry, and more Melon­like, it in the Pit where you set them, you fill it (halfe way vp) with Chaffe, or small Stickes, and then powre Earth vpon them; For Cucumbers, as it seemeth, doe extremely affect Moisture; And ouer-drinke themselues; Which this Chaffe, or Chips, forbiddeth. Nay it is further reported, that if when a Cucumber is growne, you fet a Pot of water about fiue or six in­ches distance from it, it will, in 24, houres, shoot so much out, as to touch the Pot; Which if it be true, it is an Experiment of an higher Na­ture than belongeth to this Title: For it discouereth Perception in Plants, to moue towards that which should helpe and comfort them, though it be at a distance. The ancient Tradition of the Vine is far more strange: It is, that if you set a Stake, or Prop, some distance from it, it will grow that way; Which is farre stranger (as is said) than the other; For that Water may worke by a Sympathy of Attraction: But this of the Stake see­meth to be a Reasonable Discourse.

463 It hath beene touched before, that Terebration of Trees doth make them prosper better. But it is found also, that it maketh the Fruit swee­ter, and better. The Cause is, for that notwithstanding the Terebration, they may receiue Aliment sufficient; And yet no more than they can well turne, and disgest; And withall doe sweat out the coursest and vn­profitablest Iuyce; Euen as it is in Lining Creatures, which by Moderate Feeding, and Exercise, and Sweat, attaine the soundest Habite of Body.

464 As Terebration doth Meliorate Fruit, so, vpon the like reason, doth Letting of Plants Blond; As Pricking Vines, or other Trees, after they be of some Growth; And thereby letting forth Gumme, or Teares; Though this be not to continue, as it is in Terebration, but at some Seasons. And it is reported, that by this Artifice, Bitter Almonds haue beene turned into Sweet.

[Page 121]The Ancients for the Dulcorating of Fruit, doe commend Swines­Dung 465 aboue all other Dung; Which may be, because of the Moisture of that Beast, whereby the Excrement hath lesse Acrimony; For wee see Swines and Pigges Flesh is the Moistest of Fleshes.

It is obserued by some, that all Herbs wax sweeter, both in Smell 466 and Taste, if after they be growne vp some reasonable time, they be cut, and so you take the latter Sprout. The Cause may be, for that the longer the Iuyce stayeth in the Root, and Stalke, the better it concocteth. For one of the Chiefe Causes, why Graines, Seeds, and Fruits, are more Nou­rishing than Leanes, is the Length of time, in which they grow to Ma­turation. It were not amisse to keepe backe the Sap of Herbs, or the like, by some fit meanes, till the end of Summer; whereby (it may be) they will be more Nourishing.

As Grafting doth generally aduance and Meliorate Fruits, aboue that 467 which they would be, if they were set of Kernells, or Stones, in regard the Nourishment is better concocted; So (no doubt) euen in Grafting, for the same cause, the Choise of the Stocke doth much; Alwayes pro­uided, that it be somewhat inferiour to the Cions: For otherwise it dul­leth it. They commend much the Grafting of Peares, or Apples, vpon a Quince.

Besides the Meanes of Melioration of Fruits, before mentioned, it is 468 set downe as tryed, that a Mixture of Bran, and Swines-Dung; Or Chaffe and Swines-Dung; (especially laid vp together for a Moneth to rot,) is a very great Nourisher, and Comforter to a Fruit-Tree.

It is deliuered, that Onions wax greater, if they be taken out of the 469 Earth, and laid a drying twenty dayes, and then set againe; And yet more, if the outermost Pill be taken off all ouer.

It is deliuered by some, that if one take the Bough of a Low Fruit­tree, 470 newly budded, and draw it gently, without hurting it, into an Earthen Pot perforate at the bottome to let in the Plant, and then Co­uer the Pot with Earth, it will yeeld a very large Fruit, within the Ground. Which Experiment is Nothing but Potting of Plants, without Remouing, and Leauing the Fruit in the Earth. The like, (they say,) will be effected, by an Empty Pot without Earth in it, put ouer a Fruit, being propped vp with a Stake, as it hangeth vpon the Tree; And the better, if some few Pertusions be made in the Pot. Wherein, besides the Defending of the Fruit, from Extremity of Sunne or Weather, some giue a reason, that the Fruit, Louing and Coueting the o­pen Aire and Sunne, is inuited by those Pertusions, to spread and ap­proch, as neare the open Aire, as it can; And so enlargeth in Mag­nitude.

All Trees, in High and Sandy Grounds, are to be set deepe; And in Wa­try 471 Grounds, more shallow. And in all Trees, when they be remoued (espe­cially Fruit-Trees) care ought to be taken, that the Sides of the Trees be coasted, (North and South, &c.) as they stood before. The same is said also of Stone out of the Quarry, to make it more durable; Though that [Page 122] seemeth to haue lesse reason; Because the Stone lyeth not so neare the Sunne, as the Tree groweth.

472 Timber Trees in a Coppice Wood, doe grow better, than in an Open Field; Both because, they offer not to spread so much, but shoot vp still in Height; And chiefly because they are defended from too much Sun and Wind, which doe checke the Growth of all Fruit; And so (no doubt) Fruit-Trees, or Vines, set vpon a Wall, against the Sunne, be­tweene Elbowes or Buttresses of Stone, ripen more, than vpon a Plaine Wall.

473 It is said, that if Potado Roots, be set in a Pot filled with Earth, and then the Pot with Earth be set likewise within the Ground, some two or three Inches, the Roots will grow greater, than Ordinary. The Cause may be, for that Hauing Earth enough within the Pot to nourish them; And then being stopped by the Bottom of the Pot from putting Strings downward, they must needs grow greater in Breadth, and Thicknesse. And it may be, that all Seeds or Roots, Potted, and so set into the Earth, will prosper the better.

474 The Cutting off the Leaues of Radish, or other Roots, in the begin­ning of Winter, before they wither; And Couering againe the Root, something high with Earth; Will preserue the Root all Winter, and make it bigger, in the Spring following, as hath beene partly touched before. So that there is a double Vse of this Cutting off the Leaues: For in Plants, where the Root is the Esculent, as Radish, and Parsnips, it will make the Root the greater: And so it will doe to the Heads of Onions. And where the Fruit is the Esculent, by Strengthning the Root, it will make the Fruit also the greater.

475 It is an Experiment of great pleasure, to make the Leaues of Shady Trees, larger than ordinary. It hath beene tryed (for certaine) that a Ci­ons of a Weech-Elme, grafted vpon the Stocke of an Ordinary Elme, will put forth Leaues, almost as broad as the Brimme of ones Hat. And it is very likely, that as in Fruit-Trees, the Graft maketh a greater Fruit; So in Trees that beare no Fruit, it will make the greater Leaues. It would be tryed therefore in Trees of that kinde chiefly; As Birch, Asp, Willow; And especially the Shining Willow, which they call Swallow-Taile, because of the pleasure of the Leafe.

476 The Barrennesse of Trees, by Accident, (besides the Weaknesse of the Soile, Seed, or Root; And the Iniury of the Weather) commeth either of their Ouer-growing with Mosse, Or their being Hide-bound; Or their Plan­ting too deepe; Or by Issuing of the Sap too much into the Leaues. For all these there are Remedies mentioned before.

Wee see that in Liuing Creatures, that haue Male and Fe­male, there is Copulation of seuerall Kindes; And so Compound Creatures; As the Mule, that is generated betwixt the Horse and the Asse; And some other Compounds, which we call Mon­sters, [Page 123] though more rare: And it is held, that that Prouerbe, Africa semper aliquid Monstri parit; commeth, for that the Fountaines of Waters there, being rare, diuers Sorts of Beasts come from seuerall Parts to drinke; And so being refreshed, fall to couple, and many times with seuerall Kinds.Experiments in Consort touching Com­pound Fruits and Flowers. The Com­pounding or Mixture of Kinds in Plants is not found out; Which neuerthelesse, if it be possible, is more at command, than that of liuing Creatures; For that their Lust requireth a voluntary Motion: wherefore it were One of the most No­ble Experiments touching Plants, to finde it out: For so you may haue great Varietie of New Fruits, and Flowers yet vn­knowne. Grafting doth it not: That mendeth the Fruit, or doubleth the Flowers, &c. But it hath not the Power to make a New Kinde. For the Cions euer ouer-ruleth the Stocke.

It hath beene set downe by one of the Ancients, that if you take two 477 Twigs of seuerall Fruit Trees, and flat them on the Sides, and then binde them close together, and set them in the ground, they will come vp in one Stocke; But yet they will put forth their seuerall Fruits, without any Commixture in the Fruit. Wherein note (by the way) that Vnitie of Con­tinuance, is easier to procure, than Vnitie of Species. It is reported also, that Vines of Red and White Grapes, being set in the Ground, and the vp­per Parts being flatted, and bound close together, will put forth Grapes of the seuerall Colours, vpon the same Branch; And Grape-Stones of se­uerall Colours within the same Grape: But the more, after a yeare or two; The Vnitie (as it seemeth) growing more Perfect. And this will likewise helpe, if from the first Vniting, they be often Watred; For all Moisture helpeth to Vnion. And it is prescribed also, to binde the Bud, as soone as it commeth forth, as well as the Stocke; At the least for a time.

They report, that diuers Seeds, put into a Clout, and laid in Earth 478 well dunged, will put vp Plants Contiguous; Which (afterwards) being bound in, their Shoots will Incorporate. The like is said of Kernels, put into a Bottle, with a Narrow Mouth, filled with Earth.

It is reported, that young Trees of seuerall kindes, set contiguous,479 without any binding, and very often Watred, in a Fruitfull Ground, with the very Luxurie of the Trees will incorporate, and grow together. Which seemeth to me the likeliest Meanes, that hath beene propounded; For that the Binding doth hinder the Naturall Swelling of the Tree; which, while it is in Motion, doth better vnite.

There are many Ancient and Receiued Traditions and Obseruations, touching the Sympathy and Antipathy of Plants: [Page 124] For that some will thriue best growing neere others; which they impute to Sympathy: And some worse; which they im­pute to Antipathy. Experiments in Consort touching the Sympathy and Antipathy of Plants. But these are Idle and Ignorant Conceits; And forsake the true Indication of the Causes; As the most Part of Experiments, that concerne Sympathies and Antipa­thies doe. For as to Plants, neither is there any such Secret Friendship, or Hatred, as they imagine; And if we should be content to call it Sympathy, and Antipathy, it is vtterly mista­ken; For their Sympathy is an Antipathy, and their Antipathy is a Sympathy: For it is thus; Wheresoeuer one Plant draweth such a particular Iuyce out of the Earth; as it qualifieth the Earth; So as that Iuyce which remaineth is fit for the other Plant, there the Neighbourhood doth good; Because the Nourishments are contrary, or seuerall: But where two Plants draw (much) the same Iuyce, there the Neighbour­hood hurteth; For the one deceiueth the other.

480 First therfore, all Plants that doe draw much Nourishment from the Earth, and so soake the Earth, and exhaust it; hurt all Things that grow by them; As Great Trees, (especially Ashes,) and such Trees, as spread their Roots, neere the Top of the Ground. So the Colewort is not an Enemy (though that were anciently receiued) to the Vine only; But it is an Enemy to any other Plant; Because it draweth strongly the fattest Iuyce of the Earth. And if it be true, that the Vine, when it creepeth neere the Colewort, will turneaway; This may be, because there it fin­deth worse Nourishment; For though the Root be where it was, yet (I doubt) the Plant will bend as it nourisheth.

481 Where Plants are of seuerall Natures, and draw seuerall Iuyces out of the Earth, there (as hath beene said) the One set by the other helpeth: As it is set downe by diuers of the Ancients, that Rew doth prosper much, and becommeth stronger, if it be set by a Figge-Tree: which (we conceiue) is caused, Not by Reason of Friendship, but by Extraction of a Contrary Iuyce: The one Drawing Iuyce fit to result Sweet, the other bitter. So they haue set downe likewise, that a Rose set by Garlicke is sweeter: Which likewise may be, because the more Fetide Iuyce of the Earth goeth into the Garlicke; And the more Odorate into the Rose.

482 This wee see manifestly, that there be certaine Corne-Flowers, which come seldome or neuer in other places, vnlesse they be set; But onely amongst Corne: As the Blew-Bottle, a kinde of Yellow Mary Gold, Wilde Poppy, and Fumitorie. Neither can this be, by Reason of the Culture of the Ground, by Plowing, or Furrowing; As some Herbs, and Flow­ers, will grow but in Ditches new Cast; for if the Ground lie sallow, and vnsowne, they will not come: So as it should seeme to be the Corne, [Page 125] that qualifieth the Earth, and prepareth it for their Growth.

This Obseruation, if it holdeth, (as it is very probable,) is of great 483 vse, for the Meliorating of Taste in Fruits, and Esculent Herbs; And of the Sent of Flowers. For I doe not doubt, but if the Figge-Tree doe make the Rew more strong, and bitter, (as the Ancients haue noted,) good store of Rew planted about the Figge-Tree, will make the Figge more sweet. Now the Tastes that doe most offend in Fruits, and Herbs, and Roots, are Bitter; Harrish; Sowre; And Watrish, or Flashy. It were good therefore to make the Trials following.

Take Wormewood, or Rew, and set it neere Lettuce, or Goleflory, or 484 Arti [...]hoake; And see whether the Lettuce, or the Coleflory, &c. become not the sweeter.

Take a Seruice-Tree, or a Cornelian-Tree, or an Elder-Tree, which wee 485 know haue Fruits of harsh and binding Iuyce, and set them neere a Vine, or Figge-Tree, and see whether the Grapes, or Figs, will be the sweeter.

Take Cucumbers, or Pumpions, and set them (here and there) amongst 486 Muske-Melons, and see whether the Melons will not be more Winy, and better tasted. Set Cucumbers (likewise) amongst Radish, and see whether the Radish will not be made the more Biting.

Take Sorrell, and set it amongst Rosps, and see whether the Rasps will 487 not be the sweeter.

Take Common Briar, and set it amongst Violets, or Wall-Flowers, and 488 see whether it will not make the Violets, or Wall-Flowers sweeter, and lesse Earthy in their Smell. So set Lettuce, or Cucumbers, amongst Rosemary, or Bayes, and see whether the Rosemary, on Bayes, will not be the more Odorate, or Aromaticall.

Contrariwise, you must take heed, how you set Herbs together, that 489 draw much the like Iuyce. And therefore I thinke Rosemary will leese in Sweetnesse, if it be set with Lauender, or Bayes, or the like. But yet, if you will correct the strength of an Herbe, you shall doe well to set other like Herbs by him, to take him downe; As if you should set Tansey by Angelica, it may be, the Angelica would be the weaker, and fitter for Mixture in Perfume. And if you should set Rew by Common Wormewood, it may be, the Wormewood would turne to be like Roman Worniewood.

This Axiome is of large extent; And therefore would be seuered, and 490 refined by Triall. Neither must you expect to haue a Grasse Difference by this kinde of Culture, but only Further Perfection.

Triall would be also made in Herbs Poisonous, and Purgatine, whose ill 491 Qualitie (perhaps) may be discharged, or attempted, by Setting stron­ger Poisons; or Purgatines, by them.

It is reported, that the Shrub called Our Ladies Seale; (which is a 492 Kinde of Briony,) and Coleworts, set neere together, one or both will die. The Cause is, for that they be both great Depredatours of the Earth, and one of them starueth the other. The like is said of a Reed, and a Brake; Both which are succulent; And therefore the One de­ceiueth [Page 126] the Other. And the like of Hemlocke and Rew; Both which draw strong luyces.

493 Some of the Ancients, and likewise diures of the Moderne Writers, that haue laboured in Natural Magicke, haue noted a Sympathy, between the Sunne, Moone, and some Principall Starres; And certaine Herbs, and Plants. And so they haue denominated some Herbs Solar, and some Lu­nar; And such like Toyes put into great Words. It is manifest, that there are some Flowers, that haue Respect to the Sunne, in two Kindes; The one by Opening and Shutting; And the other by Bowing and Incli­ning the Head. For Mary-golds, Tulippa's, Pimper [...]ell, and indeed most Flowers, doe open or spread their Leaues abroad, when the Sunne shi­neth serene and faire: And againe, (in some part,) close them, or gather them inward, either towards Night, or when the Skie is ouercast. Of this there needeth no such Solemne Reason to be assigned; As to say, that they reioyce at the presence of the Sunne; And mourne at the Ab­sence thereof. For it is Nothing else, but a little Loading of the Leaues, and Swelling them at the Bottome, with the Moisture of the Aire; whereas the drie Aire doth extend them: And they make it a Peece of the wonder, that Garden Clauer will hide the Stalke, when the Sunne sheweth bright; Which is Nothing, but a full Expansion of the leaues. For the Bowing and Inclining the Head; it is found in the great Flower of the Sunne; in Mary-golds; Wart wort; Mallow Flowers; and others. The Cause is somewhat more Obscure than the former; But I take it to be no other, but that the Part against which the Sunne beateth, waxeth more faint and flaccide in the Stalke; And thereby lesse able to support the Flower.

494 What a little Moisture will doe in Vegetables, euen though they be dead, and seuered from the Earth, appeareth well in the Experiment of Inglers. They take the Beard of an Oate; which (if you marke it well,) is wreathed at the Bottome, and one smooth entire Straw at the Top. They take only the Part that is Wreathed, and cut off the other, leauing the Beard halfe the Breadth of a finger in length. Then they make a little Crosse of a Quill, long-wayes of that Part of the Quill, which hath the Pith; And Crosse-wayes of that peece of the Quill without Pith; The whole Crosse being the Breadth of a Finger high. Then they pricke the Bottome where the Pith is, and thereinto they put the Oaten-beard, lea­uing halfe of it sticking forth of the Quill: Then they take a little white Box of wood, to deceiue Men, as if somewhat in the Box did worke the Feat: In which, with a Pinne, they make a little Hole, enough to take the Beard, but not to let the Crosse sinke downe, but to sticke. Then like­wise by way of Imposture, they make a Question; As, Who is the Fai­rest Woman in the Company? Or, Who hath a Gloue, or Card? And canse Another to name diners Persons: And vpon euery Naming, they sticke the Crosse in the Box, hauing first put it towards their Mouth, as if they charmed it; And the Crasse stirreth not; But when they come to the Person that they would take; As they hold the Orasse to their Mouth, [Page 127] they touch the Beard with the Tip of their Tongue, and wet it; And so sticke the Crosse in the Box; And then you shall see it turne finely and softly, three or foure Turnes; Which is caused by the vntwining of the Beard by the Moisture. You may see it more euidently, if you sticke the Crosse betweene your fingers, in Stead of the Box; And ther­fore you may see, that this Motion, which is effected by so little Wet, is stronger than the Closing or Bending of the Head of a Marigold.

It is reported by some, that the Herb called Rosa-Solis, (wherof they 495 make Strong Waters,) will at the Noone-day, when the Sunne shineth hot and bright, haue a great Dew vpon it. And therefore, that the right Name is Ros Solis: which they impute to a Delight and Sympathy, that it hath with the Sunne. Men fauour Wonders. It were good first to be sure, that the Dew that is found vpon it, be not the Dew of the Mor­ning Preserued, when the Dew of other Herbs is breathed away; for it hath a smooth and thicke Leafe, that doth not discharge the Dew so soone, as other Herbs that are more Spungy and Porous. And it may be Purslane, or some other Herb, doth the like, and is not marked. But if it be so, that it hath more Dew at Noone, than in the Morning, then sure it seemeth to be an Exudation of the Herb is solfe. As Plums sweat when they are set into the Ouen: for you will not (I hope) thinke, that it is like Gedeons Fleeel of Wood, that the Dew should fail vpon that, and no where else.

It is certaine, that the Honey-dews are found more vpon Oahe-le [...]es, 496 than vpon A [...] of Beech, or the like: But whether any Cause be, from the Leafe it selfe, to concoct [...] the Dew, Or whether it be onely, that the Leafe is Close and Smooth; (And therefore drinketh not in the Dew, but preserueth it;) may be doubted. It would be well inquired, whe­ther Ma [...] the Drug, doth fall but vpon certaine Herbs or L [...] onely. Flowers that haue deepe Sockets, doe gather in the Bottome, a kinde of Honey; As Honey-Suckles; (both the Woodbine, and the Trisoile;) Dil­lier; and the like. And in them certainly the Flower beareth part with the Dew.

The Experience is, that the Froth, which they call Woodsears, (being 497 like a kinde of Spittle,) is found but vpon certaine Herbs, and those Hot Ones; As Lauender-cotton, Sage, Hissope, &c. Of the Cause of this enquire further; For it seemeth a Secret. There falleth also Mil­dew vpon Corne, and smutteth it; But it may be, that the same salleth also vpon other Herbs, and is not obserued.

It were good, Triall were made, whether the great Consent be­tweene 498 Plants and Water, which is a principall Nourishment of them; will make an Attraction or Distance, and not at Touch onely. Therfore take a Vessell, and in the middle of it make a false Bottome of course Can [...]affe: Fill it with E [...] aboue the Canuaffey and let not the Bar [...]h be wa [...]ed; Then sow some good Seeds in that Earth, But [...] the Canuaffe, some halfe a foot in the Bottome of the Vessell, lay a great Sp [...]ge, th [...]owly wet in water; And let it lye so some ten Dayes. And [Page 128] see whether the Seeds will sprout, and the Earth become more Moist, and the Spunge more dry. The Experiment formerly mentioned of the Cu­cumber, creeping to the Pot of Water, is far stranger than this.

The Altering of the Sent, Colour, or Taste, of Fruit, by Infusing, Mix­ing, or Letting into the Barke, or Rost, of the Tree, Herb, or Flower, any Coloured, Aromaticall, or Medicinall; Substance; are but Fancies. Experiments in Consort, touching the Making Herbs and Fruits Me­dicinable. The Cause is, for that those Things haue passed their Period, and nourish not. And 499 all Alteration of Vegetables, in those Qualitles, must be by somewhat, that is apt to goe into the Nourishment of the Plant. But this is true; that where Kine feed vpon Wilde Garlicke, their Milke tasteth plainly of the Garlicke: And the Flesh of Muttons is better tasted where the Sheepe feed vpon Wilde Thyme, and other wholesome Herbs. Galen also speaketh of the Curing of the Scirrus of the Liuer, by Milke of a Cow, that fee­deth but vpon certaine Herbs; And Honey in Spaine smelleth (apparent­ly) of the Rosemary, or Orenge, from whence the Bee gathereth it: And there is an old Tradition of a Mayden that was fed with Napellus; (which is counted the Strongest Poyson of all Vegetables;) which with vse did not hurt the Maid, but poisoned some that had Carnall Company with her. So it is obserued by some, that there is a vertuous Bexoar, and an­other without vertue; which appeare to the shew alike; But the Vertu­ous is taken from the Beast, that feedeth vpon the Mountaines, where there are Theriacall Herbs; And that without Vertue; from those that feed in the Valleyes, where no such Herbs are. Thus far I am of Opini­on; That as Steeped Wines and Beeres, are very Medicinall; and like­wise Bread tempred with diuers Powders; So of Meat also, (as Flesh, Fish, Milke, and Egges,) that they may be made of great vse for Medi­cine, and Diet, if the Beasts, Fowle, or Fish, be fed with a speciall kinde of food, fit for the Disease. It were a dangerous Thing also for secret Em­poysonthents. But whether it may be applyed vnto Plants, and Herbs. I doubt more; Because the Nourishment of them is a more common Iuyce; which is hardly capable of any speciall Quality, vntill the Plant doe assimilate it.

500 But lest our Incredulity may preiudice any profitable Operations in this kind, (especially since Many of the Ancients haue set them down,) We thinke good briefly to propound the foure Meanes, which they haue deuised of Making Plants Medicinable. The First is by Slitting of the Root, and Infusing into it the Medicine; As Hellebore, Opium, Scammony, Triacle, &c. And then binding it vp againe. This seemeth to me the least probable; Because the Root draweth immediately from the Earth; And so the Nourishment is the more Common, and lesse Qualified: And besides, it is a long time in Going vp, ere it come to the Fruit. The Se­cond Way is, to Perforate the Body of the Tree, and there to Infuse the Medicine: Which is somewhat better: For if any Vertue be receiued from the Medicine, it hath the lesse way, and the lesse time, to goe vp. The Third is, the Steeping of the Seed or Kernell in some Liquour, where­in [Page 129] the Medicine is Infused: Which I haue little Opinion of, because the Seed, (I doubt,) will not draw the Parts of the Matter, which haue the Propriety: But it will be farre the more likely, if you mingle the Me­dicine with Dung; For that the Seed naturally drawing the Moisture of the Dung, may call in withall some of the Propriety. The fourth is, the Watring of the Plant oft, with an Infusion of the Medicine. This, in one respect, may haue more force than the rest; Because the Medication is oft renewed; Whereas the rest are applyed but at one time: And therefore the Vertue may the sooner vanish. But still I doubt, that the Root is somewhat too stubborne to receiue those fine Impressions; And besides, (as I said before,) they haue a great Hill to goe vp. I iudge therefore the likeliest way to be the Perforation of the Body of the Tree, in senerall Places, one aboue the other; And the Fil­ling of the Holes with Dung mingled with the Medicine. And the Watring of those Lumpes of Dung, with Squirts of an Infusion of the Medicine in Dunged water, once in three or foure Daies.

VI. Century.

OVR Experiments we take care to be, (as we haue often said,) either Experimen­ta Fructifera, or Lucifera; Either of Vse, or of Discouery: For we hate Im­postures; And despise Curiosities. Experiments in Consort, touching Curio­sities about Fruits and Plants. Yet be­cause we must apply out Selues some­what to Others, wee will set downe some Curiofities touching Plants.

It is a Curiosity, to haue seuerall Fruits vpon one Tree; And the more,501 when some of them come Early, and some come Late; So that you, may haue, vpon the same Tree, Ripe Fruits all Sommer. This is easily done, by Grafting of Seurall Cians, vpon seuerall Boughes of a Stock, in a good Ground, plentifully sed. So you may haue all Kindes of Cher­ries, and all kindes of Plums, and Peaches, and Apricots, vpon one Tree; But I conceiue the Diuer sity of Fruits must be such, as will grast vpon the same Stocke. And therefore, I doubt, whether you can haue Ap­ples, or Peares, or Orenges, vpon the same Stocke, vpon which you graft Plummes.

It is a Curiosity to haue Fruits of Diuers Shopes, and Figures. This is 502 easily performed by Moulding them, when the Fruit is young, with Moulds of Earth, or Wood. So you may haue Cucumbers &c. as Long [Page 132] as a Cane; Or as Round as a Spheare; Or formed like a Crosse. You may haue also Apples, in the sorme of Peares, or Limons. You may haue also Fruit in more Accurate Figures; As we said of Men, Beasts, or Birds, according as you make the Moulds. Wherein you must vnderstand, that you make the Mould big enough, to containe the whole Fruit, when it is growne to the greatest: For else you will choake the Sprea­ding of the Fruit; Which otherwise would spread it selfe, and fill the Concaue, and so be turned into the Shape desired; As it is in Mould­workes of Liquid Things. Some doubt may be conceiued, that the Keeping of the Sunne from the Fruit, may hurt it: But there is ordina­ry experience of Fruit that groweth Couered. Quare also, whether some small Holes, may not be made in the Wood, to let in the Sunne. And note, that it were best to make the Moulds partible, glued, or ce­mented together, that you may open them, when you take out the Fruit.

503 It is a Curiosity, to haue Inscriptions, or Engrauings, in Fruit, or Trees. This is easily performed, by Writing with a Needle, or Bodkin, or Knife, or the like, when the Fruit, or Trees are young; For as they grow, so the Letters will grow more large, and Graphicall.

—Teneris (que) meos incidere Amores
Arboribus, crescent illa, crescetis Amores[?].

504 You may haue Trees apparrelled with Flowers, or Herbs, by Boring Holes in the Bodies of them, and Putting into them Earth Holpen with Mucke, and Setting Seeds, or Slips, of Wielets, Stramberries, Wilde-Thyme Camamill, and such like in the Earth. Wherein they doe but grow, in the Tree, as they doe in Pots; Though (perhaps) with some Feeding from the Trees. It would be tried also with Shoots of Vines and Roots of Red­Roses; For it may be, they being of a more Ligueout Nature, will in­corporate with the Tree it selfe.

505 It is an ordinary Curiosity, to Forme Trees and Sbrubs, (as Rosemary, Inniper, and the like,) into Sundry Shapes; which is done by Moul­ding them within, and Cutting them without. But they are but lame Things, being too small to keepe Figure: Great Castles made of Trees vpon Frames of Timber, with Turrets, and Arches, were anciently mat­ters of Magnificence.

506 Amongst Cariofities, I shall place Colouration, though it be somewhat better: For Beauty in Flowers is their Preheminence. It is obserued by some, that Gilly-flowers, Sweet-Williams, Yielets, that are Coloured, if they be neglected, and neither Watred, not New Monlded, nor Transplan­ted, will turne White. And it is probable, that the White with much cul­ture, may turne Coloured. For this is certaine, that the White Colour commeth of Scarcity of Nourishment; Except in Flowers that are onely White, and admit no other Colours.

507 It is good therefore, to see what Natures doe accompany what Co­lours; For by that you shall haue Light, how to induce Colours, by Pro­ducing those Natures. Whites are more Inodorate, (for the most part) [Page 133] than Flowers of the same kinde Coloured; As is found in Single White Violets, White-Roses, White Gilly-Flowers, White Stock-Grlly-Flowers, &c. Wee finde also, that Blossomes of Trees, that are White, are commonly Inodorate; As Cherries, Pearas; Pl [...]s; Whereas those of Apples, Crabs, Almonds, and Peaches, are Blushy, and Smell Sweet. The Cause is, for that the Substance that maketh the Flower, is of the thinnest and sinest of the Plant; Which also maketh Flowers to be of so dain­ty Colours. And if it bee too Sparing, and Thinne, it attaineth no Strength of Odour; Except it be in such Plants, as are very Succulent; Whereby they need rather to be scanted in their Nourishment, than replenished, to haue them sweet. As we fee in White Satyrian, which is of a Dainty Smell; And in Beane-Flowers, &c. And againe, if the Plant be of Nature, to put forth White Flowers onely, and those not thinne, or dry, they are commonly of rancke and fulsome Smell; As May-Flowers, and White Lillies.

Contrariwise, in Berries, the White is commonly more Delicaee,508 and Sweet in Taste, than the Coloured; As wee see in White Grapes; In White Raspes; In White Strawberries; In White Carra [...], &c. The Cause is, for that the Coloured are more iuyced, and courfer iuyced; And therefore not so well and equally Concocted; But the White are better proportioned, to the Disgestion of the Plant.

But in Fruits, the White commonly is meaner; As in Peare-Plums,509 Da [...]asi [...]s, &c. And the Choicest Plammes are Blacke, The Malberry, (which though they call it a Berry, is a Fruit,) is better the Blacke, than the White. The Haruest White-Pl [...]mme, is a base Pl [...]mme; And the Ver­doccie and White Date-Plamme, are no very good Plummes. The Cause is, for that they are all Ouer-watry: Whereas an higher Concoction is required for Sweetnesse, or Pleasure of Taste; And therefore all your dainty Plummes, are a little dry, and come from the Stone; As the Muscle-Plumme, the Damasin-Plumme, the Peach, the Apricet, &c. Yet some Fruits, which grow not to be Blacke, are of the Nature of Berries, sweetest such as are Paler; As the Cae [...]r-Cherry, which incli­neth more to White, is sweeter than the Red; But the Egriot is more sowre.

Take Gilly-Flower Seed, of one kinde of Gilly-Flower: (As of the 510 Cloue-Gilly-Flower, which is the most Common;) And sow it; And there will come vp Gilly-Flowers, some of one Colour, and some of an­other, casually, as the Seed meeteth with Nourishment in the Earth; So that the Gardiners finde, that they may haue two or three Roots a­mongst an hundred, that are rare, and of great Price: As Purple, Car­nation of Seuerall Stripes; The Canse is, (no doubt,) that in Earth, though it be contiguous, and in one Bed, there are very feuerall luyees; And as the Seed doth casually meet with them, so it commethforth. And it is noted especially, that those which doe come vp Purple, doe alwayes come vp Single; The Iuyee, as it seemeth, not being able to suffice a Succulent Colour, and a Double Leafe. This Experiment of seuerall Co­lours, [Page 134] comming vp from one Seed, would be tried also in Larkes-Foot, Moukes-Head, Rappy, and Hollyoke.

511 Few Fruits are coloured Red within; The Queene-Apple is; And another Apple, called the Rose Apple; Mulberries likewise; and Grapes, though most toward the Skinne. There is a Peach also, that hath a Circle of Red towards the Stone: And the Egriot-Cherry is somewhat Red within; But no Peare, nor Warden, not Plumme, nor Apricet, al­though they haue (many times) Red sides, are Coloured Red within. The Canse may be enquired.

512 The Generall Colour of Plants is Greene; which is a Colour that no Flower is of. There is a Greenish Prime-Rose, but it is Pale, and scatce a Greene; The Leaues of some Trees turne a little Murry, or Reddish; And they be commonly Young Leaues that doe so; As it is in Oakes, and Vines, and Hasle. Leaves tot into a Yellow; And some Hollies haue part of their Leaues Yellow, that are, (to all seeming,) as Fresh and Shining, as the Greene. I suppose also, that Yellow is a lesse Succulent Colour, than Greene; And a degree nearer White. For it hath beene noted, that those Yellow Leaues of Holly stand euor towards the North, or North-East. Some Roots are Yellow, as Carress; And some Plants Bloud-Red, Stalke and Leafe, and all; as Amaranthus. Some Herbs incline to Purple, and Red; As a Kinde of Sage doth, and a Kinde of Mint, and Rosa Solis, &c. And Some haue White Leaues, as another Kinde of Sape, and another kinde of Mins; But Azure, and a Paire Purple, are neuer found in Leaues. This Sheweth, that Flowers are made of a Refined luyce, of the Earth; And so are Fruits: But Leaues of a more Courfe, and Common.

513 It is a Curiosity also to make Flowers Double; Which is effected by Often Remouing them into New Earth; As on the contrary Part, Dou­ble Flowers, by neglecting, and not Remouing, proue Single And the Way to doe it speedily, is to sow or set Seeds, or Slips of Flowers; And as soone as they come vp, to remoue them into New Ground, that is good. Enquire also, whether Inoculating of Flowers, (as Stock-Gilly­Flowers, Roses, Muske-Roses. &c.) doth not make them Double. There is a Cherry-Tree, that hath Double Blossomes; But that Tree beareth no Fruit; And, it may be, that the same Meanes, which applied to the Tree, doth extremely accelerate the Sap to rise, and breake sorth. Would make the Tree spend it selfe in Flowers, and those to become Double; Which were a great pleasure to see; Especially in Apple-Trees, Peach-Trees, and Almond-Trees, that haue Blossomes Blush-Coloured.

514 The Making of Fruits, without Core or Stone, is likewise a Curiosity; And somewhat better: Because whatsoeuer maketh them so, is like to make them more Tender and Delicate. If a Cions or Shooe, fit to be set in the Ground, haue the Pith finely taken forth, (and not altogether, but some of it left, the better to saue the life,) it will beare a Fruit with little, or no Core, or Stone. And the like is said to be, of diuiding a Quicke-Tree downe to the Ground, and Taking out the Pith, and then binding it vp againe.

[Page 135]It is reported also, that a Citron grafted vpon a Quince haue 515 small or no Seeds; And it is very probable, that [...] graf­ted vpon a Stocke, that [...] a Sweeter Fruit may hath make the Fruit sweeter, and more void of the harsh [...] or Seeds.

It is reported, that not only the [...] [...] of the [...] but the Steep­ping[?] 516 of the Iuyce of the Pith, from Rising in the [...] if you should boare a Tree cleane thorow, and put a wedge in.It is true, there is some Affinitie betweene the Pith, and the Kernell,because they are both of a harsh Substance, and both placed in the Middest.

It is reported, that Trees watred perpetually with Warme Water, will 517 make a Fruit, with little or no Core, or [...]. And the Rule is generall, that whatsoeuer will make a Water-Tree a Garden-Tree[?], will make a Gar­den-Tree to haue lesse Core, or Stone.

The Rule is certaine, that Plants for want of Culture, [...] to be be baser in the same Kinde; And sometimes so [...], as to change into another Kinde.Experiments in Consort touching the Degenerating of Plants; And of the Transmu­tation of them, one into ano­ther. 1. The St [...]ding [...] not being Remoued, [...]keth them degenerase. 2. Drangle, vnlesse the Earth of it selfe be moist, doth the like. 3. So doth Remouing into worse Earth, or Gorbearing to C [...]p [...]st the Earth; As wee see that Water-Mini turneth into Field-Mini; And the Colewort into Rape by Neglect, &c.

Whatsouer Fruit vseth to bee set vpon a Ro [...], or a Slipif it bee [...] 518 will degenerate. Grapes sowne; Figs, Almonds, Pomgranate Ker­nells 519 sowne; make the Fruits degenerate, and become Wilde. And againe, Most of those Fruits that vse to be grafted, if they be set of Ker­nells, or Stones, degenerate. It is true, that [...], (as hath beene tou­ched before,) doe better vpon S [...] S [...], than vpon Grafting: And the Rule of Exception should seeme to be this; That whatsoeuer P [...] re­quireth much Moisture, prospereth better vpon the Stone, or Kernell, than vpon the Graft. For the Stocke, though it glueth a finer Nourish­ment, yet it giueth a scanter, than the Earth at large.

Seeds, if they be very Old, and yet haue strength enough to bring forth 520 a Plant, make the Plant degenerate. And therefore skilfull Gardiners make triall of the Seeds, before they buy them, whether they be good or no, by Putting them into Water gently Boyled; And if they be good, they will sprout within Halfe an Houre.

It is strange which is reported, that Basill too such exposed to the 521 Sunne, doth turne into Wilde Thyme: Although those two Herbs seeme to haue small Affinitie; but Basill is almost the only Hot Herbe, that hath Fat and Succulent Leaues; Which Oylinesse, if it be drawne forth by the Sunne, it is like it will make a very great Change.

There is an old Tradition, that Boughs of Oake, put into the Earth,522 will put forth Wilde Vines: Which if it be true, (no doubt,) it is not the Oake that turneth into a Vine, but the Oake-Bough Putrifying, qualifieth the Earth, to put forth a Vine of it selfe.

[Page 136] 523 It is not impossible, and I haue heard it verified, that vpon Cutting downe of an Old Timber-Tree, the Stub hath put out sometimes a Tree of another Kinde; As that Beech hath put forth Birch; Which, if it be true, the Cause may be, for that the old Stub is too scant of Iuyce, to put forth the former Tree; And therefore putteth forth a Tree of a smaller kindey that needeth lesse Nourishment.

524 There is an Opinion in the Countrey, that if the same Ground be oft sowen, with the Graine that grew vpon it, it will, in the end, grow to be of a ba [...]er kinde.

525 It is certaine, that in very Sterile Yeares, Carne sowne will grow to an Other Kinde.

Grandia sapè quibus mandauimus Hordes Sulcis.
Infoelix Lolium, & steriles dominantur Auena.

And generally it is a Rule, that Plants, that are brought forth by Culture, as Corne, will sooner change into other Species, than those that come of themselues: For that Culture giueth but an Aduentitious Nature, which is more easily put off.

This worke of the Transmutation of Plants, one into ano­ther, is inter Magnalia Naturae: For the Transmutation of Spe­cies is, in the vulgar philosophie, pronounced Impossible: And certainly, it is a thing of difficultie, and requireth deepe Seatch into Nature: But feeing there appeare some manifest Instances of it, the Opinion of Impossibilitie is to be reiected; And the Meanes thereof to be found out. Wee see, that in Liuing Creatures, that come of Putrefaction, there is much Transmutation, of one into another; As Catterpillers turne in­to Flies, &c. And it should seeme probable, that what soeuer Creature, hauing life, is generated without Seed, that Creature will change out of one Species into another. For it is the Seed, and the Nature of it, which locketh and boundeth in the Creature, that it doth not expatiate. So as wee may well conclude, that seeing the Earth, of it selfe, doth put forth Plants, without Seed, therefore Plants may well haue a Trans­migration of Species. Wherefore Wanting Instances, which doe occurre, wee shall giue Directions of the most likely Trialls: And generally, wee would not haue those, that read this our Worke of Sylua Syluarum, account it strange, or thinke that it is an Ouer-Haste, that wee haue set downe Particulars vntried; For contrariwise, in our owne Estimation, we ac­count such Particulars, more worthy, than those that are al­ready [Page 137] tried and knowne. For these Later must be taken as you finde them; But the Other doe leuell Point blanke at the Inuenting of Causes, and Axiomes.

Flast therefore you must make account, that if you will haue one 526 Plant change into another, you must haue the Nourishment ouer-rule the Seed; And therefore you are to practise it by Nourishments as contrary, as may be, to the Nature of the Harbs; So neuerthelesse as the Herbe may grow; And likewise with Seeds that are of the Weakest Sort, and haue least Vigour. You shall doe well therefore, to take Marsh-Herbs, and Plant them vpon Tops of Hills, and Champaignes; And such plants as require much Moisture, vpon Sandy and very drie Grounds. As for Example, Marsh-Maltowes, and Sedge, vpon Hills; Cucumber and Let­ [...]nce. Seeds, and Coloworis, vpon a Sandy Plas: So contrariwise plant Bushes, Heath, Ling, and Brakes, vpon a Wet or Mu [...]sh Ground. This I conceiue also, that all E [...]c [...]lent and Garden-Herbs, set vpon the Tops of Hills, will proue more Modicinall, though leffe E [...]lent, than they were before. And it may be likewise, some Wilde-Herbs you may make Sal­lel-Herbs. This is the first Rule for Trans [...]ction of Plants.

The second Rule shall be to burie some few Seeds, of the Herbe you 527 would change, amongst other Seeds; And then you shall see, whether the luyee of those other Seeds, doe [...] so qualifie the Earth, as it will alter the Seed, whereupon you worke. As for Example; Put Parfly­ [...] amongst Onion-S [...]t Or Lettuce Seed amongst Parthy-Seed; Or Ba [...]-Seed amongst Thyme-Seed; And see the Change of Taste on other­wise. But you shall doe well, to put the Seed you would change, into a little linnen Cloth, that it mingle not with the forraine Seed.

The third Rule shall be, the Making of some Medley or Mixture of 528 Earth, with some other plants Braised, or Shanes, either in Leafe or Root; As for Example, make Earth with a Mixture of Calmert-Leaues, stamped, and set in it Artis [...]kes, or Pars [...]ips; So take Earth made with Mai [...], or Origa [...]m, or Wilde Th [...], bruised, or stamped, and set in it Fennell-Seed, &c. In which Operation, the Processe of Nature still will be, (as I conceiue,) not that the Harbe you worke vpon, should draw the Iuyce of the Fo [...] [...]ne Herbes (For that Opinion was haue for­merly reiected;) But that there will be a New Confection of Mould, which perhaps will alter the Seed, and yet not to the kinde of the former Herbe.

The fo [...] Rule shall be, to [...] what Herbs, some [...] doe put 529 forth of themselues; And to take [...] Earth, and to Pat it, or to [...] it; And in that to set the Seed you would change: as for example, sake from vnder Walls, or the like, where Nettles put forth in abundance, the Earth which you shall there finde, without any String, or Root of the Nettles; And Pot that Earth, and set in it Stock-gilly, flowers, or Wall Flowers, &c. Or sow in the Seeds of them; And see what the Euent will be: Or take Earth, that you haue prepared to put forth Mush­romes, [Page 138] of it selfe, (whereof you shall finde some Instances following;) And sow in it Purslane Seed, or Lettuce-Seed; For in these Experiments, it is likely enough, that the Earth being accustomed to send forth one Kinde of Nourishment, will alter the new Seed.

530 The fifth Rule shall be, to make the Herbe grow Contrary to his Na­ture; As to make Ground-Herbes rise in Heighth: As for example; Carry Camomill, or Wilde-Thyme, or the Greene Strawberry, vpon Sticks, as you doe Heps vpon Poles; And see what the Euent will be.

531 The sixth Rule shall be, to make Plants grow out of the Sunne, or Open Aire; For that is a great Mutation in Nature; And may induce a Change in the Seed: As barrell vp Earth, and sow some Seed in it, and put it in the Bottome of a Pond; Or put it in some great hollow Tree; Trie also the Sowing of Seeds, in the Bottomes of Caues; And Pots with Seeds sowne, hanged vp in Wells, some distance from the Water, and see what the Euent will be.

It is certaine, that Timber-Trees in Coppice-Words, grow more vpright, and more free from Vnder-Boughs, than those that stand in the Field; The Cause whereof is, for that Plants haue a Naturall Motion, to get to the Sunne; And besides, they are not glutted with too much Nourish­ment; For that the Coppice shareth with them; And Repletion euer hin­dreth 532 Stature; Lastly, they are kept warme; And that euer in Plants helpeth Mounting.Experiments in Consort touching the Proco [...]tic, and Lownesse, and Artificiall dwar­sing of Trees.

533 Trees, that are, of themselues, full of Heat, (which Heat appeareth by their Inflammable Gumms,) as Firrs, and Pines, mount of themselues in Heighth without Side-Boughs, till they come towards the Top. The Cause is, partly Heat; And partly Tenuitie of Iuyce; Both which send the Sap vpwards. As for Iuniper, it is but a Shrub, and groweth not bigge enough in Body, to maintaine a tall Tree.

534 It is reported, that a Good Strong Canuas, spread ouer a Tree grasted low, soone after it putteth forth, will dwarfe it, and make it spread. The Cause is plaine; For that all Things that grow, will grow as they finde Roome.

535 Trees are generally set of Roots, or Kernells; But if you set them of Slips, (as of some Trees you may, by name the Mulberry), some of the Slips will take; And those that take, (as is reported,) will be Dwarfe­Trees. The Cause is, for that a Slip draweth Nourishment more weakly, than either a Root, or Kernell.

536 All Plants, that put forth their Sap hastily, haue their Bodies not pro­portionable to their Length; And therefore they are Winders, and Cree­pers; As Iuy, Briony, Hops, Woodbine: Whereas Dwarsing requireth a slow Putting forth, and lesse Vigour of Mounting.

The Scripture saith, that Salomon wrote a Naturall History, from the Cedar of Libanus, to the Mosse growing vpon the Wall: [Page 139] For so the belt Translations haue it.Experiments in Consort, touching the And it is true that Mosse is but the Rudiment of a Plant. And (as it were) the Mould of Earth, or Barke.

Mosse groweth chiefly vpon Ridges of Houses, tiled or thatched, And 537 vpon the Crests of Walls. And that Mosse is of a lightsome, and pleasant Greene. The Growing vpon Slopes is caused, for that Mosse, as on the one side it commeth of Moisture and Water, so on the other side the Water must but Slide, and not Stand or Poole. And the Growing vpon Tiles, or Walls, &c. is caused, for that those dried Earths, hauing not Moisture sufficient to put forth a Plant, doe practise Gormination by Put­ting forth Mosse; Though when by Age, or otherwise, they grow to relent and resolue, they sometimes put forth Plants; As Wall-Flowers. And almost all Mosse hath here and there little Stalkes, besides the low Thrumme.

Mosse groweth vpon Alleyes, especially such as lye Cold, and vpon 538 the North; As in diuers Tarrasses: And againe, if they be much trod­den; Or if they were, at the first, grauelled; For wheresoeuer Plants are kept downe, the Earth putteth forth Mosse.

Old Ground, that hath beene long vnbroken vp, gathereth Mosse: 539 And therfore Husbandmen vse to cure theit Pasture Grounds, when they grow to Mosse, by Tilling them for a yeare, or two: Which also depen­deth vpon the same Cause; For that, the more Sparing and Staruing Iuyce of the Earth, in sufficient for Plants, doth breed Mosse.

Old Trees are more Mossy, (farre) than Young; For that the Sap is 540 not so francke as to rise all to the Boughes, but tireth by the way, and putteth out Mosse.

Fountaines haue Mosse growing vpon the Ground about them; 541 ‘Muscosi Fontes;—’ The Cause is, for that the Fountaines draine the Water from the Ground Adiacent, and leaue but sufficient Moisture to breed Mosse: And besides, the Coldnesse of the Water conduceth to the same.

The Mosse of Trees, is a kinde of Haire; For it is the Iuyce of the 542 Tree, that is Excerned, and doth not Affimilate. And vpon great Trees the Mosse gathereth a Figure, like a Leafe.

The Moister Sort of Trees yeeld little Mosse; As we see in Aspes, Po­plars,543 Willowes, Beeches, &c. Which is partly caused, for the Reason that hath beene giuen, of the francke Putting vp of the Sap into the Boughes; And partly, for that the Barkes of those Trees, are more Close and Smooth, than those of Oakes, and Ashes; Whereby the Mosse can the hardlier issue out.

In Clay-Grounds, all Fruit-Trees grow full of Mosse, both vpon Body 544 and Boughes; Which is caused, partly by the Coldnesse of the Ground, whereby the Plants nourish lesse; And partly by the Toughnesse of the Earth, whereby the Sap is shut in, and cannot get vp, to spread so franck­ly, as it should doe.

[Page 140] 545 Wee haue said heretofore, that if Trees be Hide-bound, they wax lesse Fruitfull, and gather Mosse: And that they are holpen by Hacking, &c. And therefore by the Reason of Contraries, if Trees be bound in with Cords, or some Outward Bands, they will put forth more Mosse: Which (I thinke) happeneth to Trees that stand Bleake, and vpon the Cold Winds. It would also be tried, whether, if you couer a Tree, somewhat thicke vpon the top, after his Powling, it will not gather more Mosse. I thinke also, the Watring of Trees with Cold Fountaine-Wa­ter, will make them grow full of Mosse.

546 There is a Mosse the Perfumers haue, which commeth out of Apple­Trees, that hath an Excellent Sent. Quare particularly for the Manner of the Growth, and the Nature of it. And for this Experiments, sake, be­ing a Thing of Price, I haue set downe the last Experiments, how to mul­tiply, and call on Mosses.

Next vnto Mosse, I will speake of Mushromes; Which are likewise an Vnperfect Plant. These Mushromes haue two strange Properties; The One, that they yeeld so Delicious a Meat; The other, that they come vp so bastily; As in a Night; And yet they are Vnsowne. And therefore, such as are Vpstarts in State, they call, in reproch, Mushromes. It must needs bee therefore, that they be made of much Moisture; And that Moisture Fat, Grosse, and yet somewhat Concocted. And (indeed) we finde, that Mushromes cause the Accident, which we call Incubus, or the Mare, in the Stomacke. And therefore the Surfet of them may Suffocate, and Empoyson. And this sheweth, that they are Windy; And that Windinesse is Grosse, and Swelling; Not Sharpe, or Griping. And vpon the same reason Mushromes are a venereous Meat.

547 It is reported, that the Barke of White, or Red Poplar, (which are of the Moistest of Trees,) cut small, and cast into Furrowes well dunged, will cause the Ground to put forth Mushromes, at all Seasons of the Yeare, fit to be eaten. Some adde to the Mixture Leanen of Bread, resolued in Water.

548 It is reported, that if a Hilly-Field, where the Stubble is standing, bee set on Fire, in a Showry Season, it will put forth great Store of Mushromes.

549 It is reported, that Harts-Horne, Shauen, or in Small Peeces, mixed with Dung, and watred, putteth vp Mushromes. And we know Harts­Horne is of a Fat and Clammy Substance: And it may be Oxe-Horne would doe the like.

550 It hath beene reported, though it be searce credible, that Iuy hath growne out of a Stags-Horne; Which they suppose, did rather come [Page 141] from a Confrication of the Horne vpon the Iuy than from the Horne it selfe. There is not knowne any Substance, but Earth, and the Procedures of Earth, (as Tile, Stone, &c.) that yeeldeth any Mosse, or Herby Substance. There may be Trial made of some Seeds, as that of Fennel-Seed, Mustard Seed, and Rape-Seed, put into some little Holes, made in the Hornes of Stags, or Oxen, to see if they will grow.

There is also another Vnperfect Plant, that (in shew) is like a great 551 Mushrome: And it is sometimes as broad as ones Hat; Which they call a Toads-Stoole: But it is not Esculent; And it groweth (commonly) by a dead Stub of a Tree; And likewise about the Roots of Rotten Trees: And therefore seemeth to take his Iuyce from Wood Putrified. Which sheweth, by the way, that Wood-Putrified yeeldeth a franke Moisture.

There is a Cake, that groweth vpon the Side of a Dead Tree, that 552 hath gotten no Name, but it is large, and of a Chesnut Colour, and hard, and pithy; Whereby it should seeme, that euen Dead Trees for­get not their Putting forth; No more than the Careasses of Mens Bodies, that put forth Haire, and Nailes, for a Time.

There is a Cod, or Bag, that groweth commonly in the Fields; That 553 at the first is hard like a Tennis-Ball, and white; And after groweth of a Mushrome Colour, and full of light Dust vpon the Breaking: And is thought to be dangerous for the Eyes, if the Powder get into them; And to bee good for Kibes. Belike it hath a Corrosiue, and Fretting Nature.

There is an Herb called Iewes-Eare, that groweth vpon the Roots, 554 and Lower Parts of the Bodies of Trees; Especially of Elders, and some­times Ashes. It hath a strange Property; For in Warme-water, it swel­leth, and openeth extremely. It is not greene, but of a dusky browne Colour. And it is vsed for Squinancies, and Inflammations in the Throat; Whereby it seemeth to haue a Mollifying, and Lenifying Vertue.

There is a Kinde of Spongy Excrescence, which groweth chiefly vp­on 555 the Roots of the Laser-Tree; And sometimes vpon Cedar, and other Trees. It is very White, and Light, and Friable: Which we call Aga­rick. It is famous in Physicke for the Purging of Tough flegme. And it is also an excellent Opener for the Liuer: But Offensiue to the Stomack; And in Taste it is, at the first, Sweet, and after Bitter.

We finde no Super-Plant, that is a Formed Plant, but Misseltoe. They 556 haue an idle Tradition, that there is a Bird, called a Missel-Bird, that fee­deth vpon a Seed, which many times shee cannot disgest, and so expel­leth it whole with her Excrement: which falling vpon a Bough of a Tree, that hath some Rift, putteth forth the Misseltoe. But this is a Fable: For it is not probable, that Birds should feed vpon that they cannot disgest. But allow that, yet it cannot be for other Reasons: For First, it is found but vpon certaine Trees; And those Trees beare no such Fruit, as may al­lure that Bird to sit, and feed vpon them. It may be, that Bird feedeth vpon the Misseltoe-Berries, and so is often found there; Which may haue giuen occasion to the Tale. But that which maketh an End of the Que­stion, [Page 142] is, that Misseltoe hath beene found to put forth vnder the Boughes, and not (onely) aboue the Boughes: So it cannot be any Thing that fal­leth vpon the Bough. Misseltoe groweth chiefly vpon Crab-Trees, Apple­Trees; sometimes vpon Hasses; And rarely vpon Oakes; The Misseltoe whereof is counted very Medicinall. It is cuer greene, Winter and Sum­mer; And beareth a White Glistering Berry: And it is a Plant, vtterly differing from the Plant, vpon which it groweth. Two things therfore may be certainly set downe: First, that Super-fatation must be by Abun­dance of Sap, in the Bough that putteth it forth: Secondly, that that Sap must be such, as the Tree doth excerne, and cannot affimilate; For else it would goe into a Bough; And besides, it seemeth to be more Fat and Vnctuous, than the Ordinary Sap of the Tree; Both by the Berry, which is Clammy; And by that it continueth greene, Winter and Summer, which the Tree doth not.

557 This Experiment of Misseltoe may giue Light to other Practises. Therefore Triall would be made, by Ripping of the Bough of a Crab-Tree, in the Barke; And Watring of the Wound euery Day, with Warme Wa­ter Dunged, to see if it would bring forth Misseltoe, or any such like Thing. But it were yet more likely to try it, with some other Watring, or Anointing, that were not so Naturall to the Tree, as Water is; As Oyle, or Barme of Drinke, &c. So they be such Things as kill not the Bough.

558 It were good to try, what Plants would put forth, if they be forbid­den to put forth their Naturall Boughes: Poll therefore a Tree, and couer it, some thicknesse, with Clay on the Top; And see what it will put forth. I suppose it will put forth Roots; For so will a Cions, being turned downe into Clay: Therefore, in this Experiment also, the Tree would be closed with somewhat, that is not so Naturall to the Plant, as Clay is. Try it with Leather, or Cloth, or Painting, so it be not hurtfull to the Tree. And it is certaine, that a Brake hath beene knowne to grow out of a Pollard.

559 A Man may count the Prickles of Trees to be a kinde of Excrescence; For they will neuer be Boughes, nor beare Leaues. The Plants that haue Prickles, are Thornes, blacke and white; Brier; Rose; Limon-Trees; Crab­Trees; Goose-Berry; Berbery; These haue it in the Bough, The Plants that haue Prickles in the Leafe, are; Holly; Iuniper; Whin-bush; Thistle; Nettles also haue a small Venemous Prickle; So hath Borrage a small prickle, but harmelesse. The Cause must be Hasty Putting forth; Want of Moisture; And the Closenesse of the Barke; For the Haste of the Spirit to put forth, and the Want of Nourishment to put forth a Bough, and the Closenesse of the Barke, cause Prickles in Boughes; And therefore they are euer like a Pyramis, for that the Moisture spendeth after a little Putting forth. And for Prickles in Leaues, they come also of Putting forth more Iuyce into the Leafe, than can spread in the Leafe smooth; And therefore the Leaues o­therwise are Rough, as Borrage and Nettles are. As for the Leaues of Holly, they are Smooth, but neuer Plaine, but as it were with Folds, for the same Cause.

[Page 143]There be also Plants, that though they haue no Prickles, yet they 560 haue a Kinde of Downy or Veluet Rine, vpon their Leaues; As Rose Cam­pion, Stock-Gilly-Flowers, Colts-Foot; which Downe or Nap commeth of a Subtill Spirit, in a Soft or Fat Substance. For it is certaine, that both Stock-Gilly-Flowers, and Rose-Campions, stamped, haue beene applied, with successe,) to the Wrests of those that haue had Tertian, or Quartan Agues; And the Vapour of Colts-Foot hath a Sanatiue vertue, towards the Lungs; And the Leafe also is Healing in Surgery.

Another Kinde of Excrescence is an Exudation of Plants, ioyned with 561 Putrefaction; As we see in Oake-Apples, which are found chiefly vpon the Leaues of Oakes; And the like vpon Willowes: And Countrey Peo­ple haue a kinde of Prediction, that if the Oake-Apple, broken, be full of Wormes, it is a Signe of a Pestilent Yeare; Which is a likely Thing, be­cause they grow of Corruption.

There is also vpon Sweet, or other Brier, a fine Tuse, or Brush of 562 Mosse, of diuers Colours; Which if you cut, you shall euer finde full of little white Wormes.

It is certaine, that Earth taken out of the Foundations of Vaults and Houses, and Bottomes of Wells, and then put into Pots, will put forth Sun­dry Kindes of Herbs: But some Time is required, for the Germination; For if it be taken, but from a Fathome deepe, it will put forth the First Yeare; If much deeper, not till after a Yeare, or Two. Experiments in Consort, touching the Producing of Perfect P [...]ants without Seed.

The Nature of the Plants growing out of Earth so taken vp, doth fol­low 563 the Nature of the Mould it selfe; As if the Mould be Soft, and Fine,564 it putteth forth Soft Herbs; As Grasse, Plantine, and the like; if the Earth be Harder and Courser, it putteth forth Herbs more Rough, as Thistles, Firres, &c.

It is Common Experience, that where Alleyes are close Grauelled, the 565 Earth putteth forth, the first yeare, Knot-grasse, and after Spire-grasse. The Cause is, for that the Hard Grauell, or Pebble at the first Laying, will not suffer the Grasse to come forth vpright, but turneth it to finde his way where it can; But after that the Earth is somewhat loosened at the Top, the Ordinary Grasse commeth vp.

It is reported, that Earth, being taken out of Shady and Watry 566 Woods, some depth, and Potted, will put forth Herbs of a Fat and Iuycy Substance; As Penny-wort, Purslane, Hausleeke, Penny-royall, &c.

The Water also doth send forth Plants, that haue no Roots fixed in 567 the Bottome; But they are lesse Perfect Plants, being almost but Leaues, and those Small ones; Such is that we call Duck-Weed; Which hath a Leafe no bigger than a Thyme-Leafe, but of a fresher Greene, and put­teth forth a little String into the Water, farre from the Bottome. As for the Water-Lilly, it hath a Root in the Ground, And so haue a Number of other Herbs that grow in Ponds.

It is reported by some of the Ancients, and some Moderne Teftimony 568 likewife, that there be some Plants, that grow vpon the Top of the Sea; [Page 144] Being supposed to grow of some Concretion of Slime from the Water, where the Sunne beateth hot, and where the Sea stirreth little. As for Alga Marina, (Sea-weed,) and Eryngium (Sea-Thistle,) both haue Roots; but the Sea-weed vnder the Water, the Sea-Thistle but vpon the Shore.

569 The Ancients haue noted, that there are some Herbs, that grow out of Snow, laid vp close together, and Putrified; And that they are all Bitter; And they name one specially, Flomus, which wee call Moth­Mullein It is certaine, that Wormes are found in Snow commonly, like Earth-Wormes; And therefore it is not vnlike, that it may likewise put forth Plants.

570 The Ancients haue affirmed, that there are some Herbs, that grow out of Stone; Which may be, for that it is certain, that Toads haue been found in the Middle of a Free-Stone. We see also, that Flints, lying aboue Ground, gather Mosse; And Wall-Flowers, and some other Flowers, grow vpon Walls; But whether vpon the Maine Bricke, or Stone, or whe­ther out of the Lime, or Chinckes, is not well obserued; For Elders and Ashes haue beene seene to grow out of Steeples: But they manifestly grow out of Clefts; In so much as when they grow big, they will disioyne the Stone. And besides it is doubtfull, whether the Mortar it selfe put­teth it forth, or whether some Seeds be not let fall by Birds. There be likewife Rock-Herbs; But I suppose those are, where there is some Mould, or Earth. It hath likewife beene found, that great Trees growing vpon Quarries, haue put downe their Root into the Stone.

571 In some Mines in Germany, as is reported, there grow in the Bottome Vegetables; And the Worke-Folkes vse to say, they haue Magicall Vertue; And will not suffer Men to gather them.

572 The Sea-Sands seldome beare Plants. Whereof the Cause is yeel­ded, by some of the Ancients, for that the Sunne exhaleth the Moisture; before it can incorporate with the Earth, and yeeld a Nourishment for the Plant. And it is affirmed also, that Sand hath (alwayes) his Root in Clay; And that there be no Veines of Sand, any great depth within the Earth.

573 It is certaine, that some Plants put forth for a time, of their owne Store, without any Nourishment from Earth, Water, Stone, &c. Of which Vide the Experiment 29.

It is reported, that Earth, that was brought out of the Indies, and o­ther Remote Countries, for Ballast of Ships, cast vpon some Grounds in Ita­ly, did put forth Fortaine Herbs, to vs in Europe not knowne; And, that 574 which is more, that of their Roots, Barkes, and Seeds, con [...]used together, and mingled with other Earth, and well Watred with Warme Water, there came forth Herbs, much like the Other.Experiments in Consort touching For­r [...] Plants.

575 Plants brought out of Hot Countries, will endeuour to put forth, at the same Time, that they vsually do in their owne Climate; And therfore to preserue them, there is no more required, than to keepe them from the Iniury of Putting backe by Cold. It is reported also, that Graine out [Page 145] of the Hotter Countries translated into the Colder, will be more forward, than the Ordinary Graine of the Cold Countrey. It is likely, that this will proue better in Graines, than in Trees; For that Graines are but Annuall; And so the Vertue, of the Seed is not worne out; Whereas in a Tree, it is embased by the Ground, to which it is Remoued.

Many Plants, which grow in the Hotter Countries; being set in the 576 Colder, will neucrthelesse, euen in those Cold Countries, being sowne of Seeds, ate in the Spring, come vp and abide most Part of the Summer; As we finde it in Orenge, and Limon-Seeds, &c. The Seeds whereof, Sowen in the End of Aprill, will bring forth Excellent Sallets, mingled with other Herbs. And I doubt not, but the Seeds of Cloue-Trees, and Pepper-Seeds, &c. if they could come hither Greene enough to be sowen, would doe the like.

There be some Flowers, Blossomes, Graines, and Fruits, which come more Early; And Others which come more Late in the Yeare.Experiments in Consort, touching the Seasons in which Plants come forth. The Flowers that come early, with vs, are; Prime-Roses, Violets, Anemonies, Water-Daffadillies, Crocus Vernus, and some early Tulippa's. And they are all Cold Plants; Which therefore, (as it should seeme,) haue a quic­ker 577 Perception, of the Heat of the Sunne Increasing, than the Hot Herbs haue; As a Cold Hand will sooner finde a little Warmth, than a Hot. And those that come next after, are Wall-Flowers, Cowflips, Hyacinths, Rose­mary-Flowers, &c. And after them, Pincks, Roses, Flowerdelnces, &c. And the latest are Gilly-Flowers, Holly-oakes, Larkes-Foot, &c. The Ear­liest Blossomes are, the Blossomes of Peaches, Almonds, Cornelians, Mezeri­ons, &c. And they are of such Trees, as haue much Moisture, either Wa­trie, or Oylie. And therefore Grocus Vernus also, being an Herbe, that hath, an Oylie luyce, putteth forth early. For those also finde the Sunne sooner than the Drier Trees. The Graines are, first Rye and Wheat; Then Oats and Barley; Then Pease and Beanes. For though Greene Pease and Beanes be eaten sooner, yet the Drie Ones, that are vsed for Horse-Meat, are ripe last; And it seemeth that the Fatter Graine commeth first. The Earliest Fruits are, Strawberries, Cherries, Gooseberries, Corrans; And after them Early Apples, Early Peares, Apricots, Rasps; And after them Damasins, and most Kinde of Plums, Peaches, &c. And the latest are Apples, Wardens, Grapes, Nuts, Quinces, Almonds, Sloes, Brier-Berries, Heps, Medlars, Seruices, Cornelians, &c.

It is to be noted, that (commonly) Trees that ripen latest, blossome 578 soonest: As Peaches, Cornelians, Sloes, Almonds, &c. And it seemeth to be a Worke of Prouidence, that they blossome so soone; For otherwise, they could not haue the Sunne long enough to ripen.

There be Fruits, (but rarely,) that come twice a Teare; as some Peares,579 Strawberries, &c. And it seemeth they are such, as abound with Nou­rishment; Whereby after one Period, before the Sunne waxeth too weake, they can endure another. The Violet also, amongst Flowers, commeth twice a Yeare; Especially the Double White; And that also [Page 146] is a Plant full of Moisture. Roses come twice, but it is not without Ca [...] ­ting, as hath beene formerly said.

580 In Muscbuia, though the Corne come not vp, till late Spring, yet their Haruest is as Early as Ours. The Cause is, for that the Strength of the Ground is kept in with the Snow; And wee see with vs, that if it be a long Winter, it is commonly a more Plentifull Teare: And after those kinde of Winters likewise, the Flowers, and Corne, which are Earlier, and Later, doe come commonly at once, and at the same time; Which troubleth the Husbandman many times; For you sh [...]ll haue Red Roses, and Damaske Roses, come together; And likewise the Harnest of Wheat and Barley. But this happeneth euer, for that the Earlier staieth for the Later; And not that the Later commeth sooner.

581 There be diuers Fruit-Trees, in the Hot Countries, which haue Blos­somes, and Young Fruit, and Ripe Fruit, almost all the Yeare, succeeding one another. And it is said, the Orenge hath the like with vs, for a great Part of Summer; And so also hath the Figge. And no doubt, the Na­turall Motion of Plants, is to haue so; But that either they want luyce to spend; Or they meet with the Cold of the Winter: And therefore this Circle of Ripening cannot be, but in Succulent Plants, and Hot Countries.

582 Some Herbs are but Annuall, and die, Root and all, once a Yeare; As Borrage, Lettuce, Cucumbers, Muske-Melons, Bafill, Tobacco, Mustard-Seed, and all kindes of Corne; Some continue many Yeares; As Hyssope, Germander, Lanander, Fennell, &c. The Cause of the Dying is double; The first is the Tendernesse and Weaknesse of the Seed, which maketh the Period in a small time; As it is in Borrage, Lettnce, Cucumbers, Corne, &c. And therefore none of these are Hot. The other Cause is, for that some Herbs can worse endure Cold; As Basill, Tobacco, Mustard-Seed. And these haue (all) much Heat.

The Lasting of Plants is most in those that are Largest of Body; As Oakes, Elme, Ches-Nut, the Loat-Tree, &c. And this holdeth in Trees; But in Herbs it is often contrary; For borage, Colewort, Pompions, which are Herbs of the Largest Size, are of small Durance; Whereas Hyssope, 583 Winter-Sauoury, Germander, Thyme, Sage, will last long.Experiments in Consort touching the Lasting of Herbs and Trees. The Cause is, for that Trees last according to the Strength, and Quantitie of their Sap and Iuyce; Being well munited by their Barke against the Iniuries of the Aire: But Herbs draw a Weake luyce; And haue a Soft Stalke; And therefore those amongst them which last longest, are Herbs of Strong Smell, and with a Sticky Stalke.

584 Trees that beare Mast, and Nuts, are commonly more lasting, than those that beare Fruits; Especially the Moister Fruits: As Oakes, Beeches, Chesnuts, Wall-nuts, Almonds, Pine-Trees, &c. last longer than Apples, Peares, Plums, &c. The Cause is the Fatnesse and Oylinesse of the Sap; Which euer wasteth lesse, than the more Watry.

585 Trees, that bring forth their Leaues late in the Yeare, and cast them like­wise late, are more lasting, than those that sprout their Leaues Early, or [Page 147] shed them betimes. The Cause is, for that the late Comming forth sheweth a Moisture more fixed; And the other more loose, and more easily re­solued, And the same Cause is, that Wilde-Trees last longer than Gar­den-Trees; And in the same kinde, those whose Fruit is Acide, more than those whose Fruit is sweet.

Nothing procureth the Lasting of Trees, Bushes, and Herbs, so much,586 as often Cutting: For euery Cutting causeth a Renouation of the Iuyee of the Plant; That it neither goeth so farre, nor riseth so faintly, as when the Plant is not Cut: Insomuch as Annuall Plants, if you cut them sea­sonably, and will spare the vse of them, and suffer them to come vp still young, will last more Yeares than one; As hath beene partly touched; Such as is Lettuce, Purslane, Cucumber, and the like. And for Great Trees, we see almost all Ouer-growne-Trees, in Church-yards, or neare Ancient Buildings, and the like, are Pollards, or Dottards, and not Trees at their full Height.

Some Experiment would be made, how by Art to make Plants more 587 Lasting, than their ordinary Period; As to make a Stalke of Wheat, &c. last a whole yeare. You must euer presuppose, that you handle it so, as the Winter killeth it not; For we speake onely of Prolonging the Naturall Period. I conceiue, that the Rule will hold; That whatsoeuer maketh the Herbe come later, than at his time, will make it last longer time: It were good to try it, in a Stalke of Wheat, &c. set in the Shade, and en­compassed with a Case of Wood, not touching the Straw, to keepe out Open Aire.

As for the Preseruation of Fruits, and Plants, as well vpon the Tree, or Stalke, as gathered, we shall handle it vnder the Title of Conseruation of Bodies.

The Particular Figures of Plants we leaue to their Descriptions; Experiments in Consort touching the seuerall Figures of Plants. But some few Things, in generall, we will obserue. Trees and Herbs, in the Growing forth of their Boughes, and Branches, are not Figured, and keep no Order. The Cause is, for that the Sap, being restrained in the Rinde, and Barke, breaketh not forth at all; (As in the Bodies of Trees, and 588 Stalkes of Herbs.) till they begin to branch; And then, when they make an Eruption, they breake forth casually, where they finde best way, in the Barke, or Rinde. It is true, that some Trees are more scattered in their Boughes; As Sallow-Trees, Warden-Trees, Quince-Trees, Medlar-Trees, Li­mon-Trees, &c. Some are more in the forme of a Pyramis, and come al­most to todd; As the Peare-Tree, (which the Critickes will haue to bor­row his name of [...], Fire,) Orenge-Trees, Firre-Trees, Service-Trees, Lime­Trees, &c. And some are more spred and broad; As Beeches, Hornebeame, &c. The rest are more indifferent. The Cause of Scattering the Boughes, is the Hasty breaking forth of the Sap; And therefore those Trees rise not in a Body of any Height, but branch neare the Ground. The Cause of the Pyramis, is the Keeping in of the Sap, long before it branch; And the spending of it when it beginneth to branch, by equall degrees. The [Page 148] Spreading is caused by the Carrying vp of the Sap, plentifully, without Expence; And then putting it forth speedily, and at once.

589 There be diuers Herbs, but no Trees, that may be said to haue some kinde of Order, in the Putting forth of their Leaues: For they haue Ioynts, or Knuckles, as it were Stops in their Germination; As haue Gilly­Flowers, Pinckes, Fennell, Corne, Reeds, and Canes. The Cause whereof is, for that the Sap asoendeth vnequally, and doth (as it were) tire and stop by the way. And it seemeth, they haue some Closenesse, and Hardnesse in their Stalke, which bindreth the Sap from going vp, vntill it hath ga­thered into a Knot, and so is more vrged to put forth. And therefore, they are most of them hollow, when the Stalke is dry. As Fennell-Stalke, Stubble, and Canes.

590 Flowers haue (all) exquisite Figures; And the Flower-Numbers are (chiefly) Fiue, and Foure; As in Prime-Roses, Brier-Roses, Single Muske­Roses, Single Pinkes, and Gilly-Flowers, &c. which haue fiue Leaues: Lillies, Flower-de-luces, Borage, Buglosse, &c. which haue foure Leaues. But some put forth Leaues not Numbered; But they are euer small Ones; As Mary-Golds, Trisoile, &c. We see also, that the Sockets, and Suppor­ters of Flowers, are Figured; As in the Fiue Brethren of the Rose; Soc­kets of Gilly-Flowers, &c. Leaues also are all Figured, Some Round, Some Long; None Square; And many iagged on the Sides; Which Leaues of Flowers seldome are. For I account the Iagging of Pinkes, and Gilly­Flowers, to be like the Inequality of Oake-leaues, or Vine-leaues, or the like; But they seldome or neuer haue any small Purles.

Of Plants, Experiments in Consort, touching some Principal [...] Differences in Plants. some few put forth their Blossomes before their Leaues; As Almonds, Peaches, Cornelians, Black-Thorne, &c. But most put forth some Leaues before their Blossomes; As Apples, Peares, Plums, Cherries, White-Thorne, &c. The Cause is, for that those, that put forth their Blos­somes 591 first, haue either an Acute and Sharpe Spirit; (And therfore com­monly they all put forth earely in the Spring, and ripen very late; As most of the Particulars before mentioned;) Or else an Oyly Iuyce, which is apter to put out Flowers, than Leaues.

592 Of Plants, some are Greene all Winter; Others cast their Leaues. There are Greene a [...]l Winter; Holly, Iny, Box, Firre, Eugh, Cypresse, Iuniper, Bayes, Rose-Mary, &c. The Cause of the Holding Greene, is the Close and Com­pact Substance of their Leaues, and the Pedicles of them. And the Cause of that againe, is either the Tough and Viscous Iuyce of the Plant; Or the Strength and Heat thereof. Of the first Sort is Holly; Which is of so Vis­cous a Iuyce, as they make Bird-lime of the Barke of it. The Stalke of Iuy is Tough, and not Fragile, as we see in other small Twigs dry. Firre yeeldeth Pitch. Box is a fast and heauy Wood, as we see it in Bowles. Eugh is a Strong and Tough Wood, as we see it in Bowes. Of the second Sort is Iuniper, which is a Wood Odorate, and maketh a hot Fire. Bayes is like­wise a Hot and Aromatical Wood; And so is Rose-Mary for a Shrub. As for the Leaues, their Density appeareth, in that, either they are Smooth [Page 149] and Shining, as in Bayes, Holly, Iuy, Box, &c. Or in that they are Hard and Spiry, as in the rest. And Triall would be made of Grasting of Rose­Mary, and Bayes, and Box, vpon a Holly-Stocke; Because they are Planes that come all Winter. It were good to try it also with Grafts of other Trees, either Fruit-Trees, or Wilde-Trees; To see whether they will not yeeld their Fruit, or beare their Leaues, later, and longer in the Winter; because the Sap of the Holly putteth forth most in the Winter. It may be also a Mexerion-Tree, grafted vpon a Holly, will proue both an Earlier, and a Greater Tree.

There be some Plants, that beare no Flower, and yet beare Fruit: 593 There be some, that beare Flowers, and no Fruit: There be some that beare neither Flowers, nor Fruit. Most of the great Timber-Trees, (as Oakes, Beeches, &c.) beare not apparent Flowers: Some few (likewise) of the Fruit-Trees; As Mulberry, Wall-unt, &c. And some Shrubs, (as Iuni­per, Holly, &c.) beare no Flowers. Diuers Herbs also beare Seeds, (which is as the Fruit,) and yet beare no Flowers; As Parslane, &c. Those that beare Flowers and no Fruit, are few; At the Double Cherry, the Sallow, &c. But for the Cherry, it is doubtfull, whether it be not by Art, or Cul­ture; For if it be by Art, then Triall would be made, whether Apples, and other Fruits Blossomes, may not be doubled. There are some Few, that beare neither Fruit, nor Flower; As the Elme, the Poplers, Box, Brakes, &c.

There be some Plants, that shoot still vpwards, and can Support 594 themselues; As the greatest Part of Trees and Plants: There be some Other, that Creepe along the Ground; Or Winde about other Trees, or Props, and cannot support themselues; As Vines, Iuy, Briar, Briony, Wood­bines, Hop's, Climatis, Camomill, &c. The Cause is, (as hath beene partly touched,) for that all Plants, (naturally) moue vpwards; But if the Sap put vp too fast, it maketh a slender Stalks, which will not support the weight: And therefore these latter Sort are all Swift and Hasty Com­mers.

The first and most Ordinary Holpe is Stercoration. Experiments in Consort touching all Manner of Composts, and Helps of Ground. The Sheeps-Dung is one of the best; And next, the Dung of Kine: And thirdly, that of Horses: Which is held to be somewhat too hot, vnlesse it be mingled. That of Pigeons for a Garden, or a small Quantity of Ground, excel­leth. The Ordering of Dung is; If the Ground be Arable, to spread it im­mediately before the Plonghing and Sowing; And so to Plough it in: For 595 if you spread it long before, the Sunne will draw out much of the Fat­nesse of the Dung: If the Ground be Grazing Ground, to spread it some­what late, towards Winter; That the Sunne may haue the lesse Power to dry it vp. As for speciall Composts for Gardens, (as a Hot Bed, &c.) we haue handled them before.

The Second Kind of Compost, is, the Spreading of diuers Kinds of Earths; 596 As Marle, Chalke, Sea-Sand, Earth vpon Earth, Pond-Earth; And the Mix­tures of them. Marle is thought to be the best; As hauing most Fatnesse; [Page 150] And not Heating the Ground too much. The next is Sea-Sand; Which (no doubt) obtaineth a speciall Vertue, by the Salt: For Salt is the first Rudiment of life. Chalke ouer heateth the Ground a little. And therfore is best vpon Gold Clay-Grounds, or Moist Grounds: But I heard a great Hus­band say, that it was a common Errour, to thinke that Chalke helpeth Arable Grounds, but helpeth not Grazing Grounds; Wheras (indeed) it hel­peth, Grasse, as well as Corne: But that which breedeth the Errour is, be­cause after the Chalking of the Ground, they weare it out with many Crops, without Rest; And then (indeed) afterwards it will beare little Grasse, because the Gound is tired out. It were good to try the laying of Chalke vpon Arable Grounds, a little while before Ploughing; And to Plough it in, as they doe the Dung; But then it must be Friable first, by Raine, or Lying: As for Earth, it Copasseth it Selfe; For I knew a Great Garden, that had a Field (in a manner) powred vpon it; And it did beare Fruit excel­lently the first yeare of the Planting: For the Surface of the Earth is cuer the Fruitfullest. And Earth so prepared hath a double Surface. But it is true, as I cō [...]eiue, that such Earth, as hath Salt-Petre bred in it, if you can procure it without too much charge, doth excell. The way to hasten the Breeding of Salt-Petre, is to forbid the Sunne, and the Growth of Vegeta­bles, And therefore, if you make a large Houell, thatched, ouer some Quantity of Ground; Nay if you doe but Plancke the Ground ouer, it will breed Salt-petre. As for Pond-Earth, or Riuer-Earth, it is a very good Compost; Especially if the Pond haue beene long vncleansed, and so the Water be not too Hungry: And I iudge it will be yet better, if there be some Mixture of Chalke.

597 The Third Helpe of Ground, is, by some other Substances, that haue a Vertue to make Ground Fertile; though they be not meerely Earth: wher­in Ashes excell; In so much as the Countries about AEtna, and Vesuuius, haue a kinde of Amends made them, for the Mischiefe the Eruptions (many times) doe, by the exceeding Fruit fulnesse of the Soyle, caused by the Ashes, scattered about. Soot also, though thinne spred, in a Field, or Garden, is tried to be a very good Compost. For Salt, it is too Costly: But it is tryed, that mingled with Seed-Corne, and sowen together, it doth good: And I am of Opinion, that Chalke in Powder, mingled with Seed­Corne, would doe good; Perhaps as much as Chalking the Ground all o­uer. As for the Steeping of the Seeds, in seuerall Mixtures with Water, to giue them Vigour; Or Watring Grounds with Compost-Water; We haue spoken of them before.

598 The Fourth Helpe of Ground, is, the Suffering of Vegetables to dye into the Ground; And so to Fatten it; As the Stubble of Corne, Especially Pease­Brakes cast vpon the Ground, in the Beginning of Winter, will make it ve­ry Fruitfull. It were good (also) to try, whether Leaues of Trees swept to­gether, with some Chalke and Dung mixed, to giue them more Heart, would not make a good Compost: For there is nothing lost, so much as Leaues of Trees; And as they lye scattered, and without Mixture, they rather make the Ground soure, than otherwise.

[Page 151]The Fifth Helpe of Ground, is Heat and Warmth. It hath beene anci­ [...] practised[?] 599 to burne Heath, and Ling, and Sedge, with the vantage of [...] Wind, vpon the Ground: Wee see, that Warmth of Walls and Enclo­ [...]es, mendeth Ground: We see also that Lying open to the South, men­ [...]th Ground: We see againe, that the Foldings of Sheepe helpe Ground. [...]ll by their Warmth, as by their Compost: And it may be doubted, [...]ther the Couering of the Ground with Brakes, in the Beginning of the Winter, (where of we spake in the last Experiment,) helpeth it not, by rea­so [...] of the Warmth. Nay some very good Husbands doe suspect, that the Gathering vp of Flints, in Flinty Ground, and Laying them on Heapes, (which is much vsed,) is no good Husbandry; For that they would keep the Ground Warme.

The Sixth Helpe of Ground is, by Watering, and Irrigation; which is 600 in two Munners: The one by Letting in, and Shutti gout Waters, at sea­sonable Tunes: For Water, at some Seasons, and with reasonable dry, deth good; But at some other Seasons, and with too long Stay, doth [...]. And this serueth onely for Meadowes, which are along some Rtuer. The other way is, to bring Water, from some Hanging Grounds, where there are Springs, into the Lower Grounds, carrying it in some [...] Furrowes; And from those Furrowes, drawing it trauerse to spread the Water. And this maketh an excellent Improuement, both for Corne, and Grasse. It is the richer, if those Hanging Grounds be fruitfull, because it washeth off some of the Fatnesse of the Earth: But howsoeuer it pro­fiteth much. Generally, where there are great Ouerflowes, in Fens, or the like, the drowning of them in the Winter, maketh the Summer follow­ing more fruitfull: The Cause may be, for that it keepeth the Ground warme, and nourisheth it: But the Fen-Men hold, that the Sewers must be kept so, as the Water may not stay too long in the Spring, til the Weeds and Sedge be growne vp; For then the Ground will be like a Wood, which keepeth out the Sunne; And so continueth the Wet; Whereby it will peuer graze (to purpose) that yeare. Thus much for Irriga­tion. But for Anoydances, and Draynings of water, where there is too much, and the Helps of Ground in that kinde, wee shall speake of them in another Place.

VII. Century.

THe Differences betweene Animate and Inani­mate Bodies, Experiments in Consort, touching the Assinities, and Differences, be­tweene Plants and Inanimate Bodies. we shall handle fully vnder the Title of Life, and Liuing Spirits, and Powers. We shall therefore make but a briefe Men­tion of them in this Place. The Maine Dif­ferences are two. All Bodies haue Spirits, and Pneumaticall Parts within them: But the 601 Maine Differences betweene Animate and Inanimate, are two: The first is, that the Spirits of Things Animate, are all Continued with themselues, and are Branched in Veines, and secret Canales, as Bloud is: And in Liuing Creatures, the Spirits haue not only Branches, but cer­taine Cells or Seats, where the Principall Spirits doe reside, and where­unto the rest doe resort: But the Spirits in Things Inanimate are shut in, and cut off by the Tangible Parts; And are not peruious one to another; As Aire is in Snow. The Second Maine Difference is, that the Spirits of Animate Bodies, are all in some degree, (more or lesse,) kindled and in­flamed; And haue a fine Commixture of Flame, and an Aeriall Substance. But Inanimate Bodies haue their Spirits no whit Inflamed, or Kindled. And this Difference consisteth not in the Heat or Coolenesse of Spirits; For Cloues and other Spices, Naphtha and Petroleum, haue exceeding Hot Spirits, (hotter a great deale than Oyle, Wax, or Tallow, &c.) but not Inflamed. And when any of those Weake and Temperate Bodies come [Page 154] to be Inflamed, then they gather a much greater Heat, than others haue Vn-inflamed; besides their Light, and Motion, &c.

602 The Differences, which are Secondary, and proceed from these two Radicall Differences, are; First, Plants are all Figurate and Determinate, which Inanimate Bodies are not; For looke how farre the Spirit is able to Spread and Continue it selfe; So farre goeth the Shape, or Figure; And then is determined. Secondly, Plants doe nourish; Inanimate Bodies doe not: They haue an Accretion, but no Alimentation. Thirdly, Plants haue a Period of Life; which Inanimate Bodies haue not. Fourthly, they haue a Succession, and Propagation of their Kinde; which is not in Bodies Inani­mate.

603 The Differences betweene Plants, and Metalls or Fossiles, besides those foure before mentioned, (For Metalls I hold Inanimate,) are these: First, Metalls are more Durable than Plants: Secondly, they are more Solid and Hard: Thirdly, they are wholly Subterrany; Whereas Plants are part aboue Earth, and part vnder Earth.

604 There be very few Creatures, that participate of the Nature of Plants, and Metalls both; Corall is one of the Nearest of both Kindes: Another is Vitrioll, for that is aptest to sprout with Moisture.

605 Another speciall Affinitie is betweene Plants and Mould or Putrefa­ction: For all Putrefaction (if it dissolue not in Arefaction) will in the end issue into Plants, or Liuing Creatures bred of Putrefaction. I account Mosse, and Mushromes, and Agaricke, and other of those kindes, to be but Moulds of the Ground, Walls, and Trees, and the like. As for Flesh, and Fish, and Plants themselues, and a Number of other things, after a Moul­dinesse, or Rottensesse, or Corrupting, they will fall to breed Wormes. These Putrefactions, which haue Affinitie with Plants, haue this Diffe­rence from them; That they haue no Succession or Propagation, though they Nourish, and haue a Period of Life, and haue likewise some Figure.

606 I left once, by chance, a Citron cut, in a close Roome, for three Sum­mer-Moneths, that I was absent; And at my Returne, there were grown forth, out of the Pith cut, Tufts of Haires, an Inch long, with little blacke Heads, as if they would haue beene some Herbe.

The Affinities and Differences betweene Plants and Liuing Creatures, Experiments in Consort touching the Affinities, and Differences, of Plants, and Liuing Creatures: And the Consi­ners and [...] [...] of them are these that follow. They haue both of them Spirits Continued, and Branched, and also Inflamed: But first in Liuing Creatures, the Spirits haue a Cell or Seat, which Plants haue not; As was also formerly said: And secondly, the Spirits of Liuing Creatures hold more of Flame, than the Spirits of Plants doe. And these two are the Radicall Differences. For the Secondary Differences, they are as follow. First, Plants are all Fixed to the Earth; Whereas all Liuing Creatures are seuered, and of them­selues. 607 Secondly, Liuing Creatures haue Locall Motion; Plants haue not. Thirdly, Liuing Creatures nourish from their Vpper Parts, by the Mouth chiefly; Plants nourish from below, namely from the Roots. Fourthly, Plants haue their Seed and Seminall Parts vppermost; Liuing Creatures [Page 155] haue them lower-most: And therefore it was said, not elegantly alone, but Philosophically; Homoest Planta inuerse; Man is like a Plant turned vp­wards; For the Root in Plants, is as the Head in Liuing Creatures. Fifthly, Liuing Creatures haue a more exact Figure than Plants. Sixthly, Liuing Creatures haue more Diuersity of Organs within their Bodies, and (as it were) Inward Figures, than Plants haue. Seuenthly, Liuing Creatures haue Sense, which Plants haue not. Eighthly, Liuing Creatures haue Voluntary Motion, which Plants haue not.

For the Difference of Sexes in Plants, they are oftentimes by name 608 distinguished; As Male-Piony, Female-Piony; Male-Rose-mary, Female­Rose mary; Hee-Holly, Shee-Holly; &c. but Generation by Copulation (cer­tainly) extendeth not to Plants. The nearest Approach of it, is between the Hee-Palme, and the Shee-Palme; which, (as they report,) if they grow neare, incline the One to the other: In so much as, (that which is more strange,) they doubt not to report, that to keepe the Trees vp­right from Bending, they tye Ropes, or Lines, from the one to the other, that the Contact might be enjoyed by the Contact of a Middle Body. But this may be Faigned, or at least Amplified. Neuerthelesse, I am apt enough to thinke, that this same Binarium of a Stronger and a Weaker, like vnto Masculine and Feminine, doth hold in all Liuing Bodies. It is con­founded sometimes; As in some Creatures of Putrefaction, wherein no Markes of Distinction appeare: And it is doubled sometimes; As in Hermaphrodites: But generally there is a Degree of Strength in most Species.

The Participles or Consiners betweene Plants and Liuing Creatures, are 609 such chiefly, as are Fixed, and haue no Locall Motion of Remoue, though they haue a Motion in their Parts; Such as are Oysters., Cockles, and such like. There is a Fabulous Narration, that in the Northerne Countries, there should be an Herbe that groweth in the likenesse of a Lambe, and feedeth vpon the Grasse, in such sort, as it will bare the Grasse round a­bout. But I suppose, that the Figure maketh the Fable; For so we see, there be Bee-Flowers, &c. And as for the Grasse, it seemeth the Plant, hauing a great Stalke and Top, doth prey vpon the Grasse, a good way a­bout, by drawing the Iuyce of the Earth from it.

The Indian Fig boweth his Roots downe so low,Experiments Pr [...]ous touching Plants. in one yeare, as of it selfe it taketh Root againe: And so multiplieth from Root to Root; Making of one Tree a kinde of Wood. The Cause is the Plenty of the Sap, and the Softnesse of the Stalke, which maketh the Bough, being ouer­loaden,610 and not stiffely vpheld, weigh downe. It hath Leaues, as broad as a little Target, but the Fruit no bigger than Beanes. The Cause is, for that the Continuall Shade increaseth the Leaues, and abateth the Fruit; which neuerthelesse is of a pleasant Taste. And that (no doubt) is cau­sed, by the Supplenesse and Gentlenesse of the Iuyce of that Plant, being that which maketh the Boughes also so Flexible.

It is reported by one of the Ancients, that there is a certaine Indian 611 [Page 156] Tree, hauing few, but very great, Leaues, three Cubits long, and two broad; And that the Fruit, being of good Taste, groweth out of the Barke. It may be, there be Plants, that poure out the Sap so fast, as they haue no leisure, either to diuide into many Leaues, or to put forth Stalks to the Fruit. With vs Trees (generally) haue finall Leaues, in compari­son. The Fig hath the greatest; And next it the Vine, Mulberry, and Sy­camore; And the Least are those of the Willow, Birch, and Thorne. But there be found Herbs with farre greater Leaues than any Tree; As the Burre, Gourd, Cucumber, and Cole-wort. The Cause is, (like to that of the Indian Fig,) the hasty and plentifull Putting forth of the Sap.

612 There be three Things in vse for Sweetnesse; Sugar, Honey, Manna. For Sugar, to the Ancients it was scarce knowne, and little vsed. It is found in Canes: Quare, whether to the first Knuckle, or further vp? And whether the very Barke of the Cane it selfe do yeeld Sugar, or no? For Ho­ney, the Bee maketh it, or gathereth it; But I haue heard from one, that was industrious in Husbandry, that the labour of the Bee is about the Wax; And that he hath knowne in the beginning of May, Honey-Combs empty of Honey; And within a forthnight, when the Sweet Dewes fall, filled like a Cellar. It is reported also by some of the Ancients, that there is a Tree called Occhus, in the Valleyes of Hyrcanis, that distilleth Honey in the Mornings. It is not vnlike, that the Sap and Teares of some Trees, may be sweet. It may be also, that some sweet Iuyces, fit for many vses, may be concocted out of Fruits, to the Thicknesse of Honey, or perhaps of Sugar; The likeliest are Raisins of the Sunne, Figs, and Corrans: The Meanes may be enquired.

613 The Ancients report of a Tree, by the Persian Sea, vpon the Shore­Sands, which is nourished with the Salt-Water; And when the Tide eb­beth, you shall see the Roots, as it were, bare without Barke, (being as it seemeth corroded by the Salt,) & grasping the Sands like a Crab; Which neuerthelesse beareth a Fruit. It were good to try some Hard Trees, as a Seruice-Tree, or Firre-Tree, by setting them within the Sands.

614 There be of Plants, which they vse for Garments, these that follow. Hempe; Flax; Cotton; Nettles, (whereof they make Nettle-Cloth;) Seri­cum, which is a Growing Silke; They make also Cables of the Barke of Lime-Trees. It is the Stalke that maketh the Filaceous Matter, common­ly; And sometimes the Downe that groweth aboue.

615 They haue, in some Countries, a Plant of a Rosy Colour, which shut­teth in the Night, Openeth in the Morning, and Openeth wide at Noone; which the Inhabitants of those Countries say is a Plant that Sleepeth. There be Sleepers enow then; For almost all Flowers doe the like.

616 Some Plants there are, but rare, that haue a Mossy or Downy Root; And likewise that haue a Number of Threds, like Beards; As Mandrakes; wherof Witches and Impostours make an vgly Image, giuing it the Forme of a Face at the Top of the Root, and leaue those Strings to make a broad Beard downe to the Foot. Also there is a Kinde of Nard, in Creet, (be­ing a Kinde of Phu) that hath a Root hairy, like a Rough-Footed-Doues [Page 157] foot, So as you may see, there are of Roots, Bulbous Roots, Fibrous Roots, and Hirsute Roots. And, I take it, in the Bulbous, the Sap hasteneth most to the Aire, and Sunne: In the Fibrous, the Sap dollghreth more in the Earth, and therefore putteth downward: And the Hirsute is a Middle betweene both; That besides the Putting forth vpwards, and down­wards, putteth forth in Round.

There are some Teares of Trees, which are kembed from the Beards of 617 Goats: For when the Goats bite and crop them, especially in the Mor­nings, the Dew being on, the Teare commeth forth, and hangeth vpon their Beards: Of this Sort is some kinde of Ladanum.

The Irrigation of the Plaine-Tree by Wine, is reported by the Ancients, 618 to make it Fruitfull. It would be tried likewise with Roots; For vpon Seeds it worketh no great Effects.

The way to carry Farraine Roots, a long Way, is to vessell them 619 close in Earthan Vessells. But if the Vessells be not very Great, you must make some Holes in the Bottome, to giue some Refreshment to the Roots; Which otherwise (as it seemeth) will decay, and suffocate.

The ancient Cinnamon, was, of all other Plants, while it grew, the 620 Dryest; And those Things, which are knowne to comfort other Plants, did make that more Sterill: For in Showers it prospered worst: It grew also amongst Bushes of other kindes, where commonly Plants doe not thriue: Neither did it loue the Sunne: There might be one Cause of all those Effects; Namely, the sparing Nourishment, which that Plant re­quired. Quare how farre Cassia, which is now the Substitute of Cinna­mon, doth participate of these Things.

It is reported by one of the Ancients that Cassia when it is gathe­red,621 is put into the Skins of Beasts, newly fleyed; And that the Skins Cor­rupting, and Breeding Wormes, the Wormes doe deuoure the Pith and Marrow of it, and so make it Hollow; But meddle not with the Barke, because to them it is bitter.

There were, in Ancient Time, Vines, of farre greater Bodies, than 622 we know any; For there haue beene Cups made of them, and an Image of Iupiter. But it is like they were Wilde-Vines; For the Vines, that they vse for Wine, are so often Cut, and so much Digged and Dressed, that their Sap spendeth into the Grapes, and so the Stalke cannot increase much in Bulke. The Wood of Vines is very durable, without Rotting. And that which is strange, though no Tree hath the Twigges, while they are greene, so brittle, yet the Wood dryed is extreme Tough; And was vsed by the Captaines of Armies, amongst the Romans, for their Cudgells.

It is reported, that in some Places, Vines are suffered to grow like 623 Herbs, spreading vpon the Ground; And that the Grapes of those Vines are very great. It were good to make tryall, whether Plants that vse to be borne vp by Props, will not put forth greater Leaues, and greater Fruits, if they be laid along the Ground; As Hops, l [...]y, Wood bine, &c.

Quinces, or Apples, &c. if you will keepe them long, drowne them 624 in Honey; But because Honey (perhaps) will giue them a Taste Ouer­lushious, [Page 158] it were good to make Triall in Powder of Sugar; Or in Syrrup of Wine onely Boyled to Height. Both these would likewise be tried in Orenges, Limons, and Pomgranats; For the Powder of Sugar, and Syrrup of Wine, will serue for more times than once.

625 The Conseruation of Fruit would be also tried in Vessells, filled with fine Sand, or with Powder of Chalke; Or in Meale and Flower; Or in Dust of Oake-wood; Or in Mill.

626 Such Fruits, as you appoint for Long Keeping, you must gather be­fore they be full Ripe; And in a Faire and Dry Day, towards Noone; And when the Wind bloweth not South; And when the Moone is vnder the Earth; And in Decrease.

627 Take Grapes, and hang them in an Empty Vessell, well Stopped; And set the Vessell, not in a Cellar, but in some dry Place; And it is said, they will last long. But it is reported by some, they will keepe better, in a Vessell halfe full of Wine, so that the Grapes touch not the Wine.

628 It is reported, that the Preseruing of the Stalke, helpeth to preserue the Grape; Especially if the Stalke be put into the Pith of Elder, the Elder not touching the Fruit.

629 It is reported by some of the Ancients, that Fruit put in Bottles, and the Bottles let downe into Wells vnder Water, will keepe long.

630 Of Herbs and Plants, some are good to eat Raw; As Lettuce, Endiue, Purslane, Tarragon, Cresses, Cucumbers, Muske-Melons, Radish, &c. Others onely after they are Boyled, or haue Passed the Fire; As Parsley, Clary, Sage, Parsnips, Turnips, Asparagus, Artichoakes, (though they also being young are eaten Raw:) But a Number of Herbs are not Esculent at all; As Worme-wood, Grasse, Greeke-Corne, Centory, Hyssope, Lauender, Balme, &c. The Causes are, for that the Herbs, that are not Esculent, do want the two Tastes, in which Nourishment resteth; Which are, Fat, and Sweet; And haue (contrariwise) Bitter and Ouer-strong Tastes, or a Iuyce so Crude, as cannot be ripened to the degree of Nourishment. Herbes and Plants, that are Esculent Raw, haue Fatnesse, or Sweetnesse, (as all Escu­lent Fruits;) Such are Onions, Lettuce, &c. But then it must be such a Fatnesse, (for as for Sweet Things, they are in effect alwayes Esculent,) as is not Ouer-grosse, and Loading of the Stomach; For Parsnips and Leeks haue Fatnesse; But it is too Grosse and Heauy without Boyling. It must be also in a Substance somewhat Tender; For we see Wheat, Barley, Ar­tichoakes, are no good Nourishment, till they haue Passed the Fire; But the Fire doth ripen, and maketh them soft and tender, and so they be­come Esculent. As for Radish, and Tarragon, and the like, they are for Condiments, and not for Nourishment. And euen some of those Herbes, which are not Esculent, are notwithstanding Poculent; As Hop's, Broome, &c. Quare what Herbs are good for Drinke, besides the two aforena­med; For that it may (perhaps) ease the Charge of Brewing, if they make Beere to require lesse Malt, or make it last longer.

631 Parts fit for the Nourishment of Man, in Plants, are, Seeds, Roots, and Fruits; But chiefly Seeds, and Roots. For Leaues, they giue no Nourish­ment, [Page 159] at all, or very little: No more doe Flowers, or Blossomes, or Stalkes. The Reason is, for that Roots, and Seeds, and Fruits, (in as much as all Plants consist of an Oyly and Watry Substance commixed,) haue more of the Oyly Substance; And Leaues, Flowers, &c. of the Watry. And second­ly, they are more Concocted; For the Root, which continueth euer in the Earth, is still Concocted by the Earth. And Fruits, and Graines, (we see) are halfe a yeare, or more, in Concocting; Whereas Leaues are out, and Perfect in a Moneth.

Plants (for the most part) are more strong, both in Taste, and Smell, 632 in the Seed, than in the Leafe, and Root. The Cause is, for that in Plants, that are not of a Fierce and Eager Spirit, the Vertue is increased by Concoction, and Maturation, which is euer most in the Seed; But in Plants, that are of a Fierce and Eager Spirit, they are stronger whilest the Spi­rit is enclosed in the Root; And the Spirits doe but weaken, and dissipate, when they come to the Aire, and Sunne; As we see it in Onions, Garlicke, Dragon, &c. Nay there be Plants, that haue their Roots very Hot, and Aromaticall; And their Seeds rather Insipide; As Ginger. The Cause is (as was touched before,) for that the Heat of those Plants is very Dissipable; which vnder the Earth is contained and held in; But when it commeth to the Aire, it exhaleth.

The Iuyces of Fruits are either Watry, or Oyly. I reckon amongst 633 the Watry, all the Fruits out of which Drinke is expressed; As the Grape, the Apple, the Peare, the Cherry, the Pomgranate, &c. And there are some others, which, though they be not in vse for Drinke, yet they appeare to be of the same Nature; As Plummes, Serukes, Mulberries, Rasps, Orenges, Limons, &c. And for those Iuyces, that are so fleshy, as they cannot make Drinke by Expression, yet (perhaps) they may make Drinke by Mixture of Water; ‘Pocula (que) admistis imitantur vitea Sorbis.’ And it may be Heps and Brier-Berries would doe the like. Those that haue Oyly Iuyce, are; Oliues, Almonds, Nuts of all sorts, Pine-Apples, &c. And their Iuyces are all Inflammable. And you must obserue also, that some of the Watry Iuyces, after they haue gathered Spirit, will Burne and Enflame; As Wine. There is a Third Kinde of Fruit, that is sweet, with­out either Sharpnesse, or Oylinesse: Such as is the Fig, and the Date.

It hath beene noted, that most Trees, and specially those that beare 634 Mast, are fruitfull but once in two yeares. The Cause (no doubt) is, the Expence of Sap; For many Orchard-Trees, well Cultured, will beare di­uers yeares together.

There is no Tree, which besides the Naturall Fruit, doth beare so ma­ny 635 Bastard-Fruits, as the Oake doth: For besides the Acorne, it beareth Galls, Oake-Apples, and certaine Oake-Nuts, which are Inflammable; And certaine Oake-Berries, sticking close to the Body of the Tree, without Stalke. It beareth also Misseltoe, though rarely. The Cause of all these may be, the Closenesse and Solidenesse of the Wood, and Pith of the Oake; Which maketh seuerall Iuyces finde seuerall Eruptions. And therefore, [Page 160] if you will deuise to make any Super-Plants, you must euer giue the Sap Plentifull Rising, and Hard Issue.

636 There are two Excrescences, which grow vpon Trees; Both of them in the Nature of Mushromes: The one the Romans called Boletus; Which groweth vpon the Roots of Oakes; And was one of the Dainties of their Table; The other is Medicinall, that is called Agaricke, (whereof we haue spoken before,) which groweth vpon the Tops of Oakes; Though it be affirmed by some, that it groweth also at the Roots. I doe conceiue, that many Exerescences of Trees grow chiefly, where the Tree is dead, or fa­ded; For that the Naturall Sap of the Tree, corrupteth into some Pre­ternaturall Substance.

637 The greater Part of Trees beare Most, and Best, on the Lower Boughs; As Oakes, Figs, Wall-Nuts, Peares, &c. But some beare Best on the Top­Boughes; As Crabs, &c. Those that beare best below, are such, as Shade doth more good to, than Hurt. For generally all Fruits beare best lowest; Because the Sap tireth not, hauing but a short Way: And therefore in Fruits spred vpon Walls, the Lowest are the Greatest, as was formerly said; So it is the Shade that hindereth the Lower Boughes; Except it be in such Trees, as delight in Shade; Or at least beare it well. And therfore, they are either Strong Trees, as the Oake; Or else they haue large Leaues, as the Wallnut and Fig; Or else they grow in Pyra [...]is, as the Peare. But if they require very much Sunne, they beare best on the Top; As it is in Crabs, Apples, Plummes, &c.

638 There be Trees, that beare best, when they begin to be Old; As Al­monds, Peares, Vines, and all Trees that giue Mast. The Cause is, for that all Trees that beare Mast, haue an Oyly Fruit; And Young Trees haue a more Watry Iuyce, and lesse Concocted; And of the same kinde also is the Al­mond. The Peare likewise, though it be not Oyly, yet it requireth much Sap, and well Concocted; For we see it is a Heauy Fruit, and Solide; Much more than Apples, Plummes, &c. As for the Vine, it is noted, that it beareth more Grapes when it is Young; But Grapes that make better Wine, when it is Old; For that the Iuyce is better Concocted: And wee see that Wine is Insflammable; So as it hath a kinde of Oylinesse. But the most Part of Trees, amongst wich are Apples, Plummes, &c. beare best when they are Young.

639 There be Plants, that haue a Milke in them, when they are Cut; As Figs, Old Lettuce, Sowe-Thistles, Spurge, &c. The Cause may be an Incepti­on of Putrefaction: For those Milkes haue all an Acrimony; though one would thinke they should be Lenitiue. For if you write vpon Paper, with the Milke of the Fig, the Letters will not be seene, vntill you hold the Paper before the Fire, and then they wax Browne; Which sheweth that it is a Sharpe or Fretting Iuyce: Lettuce is thought Poysonous, when it is so Old, as to haue Milke; Spurge is a kinde of Poyson in it Selfe; And as for Sowe-Thistles, though Coneyes eat them, yet Sheepe and Cattell will not touch them; And besides the Milke of them, rubbed vpon Warts, in short time, weareth them away: Which sheweth the Milke [Page 161] of them to be Corrosine. We see also, that Wheat, and other Corne sowen, if you take them forth of the Ground, before they sprout, are full of Milke; And the Beginning of Germination is euer a Kinde of Putrefacti­on of the Seed. Euphorbium also hath a Milke, though not very white, which is of a great Acrimony. And Saladine hath a yellow Milke, which hath likewise much Acrimony; For it cleanseth the Eyes. It is good also for Cataracts.

Mushromes are reported to grow, as well vpon the Bodies of Trees, 640 as vpon their Roots, or vpon the Earth: And especially vpon the Oake. The Cause is, for that Strong Trees, are towards such Excresc [...]ces, in the Nature of Earth; And therfore put forth Mosse, Mushromes, and the like.

There is hardly found a Plant, that yeeldeth a Red Iuyce, in the Blade, 641 or Eare; Except it be the Tree that beareth Sanguis Draconis: Which groweth (chiefly) in the Island Soquotra: The Herb Amaranthus, (indeed,) is Red all ouer; And Brasill is Red in the Wood: And so is Red Sunders. That Tree of the Sanguis Draconis, groweth in the forme of a Sugar-loafe. It is like, that the Sap of that Plant, concocteth in the Body of the Tree. For woe see that Grapes, and Pomegranats, are Red in the Iuyce, but are Greene in the Teare: And this maketh the Tree of Sanguis Draconis, lesser towards the Top; Because the Iuyce hasteneth not vp; And besides it is very Astringent; And therefore of Slow Motion.

It is reported, that Sweet Mosse, besides that vpon the Apple-Trees, 642 groweth likewise (sometimes) vpon Poplars; And yet (generally) the Poplar is a Smooth Tree of Barke, and hath little Mosse. The Mosse of the Larix Tree burneth also Sweet, and sparkleth in the Burning, Quaere of the Mosses of Oderate Trees; As Cedar, Cypres, Lignum Aloës, &c.

The Death that is most without Paine, hath been noted to be, vpon 643 the Taking of the Petium of Hemloche; which in Humanity was the Forme of Execution of Capitall Offenders in Athens. The Poyson of the Aspe, that Cleopatra vsed, hath some affinity with it. The Cause is, for that the Tor­ments of Death are chiefly raised by the Strife of the Spirits; And these Vapours quench the Spirits by Degrees; Like to the Death of an extreme Old Man. I conceiue it is lesse Painfull than Opium:, because Opium hath Parts of Heat mixed.

There be Fruits, that are Sweet before they be Ripe; As Mirabolanes; 644 So Reuuell-Seeds are Sweet before they ripen, and after grow Spicy. And some neuer Ripen to be Sweet; As Tamarinds, Berberries, Crabs, Sloes, &c. The Cause is, for that the former Kinde haue [...]eh and subtill Heat, which causeth Earely Sweetnesse; The latter haue a Cold and Acide Iuyce, which no Heat of the Sunne can sweeten. But as for the Mirabe­lane, it hath Parts of Contrary Natures; For it is Sweet, and yet Astrin­gont.

There bee few Herbes that haue a Salt Taste; And contrariwise all 645 Bloud of Liuing Creatures hath a Saltnesse: The Cause may be, for that Salt, though it be the Audiment of Life, yet in Plants the Originall Taste [Page 162] remaineth not; For you shall haue them Bitter, Sowre, Sweet, Biting, but seldome Salt: But in Liuing Creatures, all those High Tastes may happen to be (sometimes) in the Humours, but are seldome in the Flesh, or Sub­stance; Because it is of a more Oyly Nature; which is not very Suscepti­ble of those Tastes; And the Saltnesse it selfe of Bloud, is but a light, and secret Saltnesse: And euen among Plants, some doe participate of Salt­nesse, as Alga Marina, Sampire, Scorny-Grasse, &c. And they report, there is, in some of the Indian-Seas, a Swimming Plant, which they call Salga­zus, spreading ouer the Sea, in such sort, as one would thinke it were a Meadow. It is certaine, that out of the Ashes of all Plants, they extract a Salt, which they vse in Medicines.

646 It is reported by one of the Ancients, that there is an Herb growing in the Water, called Lincostis, which is full of Prickles: This Herbe putteth forth another small Herbe out of the Leafe; which is imputed to some Moisture, that is gathered betweene the Prickles, which Putrified by the Sunne, Germinateth. But I remember also I haue seene, for a great Ra­rity, one Rose grow out of another, like Honey-Suckles, that they call Top and Top-gallants.

647 Barley, (as appeareth in the Malting,) being steeped in Water three dayes, and afterwards the Water drained from it, and the Barley turned vpon a dry floare, will sprout, halfe an Inch long at least: And if it be let alone, and not turned, much more; vntill the Heart be out. Wheat will doe the same. Try it also with Pease, and Beanes. This Experiment is not like that of the Orpin, and Semper-Vine; For there it is of the old Store, for no Water is added; But here it is nourished from the Water. The Experiment would be further driuen: For it appeareth already, by that which hath beene said, that Earth is not necessary to the first Sprouting of Plants; And we see that Rose-Buds set in Water, will Blow: Therefore try whether the Sprouts of such Graines may not be raised to a further Degree; As to an Herbe, or Flower, with Water onely; Or some small Commixture, of Earth: For if they will, it should seeme by the Experiments before, both of the Malt, and of the Roses, that they will come far faster on in Water, than in Earth: For the Nourishment is easilier drawne out of Water, than out of Earth. It may giue some light also, that Drinke infused with Flesh, as that with the Capon, &c. will nourish faster and easilier, than Meat and Drinke together. Try the same Experiment with Roots, as well as with Graines: as for Example, take a Turnip, and steepe it a while, and then dry it, and see whether it will sprout.

648 Malt in the Dren [...]bing will swell; And in such a manner, as after the Putting forth in Sprouts, and the drying vpon the Keele, there will be gained at least a Bushell in eight, and yet the Sprouts are rubbed off; And there will be a Bushell of Dust besides the Malt: Which I suppose to be, not onely by the loose, and open Laying of the Parts, but by some Addition of Substance, drawne from the Water, in which it was steeped.

649 Malt gathereth a Sweetnesse to the Taste, which appeareth yet more [Page 163] in the Wort. The Dulcoration of Things is worthy to be tried to the full; For that Dulcoration importeth a degree to Nourishment: And the Ma­king of Things Inalimentall, to become Alimentall, may be an Experiment of great Profit, for Making new Victuall.

Most Seeds in the Growing, leaue their Huske or Rinde about the Root; 650 But the Onion will carry it vp, that it will be like a Cap vpon the Top of the Young Onion. The Cause may be, for that the Skin or Huske is not easie to breake; As we see by the Pilling of Onions, what a Holding Sub­stance the Skin is.

Plants, that haue Curled Leaues, doe all abound with Moisture; Which 651 commeth so fast on, as they cannot spread themselues Plaine, but must needs gather together. The Weakest Kinde of Curling is Roughnesse; As in Clary, and Burre. The Second is Curling on the Sides; As in Lettuce, and Young Cabbage: And the Third is Folding into an Head; As in Cab­bage full growne, and Cabbage-Lettuce.

It is reported, that Firre, and Pine, especially if they be Old and Pu­trified, 652 though they shine not, as some Rotten Woods doe, yet in the sud­den Breaking they will sparkle like Hard Sugar.

The Roots of Trees doe, (some of them,) put downwards deepe into 653 the Ground; As the Oake, Pine, Firre, &c. Some spread more towards the Surface of the Earth; As the Ash, Cypresse-Tree, Oline, &c. The Cause of this latter may be, for that such Trees as loue the Sunne, doe not wil­lingly descend farre into the Earth; And therefore they are (commonly) Trees, that shoot vp much; For in their Body, their desire of Approach to the Sunne, maketh them spread the lesse. And the same Reason, vn­der Ground, to auoid Recesse from the Sunne, maketh them spread the more. And wee see it commeth to passe in some Trees, which haue beene planted too deepe in the Ground, that forloue of Approach to the Sunne, they forsake their first Root, and put out another more towards the Top of the Earth. And wee see also, that the Oliue is full of Oylie Iuyce; And Ash maketh the best Fire; And Cypresse is an Hot Tree. As for the Oake; which is of the former sort, it loueth the Earth, And therefore groweth slowly. And for the Pine, and Firre likewise, they haue so much Heat in themselues, as they need lesse the Heat of the Sunne. There be Herbs also, that haue the same difference; As the Herbe they call Mor­sus Diaboli; Which putteth the Root downe so low, as you cannot pull it vp without Breaking; Which gaue Occasion to the N [...]me, and [...]; For that it was said, it was so wholesome a Root, that the Deuill, when it was gathered, bit [...] for Enny. And some of the Ancients doe report, that there was a Goodly Firre; (which they desired to remoue whole,) that had a Root vnder Ground eight Cubits deepe; And so the Root came vp broken.

It hath beene obserued, tha [...] a Branch of a Tree, being Vnberked some 654 space at the Botome, and so set into the Ground, hath growen; Euen of such Trees, as if the Branch were set with the Barke on, they would not grow; yet co [...]driwise we see, that a Tree [...]ared round in the Body, aboue [Page 164] Ground, will die. The Cause may be, for that the Vnbarke Part draweth the Nourishment best, but the Barke continueth it only.

655 Grapes will continue Fresh, and Moist, all Winter long, if you hang them, Cluster by Cluster, in the Roofe of a Warme Roome; Especially, it when you gather the Cluster, you take off with the Cluster some of the Stocke.

656 The Reed or Cane is a Watry Plant, and groweth not but in the Water; It hath these Properties; That it is Hollow; That it is Knuckled both Stalke, and Root; That being Drie, it is more Hard and Fragile, than other Wood; That it putteth forth no Boughs. though many Stalkes come out of one Root. It differeth much in Greatnesse; The smallest being fit for Thatching of Houses; And Stopping the Chinkes of Ships; Better than Glew, or Pitch. The Second Bignesse, is vsed for Angle-Rods, and Staues; And in China for beating of Offenders vpon the Thighs. The differing Kindes of them are; The Common Reed; The Cassia Fistula; And the Sugar-Reed. Of all Blants, it boweth the easiest, and riseth againe. It seemeth, that amongst Plants, which are nourished with Mixture of Earth and Water, it draweth most Nourishment from Water; which maketh it the Smoothest of all others in Barke; And the Hollowest in Body.

657 The Sap of Trees, when they are let Bloud, is of differing Natures. Some more Watry and Cleare; As that of Vines; of Beeches; of Peares. Some Thicke; As Apples. Some Gummis; As Cherries. Some Frathie, As Elmes. Some Milkie; As [...] In Mulberries, the Sap seemeth to be (almost) towards the Barke only; For if you cut the Tree, a little into the Barke, with a Stone, it will come forth; If you pierce it deeper with a Toole, it will be drie. The Trees, which haue the Moistest Iuyces in their Fruit. haue commonly the Moistest Sap in their Body; For the Vines and Peares are very Moist; Apples somes hat more Spongie: The Milke of the Figge hath the Qualitie of the R [...]nea [...], to gather Cheese; And so haue cer­taine Sonre Herbs wherewith they make Cheese in Lent.

658 The Timber and Wood are, in some Trees, more Cleane, in some more Kn [...]tie: And it is a good Triall. to trie it by Speaking at one End, and Laying the [...]are at the Other: For if it he Kn [...]tie, the Voice will not passe well. Some haue the Veines more varied, and chamlotted; As Oake, whereof Wainscat it made; Maple, whereof Trenchers are made. Some more smooth, as Firre, and Walnnt: Some doe more easily breed Wormes and Spiders; Some more hardly, as it is said of Irish Trees: Be­sides, there be a Number of Differences that concerne their Vse; As Oake, Cedar, and Chesu [...]t, are the best Builders: Some are best for Ploughs Timber; As Ash; Some for Peeres, that are sometimes wet, and some­times drie; As Elme: Some for Planchers; As Deale: Some for Tables, Cupboard, and Desks; As Wannts: Some for Ship Timber; As Oakes that grow in Moist Grounds; For that maketh the Timber Tough, and not apt to rift with Q [...]d [...]an [...] Where in English and Irish Timber are thought [...] excell; Some for Mosts of Ships; As Firre, and Pine, because of their [Page 165] Length, Straightnesse, and Lightnesse: Some for Pale; As Oake: Some for Fuell; As Ash: And so of the rest.

The Comming of Trees and Plants in certaine Regions, and net in o­thers,659 is sometimes Casuall: For many haue beene translated, and haue prospered well; As Damaske-Roses, that haue not beene knowne in Eng­land aboue an hundred yeares, and now are so common. But the liking of Plants in certaine Soiles, more than in others, is meerly Naturall; As the Firre and Pine loue the Mountaines; The Poplar; Willow, Sallow, and Alder, loue Riuers, and Moist Places: The Ash loueth Coppices; But is best in Standards alone: luniper loueth Chalke; And so doe most Fruit­Trees: Sampire groweth but upon Rocks: Reeds and Ofiers grow where they are washed with Water: The Vine loueth Sides of Hills, turning vpon the South-East Sun, &c.

The Putting forth of certaine Herbs discouereth of what Nature the 660 Ground where they put forth, is: As Wilde Thyme sheweth good Feeding Ground for Cattell, Betony and Strawberries shew Grounds fit for Wood: Ca [...]mill sheweth Mellow Grounds fit for Wheat. Mustard Seede, grow­ing after the Plough, sheweth a good Strong Ground also for Wheat: Bur­net sheweth good Meadow: And the like.

There are found, in diuers Countries, some other Plants, that grow 661 out of Trees and Plants, besides Misseltes: As in Syria, there is an Herbe called Cassytas that groweth out of tall Trees, and windeth it selfe about the same Tree where it groweth; And sometimes about Thornes. There is a kinde of Polypode, that groweth out of Trees, though it windeth not. So likewise an Herbe called Fannes, vpon the Wilde Oline. And an Herbe called Hippopha [...] vpon the Fullers Thorne; Which, they say, is good for the Falling Sicknesse.

It hath beene ob [...]rerue [...], by [...]ome or the Ancients, that howsoeuer 662 Cold and Easterly Winds, are thought to be great Enemies to Fruit; yet neuerthelesse South Winds are also found to doe Hure; Especially in the Blossoming time; And the more, if Showers follow. It seemeth, they call forth the Moisture too fast. The West Winds are the best. It hath beene obserued also that Greene and Open Winters doe hurt Trees; Insomuch as if two or three such Winters come together, Almond-Trees, and some other Trees, will dye. The Cause is the same with the former, because the Lust of the Earth ouerspendeth it selfe; Howsoeuer some other of the Ancients haue commended Warme Winters.

Snowes, lying long, cause a Fruitfull Yeare: For first, they keepe in 663 the Strength of the Earth; Secondly, they water the Earth, better than Raine; For in Snow, the Earth doth (as it were) sucke the Water, as out of the Teate. Thirdly, the Moisture of Snow is the finest Moisture; For it is the Froth of the Cloudy Waters.

Showers, if they come a little before the Ripening of Fruits, doe good 664 to all Shoculent and Moist Fruits; As Vines, Oliues, Pomegranates; Yet it is rather for Plenty, than for Goodnesse; For the best Wines are in the Driest Vintages: Small Showers are likewise good for Corne, so as [Page 166] Parching Heats come not vpon them. Generally, Night-Showers are bet­ter than Day-Showers; For that the Sunne followeth not so fast vpon them. And we see, euen in Watring by the Hand, it is best, in Summer time, to water in the Euening.

665 The Differences of Earths, and the Triall of them, are worthy to be diligently inquired. The Earth, that with Showers doth easiliest Soften, is commended; And yet some Earth of that kinde will be very Dry, and Hard before the Showers. The Earth that casteth vp from the Plough, a Great Clod, is not so good, as that, which casteth vp a Smaller Clod. The Earth, that putteth forth Mosse easily, and may bee called Mouldy, is not good. The Earth, that smelleth well vpon the Digging, or Ploughing, is commended; As containing the Iuyce of Vegetables almost already prepared. It is thought by some, that the Ends of low Raine-Bowes, fall more vpon one kinde of Earth than vpon another: As it may well be; For that that Earth is most Roscide: And therfore it is commended for a Signe of good Earth. The Poorenesse of the Herbs, (it is plaine,) shew the Poorenesse of the Earth; And especially if they be in Colour more darke: But if the Herbs shew Withered, or Blasted at the Top, it sheweth the Earth to be very Cold: And so doth the Mossinesse of Trees. The Earth, whereof the Grasse is soone Parched with the Sun, and Toasted, is commonly Forced Earth, and Barren in his owne Nature. The Tender, Chessoine, and Mellow Earth, is the best; Being meere Mould, betweene the two Extreames of Clay, and Sand; Especially if it be not Loamy, and Binding. The Earth, that after Raine, will scarce be Ploughed, is commonly Fruitfull; For it is Cleaning, and full of Iuyce.

666 It is strange, which is obserued by some of the Ancients, that Dust hel­peth the Fruitfulnesse of Trees; And of Vines, by name: Insomuch as they catt Dust vpon them of purpose. It should seeme, that that Pow­dring, when a Shower commeth, maketh a kinde of Soyling to the Tree, being Earth and Water, finely laid on. And they note, that Coun­tries, where the Fields and Wayes are Dusty, beare the best Vines.

667 It is commended by the Ancients, for an Excellent Helpe to Trees, to lay the Stalks and Leaues of Lupines about the Roots; Or to Plough them into the Ground, where you will sowe Corne. The Burning also of the Cuttings of Vines, and Casting them vpon land, doth much Good. And it was generally receiued of old, that the Dunging of Grounds, when the West Wind bloweth, and in the Decrease of the Moone, doth greatly helpe; The Earth (as it seemeth) being then more thirsty, and open, to receiue the Dung.

668 The Grafting of Vines vpon Vines, (as I take it,) is not now in vse: The Ancients had it, and that three wayes: The First was Insition, which is the Ordinary Manner of Grafting: The Second was Terebration, through the Middle of the Stocke, and Putting in the Cions there: And the Third was Paring of two Vines, that grow together, to the Marrow, and Binding them close.

669 The Diseases and ill Accidents of Corne, are worthy to be enquired; [Page 167] And would be more worthy to be enquired, if it were in Mens Power to helpe them; Whereas many of them are not to be remedied. The Mil­dew is one of the Greatest; which (out of question) commeth by Close­nesse of Aire; And therefore in Hills, or large Champaigne Grounds, it sel­dome commeth; Such as is with vs York's Worad. This cannot be reme­died, otherwise than that in Countries of Small Enclosure, the Grounds be turned into larger Fields: Which I haue knowne to doe good in some Farmes. Another Disease is the Putting forth of Wilde Oats, where­into Corne oftentimes, (especially Barley,) doth degenerate. It happe­neth chiefly from the Weaknesse of the Graine that is sowen; For if it be either too Old, or Mouldy, it will bring forth Wilde Oats. Another Dis­ease is the Saciety of the Ground; For if you sow one Ground still with the same Corne, (I meane not the same Corne that grew vpon the same Ground,) but the same Kinde of Graine; (As Wheat, Barley, &c.) it will prosper but poorely: Therefore besides the Resting of the Ground, you must vary the Seed. Another ill Accident is, from the Winds, which hurt at two times; At the Flowring, by Shaking off the Flowers; And at the full Ripening, by Shaking out the Corne. Another ill Accident is, Drouth, at the Spindling of the Corne; Which with vs is rate; But in Hotter Countries, common: Insomuch as the Word, Calamitas, was first deri­ued from Calamus, when the Corne could not get out of the Stalke. An­other ill Accident is, Ouer-wet at Sowing-Time; which with vs breedeth much Dearth; Insomuch as the Corne neuer commeth vp; And (many times) they are forced to resow Sommer-Corne, where they sowed Win­ter-Corne. Another ill Accident is Bitter Frosts, continued, without Snow; Especially in the Beginning of the Winter, after the Seed is new Sowen. Another Disease is Wormes; which sometimes breed in the Root, and happen vpon Hot Sunnes, and Showers, immediately after the Sowing; And another Worme breedeth in the Eare it Selfe; Especially when Hot Sunnes breake often out of Clouds. Another Disease is Weeds; And they are such, as either Choake, and Ouershadow the Corne, and beare it downe; Or starue the Corne, and deceiue it of Nourishment. Another Disease is, Ouer-Rancknesse of the Corne; Which they vse to remedy, by Mowing it after it is come vp; Or putting Sheepe into it. Another ill Ac­cident is Laying of Corne with great Raines, neare, or in Harnest. Another ill Accident is, if the Seed happen to haue touched Oyle, or any Thing, that is Fat; For those Substances haue an Antipathy with Nourishment of Water.

The Remedies of the Diseases of Corne haue beene obserued as fol­loweth.670 The Steeping of the Graine, before Sowing, a little time in Wine, is thought a Presernatiue: The Mingling of Seed-Corne with Ashes, is thought to be good: The Sowing at the Wane of the Moone, is thought to make the Corne sound: It hath not beene practised, but it is thought to be of vse, to make some Miscellane in Corne; As if you sow a few Beanes with Wheat, your Wheat will be the better. It hath beene obserued, that the Sowing of Corne with Honsleeke, doth good. Though Graine, that [Page 168] toucheth Oyle, or Fat, receiueth hurt, yet the Steeping of it, in the Dregs of Oyle, when it beginneth to Putrifie, (which they call Amurca,) is thought to assure it against Wormes. It is reported also, that it Corne be Mowed, it will make the Graine Longer, but Emptier, and hauing More of the Huske.

671 It hath beene noted, that Seed of a yeare old, is the Best; And of two or three yeares is Worse, And that which is more Old, is quite Bar­ren; Though (no doubt) some Seeds and Graines last better than others. The Corne, which in the Vanning lieth lowest, is the best; And the Corne, which broken or bitten retaineth a little Yellownesse, is better than that which is very White.

672 It hath beene obserued, that of all Roots of Herbs, the Root of Sorrell goeth the furthest into the Earth; Insomuch as it hath bin knowne to go three Cubits deepe; And that it is the Root that continueth fit (longest) to be set againe, of any Root that groweth. It is a Cold and Acide Herbe, that (as it seemeth) loueth the Earth, and is not much drawne by the Sunne.

673 It hath beene obserued, that some Herbs like best, being watred with Salt-Water; As Radish, Beet, Rew, Pennyroyall; This Triall would be ex­tended to some other Herbs; Especially such as are Strong; As Tarra­gon, Mustard-Seed, Rocket, and the like.

674 It is strange that is generally receiued, how some Poysonous Beasts affect Odorate and Wholesome Herbs; As that the Snake loueth Fennell; That the Toad will be much vnder Sage; That Frogs will be in Cinque foile. It may be, it is rather the Shade, or other Couerture, that they take li­king in, than the Vertue of the Herbe.

675 It were a Matter of great Profit, (saue that I doubt it is too Con­iecturall to venture vpon,) if one could discerne, what Corne, Herbs, or Fruits, are like to be in Plenty, or Scarcity, by some Signes and Prognosticks. in the Beginning of the Yeare: For as for those, that are like to be in Plenty, they may be bargained for, vpon the Ground; As the Old Rela­tion was of Thales; who to shew how easie it was for a Philosopher to be rich, when he fore-saw a great Plenty of Oliues, made a Monopoly of them. And for Scarcity, Men may make Profit in keeping better the Old Store. Long Continuance of Snow is beleeued to make a Fruitfull Yeare of Corne: An Earely Winter, or a very Late Winter, a Barren Yeare of Corne: An O­pen and Serene Winter, an ill Yeare of Fruit: These we haue partly tou­ched before: But other Prognostickes of like Nature are diligently to be enquired.

676 There seeme to be, in some Plants, Singularities, wherein they differ from all Other; The Oliue hath the Oyly Part, only on the Outside; Wher­as all other Fruits haue it in the Nut, or Kernell. The Firre hath (in ef­fect) no Stone, Nut, nor Kernest; Except you will count the little Graines Kernells. The Pom granate and Pine Apple haue onely, amongst Fruits, Graines distinct in seuerall Cells. No Herbs haue Curled Leaues, but Cab­bage, and Cabbage-Lettuce. None haue double Leaues, one belonging to [Page 169] the Stalke, another to the Fruit or Seed, but the Artichoke: No Flower hath that kinde of Spread that the Woodbine hath. This may be a large Field of Contemplation; For it sheweth that in the Frame of Nature, there is, in the Producing of some Species, a Composition of Matter, which happeneth oft, and may be much diuersified: In others, such as happeneth rarely, and admitteth little Variety: For so it is likewise in Beasts: Dogs haue a Resemblance with Wolnes, and Foxes; Horses with Asses, Kine with Bustes; Hares with Coneyes; &c. And so in Birds: Kites and Kastrells haue a Resemblance with Hawkes; Common-Doues with Ring-Dea [...]s, and Tortles; Black-Birds with Thrushes, and Manisses; Crowes with Bauens, Dawes, and Choughas, &c. But Elephants, and Swine amongst Beasts; And the Bird of Paradise, and the Peacocke amongst Birds; And some few others; haue sea [...] any other Species, that haue Affinity with them.

We leaue the Description of Plants, and their Vertues, to Herballs, and other like Bookes of Naturall History: Wherein Mens Diligence hath b [...] great, euen to Curiosity: For our Experiments are onely such as doe euer ascend a Degree, to the Deriuing of Causes, and Extracting of Axiomes, which, wee are not ignorant, but that some, both of the Ancient, and Mo­deme Writers, haue also labôured, But their Causes, and Axiomes, are so full of Imagination, and so infected with the old Recei­ued Theories, as they are meere Inquinations of Experience, and Concoct it not.

It hath beene obserued by some of the Ancients, that Skins, (espe­cially of [...]ams, newly pulled off, and applied to the Wounds of Stripts, doe keepe them from Swelling, and Exulcerating; And likewise Heade them, and Close them vp; And that the Whites of Eggs do the same.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Healing of Wounds. The 677 Cause is a Temperate Conglutination; For both Bodies are Glommy, and Viscous, and doe bridle the Des [...]uxe of Humours to the Hu [...], without Penning them in too much.

You may turne (almost) all Flesh into a [...] [...] [...], if you take Flesh, and cut it into Peeces, and put the Peeces into a Glasse couered with Parchment; And so let the Glasse stand six or seuen Houres [...] Boy­ling Water. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching [...] [...] [...] It may be an Experiment of Profit, for Making of Fat, or 678 Grease, for many vses; But then it must be of such Flesh as is not Edible; As Horses, Dogs, Beares, Foxes, Bodgers, &c.

[Page 170]It is reported by one of the Ancients, that New Wine, put into Ves­sells well stopped, and the Vessells let downe into the Sea, will accelerate very much, the Making of them Ripe, and Potable.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Repening of D [...]nk before the Time. The same would be 679 tried in Wort.

Beasts are more Hairy than Men; And Sauage Man more than Ciuill; And the Plumage of Birds exceedeth the Pilosity of Beasts. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Pilosity and Plumage. The Cause of the Smoothnesse in Men, is not any Abundance of Heat, and Moisture, 680 though that indeed causeth Pilosity; But there is requisite to Pilosity, not so much Heat and Moisture, as Excrementitious Heat and Moisture: (For whatsoeuer assimilateth, goeth not into the Haire:) And Excrementi­tious Moisture aboundeth most in Beasts, and Men that are more Sauage. Much the same Reason is there of the Plumage of Birds; For Birds assi­milate lesse, and excerne more than Beasts: For their Excrements are euer liquid, and their Flesh (generally) more dry: Besides, they haue not Instruments for Vrine; And so all the Excrementitious Moisture goeth into the Feathers: And therefore it is no Maruell, though Birds bee commonly better Meat than Beasts, because their Flesh doth assimilate more finely, and secerneth more subtilly. Againe, the Head of Man hath Haire vpon the first Birth, which no other Part of the Body hath. The Cause may be Want of Perspiration: For Much of the Matter of Haire, in the other Parts of the Body, goeth forth by Insensible Perspiration; And besides, the Skull being of a more solide Substance, nourisheth and as­similateth lesse, and excerneth more: And so likewise doth the Chinne; We see also that Haire commeth not vpon the Palmes of the Hands, nor Soales of the Feet; Which are Parts more Perspirable. And Children likewise are not Hairy, for that their Skins are more Perspirable.

Birds are of Swifter Motion than Beasts: For the Flight of many Birds is Swifter, than the Race of any Beasts. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Quicknesse of Motion in Birds. The Cause is, for that the Spirits in Birds, are in greater Proportion, in comparison of the Bulke of their Body, than in Beasts: For as for the Reason that some giue, that they are partly Carried, whereas Beasts goe, that is Nothing; For by that 681 Reason Swimming should be swifter, than Running: And that Kinde of Carriage also, is not without Labour of the Wing.

The Sea is Clearer, when the North wind bloweth, than when the South-wind. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the diffe­rent Clear enesse of the Sea. The Cause is, for that Salt-Water hath a little Oylinesse in the Surface thereof; As appeareth in very Hot Daies: And againe, for that the Southerne Wind relaxeth the Water somewhat; As no Water Boyling 682 is so Cleare as Cold Water.

Fire burneth Wood, making it first Luminous; Then Blacke and Brit­tle: And lastly, Broken and Incinerate: Sealding Water doth none of these.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the diffe­rent Heats of Fire and Boiling Water. The Cause is, for that by Fire, the Spirit of the Body is first Refined, and 683 then Emitted; Whereof the Refining, be Attenuation causeth the Light; [Page 171] And the Emission, first the Fragilitie, and after the Dissolution into Ashes: Neither doth any other Body enter: But in Water the Spirit of the Body is not Refined so much; And besides Part of the Water entreth; Which doth increase the Spirit, and in a degree extinguish it: Therefore wee see that Hot Water will quench Fire. And againe wee see, that in Bodies, wherein the Water doth not much enter, but only the Heat passeth, Hot Water worketh the Effects of Fire: As in Egges Boyled, and Roasted, (in­to which the Water entreth not at all,) there is scarce difference to be dis­cerned; But in Fruit, and Flesh, whereinto the Water entreth, in some part, there is much more difference.

The Bottome of a Vessell of Boyling Water, (as hath beene obserued,) is not very much Heated; So as Men may put their Hand vnder the Vessell, and remoue it.Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Qua­lification of Heat by Moisture. The Cause is, for that the Moisture of Water, as it quen­cheth Coales, where it entreth; So it doth allay Heat, where it toucheth:684 And therefore note well, that Moisture, although it doth not passe tho­row Bodies, without Communication of some Substance, (As Heat and Cold doe;) yet it worketh manifest Effects; not by Entrance of the Bo­dy, but by Qualifying of the Heat, and Cold; As wee see in this In­stance: And wee see likewise, that the Water of Things distilled in Water, (which they call the Bath,) differeth not much from the Water of Things Distilled by Fire: Wee see also, that Pewter-Dishes, with Water in them, will not Melt easily; But without it, they will: Nay wee see more, that Butter, or Oyle, which in themselues are Inflammable, yet by Vertue of their Moisture, will doe the like.

It hath beene noted by the Ancients, that it is dangerous to Picke ones Eare, whilest he Yawneth. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Yawning. The Cause is, for that in Yawning, the Inner Parchment of the Eare is extended, by the Drawing in of the Spirit, and 685 Breath; For in Yawning, and Sighing both, the Spirit is first strongly Drawne in, and then strongly Expelled.

It hath beene obserued by the Ancients, that Sneezing doth cease the Hiccough. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Hic­cough. The Cause is, for that the Motion of the Hiccough, is a Lifting vp of the Stomacke: which Sneezing doth somewhat depresse, and diuert the Motion another way. For first wee see, that the Hiccough commeth of 686 Fulnesse of Meat, (especially in Children, which causeth an Extension of the Stomacke: Wee see also, it is caused by Acide Meats, or Drinkes, which is by the Pricking of the Stomacke: And this Motion is ceased, ei­ther by Diuersion; Or by Detention of the Spirits: Diuersion, as in Snee­zing; Detention, as wee see Holding of the Breath, doth helpe somewhat to cease the Hiccough: And putting a Man into an Earnest Studie doth the like; As is commonly vsed: And Vinegar put to the Nostbrills, or Gargarized, doth it also; For that it is Astringent, and inhibiteth the Motion of the Spirits.

[Page 172] Looking against the Sunne, doth induce Sneezing. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Sneezing The Cause; is not the Heating of the Nosthrills; For then the Holding vp of the Nosthrills against the Sunne, though one Winke, would doe it, But the Drawing 687 downe of the Moisture of the Braine: For it will make the Eyes, run with Water; And the Drawing of Moisture to the Eyes, doth draw it to the Nosthrills, by Motion of Consent; And so followeth Sneezing; As con­trariwise, the Tickling of the Nosthrills within, doth draw the Moisture to the Nosthrills, and to the Eyes by Consent; For they also will Water. But yet, it hath beene obserued, that if one be about to Sneeze, the Rubbing of the Eyes, till they run with Water, will preuent it. Where of the Cause is, for that the Humour, which was descending to the Nosthrills, is diuer­ted to the Eyes.

The Teeth are more, by Cold Drinke, or the like, affected, than the other Parts. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Ten­dernesse of the Teeth. The Cause is double: The One, for that the Resistance of Bone to Cold, is greater than of Flesh; for that Flesh shrinketh, but the Bone resisteth, whereby the Cold becommeth more eager: The Other is, 688 for that the Teeth are Parts without Bloud; Whereas Bloud helpeth to qualifie the Cold: And therefore wee see, that the Sinnewes are much af­fected with Cold; For that they are Parts without Bloud: So the Bones in Sharpe Colds wax Brittle; And therefore, it hath beene seene, that all Contusions of Bones, in Hard Weather, are more difficult to Cure.

It hath been noted, that the Tongue receiueth, more easily, Tokens of Diseases, than the other Parts; As of Heats within, which appeare most in the Blacknesse of the Tongue. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Tongue. Againe, Pied Cattell are spotted in their 689 Tongues, &c. The Cause is, (no doubt,) the Tendernesse of the Part; which thereby receiueth more easily all Alterations, than any other Parts of the Flesh.

When the Mouth is out of Taste, it maketh Things taste, sometimes Salt; Chiefly Bitter; And sometimes Loathsome; But neuer Sweet. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Taste. The Cause is, the Corrupting of the Moisture about the Tongue; Which many 690 times turneth Bitter, and Salt, and Loathsome; But Sweet neuer; For the rest are Degrees of Corruption.

It was obserued in the Great Plague of the last Yeare, that there were seene, in diuers Ditches, and low Grounds, about London, many Toads, that had Tailes, two or three Inches long, at the least; Whereas Toads (vsually) haue no Tailes at all.Experiment Solitary tou­ching some Prognosticks of Pestilenitall Seasons. Which argueth a great Disposition to 691 Putrefaction in the Soile, and Aire. It is reported likewise, that Roots, (such as Carrets, and Parsuips,) are more Sweet, and Lushious, in Infe­ctious Yeares, than in other Yeares.

Wife Physitians should with all diligence inquire, what Simples Na­ture 692 yeeldeth, that haue extreme Subtile Parts, without any Mordication, [Page 173] or Acrimony: For they Vndermine that which is Hard; They open that which is Stopped, and Shut; And they expell that which is Offensive, gent­ly, without too much Perturbation. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Speciall Simples for Medicines. Of this Kinde are Elder-Flowers, which therefore are Proper for the Stone: Of this kinde is the Dwarfe­Pine; which is Proper for the laundies: Of this kinde is Harts-Horne; which is Proper for Agues, and Infections: Of this kinde is Piony; which is Proper for Stoppings in the Head: Of this kinde is Fumitory; which is Proper for the Spl [...]e: And a Number of Others. Generally, diuers Creatures bred of Putrefaction, though they be somewhat loathsome to take, are of this kinde; As Earth-wormes, Timber-Sowes, Snailes, &c. And I conceiue, that the Trechischs of Vipers, (which are so much magnified,) and the Flesh of Snakes some wayes condited, and corrected, (which of late are growne into some Credite,) are of the same Nature. So the Parts of Beasts Putrified; (as Castereum, and Muske, which haue extreme Subtill Parts,) are to be placed amongst them. We see also that Patrefa­ctions of Plants, (as Agarichs, and lewes [...]. are of greatest Vertue. The Cause is, for that Putrefection is the Subtillest of all Motions, in the Parts of Bodies: And since we cannot take downe the Lines of Liuing Creatures, (which some of the [...] say (If they could be taken downe,) would make vs Immortall;) the Next is for Subtilty of Operation, to take Bodies Putresied; Such as may be safely taken.

It hath beene obserued by the Ancients, that Much vse of Venus doth Dimme the Sight; And yet Eunuchs, which are vnable to generate, are (neuerthelesse) also Dimme Sighted. Experiments in Consort touching Ve­nus. The Cause of Dimnesse of Sight, in the Former, is the Expence of Spirts; In the Latter, the Ouer-moisture 693 of the Braine: For the Ouer-moisture of the Braine doth thicken the Spi­rits Visuall. and obstructeth their Passages; As we see by the Decay, in the Sight, in Age; Where also the Diminution of the Spirits concurreth as another Cause: we see also that Blindnesse commeth by Rheumes, and [...]. Now in [...]. there are all the Notes of Moisture; As the Swelling of their Thighes, the Loosenesse of their Belly, the Smooth­nesse of their Skinne, &c.

The Pleasure in the Act of Venus is the greatest of the Pleasures of 694 the Senses: The Matching of it with Itch is vnproper; though that also be Pleasing to the touch. But the Conses are Profound. First, all the Or­gane of the Senses qualifie the Nations of the Spirits; And make so many Seuerall Species of Motions, and Pleasures or Displeasures thereupon, as there be Dinersitics of Organs. The Instruments of Sight, Hearing, Taste, and Smell, are of seuerall frame; And so are the Parts for Generation. Therefore Sealiger doth well, to make the Pleasure of Generation a Sixth Sense; And if there were any other differing Organs, and Qualified Per­fraction for the spirits to passe; there would be more than the Fiue Sen­ses; Neither doe we well know, whether some Beasts, and Birds, haue not Senses that we know not: And the very some of Dogs is almost a sense it selfe. Secondly, the Pleasures of the Touch, are greater and [Page 174] deeper, than those of the other Senses; As we see in Warming vpon Cold; Or Refrigeration vpon Heat: For as the Paines of the Touch, are greater than the Offences of other Sense; So likewise are the Pleasures. It is true, that the Affecting of the Spirits immediately, and (as it were) without an Organ, is of the greatest Pleasure; Which is but in two things: Sweet Smells; And Wine, and the like Sweet Vapours. For Smells, wee see their great and sudden Effect in fetching Men againe, when they swoune: For Drinke, it is certaine, that the Pleasure of Drunkennesse, is next the Plea­sure of Venus: And Great Ioyes (likewise) make the Spirits moue, and touch themselues: And the pleasure of Venus is somewhat of the same Kinde.

695 It hath beene alwayes obserued, that Men are more inclined to Venus in the Winter, and Women in the Summer. The Cause is, for that the Spi­rits, in a Body more Hot and dry, (as the Spirits of Men are,) by the Sum­mer are more exhaled, and dissipated; And in the Winter more conden­sed, and kept entire: But in Bodies that are Cold and Moist, (as Womens are,) the Summer doth Cherish the Spirits, and calleth them forth; the Winter doth dull them. Furthermore, the Abstinence or Intermission of the Vse of Venus, in Moist and Well Habituate Bodies, breedeth a Number of Diseases; And especially dangerous Impostumations. The Reason is euident; For that it is a Principall Euacuation, especially of the Spirits: For of the Spirits, there is scarce any Euacuation, but in Venus, and Exer­cise. And therefore the Omission of either of them, breedeth all Diseases of Repletion.

The Nature of Viuification is very worthy the Enquiry: And as the Nature of Things, is commonly better perceiued, in Small, than in Great, and in vnperfect, than in perfect, and in Parts, than in whole: So the Nature of Viuification is best enquired in Creatures bred of Putrefaction. Experiments in Consort touching the Insecta. The Contemplation whereof hath many Excellent Fruits. First, in Disclosing the O­riginall of of Viuification. Secondly, in Disclosing the Originall of Figuration. Thirdly, in Disclosing many Things in the Nature of Perfect Creatures, which in them lye more hidden. And Fourthly, in Traducing, by way of Operation, some Obseruati­ons in the Insecta, to worke Effects vpon Perfect Creatures. Note that the word Insecta, agreeth not with the Matter, but we euer vse it for Breuities sake, intending by it Creatures bred of Putrefaction.

696 The Insecta are found to breed out of seuerall Matters: Some breed of Mud, or Dung; As the Earth-wormes, Eeles, Snakes, &c. For they are both Putrefactions: For Water in Mud doth Puttifie, as not able to Pre­serue it selfe: And for Dung, all Excrements are the Refuse and Putrefacti­ons [Page 175] of Nourishment. Some breed in Wood, both Growing, and Cut down. Quare in what Woods most, and at what Seasons? We see that the Worms with many Feet, which round themselues into Balls, are bred chiefly vn­der Logs of Timber, but not in the Timber; And they are said to be found also, (many times,) in Gardens, where no Logs are. But it seemeth their Generation requireth a Couerture, both from Sunne, and Raine, or Dew; As the Timber is; And therfore they are not Venemous, but (contrariwise) are held by the Physitians to clarifie the Bloud. It is obserued also that Ci­mices are found in the Holes of Bed-Sides. Some breed in the Haire of Li­uing Creatures; As Lice, and Tikes; which are bred by the Sweat close kept, and somewhat are fied by the Haire. The Excrements of Liuing Crea­tures, do not only breed Insecta, when they are Excerned, but also while they are in the Body; As in Wormes, whereto Children are most subiect, and are chiefly in the Guts. And it hath beene lately obserued by Physi­tians, that in many Pestilent Diseases, there are Wormes found in the vpper Parts of the Body, where Excrements are not, but onely Humours Putri­fied. Fleas breed Principally of Straw or Mass, where there hath beene a little Moisture; Or the Chamber and Bed-straw kept close, and not Aired. It is receiued that they are killed by Strewing Worme-wood in the Rooms. And it is truly obserued, that Bitter Things are apt, rather to kill, than en­gender Putrefaction; And they be Things, that are Fat, or Sweet, that are aptest to Putrifie. There is a Worme, that breedeth in Meale, of the shape of a large white Magget, which is giuen as a great Dainty to Nightingales. The Moath breedeth vpon Cloth, and other Lanifices; Especially if they be laid vp dankish, and wet. It delighteth to be about the Flame of a Can­dle. There is a Worme called a Wenill, brad vnder Ground, and that feedeth vpon Roots; As Parsnips, Carrets, &c. Some breed in Waters, especially shaded, but they must be Standing-waters; As the Water-Spider, that hath six Legs. The Fly called the Oad-fly, breedeth of somewhat that Swim­meth vpon the Top of the Water, and is most about Ponds. There is a Worme that breedeth of the Dregs of Wine Decayed; which afterwards, (as is obserued by some of the Ancients,) turneth into a Gnat. It hath bin obserued by the Ancients, that there is a Worme that breedeth in old Snow, and is of Colour Reddish, and dull of Motion, and dieth soone after it commeth out of Snow. Which should shew, that Snow hath in it a secret Warmth; For else it could hardly Viuisie. And the Reason of the Dying of the Worme, may be the sudden Exhaling of that little Spirit, as soone as it commeth out of the Cold, which had shut it in. For as Butterflies quicken with Heat, which were benummed with Cold; So Spirits may exhale with Heat, which were Preserued in Cold. It is affirmed both by Ancient and Moderne Obseruation, that in Furnaces of Copper, and Brasse, where Chalcites, (which is Vitrioll,) is often cast in, to mend the working, there riseth suddenly a Fly, which sometimes moueth, as if it tooke hold on the walls of the Furnace; Sometimes is seene mouing in the Fire be­low; And dieth presently, as soone as it is out of the Furnace. Which is a Noble Instance, and worthy to be weighed; for it sheweth that as well [Page 176] Violent Heat of Fire, as the Gentle Heat of Liuing Creatures, will Viuifie, if it haue Matter Proportionable. Now the great Axiome of Viuification is, that there must be Heat to dilate the Spirit of the Body; An Actiue Spirit to be dilated; Matter Viscous or Tenacious, to hold in the Spirit; And that Matter to be put forth, and Figured. Now a Spirit dilated by so ardent a Fire, as that of the Furnace, as soone as euer it cooleth neuer so little, congealeth presently. And (no doubt) this Action is furthered by the Chalcites, which hath a Spirit, that will Put forth and germinate, as we see in Chymicall Trialls. Briefly, most Things Putrified bring forth Insecta of seuerall Names; But wee will not take vpon vs now, to Enumerate them all.

697 The Insecta haue beene noted by the Ancients, to feed little: But this hath not beene diligently obserued; For Grashoppers eat vp the Greene of whole Countries; And Silke-wormes deuoure Leaues swiftly; And Ants make gret Prouision. It is true, that Creatures, that Sleepe and rest much, Eat little; As Dormise, and Bats, &c. They are all without Bloud: Which may be, for that the Iuyce of their Bodies, is almost all one; Not Bloud, and Flesh, and Skin, and Bone, as in Perfect Creatures; The Integrall Parts haue Extreme Variety, but the Similar Parts little. It is true, that they haue, (some of them,) a Disphragme, and an Intestine; And they haue all Skins; Which in most of the Insecta are cast often. They are not (generally) of long Life: Yet Bees haue beene knowne to liue seuen yeares: And Snakes are thought, the rather for the Casting of their Spoils, to liue till they be Old: And Eeles, which many times breed of Putrefa­ction, will liue and grow very long: And those that Enterchange from Wormes to Flyes in the Summer, and from Flyes to Wormes in the Winter, haue beene kept in Boxes oure kyears at the least. Yet there are certain Flyes, that are called Ephemera, that liue but a day. The Cause is, the Exi­lity of the Spirit; Or perhaps the Absence of the Sunne; For that if they were brought in, or kept close, they might liue longer. Many of the In­secta, (as Butterflies, and other Flies,) reuiue easily, when they seeme dead, being brought to the Sunne, or Fire, The Cause whereof is, the Diffusion of the Vitall Spirit, and the Easie Dilating of it by a little Heat. They stirre a good while, after their Heads are off, or that they be cut in Pecces; Which is caused also, for that their Vitall Spirits are more dif­fused thorow-out all their Parts, and lesse confined to Organs, than in Perfect Creatures.

698 The Insecta haue Voluntary Motion, and therefore Imagination; And whereas some of the Ancients haue said, that their Motion is Indetermi­nate, and their Imagination Indefinite, it is negligently obserued; For Arts goe right forwards to their Hills; And Bees doe (admirably) know the way, from a Flowry Heath, two or three Miles off, to their Hiues. It may be, Gnats, and Flyes, haue their Imagination more muta­ble, and giddy, as Small Birds likewise haue. It is said by some of the Ancients, that they haue onely the Sense of Feeling; which is manifestly vntrue: For if they goe forth­right to a Place, they must needs haue [Page 177] Sight: Besides they delight more in one Flower, or Herbe, than in another, and therefore haue Taste: And Bees are called with Sound vpon Brasse, and therefore they haue Hearing: Which sheweth like­wise that though their Spirit be diffused, yet there is a Seat of their Sen­ses in their Head.

Other Obseruations concerning the Insecta, together with the Enu­meration of them, wee referre to that place, where wee meane to handle the Title of Animal's in generall.

A Man Leapeth better with Weights, in his Hands, than without.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Leaping. The Cause is, for that the Weight, (if it be proportionable,) strength­neth the Sinneues, by Contracting them. For otherwise, where no Con­traction 699 is needfull, Weight hindereth. As wee see in Horse-Races, Men are curious to fore-see, that there be not the least Weight, vpon the one Horse, more than vpon the other. In Leaping with Weights, the Armes are first cast backwards, and then forwards, with so much the grea­ter Force: For the Hands goe backward before they take their Raise. Quaere, if the contrary Motion of the Spirits, immediately before the Motion wee intend, doth not cause the Spirits, as it were, to breake forth with more Force: As Breath also drawne, and kept in, com­meth forth more forcibly: And in Casting of any Thing, the Armes, to make a greater Swing, are first cast backward.

Of Musicall Tones, and Vnequall Sounds, wee haue spoken before; But touching the Pleasure, and Displeasure of the Senses, not so fully.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Plea­sures, and Dis­pleasures of the Senses, especial­ly of Hearing. Harsh Sounds, as of a Sawe, when it is sharpened; Grinding of one Stone against another; Squeaking, or Skriching Noise; make a Shiuering or Horrour in the Body, and set the Teeth on edge. The Cause is, for that the Obiects of the Eare, doe affect the Spirits (immediately) most 700 with Pleasure and Offence. We see, there is no Colour that affecteth the Eye much with Displeasure: There be Sights, that are Horrible, because they excite the Memory of Things that are Odious, or Fearefull; But the same Things Painted doe little affect. As for Smells, Tastes, and Touches, they be Things that doe affect, by a Participation, or Im­pulsion of the Body, of the Obiect. So it is Sound alone, that doth im­mediately, and incorporeally, affect most: This is most manifest in Musicke; and Concords and Discords in Musicke: For all Sounds, whe­ther they be sharpe, or Flat, if they be Sweet, haue a Roundnesse and Equality; And if they be Harsh, are Vnequall: For a Discord it selfe is but a Harshnesse of Diners Sounds Meeting. It is true, that Inequality, not Stayed vpon, but Passing, is rather an Encrease of Sweetnesse: As in the Purling of a Wreathed String; And in the Rancity of a Trumpet; And in the Nightinghale-Pipe of a Regall; And in a Dis­cord straight falling vpon a Concord: But if you stay vpon it, it is Offensiue; And therefore, there bee these three Degrees of Pleasing, [Page 178] and Displeasing in Sounds; Sweet Sounds; Discords and Harsh Sounds, which we call by diuers Names, as Skriching, or Grating, such as wee now speake of. As for the Setting of the Teeth on Edge, we see plainly, what an Intercourse there is, be­tweene the Teeth, and the Organ of the Hearing, by the Taking of the End of a Bow, be­tweene the Teeth, and Striking vpon the String.

VIII. Century.

THere be Mineralls, and Fossiles, in great Varie­tie; But of Veines of Earth Medicinall, Experiment Solitary tou­ching Veines of Medicinall Earth. but few; The Chiefe are, Terra Lemnia, Terra Sigillata communis, and Bolus Arminus: Whereof Terra Lemnia is the Chiefe. The 701 Vertues of them are, for Curing of Wounds, Stanching of Bloud, Stopping of Flaxes and Rheumes, and Arresting the Spreading of Poi­son, Infection, and Putrefaction: And they haue, of all other Simples, the Perfectest and Purest Qualitie of Drying, with little or no Mixture of any other Qualitie. Yet it is true, that the Bole-Arminicke is the most Cold of them; And that Terra Lemnia is the most Hot; For which Cause, the Island Lemnos, where it is digged, was in the Old Fabulous Ages consecrated to Vulcan.

About the Bottome of the Straights are gathered great Quantities of Sponges, Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Growth of Sponges. which are gathered from the sides of Rocks, being as it were a large, but tough, Mosse. It is the more to be noted, because that there be but few Substances, Plant-like, that grow deepe within the Sea; For they are gathered sometimes fifteene Fathome deepe; And when they are laid 702 [Page 182] on Shoare, they seeme to be of great Bulke; But crushed together, will be transported in a very small Roome.

It seemeth, that Fish, that are vsed to the Salt-Water, doe neuerthe­lesse delight more in Fresh. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Sea-Fish put in Fish Waters. Wee see, that Salmons, and Smelts, loue to get into Riuers, though it be against the Streame. At the Hauen of Con­stantinople, you shall haue great Quantities of Fish that come from the 703 Euxine-Sea; that when they come into the Fresh Water, doe inebriate and turne vp their Bellies; So as you may take them with your Hand. I doubt, there hath not beene sufficient Experiment made of Putting Sea-Fish into Fresh Water, Ponds, and Pooles. It is a Thing of great Vse, and Pleasure: For so you may haue them new at some good distance from the Sea: And besides, it may be, the Fish will eat the pleasanter, and may fall to breed: And it is said that Colchester Oysters, which are put into Pits, where the Sea goeth and commeth, (but yet so, that there is a Fresh Water Com­ming also to them, when the Sea voideth,) become by that meanes Fat­ter, and more Growne.

The Turkish-Bow giueth a very Forcible Shoot; Insomuch as it hath beene knowne, that the Arrow hath pierced a Stecle Target, or a Peece of Brasse of two Inches thicke: But that which is more strange, the Ar­row, if it be Headed with Wood, hath beene knowne to pierce thorow a 704 Peece of Wood, of eight Inches thicke. And it is certaine, that wee had in vse at one time, for Sea-Fight, short Arrowes, which they called Sprights, without any other Heads, saue Wood sharpned; which were discharged out of Muskets, and would pierce thorow the Sides of Ships, where a Bullet would not pierce. But this dependeth vpon one of the greatest Secrets in all Nature; Which is, that Similitude of Substance Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Attracti­on by Simulitude of Substance. will cause Attraction, where the Body is wholly freed from the Motion of Grauitie: For if that were taken away, Lead would draw Lead, and Gold would draw Gold, and Iron would draw Iron, without the helpe of the Load-Stone. But this same Motion of Weight or Grauitie, (which is a meere Motion of the Matter, and hath no Affinitie with the Forme, or Kinde,) doth kill the other Motion, except it selfe be killed by a violent Motion; As in these Instances of Arrowes; For then the Motion of Attraction by Similitude of Substance, beginneth to shew it selfe. But wee shall handle this Point of Nature fully in due Place.

They haue in Turkey, and the East, certaine Confections, which they call Seruetts, which are like to Candied Conserues; And are made of Su­gar and Limons, or Sugar and Citrons, or Sugar and Violets, and some other Flowers; And some Mixture of Amber for the more delicate Per­sons; 705 And those they dissolue in Water, and thereof make their Drinke because they are forbidden Wine by their Law. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching certaine Drinkes in Tur­key. But I doe much maruell that no Englishman, or Dutehman, or German, doth set vp Brewing in Con­stantinople; Considering they haue such Quantitie of Barley. For as so [Page 183] the generall Sort of Men, Frugalitie may be the Cause of Drinking Water; For that it is no small Sauing, to pay nothing for ones Drinke: But the better Sort mought well be at the Cost. And yet I wonder the lesse at it, because I see France, Italie, or Spaine, haue not taken into vse, Beere, or Ale; Which (perhaps) if they did, would better both their Healths, and their Complexions. It is likely it would be Matter of great Gaine to any, that should begin it in Turkey.

In Bathing in Hot Water, Sweat (neuerthelesse) commeth not in the Parts vnder the Water. Experiments in Consort, touching Sweat. The Cause is; First, for that Sweat is a Kinde of Colliquation. And that Kinde of Colliquation is not made, either by an 706 Ouer-Drie Heat, or an Ouer-Moist Heat. For Ouer-Moisture doth some­what extinguish the Heat; As wee see that euen Hot Water quencheth Fire: And Ouer-Drie Heat shutteth the Pores: And therefore Men will sooner Sweat couered before the Sunne, or Fire, than if they stood Na­ked; And Earthen Bottles, filled with Hot Water, doe prouoke, in Bed, a Sweat more daintily, than Bricke-bats Hot. Secondly, Hot Water doth cause Euaporation from the Skin; So as it spendeth the Matter, in those Parts vnder the Water, before it issueth in Sweat. Againe, Sweat com­meth more plentifully, if the Heat be increased by Degrees, than if it be greatest at first, or equall. The Cause is, for that the Pores are better ope­ned by a Gentle Heat, than by a more Violent; And by their opening the Sweat issueth more abundantly. And therefore Physitians may doe well, when they prouoke Sweat in Bed, by Bottles, with a Decoction of Sudori­sicke Herbs in Hot Water, to make two Degrees of Heat in the Bottles; And to lay in the Bed, the lesse Heated first, and after halfe an Houre the more Heated.

Sweat is Salt in Taste; The Cause is, for that, that Part of the Nourish­ment, 707 which is Fresh and Sweet, turneth into Bloud, and Flesh; And the Sweat is only that Part which is Separate, and Excerned. Bloud also Raw hath some Saltnesse, more than Flesh; because the Assimilation into Flesh, is not without a little and subtile Excretion from the Bloud.

Sweat commeth forth more out of the Vpper Parts of the Body, than 708 the Lower; The Reason is, because those Parts are more replenished with Spirits; And the Spirits are they that put forth Sweat: Besides, they are lesse Fleshy, and Sweat issueth (chiefly) out of the Parts that are lesse Fleshy, and more Dry; As the Forehead, and Breast.

Men Sweat more in Sleepe, than Waking; And yet Sleepe doth rather 709 stay other Fluxions, than cause them; As Rheumes, Loosenesse of the Body, &c. The Cause is, for that in Sleepe, the Heat and Spirits doe naturally moue inwards, and there rest. But when they are collected once within, the Heat becommeth more Violent, and Irritate; And thereby expelleth Sweat.

Cold Sweats are (many times) Mortall, and neere Death; And alwayes 710 ill, and Suspected; As in Great Feares, Hypochondricall Passions, &c. The Cause is, for that Cold Sweats come by a Relaxation or Forsaking of the [Page 184] Spirits, wherby the Moisture of the Body, which Heat did keepe firme in the Parts, seuereth, and issueth out.

711 In those Diseases, which cannot be discharged by Sweat, Sweat is ill, and rather to be stayed; As in Diseases of the Lungs, and Fluxes of the Belly; But in those Diseases, which are expelled by Sweat, it easeth and lightneth; As in Agues, Pestilences, &c. The Cause is, for that Sweat in the Latter Sort is partly Criticall, and sendeth forth the Matter that of­fendeth; But in the Former, it either proceedeth from the Labour of the Spirits, which sheweth them Oppressed; Or from Motion of Consent, when Nature not able to expell the Disease, where it is seated, moueth to an Expulsion indifferent ouer all the Body.

The Nature of the Glo-wormexs is hitherto not well obserued.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Glo­Worme. Thus much we see; That they breed chiefly in the Hottest Moneths of Summer; And that they breed not in Champaigne, but in Bushes, and Hedges. Wher­by 712 it may be conceiued, that the Spirit of them is very fine, and not to be refined, but by Summer Heats: And againe, that by reason of the Finenesse, it doth easily exhale. In Italy, and the Hotter Countries, there is a Fly they call Lucciole, that shineth as the Glo-worme doth; And it may be is the Flying Glo-worme. But that Fly is chiefly vpon Fens, and Marri­shes. But yet the two former Obseruations hold; For they are not seene, but in the Heat of Summer; And Sedge, or other Greene of the Fens, giue as good Shade, as Bushes. It may be the Glo-wormes of the Cold Countries ripen not so farre as to be Winged.

The Passions of the Minde, worke vpon the Body the Impressions following.Experiments in Consort, touching the Impressions, which the Pas­sions of the Minde make vpon the Body. Feare causeth Palenesse; Trembling; The Standing of the Haire vpright; Starting; and Skritching. The Palenesse is caused, for that the Bloud runneth inward, to succour the Heart. The Trembling is cau­sed, for that through the Flight of the Spirits inward, the Outward Parts are destituted, and not sustained. Standing Vpright of the Haire is caused, 713 for that by the Shutting of the Pores of the Skin, the Haire that lyeth a­sloape, must needs Rise, Starting is both an Apprehension of the Thing fea­red, (And, in that kinde, it is a Motion of Shrincking;) And likewise an Inquisition, in the beginning, what the Matter should be; (And in that kinde it is a Motion of Erection;) And therefore, when a Man would li­sten suddenly to any Thing, he Starteth; For the Starting is an Erection of the Spirits to attend. Skritching is an Appetite of Expelling that which suddenly striketh the Spirits: For it must be noted, that many Motions, though they be vnprofitable to expell that which hurteth, yet they are Offers of Nature, and cause Motions by Consent; As in Groaning, or Crying vpon Paine.

714 Griefe and Paine cause Sighing; Sobbing; Groaning; Screaming; and Roaring; Teares; Distorting of the Face; Grinding of the Teeth; Sweating. Sighing is caused by the Drawing in of a greater Quantity of Breath to re­fresh the Heart that laboureth: like a great Draught when one is thirsty. [Page 185] Sobbing is the same Thing stronger. Groaning, and Screaming, and Roaring, are caused by an Appetite of Expulsion, as hath beene said: For when the Spirits cannot expell the Thing that hurteth, in their Strife to do it, by Motion of Consent, they expell the Voice. And this is, when the Spirits yeeld, and giue ouer to resist; For if one doe constantly resist Paine, he will not groane. Teares are caused by a Contraction of the Spirits of the Braine; Which Contraction by consequence astringeth the Moisture of the Braine, and thereby sendeth Teares into the Eyes. And this Con­traction, or Compression causeth also Wringing of the Hands; For Wring­ing is a Gesture of Expression of Moisture. The Distorting of the Face is caused by a Contention, first to beare and resist, and then to expell; Which maketh the Parts knit first, and afterwards open. Grinding of the Teeth is caused (likewise) by a Gathering and Serring of the Spirits together to resist; Which maketh the Teeth also to set hard one against another. Sweating is also a Compound Motion by the Labour of the Spirits, first to resist, and then to expell.

Ioy causeth a Chearefulnesse, and Vigour in the Eyes; Singing; Leaping; 715 Dancing; And sometimes Teares. All these are the Effects of the Dilata­tion, and Comming forth of the Spirits into the Outward Parts; Which maketh them more Linely, and Stirring. We know it hath beene seene, that Excessiue Sudden Ioy, hath caused Present Death, while the Spirits did spread so much, as they could not retire againe. As for Teares, they are the Effects of Compression of the Moisture of the Braine. vpon Dilatation of the Spirits. For Compression of the Spirits worketh an Expression of the Moisture of the Braine, by Consent, as hath beene said in Griefe. But then in Ioy, it worketh it diuersly; viz. by Prepulsion of the Moisture, when the Spirits dilate, and occupy more Roome.

Anger causeth Palenesse in some, and the Going and Comming of the 716 Colour in Others: Also Trembling in some, Swelling; Foaming at the Month; Stamping; Bending of the Fist. Palenesse, and Going, and Com­ming of the Colour, are caused by the Burning of the Spirits about the Heart; Which to refresh themselues call in more Spirits from the Out­ward Parts. And if the Palenesse be alone, without Sending forth the Co­lour againe, it is commonly ioyned with some Feare; But in many there is no Palenesse at all, but contrariwise Rednesse about the Cheekes, and Gills; Which is by the Sending forsh of the Spirits in an Appetite to Re­uenge. Trembling in Anger is likewise by a Calling in of the Spirits; And is commonly, when Anger is ioyned with Feare. Swelling is caused, both by a Dilatation of the Spirits by Ouer-Heating, and by a Liquefaction or Boyling of the Humours thereupon. Foaming at the Mouth is from the same Cause, being an Ebullition. Stamping. and Bending of the Fist, are caused by an Imagination of the Act of Reuenge.

Light Displeasure or Dislike, causeth Shaking of the Head; Frowning, 717 and Knitting of the B [...]es. These Effects arise from the same Causes that Trembling, and Horrour doe; Namely, from the Retiring of the Spirits. but in a lesse degree. For the Shaking of the Head is but a Slow and [Page 186] Definite Trembling; And is a Gesture of Slight Refusall: And we see also, that a Dislike causeth (often) that Gesture of the Hand, which wee vse, when we refuse a Thing, or warne it away. The Frowning, and Knitting of the Browes, is a Gathering, or Serring of the Spirits, to resist in some Measure. And we see also, this Knitting of the Browes will follow vpon earnest Studying, or Cogitation of any Thing, though it bee without Dislike.

718 Shame causeth Blushing; And Casting downe of the Eyes. Blushing is the Resort of Bloud to the Face; Which in the Passion of Shame is the Part that laboureth most. And although the Blushing will be seene in the whole Breast, if it be Naked, yet that is but in Passage to the Face. As for the Casting downe of the Eyes, it proceedeth of the Reuerence a Man beareth to other Men; Whereby, when he is ashamed, he cannot endure to looke firmely vpon Others: And we see that Blushing, and the Casting downe of the Eyes both, are more when we come before Many; Ore Pompeij quid mollius? Nunquàm non coram pluribus erubuit: And like­wise when we come before Great, or Reuerend Persons.

719 Pity causeth sometimes Teares; And a Flexion or Cast of the Eye aside. Teares come from the same Cause that they doe in Griefe: for Pity is but Griefe in Anothers Behalfe. The Cast of the Eye is a Gesture of A­uersion, or Loathnesse to behold the Obiect of Pity.

720 Wonder causeth Astonishment, or an Immoueable Posture of the Body; Casting vp of the Eyes to Heauen; And Lifting vp of the Hands. For Asto­nishment, it is caused by the Fixing of the Minde vpon one Obiect of Cogi­tation, whereby it doth not spatiate and transcurre, as it vseth: For in Wonder the Spirits fly not, as in Feare; But onely settle, and are made lesse apt to moue. As for the Casting vp of the Eyes, and Lifting vp of the Hands, it is a Kinde of Appeale to the Deity; Which is the Authour, by Power, and Prouidence, of Strange Wonders.

721 Laughing causeth a Dilatation of the Mouth, and Lips; A Continued Expulsion of the Breath, with the loud Noise, which maketh the Inter­iection of Laughing; Shaking of the Breast, and Sides; Running of the Eyes with Water, if it be Violent, and Continued. Wherein first it is to be vnderstood, that Laughing is scarce (properly) a Passion, but hath his Source from the Intellect; For in Laughing there euer precedeth a Con­ceit of somewhat Ridiculous, And therefore it is Proper to Man. Second­ly, that the Cause of Laughing is but a Light Touch of the Spirits, and not so deepe an Impression as in other Passions. And therefore, (that which hath no Affinity with the Passions of the Minde) it is moued, and that in great vehemency, onely by Tickling some Parts of the Body: And we see that Men euen in a Grieued State of Minde, yet cannot sometimes for­beare Laughing. Thirdly, it is euer ioyned with some Degree of Delight: And therefore Exhilaration hath some Affinity with Ioy, though it be a much Lighter Motion: Res seneraest verum Gandium. Fourthly, that the Obiect of it is Deformity, Absurdity, Shrew'd Turnes, and the like. Now to speake of the Causes of the Effects before mentioned, whereunto these [Page 187] Generall Notes giue some Light, For the Dilatation of the Mouth and Lips, Continued Expulsion of the Breath and Voice, and Shaking of the Breast and Sides, they proceed (all) from the Dilatation of the Spirits; Especially be­ing Sudden. So likewise, the Running of the Eyes with Water, (as hath beene formerly touched, where we spake of the Teares of Ioy and Griefe,) is an Effect of Dilatation of the Spirits. And for Suddennesse, it is a great Part of the Matter: For we see, that any Shrew'd Turne that lighteth vp­on Another; Or any Deformity, &c. moueth Laughter in the Instant; Which after a little time it doth not. So we cannot Laugh at any Thing after it is Stale, but whilest it is New: And euen in Tickling, if you Tickle the Sides, and giue warning; Or giue a Hard or Continued Touch, it doth not moue Laughter so much.

Lust causeth a Flagrancy in the Eyes; and Priapisme. The Cause of 722 both these is, for that in Lust, the Sight, and the Touch, are the Things desired: And therefore the Spirits resort to those part [...], whch are most affected. And note well in generall, (For that great Vse may be made of the Obseruation,) that (euermore) the Spirits, in all Passions, resort most to the Parts, that labour most, or are most affected. As in the last, which hath been mentioned, they resort to the Eyes, and Venereous Parts: In Feare, and Anger, to the Heart: In Shame to the Face: And in Light Dislikes to the Head.

It hath beene obserued by the Ancients and is yet beleeued, that the Sperme of Drunken Men is Vnfruitfull. Experiments in Consort touching Drun­kennesse. The Cause is, for that it is Ouer-moi­stened, and wanteth Spissitude. And we haue a merry Saying, that they that goe Drunke to Bed, get Daughters. 723

Drunken Men are taken with a plaine Defect, or Destitution in Volun­tary 724 Motion. They [...]ele: They tremble: They cannot stand, nor speake strongly. The [...] is, for that the Spirits of the Wine, oppresse the Spi­rits Animall, and [...] pate Part of the Place, where they are; And so make them Weake to moue. And therefore Drunken Men are apt to fall asleepe: And Opiates, and Stupefactines, (as Poppy, Henbane, Hemlocke, &c.) induce a kinde of Drunkennesse, by the Grossenesse of their Vapour; As Wine doth by the Quantity of the Vapour. Besides, they rob the Spirits Animall of their Matter, whereby they are nourished: For the Spirits of the Wine prey vpon it, as well as they: And so they make the Spirits lesse Supple, and Apt to moue.

Drunken Men imagine euery Thing turneth round; They imagine 725 also that Things Come vpon them; They See not well Things a farre off; Those Things that they See neare hand, they See out of their Place; And (sometimes) they see Things double. The Cause of the Imagination that Things turne Round, is, for that the Spirits themselues turne, being com­pressed by the Vapour of the Wine: (For any Liquid Body vpon Compressi­on, turneth, as we see in Water:) And it is all one to the Sight, whether the Visuall Spirits moue, or the Obiect moueth, or the Medium moueth. And we see that long Turning Round breedeth the same Imagination. [Page 188] The Cause of the Imagination that Things come vpon them, is, for that the Spirits Visuall themselues draw backe; which maketh the Obiect seeme to come on; And besides, when they see Things turne Round, and Moue, Feare maketh them thinke they come vpon them. The Cause that they cannot see Things a farre off, is the Weaknesse of the Spirits; for in euery Megrim, or Vertige, there is an Obtenebration ioyned with a Sem­blance of Turning round; Which we see also in the lighter Sort of Swon­nings. The Cause of Seeing things out of their Place, is the Refraction: of the Spirits Visuall; For the Vapour is as an Vnequall Medium; And it is, as the Sight of Things, out of place, in Water. The Cause of Seeing Things dou­ble, is, the Swift and Vnquiet Motion of the Spirits, (being Oppressed,) to and fro; For, (as was said before,) the Motion of the Spirits Visuall, and the Motion of the Obiect, make the same Appearances; And for the Swift Motion of the Obiect, we see, that if you fillip a Lute-String, it sheweth double, or Treble.

726 Men are sooner Drunke with Small Draughts, than with Great. And againe, Wine Sugred inebriateth lesse, than Wine Pure. The Cause of the Former is, for that the Wine descendeth not so fast to the Bottome of the Stomach; But maketh longer Stay in the Vpper Part of the Stomach, and sendeth Vapours faster to the Head; And therefore inebriateth sooner. And, for the same Reason, Sops in Wine, (Quantity for Quantity,) ine­briate more, than Wine of it selfe. The Cause of the Latter is, for that the Sugar doth inspissate the Spirits of the Wine, and maketh them not so easie to resolue into Vapour. Nay further, it is thought, to be some Re­medy against Inebriating, if Wine Sugred be taken after Wine Pure. And the same Effect is wrought either by Oyle, or Milke, taken vpon much Drinking.

The Vse of Wine, in Dry, and Consumed Bodies, is hurtfull; In Moist, and Full Bodies, it is good. The Cause is, for that the Spirits of the Wine Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Helpe or Hint of Wine, though Moderately vsed. doe prey vpon the Dew, or Radicall Moisture, (as they terme it,) of the Body, and so deceiue the Animall Spirits. But where there is Moisture Enough, or Superfluous, there Wine helpeth to disgest, and desiccate 727 the Moisture.

The Catterpiller is one of the most Generall of Wormes, and bree­deth of Dew, and Leaues: For we see infinite Number of Catterpillers, Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Catterpil­lers. which breed vpon Trees, and Hedges; By which the Leaues of the Trees, 728 or Hedges, are in great Part consumed; As well by their Breeding out of the Leafe, as by their Feeding vpon the Leafe. They breed in the Spring chiefly, because then there is both Dew, and Leafe. And they breed com­monly when the East Winds haue much blowne: The Cause whereof is, the Drinesse of that Wind: For to all Viuification vpon Putrefaction, it is requisite the Matter be not too Moist: And therefore we see, they haue Copwebs about them, which is a signe of a Slimy Drinesse: As we see vp­on the Ground, whereupon, by Dew, and Sunne, Copwebs breed all ouer. [Page 189] We see also the Greene Catterpiller breedeth in the Inward Parts of Ro­ses, especially not blowne, where the Dew sticketh: But especially Catter­pillers, both the greatest, and the most, breed vpon Cabbages, which haue a Fat Leafe, and apt to Putrifie. The Catterpiller towards the End of Sum­mer waxeth Volatile, and turneth to a Butterfly, or perhaps some other Fly. There is a Catterpiller, that hath a Furre, or Downe vpon him, and see­meth to haue Affinity with the Silke-worme

The Flyes Cantharides are bred of a Worme, or Catterpiller, but pecu­liar to certaine Fruit-Trees; As are the Fig-tree, the Pine-tree, and the Wilde Briar; All which beare Sweet Fruit; And Fruit that hath a kinde of secret Biting, or Sharpnesse: For the Fig hath a Milke in it, that is Sweet, 729 and Corrosiue: The Pine-Apple hath a Kernell that is Strong and Abster­side: The Fruit of the Briar is said to make Children, or those that Eat them, Scabbed. And therefore, no maruell though Cantharides Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Flyes Cantharides. haue such a Corrosiue, and Cauterizing Quality; For there is not any other of the In­secta, but is bred of a Duller Matter. The Body of the Cantharides is bright coloured; And it may be, that the delicate-coloured Dragon-Flies, may haue likewise some Corrosiue Quality.

Lassitude is remedied by Bathing, or Annointing with Oyle, and Warme water. Experiments in Consort, touching Lassitude. The Cause is, for that all Lassitude is a kinde of Contusion, and Com­pression of the Parts; And Bathing, and Annointing giue a Relaxation, or Emollition: And the Mixture of Oyle, and Water, is better than either of 730 them alone; Because Water Entreth better into the Pores, and Oyle af­ter Entry softneth better. It is found also, that the Taking of Tobacco doth helpe and discharge Lassitude. The Reason whereof is, partly, because by Chearing or Comforting of the Spirits it openeth the Parts Compressed, or Contused: And chiefly, because it refresheth the Spirits by the O­piate Vertue thereof; And so dischargeth Wearinesse; as Sleepe likewise doth.

In Going vp a Hill, the Knees will be most Weary; In Going downe a Hill, 731 the Thighes. The Cause is, for that, in the Lift of the Feet, when a Man Goeth vp the Hill, the Weight of the Body beareth most vpon the Knees; And in Going downe the Hill, vpon the Thighes.

The Casting of the Skin, is by the Ancients compared, to the Brea­king of the Secundine, or Call; but not rightly: For that were to make euery Casting Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ca­sting of the Skin, and Shell, in some Creatures. of the Skin a New Birth: And besides, the Secundine is but a generall Couer, not shaped according to the Parts; But the Skin is sha­ped according to the Parts. The Creatures, that cast their Skin, are; The 732 Snake, the Viper, the Grashopper, the Lizard, the Silke worme, &c. Those that cast their Shell, are; The Lobster, the Crab, the Crafish, the Hodman­dod or Dedman, the Tortoise, &c. The Old Skins are found, but the Old Shells neuer: So as it is like, they scale off, and crumble away by de­grees. And they are knowne, by the Extreme Tendernesse and Softnesse [Page 190] of the New Shell; And somewhat by the Freshnesse of the Colour of it. The Cause of the Casting of Skin, and Shell, should seeme to be the great Quantity of Matter in those Creatures, that is fit to make Skin, or Shell; And againe, the Loosenesse of the Skin, or Shell, that sticketh not close to the Flesh. For it is certaine, that it is the New Skin, or Shell, that put­teth off the Old: So we see, that in Deere, it is the Young Horne, that put­teth off the Old; And in Birds, the Young Feathers put off the Old: And so Birds, that haue much Matter for their Beake, cast their Beakes; the New Beake Putting off the Old.

Lying, not Erect, but Hollow, which is in the Making of the Bed; Or with the Legges gathered vp, which is in the Posture of the Body, is the more Wholesome.Experiments in Consort touching the Postures of the Body. The Reason is, the better Comforting of the Stomach, which is by that lesse Pensile: And we see, that in Weake Stomachs, the 733 Laying vp of the Legs high, and the Knees almost to the Mouth, hel­peth, and comforteth. We see also that Gally-Slanes, notwithstanding their Misery otherwise, are commonly Fat and Fleshy; And the Reason is, because the Stomach is supported somewhat in Sitting; And is Pen­sile in Standing, or Going. And therefore, for Prolongation of Life, it is good to choose those Exercises, where the Limbes moue more than the Stomach, and Belly; As in Rowing, and in Sawing being Set.

734 Megrims and Giddinesse are rather when we Rise, after long Sitting, than while we Sit. The Cause is, for that the Vapours, which were ga­thered by Sitting, by the Sudden Motion, fly more vp into the Head.

735 Leaning long vpon any Part maketh it Numme, and, as wee call it, Asleepe. The Cause is, for that the Compression of the Part suffereth not the Spirits to haue free Accesse; And therefore, when wee come out of it, wee feele a Stinging or [...]ing; Which is the Re-entrance of the Spirits.

It hath beene noted, that those Yeares are Pestilentiall, and Vnwhole­some, when there are great Numbers of Frogs, Flies, Locusts, &c.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Pestilen­tiall Yeares. The Cause is plaine; For that those Creatures being engendred of Putrefacti­on, 736 when they abound, shew a generall Disposition of the Yeare, and Con­stitution of the Aire, to Diseases of Putrefaction. And the same Progne­sticke, (as hath beene said before,) holdeth, if you finde Wormes in Oake­Apples. For the Constitution of the Aire, appeareth more subtilly, in any of these Things, than to the Sense of Man.

It is an Obseruation amongst Country-People, that Yeares of Store of Hawes and Heps, doe commonly portend Cold Winters; And they ascribe it to Gods Prouidence, that, (as the Scripture saith) reacheth euen to the Falling of a Sparrow; And much more is like to reach to the Preseruati­on 737 of Birds in such Seasons. Experiment Solitary, tou­chine the Prog­nosticks of Hard Winters. The Naturall Cause also may be the Want of Heat, and Abundance of Moisture, in the Summer precedent; Which put­teth forth those Fruits, and must needs leaue great Quantity of Cold Va­pours, [Page 191] not dissipate; Which causeth the Cold of the Winter following.

They haue in Turkey, a Drinke called Coffa, made of a Berry of the same Name, as Blacke as Soot, and of a Strong Sent, but not Aromaticall; Which they take, beaten into Powder, in Water, as Hot as they can drinke it: And they take it, and sit at it, in their Coffa-Houses, which are like our Tauernes. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Medi­cines that Con­dense, and Re­leeue the Spirits. This Drinke comforteth the Braine, and Heart, and helpeth Disgestion. Certainly this Berry Coffa; The Root, and Leafe Be­tel; 738 The Leafe Tobacco; And the Teare of Poppy, (Opium,) of which the Turks are great Takers, (supposing it expelleth all Feare;) doe all Con­dense the Spirits, and make them Strong, and Aleger. But it seemeth they are taken after seuerall manners; For Coffa and Opium are taken downe; Tobacco but in Smoake; And Betel is but champed in the Mouth, with a little Lime. It is like there are more of them, if they were well found out, and well corrected. Quare of Henbane-Seed; Of Mandrake; Of Saffron, Root, and Flower; Of Folium Indum; Of Amber-grice; Of the Assyrian Amomum, if it may be had; And of the Scarlet Powder, which they call Kermez; And (generally) of all such Things, as doe in­ebriate, and prouoke Sleepe. Note that Tobacco is not taken in Root, or Seed, which are more forcible euer than Leaues.

The Turkes haue a Blacke Powder, made of a Minerall called Alcohole; Which with a fine long Pencill they lay vnder their Eye-lids; Which doth colour them Blacke; Whereby the White of the Eye is set off more white. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Faintings of the Body. With the same Powder they colour also the Haires of their Eye-lids, and 739 of their Eye-browes, which they draw into Embowed Arches. You shall finde that Xenophon maketh Mention, that the Medes vsed to paint their Eyes. The Turkes vse with the same Tincture, to colour the Haire of their Heads and Beards Blacke: And diuers with vs, that are growne Gray, and yet would appeare Young, finde meanes to make their Haire blacke, by Combing it, (as they say,) with a Leaden Combe, or the like. As for the Chineses, who are of an ill Complexion, (being Oliuaster,) they paint their Cheekes Scarlet; Especially their King, and Grandes. Generally, Barbarous People, that goe Naked, doe not onely paint Themselues, but they pownce and raze their Skinne, that the Painting may not be taken forth; And make it into Works. So doe the West Indians; And so did the Ancient Picts, and Brittons; So that it seemeth, Men would haue the Colours of Birds Feathers, if they could tell how; Or at least, they will haue Gay Skins, instead of Gay Cloathes.

It is strange, that the Vse of Bathing, as a Part of Diet, is left.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Vse of Bathing and Annointing. With the Romans, and Grecians, it was as vsuall, as Eating, or Sleeping: And so is it amongst the Turkes at this day: Whereas with vs it remaineth but as a Part of Physicke. I am of Opinion, that the Vse of it, as it was with the Romans, was hurtfull to Health; For that it made the Body Soft, and 740 easie to Waste. For the Turkes it is more proper, because that their Drin­king [Page 192] Water, and Feeding vpon Rize, and other Food of small Nourish­ment, maketh their Bodies so Solide, and Hard, as you need not feare that Bathing should make them Froathie. Besides, the Turkes are great Sitters, and seldome walke; Whereby they Sweat lesse, and need Bathing more. But yet certaine it is, that Bathing, and especially Annointing, may be so vsed, as it may be a great Helpe to Health, and Prolongation of Life. But hereof we shall speake in due Place, when we come to handle Expe­riments Medicinall.

The Turkes haue a Pretty Art of Chamoletting of Paper, which is not with vs in vse.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Chamo­letting of Paper. They take diuers Oyled Colours, and put them seuerally (in drops) vpon Water; And stirre the Water lightly; And then wet their 741 Paper, (being of some Thicknesse,) with it; And the Paper will be Wa­ued, and Veined, like Chamolet, or Marble.

It is somewhat strange, that the Bloud of all Birds, and Beasts, and Fishes, should be of a Red Colour, and only the Bloud of the Cuttle should be as Blacke as Inke. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Cuttle­Inke. A Man would thinke, that the Cause should be the 742 High Concoction of that Bloud; For wee see in ordinary Puddings, that the Boyling turneth the Bloud to be Blacke; And the Cuttle is accounted a de­licate Meat, and is much in Request.

It is reported of Credit, that if you take Earth, from Land adioyning to the Riuer of Nile; And preserue it in that manner, that it neither come to be Wet, nor Wasted; And Weigh it daily, it will not alter Weight vntill the seuenteenth of Iune, which is the Day when the Riuer begin­neth 743 to rise; And then it will grow more and more Ponderous, till the Ri­uer commeth to his Heighth Which if it be true, it cannot be caused, but by the Aire, which then beginneth to Condense; And so turneth within that Small Mould into a degree of Moisture; Which produceth Weight. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Encrease of Weigh, in Earth. So it hath beene obserued, that Tobacco, Cut, and Weighed, and then Dried by the Fire, loseth Weight; And after being laid in the open Aire, recouereth Weight againe. And it should seeme, that as soone as euer the Riuer beginneth to increase, the whole Body of the Aire there­abouts suffereth a Change: For (that which is more strange,) it is cre­dibly affirmed, that vpon that very Day, when the Riuer first riseth, great Plagues, in Caire, vse suddenly to breake vp.

Those that are very Cold, and especially in their Feet, cannot get to Sleepe. Experiments in Consort, touching Sleepe. The Cause may be, for that in Sleepe is required a Free Respiration, which Cold doth shut in, and hinder: For wee see, that in great Colds, one 744 can scarce draw his Breath. Another Cause may be, for that Cold calleth the Spirits to succour; And therefore they cannot so well close; and goe together in the Head; Which is euer requisite to Sleepe. And for the same Cause, Paine, and Noise hinder Sleepe; And Darknesse (contrariwise) furthereth Sleepe.

[Page 193]Some Noises (whereof wee spake in the 112. Experiment) helpe 745 Sleepe; As the Blowing of the Wind, the Trickling of Water, Humming of Bees, Soft Singing, Reading, &c. The Cause is, for that they moue in the Spirits a gentle Attention; And whatsoeuer moueth Attention, without too much Labour, stilleth the Naturall and discursiue Motion of the Spirits.

Sleepe nourisheth, or at least preserueth Bodies, a long time, without 746 other Nourishment. Beasts that sleepe in Winter, (as it is noted of Wilde Beares,) during their Sleep wax very Fat, though they Eat nothing. Bats haue beene found in Ouens, and other Hollow Close Places, Matted one vpon another; And therefore it is likely that they Sleepe in the Win­ter time, and eat Nothing. Quare, whether Bees doe not Sleepe all Win­ter, and spare their Honey? Butterflies, and other Flies, doe not onely Sleepe, but lye as Dead all Winter; And yet with a little Heat of Sunne, or Fire, reuine againe. A Dormonse, both Winter and Summer, will Sleepe some dayes' together, and eat Nothing.

To restore Teeth in Age, were Magnale Naturae. Experiments in Consort, touching Teeth and Hard Sub­stances in the Bodies of Liuing Creatures. It may be thought of. But howsoeuer the Nature of the Teeth deserueth to be enquired of, as well as the other Parts of Liuing Crea­tures Bodies.

There be Fiue Parts in the Bodies of Liuing-Creatures, that are of Hard 747 Substance; The Skull; The Teeth; The Bones; The Hornes; and the Nailes. The greatest Quantity of Hard Substance Continued, is towards the Head. For there is the Skull of one Entire Bone; There are the Teeth; There are the Maxillary Bones; There is the Hard Bone, that is the Instru­ment of Hearing; And thence issue the Hornes: So that the Building of Liuing Creatures Bodies, is like the Building of a Timber-House, where the Walls, and other Parts haue Columnes, and Beames; But the Roofe is, in the better Sort of Houses, all Tile, or Lead, or Stone. As for Birds, they haue Three other Hard Substances proper to them; The Bill, which is of like Matter with the Teeth; For no Birds haue Teeth: The Shell of the Egge: And their Quills: For as for their Spurre, it is but a Naile. But no Li­uing-Creatures, that haue Shells very hard; (As Oysters, Cockles, Mussles, Scallops, Crabs, Lobsters, Cra-fish, Shrimps, and especially the Tortoise,) haue Bones within them, but onely little Gristles.

Bones, after full Growth, continue at a Stay: And so doth the Skull:748 Hornes, in some Creatures, are cast, and renued: Teeth stand at a Stay except their Wearing: As for Nailes, they grow continually: And Bills and Beakes will ouer-grow, and sometimes be cast; as in Eagles, and Parrots.

Most of the Hard Substances fly to the Extremes of the Body, As Skull,749 Hornes, Teeth, Nailes, and Beakes: Onely the Bones are more Inward, and clad with Flesh. As for the Entrailes, they are all without Bones; Saue that a Bone is (sometimes) found in the Heart of a Stag; And it may be in some other Creature.

[Page 194] 750 The Skull hath Braines, as a kinde of Marrow, within it. The Back-Bone hath one Kinde of Marrow, which hath an Affinity with the Braine; And other Bones of the Body haue another. The Iaw-Bones haue no Marrow Seuered, but a little Pulpe of Marrow diffused. Teeth likewise are thought to haue a kind of Marrow diffused, which cau­seth the Sense, and Paine: But it is rather Sinnew; For Marrow hath no Sense; No more than Bloud. Horne is alike throughout; And so is the Naile.

751 None other of the Hard Substances haue Sense, but the Teeth: And the Teeth haue Sense, not onely of Paine, but of Cold.

But we will leaue the Enquiries of other Hard Substances, vnto their seuerall Places; And now enquire onely of the Teeth.

752 The Teeth are, in Men, of three Kindes: Sharpe, as the Fore-Teeth; Broad, as the Back-Teeth, which we call the Molar-Teeth, or Grinders; And Pointed-Teeth, or Canine, which are betweene both. But there haue beene some Men, that haue had their Teeth vndiuided, as of one whole Bone, with some little Marke in the Place of the Diuision; As Pyrrhus had. Some Creatures haue Ouer-long, or Out-growing Teeth, which wee call Fangs, or Tuskes; As Boares, Pikes, Salmons, and Dogs though lesse. Some Liuing Creatures haue Teeth against Teeth; As Men, and Horses; And some haue Teeth, especially their Master-Teeth, indented one within An­other, like Sawes; As Lions; And so againe haue Dogs. Some Fishes haue diuers Rowes of Teeth in the Roofes of their Mouthes; As Pikes, Salmons, Trouts, &c. And many more in Salt-Waters. Snakes, and other Serpents, haue Venomous Teeth; which are sometimes mistaken for their Sting.

753 No Beast that hath Hornes, hath Vpper Teeth; And no Beast, that hath Teeth aboue, wanteth them below: But yet if they be of the same kinde, it followeth not, that if the Hard Matter goeth not into Vpper Teeth, it will goe into Hornes; Not yet [...] conuerse; For Doe's, that haue no Hornes, haue no Vpper Teeth.

754 Horses haue, at three yeares old, a Tooth put forth, which they call the Colts Tooth; And at foure yeares old there commeth the Mark-Tooth, which hath a Hole, as big as you may lay a Pease within it; And that wea­reth shorter and shorter, euery yeare; Till that at eight yeares old, the Tooth is smooth, and the Hole gone; And then they say; That the Marke is out of the Horses Mouth.

755 The Teeth of Men breed first, when the Childe is about a yeare and halfe old: And then they cast them, and new come about seuen yeares old. But diuers haue Backward-Teeth come forth at Twenty, yea some at Thirty, and Forty. Quare of the manner of the Comming of them forth. They tell a Tale of the old Countesse of Desmond, who liued till she was seuen-score yeares old, that she did Dentire, twice, or thrice; Ca­sting her old Teeth, and others Comming in their Place.

756 Teeth are much hurt by Sweet-Meats; And by Painting with Mercury; And by Things Ouer-hot; And by Things Ouer-cold; And by Rheumes. And the Paine of the Teeth, is one of the sharpest of Paines.

[Page 195]Concerning Teeth, those Things are to be Considered. 1. The 757 Preseruing of them. 2. The Keeping of them White. 3. The Drawing of them with Least Paine. 4. The Staying and Easing of the Tooth-ach. 5. The Binding in of Artificiall Teeth, where haue beene strucken out. 6. And last of all, that Great One, of Restoring Teeth in Age. The In­stances that giue any likelihood of Restoring Teeth in Age, are; The Late Comming of Teeth in some; And the Renewing of the Beakes in Birds, which are Commateriall with Teeth. Quare therefore more particular­ly how that commeth. And againe, the Renewing of Hornes. But yet that hath not beene knowne to haue beene prouoked by Art; Therfore let Triall be made, whether Hornes may be procured to grow in Beasts that are not Horned, and how? And whether they may be procured to come Larger than vsuall; As to make an Oxe, or a Deere, haue a Greater Head of Hornes? And whether the Head of a Deere, that by Age is more Spitted, may be brought againe to be more Branched; For those Trialls, and the like, will shew, whether by Art such Hard Matter can be called, and prouoked. It may be tryed also, whether Birds may not haue some thing done to them, when they are Young, wherby they may be made to haue Greater, or Longer Bills; Or Greater and Longer Tallons? And whe­ther Children may not haue some Wash, or Something to make their Teeth Better, and Stronger? Corall is in vse as an Helpe to the Teeth of Children.

Some Liuing Creatures generate but at certaine Seasons of the Yeare; As Deere, Sheepe, Wilde Conneyes, &c.Experiments in Consort, touching the Generation and Bearing of Liuing Creatures in the Wombe. And most Sorts of Birds, and Fishes: Others at any time of the Yeare, as Men; And all Domesticke Crea­tures; As Horses, Hogges, Dogges, Cats, &c. The Cause of Generation at all Seasons seemeth to be Fulnesse: For Generation is from Redundance. This Fulnesse ariseth from two Causes; Either from the Nature of the 758 Creature, if it be Hot, and Moist, and Sanguine; Or from Plenty of Food. For the first, Men, Horses, Dogges, &c. which breed at all Seasons, are full of Heat, and Moisture; Dones are the fullest of Heat and Moisture amongst Birds, and therefore breed often; The Tame Doue almost continually. But Deere are a Melancholy Dry Creature, as appeareth by their Fearefulnesse, and the Hardnesse of their Flesh. Sheepe are a Cold Creature, as appeareth by their Mildnesse, and for that they seldome Drinke. Most sort of Birds are of a dry Substance in comparison of Beasts, Fishes are cold. For the se­cond Cause, Fulnesse of Food; Men, Kine, Swine, Dogs, &c. seed full; And we see that those Creatures, which being Wilde, generate seldome, being Tame, generate often; Which is from Warmth, and Fulnesse of Food. We finde, that the Time of Going to Rut of Deore is in September; For that they need the whole Summers Feed and Grasse, to make them fit for Ge­neration. And if Raine come Earely about the Middle of September, they goe to Rut somewhat the sooner; If Drought, somewhat the later. So Sheepe, in respect of their small Neat. generate about the same time, or somewhat before. But for the most part, Creatures that generate at cer­taine [Page 196] Seasons, generate in the Spring; As Birds, and Fishes; For that the End of the Winter, and the Heat, and Comfort of the Spring prepareth them. There is also another Reason, why some Creatures generate at cer­taine Seasons: And that is the Relation of their Time of Bearing, to the time of Generation: For no Creature goeth to generate, whilest the Female is full; Nor whilest shee is busie in Sitting or Rearing her Young. And therefore it is found by Experience, that if you take the Egges, or Young Ones, out of the Neasts of Birds, they will fall to generate againe, three or foure times, one after another.

759 Of Liuing Creatures, some are Longer time in the Wombe, and some Shorter. Women goe commonly nine Moneths; The Cow and the Ewe about six Moneths; Doe's goe about nine Moneths; Mares eleuen Moneths; Bitches nine Weekes; Elephants are said to goe two Yeares; For the Receiued Tradition of ten Yeares is Fabulous. For Birds there is double Enquiry; The Distance betweene the Treading or Coupling, and the Laying of the Egge; And againe betweene the Egge Layed, and the Disclosing or Hetching. And amongst Birds, there is lesse Diuersity of Time, than amongst other Creatures; yet some there is: For the Hen sitteth but three Weekes; The Turky-Hen, Goose, and Ducke, a Moneth: Quare of others. The Cause of the great Difference of Times, amongst Liuing Creatures, is, Either from the Nature of the Kinde; Or from the Constitu­tion of the Wombe. For the former, those that are longer in Comming to their Maturity or Growth, are longer in the Wombe; As is chiefly seene in Men; And so Elephants which are long in the Wombe, are long time in Comming to their full Growth. But in most other Kindes, the Constitution of the Wombe, (that is, the Hardnesse or Drinesse thereof,) is concurrent with the former Cause. For the [...]lt hath about foure yeares of Growth; And so the Fawne; And so the Calfe. But Whelps, which come to their Growth (commonly) within three Quarters of a yeare, are but nine Weekes in the Wombe. As for Birds, as there is lesse Diuersity, amongst them, in the time of their Bringing forth; So there is lesse Diuersity in the time of their Growth; Most of them comming to their Growth with­in a Twelue-Moneth.

760 Some Creatures bring forth many Young Ones at a Burthen; As Bit­ches, Hares, Conneyes, &c. Some (ordinatily) but One; As Women, Lio­nesses, &c. This may be caused, either by the Quantity of Sperme requi­red to the Producing One of that Kinde; which if lesse be required, may admit greater Number; If more, fewer: Or by the Partitions and Cells of the Wombe, which may feuer the Sperme.

There is no doubt, but Light by Refraction will shew greater, as well as Things Coloured. Experiments in Consort, touching Species Visible. For like as a Shilling, in the Bottomes of the Water. will shew greater; So will a Candle in a Lanthorne, in the Bottome of the Wa­ter. 761 I haue heard of a Practise, that Glo-wormes in Glasses were put in the Water, to make the Fish come. But I am not yet informed, whether when a Diuer Diueth, hauing his Eyes open, and swimmeth vpon his [Page 197] Backe; whether (I say) he seeth Things in the Aire greater, or lesse. For it is manifest, that when the Eye standeth in the Finer Medium, and the Ob­iect is in the Grosser, things shew greater; But contrariwise, when the Eye is placed in the Grosser Medium, and the Obiect in the Finer, how it worketh I know not.

It would be well boulted out, whether great Refractions may not be 762 made vpon Reflexions, as well as vpon Direct Beames. For Example, We see that take an Empty Basen, put an Angell of Gold, or what you will, into it; Then goe so farre from the Basen, till you cannot see the Angell, be­cause it is not in a Right Line; Then fill the Basen with Water, and you shall see it out of his Place, because of the Reflexion. To proceed there­fore, put a Looking-Glasse into a Basen of Water; I suppose you shall not see the Image in a Right Line, or at equall Angles, but aside. I know not, whether this Experiment may not be extended so, as you might see the Image, and not the Glasse; Which for Beauty, and Strangenesse, were a fine Proofe: For then you should see the Image like a Spirit in the Aire. As for Example, If there be a Cesterne or Poole of Water. you shall place ouer against it a Picture of the Deuill, or what you will, so as you doe not see the Water. Then put a Looking-Glasse in the Water: Now if you can see the Deuills Picture aside, not seeing the Water, it will looke like a De­uill indeed. They haue an old Tale in Oxford, that Friar Bacon walked betweene two Steeples: Which was thought to be done by Glasses, when he walked vpon the Ground.

A Weighty Body put into Motion, is more easily impelled, than at first when it Resteth. Experiments in Consort, touching Impulsion, and Percussion. The Cause is, Partly because Motion doth discusse the Torpour of Solide Bodies, Which beside their Motion of Grauity, haue in them a Naturall Appetite, not to moue at all; And partly, because a Body that resteth, doth get, by the Resistance of the Body vpon which it resteth,763 a stronger Compression of Parts, than it hath of it Selfe: And therefore needeth more Force to be put in Motion. For if a Weighty Body be Pen­sile, and hang but by a Thred, the Percussion will make an Impulsion very neare as easily, as if it were already in Motion.

A Body Ouer-great, or Ouer-small, will not be throwne so farre, as a 764 Body of a Middle Sixe: So that (it seemeth) there must be a Commensu­ration, or Proportion, betweene the Body Moued, and the Force, to make it moue well. The Cause is, because to the Impulsion, there is requisite the Force of the Body that Moueth, and the Resistance of the Body that is Mo­ued: And if the Body be too great, it yeeldeth too little; And if it be too small, it resisteth too little.

It is Common Experience, that no Weight will presse or cut so strong,765 being laid vpon a Body, as Falling, or strucken from aboue. It may be the Aire hath some part in furthering the Percussion: But the chiefe Cause I take to be, for that the Parts of the Body Moued, haue by Impulsion, or by the Motion of Grauity continued, a Compression in them, as well down­wards, as they haue when they are throwne, or Shot thorow the Aire, [Page 198] forwards. I conceiue also, that the quicke Loose of that Motion, preuen­teth the Resistance of the Body below; And Priority of the Force, (alwaies,) is of great Efficacy; As appeareth in infinite Instances.

Tickling is most in the Soles of the Feet, and vnder the Arme-Holes, and on the Sides. Experiment Solitary, touching Titillation. The Cause is, the Thinnesse of the Skin in those Parts; Ioyned with the Rarenesse of being touched there. For all Tickling is a 766 light Motion of the Spirits, which the Thinnesse of the Skin, and Sudden­nesse, and Rarenesse of Touch, doe further: For we see, a Feather, or a Rush, drawne along the Lip. or Cheeke, doth tickle; Whereas a Thing more Obtuse, or a Touch more Hard, doth not. And for Suddennesse; We see no Man can tickle himselfe: Wee see also, that the Palme of the Hand, though it hath as Thinne a Skin as the other Parts Mentioned, yet is not Ticklish, because it is accustomed to be Touched. Tickling also causeth Laughter. The Cause may be, the Emission of the Spirits, and so of the Breath, by a Flight from Titillation; For vpon Tickling, we see there is euer a Starting, or Shrinking away of the Part, to auoid it; And we see also, that if you Tickle the Nosthrills, with a Feather, or Straw, it procureth Sneezing; Which is a Sudden Emission of the Spirits, that doe like­wise expell the Moisture. And Tickling is euer Painfull, and not well en­dured.

It is strange, that the Riuer of Nilus, Ouer-flowing, as it doth, the Country of AEgypt, there should be neuerthelesse little or no Raine in that Country. Experiment Solitary, touching the Scar­city of Raine in AEgypt: The Cause must be, Either in the Nature of the Water; Or in the Nature of the Aire; Or of Both. In the Water, it may be ascribed, ei­ther 767 vnto the Long [...] of the Water: For Swift Running Waters vapour, not so much as Standing Waters; Or else to the Concoction of the Water; For Waters well Concocted vapour not so much, as Waters Raw; No more than Waters vpon the Fire doe vapour so much, after some time of Boy­ling, as at the first. And it is true, that the Water of Nilus is sweeter than other Waters in Taste; And it is excellent Good for the Stone, and Hy­pochondriacall Melancholy; Which sheweth it is Lenefying: And it run­neth thorow a Countrey of a Hot Climate, and flat, without Shade, either of Woods, or Hills; Whereby the Sunne must needs haue great Power to Concoct it. As for the Aire, (from whence I conceiue this Want of Showers commeth chiefly;) The Cause must be, for that the Aire is, of it selfe, Thin and Thirsty; And as soone as euer it getteth any Moisture from the Water, it imbibeth, and dissipateth it, in the whole body of the Aire; And suffereth it not to remaine in Vapour; Whereby it might breed Raine.

It hath beene touched in the Title of Percolations, (Namely such as are Inwards,) that the Whites of Eggs, and Milke, doe clarifie; And it is certaine, that in AEgypt, they prepare and clarifie the Water of Nile, by 768 putting it into great Iarres of Stone, and Stirring it about with a few [Page 199] Stamped Almonds; Wherewith they also besmeare the Mouth of the Vessell; And so draw it off, after it hath rested some time.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Clarifica­tion. It were good, to trie this Clarifying with Almonds, in New Beere, or Must, to hasten, and perfect the Clarifying.

There be scarce to be found any Vegetables, that haue Branches, and no Leaues; except you allow Corall for one.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Plants without Leaues But there is also in the De­sarts of S. Macario in AEgypt, a Plant which is Long, Leauelesse, Browne of Colour, and Branched like Corall, faue that it closeth at the Top. This 769 being set in Water within House, spreadeth and displayeth strangely; And the People thereabouts haue a Superstitious Beleefe, that in the Labour of Women, it helpeth to the Easie Deliuerance.

The Crystalline Venice Glasse, is reported to be a Mixture, in equall Portions, of Stones, brought from Pauia, by the Riuer Ticinum; And the Ashes of a Weed called by the Arabs Kall, which is gathered in a Desart betweene Alexandria and Rosetta; And is by the AEgyptians vsed first 770 for Fuell; And then they crush the Ashes into Lumps, like a Stone; And so sell them to the Venetians for their Glasse-workes. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Ma­terials of Glasse.

It is strange, and well to be noted, how long Carkasses haue continued Vncorrupt, and in their former Dimensions; As appeareth in the Mum­mies of AEgypt; Hauing lafted, as is conceiued, (some of them,) three thousand yeeres.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Prohibi­tion of Putrefa­ction, and the Long Conserua­tion of Bodies. It is true, they finde Meanes to draw forth the Braines, and to take forth the Entrailes, which are the Parts apteft to corrupt. But that is nothing to the Wonder: For wee see, what a Soft and Corrupti­ble 771 Substance the Flesh, of all the other Parts of the Body, is. But it should seeme, that according to our Obseruation, and Axiorne, in our hundredth Experiment, Putrefaction, which we conceiue to be so Naturall a Period of Bodies, is but an Accident; And that Matter maketh not that Haste to Corruption, that is conceiued. And therefore Bodies, in Shining-Amber; In Quicke-Siluer; In Balmes, (whereof wee now speake;) In Wax; In Honey; In Gummes; And (it may be) in Conseruatories of Snow; &c. are preserued very long. It need not goe for Repetition, if we resume againe that which wee said in the aforesaid Experiment, concerning Annihila­tion; Namely, that if you prouide against three Causes of Putrefaction, Bodies will not corrupt: The First is, that the Aire be excluded; For that vndermineth the Body, and conspireth with the Spirit of the Body to dis­solue it. The Second is, that the Body Adiacent and Ambiens be not Com­materiall, but meerely Heterogeneall towards the Body that is to be presured: For if Nothing can be receiued by the One, Nothing can is­sue from the Other, Such are Quick-Siluer, & White-Amber, to Herbs, and Flies, and such Bodies. The Third is, that the Body to be preserued, be not of that Grasse, that it may corrupt within it selfe, although no Part of it issue into the Body Adiacent: And therefore it must be rather Thinne, and Small, than of Bulke. There is a Fourth Remedie also, which is; [Page 200] That if the Body to be preserued be of Bulke, as a Corps is, then the Body that Incloseth it, must haue a Vertue to draw forth, and drie the Moisture of the Inward Body; For else the Putrefaction will play within, though Nothing issue forth. I remember Liuy doth relate, that there were found, at a time, two Coffins of Lead, in a Tombe; Whereof the one contained the Body of King Numa; It being some foure hundred yeares after his Death: And the other, his Bookes of Sacred Rites and Ceremonies, and the Discipline of the Pontises; And that in the Coffin that had the Body, there was Nothing (at all) to be seene, but a little light Cinders about the Sides; But in the Coffin that had the Bookes, they were found as fresh, as if they had beene but newly Written; being written in Parchment, and couered ouer with Watch-Candles of Wax, three or foure fold. By this it seemeth, that the Romans. in Numa's time, were not so good Embalmers, as the AEgyptians were; Which was the Cause that the Body was vtterly con­sumed. But I finde in Plutarch, and Others, that when Augustus Caesar visited the Sepulchre of Alexander, the Great, in Alexandria, he found the Body to keepe his Dimension; But withall, that, notwithstanding all the Embalming, (which no doubt was of the best,) the Body was so Tender, as Caesar touching but the Nose of it, defaced it. Which maketh mee finde it very strange, that the Egyptian Mummies should be reported to be as Hard as Stone-Pitch: For I finde no difference but one; Which indeed may be very Materiall; Namely, that the Ancient AEgyptian Mummies, were shrowded in a Number of Folds of Linnen, besmeared with Gums, in manner of Seare-Cloth; Which it doth not appeare was practised vp­on the Body of Alexander.

Neare the Castle of Catie, and by the Wells of Assan, in the Land of Idumea, a great Part of the Way, you would thinke the Sea were neare hand, though it be a good distance off: And it is Nothing, but the Shi­ning of the Nitre, vpon the Sea-Sands; Such Abundance of Nitre the 772 Shores there doe put forth.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the A­bundance of Ni­tre in certaine Sea-Shoares.

The Dead-Sea, which vomiteth vp Bitumen, is of that Crassitude, as Liuing Bodies bound Hand and Foot, cast into it, haue beene borne vp and not sunke.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Bodies that are borne vp by Water. Which sheweth, that all Sinking into Water, is but an Ouer-Weight of the Body, put into the Water, in respect of the Water: So 773 that you may make Water so strong, and heauy, of Quicke-Siluer, (per­haps,) or the like, as may beare vp Iron: Of which I see no Vse, but Im­posture. Wee see also, that all Metalls, except Gold, for the same reason swimme vpon Quicke-Siluer.

It is reported, that at the Feet of a Hill, neare the More mortuum, there is a Blacke Stone, (whereof Pilgrims make Fires,) which burneth like a Coale, and diminisheth not; But only waxeth Brighter, and Whiter.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Fuell, that consumeth little, or nothing. That it should doe so, is not strange; For wee see Iron Red Hot burneth, 774 and consumeth not: But the Strangenesse is, that it should continue any [Page 201] time so: For Iron, as soone as it is out of the Fire, deadeth straight waies. Certainly, it were a Thing of great Vse, and Profit, if you could finde out Fuell, that would burne Hot, and yet last long, Neither am I alto­gether Incredulous, but there may be such Candles, as they say are made of Salamanders Wooll; Being a Kinde of Minerall, which whiteneth also in the Burning, and consumeth not. The Question is this; Flame must be made of somewhat; And commonly it is made of some Tangible Body, which hath Weight: But it is not impossible, perhaps, that it should be made of Spirit, or Vapour, in a Body; (which Spirit on Vapour hath no Weight;) such as is the Matter of Ignis [...]s. But then you will say, that that Vapour also can last but a short time: To that it may be answered, That by the helpe of Oile, and Wax, and other Candle-Stuffe, the Flame may continue, and the Wieke not burne.

Sea-Coale last longer than Char-Coale; And Char-Coale of Roots, being coaled into great Peeces, last longer than Ordinary Char-Coale, Turfe, and Peat, and Cow-Sheards, are cheape Fuels, and last long.Experiment Solitary Oeco­nomicall tou­ching Cheape Fuell. Small-Coale, or Briar-Coale, powred vpon Char-Coale, make them last longer. Sedge is a cheape Fuell to Brew, or Bake with; the rather because it is good for 775 Nothing else. Triall would be made of some Mixture of Sea-Coale with Earth, or Chalko; For if that Mixture be, as the Sea-Coale-Men vse it, pri­uily, to make the Bulke of the Coale greater, it is Deceit; But if it be vsed purposely, and be made knowne, it is Sauing.

It is, at this Day, in vse, in G [...] to couch Pat-Sheards or Vessels of Earth, in their Walls, to gather the Wind from the Top; and to passe it downe in Spouts into Roomes. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Ga­thering of Wind for Freshnesse. It is a Deuice for Freshnesse, in great Heats: And it is said, there are some Roomes in Italie, and Spaine, for Freshnesse, and Gathering the Winds, and Aire, in the Heats of Summer. But they be 776 but Pennings of the Winds, and Enlarging them againe, and Making them Reuerberate, and goe round in Circles, rather than this Deuice of Spouts in the Wall.

There would be vsed much diligence, in the Choice of some Bodies, and Places, (as it were,) for the Testing of Aire; to discouer the Whole­somenesse or Vnwholesomenesse, as well of Seasons, as of the Seats of Dwel­lings. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Tri­als of Aires. It is certaine, that there be some Heuses, wherein Confitures, and 777 Pies, will gather Mould, more than in Others. And I am perswaded, that a Peece of Raw Flesh, or Fish, will sooner corrupt in some Aires, than in Others. They be noble Experiments, that can make this Disco­uerie; For they serue for a Naturall Diuination of Seasons; Better than the Astronomer can by their Figures: And againe, they teach Men where to chuse their Dwelling, for their better Health.

There is a Kinde of Stone, about Bethles [...], which they grinde to Pow­der, and put into Water, whereof Cattell drinke; Which maketh them [Page 202] giue more Milke. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Increa­sing of Milke in Milch Beasts. Surely, there would be some better Trialls made of Mixtures of Water in Ponds for Cattell, to make them more Milch; Or to 778 Fatten them; Or to Keepe them from Murraine, It may be, Chalke, and Nitre, are of the best.

It is reported, that in the Valley, neare the Mountaine Carmel, in Iudea, there is a Sand, which, of all other, hath most Affinitie with Glasse; In­somuch as other Mineralls, laid in it, turne to a Glassie Substance, with­out the Fire; And againe Glasse put into it, turneth into the Mother-Sand. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Sand of the Nature of Glasse. 779 The Thing is very strange, if it be true: And it is likeliest to be Caused by some Naturall Fornace, or Heat in the Earth: And yet they doe not speake of any Eruption of Flames. It were good to trie in Glasse-Workes, whe­ther the Crude Materialls of Glasse, mingled with Glasse, already made, and Re-moulten, doe not facilitate the Making of Glasse with lesse Heat.

In the Sea, vpon the South-West of Sicilie, much Corall is found.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Growth of Corall. It is a Sub-Marine Plan. It hath no Leanes: It brancheth only when it is vn­der Water; It is Soft, and Greene of Colour; But being brought into the Aire, it becommeth Hard, and Shining Red, as wee see. It is said also, 780 to haue a White Berry; But wee finde it not brought ouer with the Corall. Belike it is cast away as nothing worth: Inquire better of it, for the Dif­couerie of the Nature of the Plant.

The Manns of Calabria is the best, and in most Plenty.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Ga­thering of Manna. They gather it from the Leafe of the Mulberry Tree; But not of such Mulberry Trees, as grow in the Valley's. And Manns falleth vpon the Leaues by Night, as other Deawes doe. It should seeme, that before those Deawes come vp­on 781 Trees in the Valley's, they dissipate, and cannot hold out. It should seeme also, the Mulberry-Leafe, it selfe, hath some Coagulating Vertue, which inspissateth the Deaw, for that it is not found vpon other Trees: And wee see by the Silke-Worme, which feedeth vpon that Leafe, what's Dainty Smooth Iuyce it hath; And the Leaues also, (especially of the Blacke Mulberry,) are somewhat Bristly, which may helpe to preserue the Deaw. Certainly, it were not amisse, to obscrue a little better, the Deawes that fall vpon Trees, or Herbs, Growing on Mountaines; For, it may be, many Deawes fall, that spend before they come to the Valleys. And I suppose, that he that would gather the best May-Deaw for Medi­cine, should gather it from the Hills.

It is said, they haue a manner, to prepare their Greeke-Wines, to keepe them from Fuming, and Inebriating, by adding some Sulphur, or Allome: Whereof the one is Vnctnous, and the other is Astringent. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Cor­recting of Wine. And certaine it 782 is, that those two Natures doe best represse Fumes. This Experiment would be transferred, vnto other Wine, and Strong Beere, by Putting in some like Substances, while they worke; Which may make them both to Fume lesse, and to Inflame lesse.

[Page 203]It is conceiued by some, (not improbably,) that the reason, why Wilde-Fires, (Whereof the principall Ingredient is Bitumen,) doe not quench with Water, is, for that the first Concretion of Bitumen is a Mix­ture, of a Fiery, and Watry Substance: So is not Sulphur. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Ma­terialls of Wild­Fire. This appeareth, for that in the Place neare Puteoli, which they call the Court of Valcan, you 783 shall heare, vnder the Earth, a Horrible Thundring of Fire, and Water, conflicting together: And there breake forth also Spouts of Boyling Wa­ter. Now that Place yeeldeth great Quantities of Bitumen; Whereas AEtna, and Vesuuius, and the like, which consist vpon Sulphur, shoot forth Smoake, and Ashes, and Pumice, but no Water. It is reported also, that Bitumen Mingled with Lime, and Put vnder Water, will make, as it were, an Artificiall Rocke; The Substance becommeth so Hard.

There is a Cement, compounded of Floure, Whites of Egges, and Stone powdred, that becommeth Hard as Marble; wherewith Piscina mirabilis, neare Cuma, is said to haue the Walls Plastered.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Plaster growing as Hard as Marble. And it is certaine, and tried, that the Powder of Load-Stone, and Flint, by the Addition of Whites of Egges, and Gumm-Dragon, made into Paste, will in a few dayes 784 harden to the Hardnesse of a Stone.

It hath beene noted by the Ancients, that in Full or Impure Bodies, Vlcers or Hurts in the Leggs, are Hard to Cure; And in the Head more Easie.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Iudge­ment of the Cure in some Vlcers and Hurts. The Cause is, for that Vlcers or Hurts in the Leggs require Deficca­tion, which by the Defluxion of Humours to the Lower Parts is hindred; Whereas Hurts and Vlcers in the Head require it not; But contrariwise Drinesse maketh them more apt to Consolidate. And in Moderne Ob­seruation,785 the like difference hath beene found, betweene French-Men, and English-Men; Where of the ones Constitution is more Dry, and the others more Moist. And therefore a Hurt of the Head is harder to cure in a French-Man, and of the Legge in an English-Man.

It hath beene noted by the Ancients, that Southerne Winds, blowing much, without Raine, doe cause a Feuourous Disposition of the Yeare; But with Raine, not.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Healthfulnesse or Vnhealthfulnesse of the Sou­therne Wind. The Cause is, for that Southerne Winds doe, of them­selues, qualifie the Aire, to be apt to cause Feuers; But when Showers are ioyned, they doe Refrigerate in Part, and Checke the Sultry Heat of the Southerne Wind. Therefore this holdeth not in the Sea-Coasts, be­cause the Vapour of the Sea, without Showers, doth refresh.786

It hath beene noted by the Ancients, that Wounds which are made with Brasse, heale more easily, than Wounds made with Iron. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Wounds. The Cause is, for that Brasse hath, in it selfe, a Sanatiue Vertue; And so in the very Instant helpeth somewhat: But Iron is Corrosiue, and not Sa­natiue. 787 And therefore it were good, that the Instruments which are vsed by Chirurgians about Wounds, were rather of Brasse, than Iron.

[Page 204]In the Cold Countries, when Mens Noses, and Eares are Mortified, and (as it were) Gangrened with Cold, if they come to a Fire, they rot off presently.Experiment Solitary tou­ching Mortifi­cation by Cold. The Cause is, for that the few Spirits, that remaine in those 788 Parts, are suddenly drawne forth, and so Putrefaction is made Compleat. But Snow Put vpon them, helpeth; For that it preserueth those Spirits that remaine, till they can reuiue; And besides, Snow hath in it a Secret Warmth: As the Monke proued out of the Text; Qui dat Niuem sicut La­nam, Gelu sicut Cineres spargit. Whereby he did inferre, that Snow did warme like Wooll, and Frost did fret like Ashes. Warme Water also doth good, Because by little and little it openeth the Pores, without any sud­den Working vpon the Spirits. This Experiment may be transferred vn­to the Cure of Gangrenes, either Comming of themselues, or induced by too much Applying of Opiates: Wherein you must beware of Dry Heat, and resort to Things that are Refrigerant, with an Inward Warmth, and Vertue of Cherishing.

Weigh Iron, and Aqua Fortis, seuerally; Then dissolue the Iron in the Aqua Fortis: And weigh the Dissolution; And you shall finde it to 789 beare as good Weight, as the Bodies did seuerally: Notwithstanding a good deale of Wast, by a thicke Vapour, that issueth during the Working: Which sheweth, that the Opening of a Body, doth increase the Weight. Experiment Solitary tou­ching Weight. This was tried once, or twice, but I know not, whether there were any Errour, in the Triall.

Take of Aqua-Fortis two Ounces, of Quick-siluer two Drachmes; (For that Charge the Aqua-Fortis will beare;) The Dissolution will not beare a Flint, as big as a Nutmeg: Yet (no doubt) the Increasing of the Weight of Water, will increase his Power of Bearing: As we see Broine, when it 790 is Salt enough, will beare an Egge. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Su­per-Natation of Bodies. And I remember well a Physitian, that vsed to giue some Minerall Baths for the Gout. &c. And the Body when it was put into the Bath, could not get downe so easily, as in Or­dinary Water. But it seemeth, the Weight of the Quick-siluer, more than the Weight of a Stone; doth not compense the Weight of a Stone, more than the Weight of the Aqua-Fortis.

Let there be a Body of Vnequall Weight; (As of Wood and Lead, or Bone and Lead;) If you throw it from you with the Light-End forward it will turne, and the Weightier End will recouer to be Forwards; Vnlesse the Body be Ouer-long.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Flying of Vnequall Bo­dies in the Aire. The Cause is, for that the more Dense Body, hath 791 a more Violent Pressure of the Parts, from the first Impulsion; Which is the Cause, (though heretofore not found out, as hath been often said,) of all Violent Motions: And when the Hinder Part moueth swifter, (for that it lesse endureth Pressure of Parts,) than the Forward Part can make way for it, it must needs be, that the Body turne ouer: For (turned) it can more easily draw forward the Lighter Part. Ga [...]laeus noteth it well; That if an Open Trough, wherein Water is, be driuen faster than the Water [Page 205] can follow, the Water gathereth vpon an heape, towards the Hinder End, where the Motion began; Which he supposeth, (holding confidently the Motion of the Earth,) to be the Cause of the Ebbing and Flowing of the Ocean; Because the Earth ouer-runneth the Water. Which Theory, though it be false, yet the first Experiment is true. As for the Inequality of the Pressure of Parts, it appeareth manifestly in this; That if you take a Body of Stone, or Iron, and another of Wood, of the same Magnitude, and Shape, and throw them with equall Force, you cannot possibly throw the Wood, so farre, as the Stone, or Iron.

It is certaine, (as it hath beene formerly, in part, touched,) that Wa­ter may be the Medium of Sounds. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Water, that it may be the Medium of Sounds. If you dash a Stone against a Stone in the Bottome of the Water, it maketh a Sound. So a long Pole strucke vp­on Grauell, in the Bottome of the Water, maketh a Sound. Nay, if you should thinke that the Sound commeth vp by the Pole, and not by the Water, you shall finde that an Anchor, let downe by a Roape, maketh a 792 Sound; And yet the Roape is no Solide Body, whereby the Sound can ascend.

All Obiects of the Senses, which are very Offensiue, doe cause the Spi­rits to retire; And vpon their Flight, the Parts are (in some degree) de­stitute; And so there is induced in them a Trepidation and Horrour. Experiment Solitary, of the Flight of the Spirits vpon O­dious Obiects. For Sounds, we see that the Grating of a Saw, or any very Harsh Noise, will set the Teeth on edge, and make all the Body Shiuer. For Tastes, we see that 793 in the Taking of a Potion, or Pills, the Head, and the Necke shake. For O­dious Smells, the like Effect followeth, which is lesse perceiued, because there is a Remedy at hand, by Stopping of the Nose: But in Horses, that can vse no such Help, we see the Smell of a Carrion, especially of a Dead Horse, maketh them fly away, and take on, almost as if they were Mad. For Feeling, if you come out of the Sunne, suddenly, into a Shade, there followeth a Chilnesse or Shiuering in all the Body. And euen in Sight, which hath (in effect) no Odious Obiect, Comming into Sudden Darknesse, induceth an Offer to Shiuer.

There is, in the City of Ticinum, in Italy, a Church, that hath Win­downes onely from aboue: It is in Length an Hundred Feet, in Breadth Twenty Feet, and in Height neare Fifty; Hauing a Doore in the Middest.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Su­per-Reflexion of Eccho's. It reporteth the Voice, twelue or thirteene times, if you stand by the Close End-Wall, ouer against the Doore. The Eccho fadeth, and dyeth by 794 little and little, as the Eccho at Pont-charenton doth. And the Voice soun­deth, as if it came from aboue the Doore. And if you stand at the Lower End, or on either Side of the Doore, the Eccho holdeth; But if you stand in the Doore, or in the Middest iust ouer against the Doore, not. Note that all Eccho's sound better against Old Walls, than New; Because they are more Dry, and Hollow.

[Page 206]Those Effects, which are wrought by the Percussion of the Sense, and by Things in Fact, are produced likewise, in some degree, by the Imagina­tion. Experiment Solitary tou­ching the Force of Imagination, Im [...]a [...]ng that of the Sense. Therefore if a Man see another eat Soure or Acide Things, which set the Teeth on edge, this Obiect tainteth the Imagination. So that hee that seeth the Thing done by another, hath his owne Teeth also set on 795 edge. So if a Man see another turne swiftly, and long; Or if he looke vpon Wheeles that turne, Himselfe waxeth Turne-sicke. So if a Man be vpon an High Place, without Railes, or good Hold, except he be vsed to it, he is Ready to Fall: For Imagining a Fall, it putteth his Spirits into the very Action of a Fall. So Many vpon the Seeing of others Bleed, or Strang­led, or Tortured, Themselues are ready to faint, as if they Bled, or were in Strife.

Take a Stocke-Gilly-Flower, and tye it gently vpon a Sticke, and put them both into a Stoope Glasse, full of Quick-siluer, so that the Flower be couered: Then lay a little Weight vpon the Top of the Glasse, that may 796 keepe the Sticke downe; And looke vpon them after foure or fiue daies; And you shall finde the Flower Fresh, and the Stalke Harder, and lesse Flexible, than it was.Experiment Solitary, tou­ching Preserua­tion of Bodies. If you compare it with another Flower, gathered at the same time, it will be the more manifest. This sheweth, that Bodies doe preserue excellently in Quick-siluer; And not preserue only, but, by the Coldnesse of the Quick-siluer, Indurate; For the Freshnesse of the Flower may be meerely Conseruation; (which is the more to be obser­ued because the Quick-Siluer presseth the Flower;) But the Stiffenesse of the Stalke, cannot be without Induration, from the Cold (as it seemeth,) of the Quick-siluer.

It is reported by some of the Ancients, that in Cyprus, there is a Kinde of Iron, that being cut into Little Peeces, and put into the Ground, if it be well Watred, will increase into Greater Peeces. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Growth, or Multiplying of Metalis. This is certaine, and knowne of Old; That Lead will multiply, and Increase; As hath beene seene in Old Statua's of Stone, which haue beene put in Cellars; 797 The Feet of them being bound with Leaden Bands; Where (after a time,) there appeared, that the Lead did swell; Insomuch as it hanged vpon the Stone like Warts.

I call Drowning of Metalls, when that the Baser Metall, is so incor­porate with the more Rich, as it can by no Meanes be separated againe: which is a kinde of Version, though False: As if Siluer should be insepa­rably incorporated with Gold; Or Copper, and Lead, with Siluer. Experiment Solitary, tou­ching the Drowning of the mne Base Metall in the more Pretious. The An­cient Electrum had in it a Fifth of Siluer to the Gold; And made a Com­pound 798 Metall, as fit for most vses, as Gold; And more Resplendent, and more Qualified in some other Properties; But then that was easily Se­parated. This to doe priuily, or to make the Compound passe for the Rich Metall Simple, is an Adulteration, or Counterfeiting: But if it be done Auowedly, and without Disguizing, it may be a great Sauing of [Page 207] the Richer Metall. I remember to haue heard of a Man, skilfull in Metalls, that a Fifteenth Part of Siluer, incorporate with Gold, will not be Reco­uered by any Water of Separation; Except you put a Greater Quantity of Siluer, to draw to it the Lesse; which (he said) is the last Refuge in Se­parations. But that is a tedious way, which no Man (almost) will thinke on. This would be better enquired; And the Quantity of the Fifteenth turned to a Twentieth; And likewise with some little Additionall, that may further the Intrinsique Incorporation. Note that Siluer in Gold will be detected by Weight, compared with the Dimension; But Lead in Silver, (Lead being the Weightier