[Page] THE STRA­TEGEMES, SLEYGH­tes, and policies of warre, gathered togyther, by S. Iulius Fronti­nus, and tran­slated into En­glyshe, by Rycharde Morysine.


TO THE MOSTE NOBLE VICTORIOVS AND redoubted prynce, HENRY the. VIII. by the grace of God, kynge of Englande, and of Fraunce, defendour of the faythe, Lorde of Ire­lande, and in erthe Supreme heed immediat­ly vnder CHRISTE, of the chur­che of Englande, Richarde Morysine his most humble and faithfull ser­uant, wyssheth all welthe, all honour, and triumphaunt victorie ouer all his ennemyes.

MOSTE HYGE excellente, and myghtye Prynce, mooste dere and dradde souerayne lorde, if the loue, whyche your hyghnesse beareth vnto this your noble empyre, stylle enforceth your graces harte, not onely to bestowe the better parte of all dayes, but of all nyghtes alsoo, in deuysynge in tyme of peace mooste godly lawes, statutes, and proclamations, for the tranquillitie and quietnesse of your subiectes sowles, in [Page] tyme of warre, plattes, blocke howses, bulwarkes, walles, castelles, with other munitious, ingins, and fortresses, for the safetie and surenes of their bodies: if no so wernesse of peyne canne amoue your gracis thoughtes from contynuall tra­uayle, Can I without my great shame, not be styred to worke somewhat for my parte? He hath lyttell wylle to trauayle, lyttell loue to his countrey, that seeth be­fore his eies, your hyghnesse thus occu­pied: and yet is nothynge pricked, to do that he thinketh may serue his countrey. Wyse writers feyne, that fond loue hath wynges, and seldome abydeth longe in a place, beynge hyther and thyther ledde by folye, and phansy: I can nat but also thynke, that discrete loue hath his wyn­ges, and flyeth fast, where he seeth good may be done. Loue hath no leaden heles, and as he is quicke, so is al labour light, where loue hyreth the workeman. The fethers of his wynges are so softe, that if they lye betwene our shulders, and the burdeyn, the weight is lytel felt, though we beare neuer so heuy. Loue easily en­tertayneth [Page] all powers of the harte, and withoute force compelleth theym all, to doo that, that duetie maye by any title chalenge of them. Your hyghnes welle declareth, that where occasion is, Loue can not be ydell. Lorde, howe may al en­glyshemen reioyce, that your grace ney­ther spareth, to vysite with your owne eyes, ye ruinous places of the see quostes, by whiche our enemies myght sodeynly inuade vs, neyther yet letteth, to worke with your own handes, continually ma­negynge tooles, continually inuentyng newe sortes of weapons, newe kindes of shyppes, of gunnes, of armure. As god helpe me, I can not see, whyche waye to wysshe greatter pleasure, greatter com­forte, to all englyshe men, than that they all myght se, howe your grace spendeth all the hole day. I haue sene it, and nowe nothyng wonder, though traytours, en­nemies to your hyghnes, haue bene atte their departure, compellyd to say so mo­che honour by your grace, as they haue sayde. I see, albeit Malyce maketh men in their lyfe tyme, to swarue, to saye and [Page] doo moche otherwyse, than Trouthe is, that yet, the presence of deathe, feare of god, & force of conscience, dryueth them to confesse trouthe, whan lyes wyll serue no longer, whan vyces appere to be as they are. Coulde syr Nycolas Carowe, haue fallen into treason, yf he hadde thought well vpon that in his lyfe tyme, whyche he confessed to be trewe, at his deathe? But I muste by youre gracis fauour, leaue of that, whyche I am fal­len into by the way, and intreate of that, whiche I purposed to speake of. I haue longe sythens, bene moche desyrous, to dedicate some thynge of myne to youre hyghnesse, but fyndynge all my tryfles, farre to base, to meane, to humyle, to go abrode, vnder the name of soo noble and hygh a prince, I haue rather doone that becommed me, than folowed that I most desyred. but nowe, not withstandynge, that this my labour is full lyke the reste, rude, vnperfecte, and rather begun than fynyshed: yet perceyuynge youre grace, euen to thyrste the safetie of your people, the defence of this youre moosle noble [Page] royalme, I coulde not, but for a season, a courtayne drawen betweene my weake eies, and the resplendent beames of your most clere maiestie, folow feruent desire, and humblye offer vnto your hyghnesse, this my rude translation, not doubtynge but as noble Xerxes thankfully receyued an handfull of water, of a poore manne, that so youre princely goodnesse, wolle take in good parte, this myne, what soo euer be, borne, and brought vp vndoub­tedly, in good wylles howse.

It hath ben somtyme moued, whether in warre, Polycy of mynde, or Strength of body, shulde do more. but longe expe­rience, hath put this thyng so out of que­stion, that in all battayles, the specialle prayse or disprayse remayneth to the Ca­pitayne. Yea some men are not affrayde to affirme, that it is moche better to haue an armie, where the Capitayn is a lyon, and all the hoste fearefull dere, than to haue a dere the capitayne, and al the host lyons. Aiax was stronge, Ulysses wise: Homere gyueth moche more praise to the laste, than to the fyrste. Aiax was hardye [Page] and valyant in fyght: but Ulisses knew the time & place, where hardinesse might preuayle. Strength stryketh, but Poli­cie prouydeth, that the stronge be not o­uermatched, and that they bestowe stro­kes in a ryghte place, and at tyme con­uenient. Many mo fieldes haue ben lost for lacke of polycie, than for wante of strength. many townes wonne by sleigh­tes, whyche a longe season easilye were kepte ageynst greattest myght, strength, and force. Wherfore seinge present occa­sion requireth martiall feates to be kno­wen, and strength of bodye to be armed and anymated with wytte and polycie: I entendynge here to serue my countreye, founde nothynge so fytte, for thaccom­plyshement of this my purpose, as to set out the Strategemes, sleightes, & craf­tes, vsed by the noblest capytaynes, that all antyke hystories treate of. By redyng and reasonynge wherof, your gracis ca­pitaynes shall not only increase and no­ryshe their imagination, inuention, and derteritie, in vsynge lyke sleightes, but easily escape al trappes, gynnes, and im­bushementes, [Page] layde for them. They shal also hereby perceyue, many swete baytes to couer sowre hokes. They shall lerne there to escape danger, where gret aduā ­tage is offred. The noble capitaynes of England, haue oft declared, that they ly­tell nede any instructions, any bokes, to teach them to towse their enemies: & yet it can hurte no man, to see those thynges practysed, by auncient capitaynes, whi­che may gyue good occasiōs, both ware­ly to inuente newe polycies, and wysely to vse the olde. Noble hartes, vndoub­tedly can not but desyre, to here of noble feates, and take pleasure in seinge, howe wytte with smalle force, ofte tymes wor­keth wonders, where excedynge greatte strength can nat auayle. If men be not wery, to playe a thousande tymes at one game, where eyther Fonde pleasure, or Uile gayne, or (whan it is best) helthe of body is sought: can any gentyll man be lothesome, to refreshe his mynde, to help his memorie, to kendle his courage with honeste delyte, of redynge or herynge su­che thynges, as appertayne to thesafe­garde [Page] of body and goodes? to the pur­chasynge of honourable victories, fame, and renoume? The infirmitie of mans nature is suche, that bothe the senses of our body, and also the powers of oure mynde decay, and go to ruine, onles they be dayly refresshed and holpen. The eie is continually holpen, with clere lyghte, with freshe and comely colours, the smel with holsome ayre, and odours delecta­ble, the taste asketh in his meates and drynkes, a dewe temperature. And as it is here, soo is it in the better parte of man, wytte, vnderstandynge, Memorie, and Inuention, with all the reste, quali­ties and ornamentes of the mynde, must be holpen with continuance of redynge, herynge, and reasonynge of mattiers, withoute whiche, they waxe rustye, they canker, and decaye. There is a tyme for al thinges, as Salomon wisely writeth. Whan tyme requyred peace, we talked lyttell of warre. Newe occasyons bryng matters, not thoughte vppon, in place. Tyme maketh euyl thynges not only cō ­parable with good, but good also. Whan [Page] tyme is to pull downe, it is very folye to buylde. Whanne tyme byddeth slee, it is nothynge so good, to heale the diseased, as to kyll them that be not sycke. Whan tyme byddeth spende, sparynge is great waste. Loue is lewdenesse, whan tyme biddeth hate. Peace is to be refused, whā tyme forceth men to warre. Wherfore, I haue besydes this my trāslation, in an o­ther tryfle of myn, exhorted al my contrey mē, peace laid aside, to prepare for warre, yt if nede constrein them to it, they may be redy to entertayne false frendes, worse thā enmies, accordyng to their desertes. I kepe your highnesse to longe with my rude talke, wherfore moste noble prynce, pardon craued, I wolle make an ende, moste humbly besechynge your maiestic, to accepte this cuppe of troubled water, a tyme maye comme, that good wyll, en­strengthned with your hyghnes fauour, may fynd some clerer veyne, and so serue your gracis thirst, with right delectable lyquour. Our lorde longe preserue your highnes, to the settyng forth of his glo­rie, to the cōfort of all your subiectes, to the destructiō, & deth of al popery.


¶ Here begynneth the Table of this present boke.

¶ The fyrste boke.
  • OF CONCEALYNGE and kepynge close a pourpose or counsayle. Capit. pri.
  • ¶ To serche out the secretes of ennemies. Cap. ii.
  • ¶ The kepynge of an order in warre. Capitulo. iii.
  • ¶ To conducte an armye, through pla­ces besette with enmies. Cap. iiii.
  • ¶ To escape oute of daungerous pla­ces. Capit. v.
  • ¶ Of layenge and makyng traynes by the waye. Cap. vi.
  • ¶ Howe thynges that we wante, maye seme not to lacke, or howe we may sup­plye the vse of them. Capit. vii.
  • To set ennemies at diuisyon. Cap. viii.
  • ¶ To pacifye the sedytion of Sowldy­ours. Capit. ix.
  • Howe to inhibyte the desyre to fyghte at tyme vnconuenient. Cap. x.
  • ¶ Howe to incourage and stomacke an [Page] armye to fyght. Capit. xi.
  • Howe to put away feare, that soudiours conceyue in al vnlucky chances. ca. xii.
  • TO chose oportunitie and tyme con­uement to fyght. Cap. primo.
  • To chose a place to fyght in. Cap. ii.
  • To order the araye. Cap. iii.
  • ¶ Howe to trouble and disorder the ar­raye. Capit. iiii.
  • Of traynes and disceytes. Cap. v.
  • To lette an ennemye escape, leste he be­inge inclosed, shulde through dispaire, renewe the battayle. Cap. vi.
  • Howe to dissemble aduersities. Cap. vii.
  • Howe to order the battayle by constan­cye. Capit. viii.
  • What thynges are to be doone after the battayle, yf the matter prosper, and to confirme and establysshe the residue of the warre. Capitu. ix.
  • Howe in harde chaunces to ease aduer­sities. Capit. x.
  • Howe to retayne and keepe wauerynge myndes faythefull. Cap. xi.
  • [Page] What thynges are to be done before the campe, whan men mystrust theyr puis­saunce. Capit. xii.
  • Of fleinge awaye. Cap. xiii.
  • OF sodeyne assaute. Capit. i.
  • Howe to deceyue theym that be be­syeged. Capit. ii.
  • Howe to entise enmies to treason Ca. iii.
  • By what meanes ennemyes maye be made nedy. Capit. iiii.
  • Howe to perswade the syege to conty­nue styll. Cap. v.
  • Howe to destroy the garrisons of enne­myes. Cap. vi.
  • Of deryuynge and tournyng the course of ryuers an other waye. Capit. vii.
  • How to feare thē that ar besiged. ca. viii.
  • Howe to breake oute on that syde, where we are not loked for. Cap. ix.
  • Of the traynes that are layde, to intyce out the besieged. Capit. x.
  • To dissemble retreate. Cap. xi.
  • Nowe contrary wise, touchynge the safe­garde of the beseged, what diligent ex­ercise [Page] they shulde vse. Cap. xii.
  • Howe to sende forthe and receyue in a messanger. Capit. xiii.
  • Howe to introduce succours, and to pro­uyde vyttayles. Cap. xiiii.
  • Howe to make those thynges, whiche we want, seme plentuouse. Cap. xv.
  • What remedye ageynste traytours and runneawayes. Cap. xvi.
  • Of eruptions and breakynges oute of ennemies. Cap. xvii.
  • The constancy of the besieged. Ca. xviii.
  • OF discipline of warre. Cap. i.
  • The effecte of discipline. Cap. ii.
  • Of continency & sober abstinence. ca. iii.
  • Of Iustyce. Cap. iiii.
  • Of constancye. Cap. v.
  • Affection and moderation. Cap. vi.
  • Of dyuers counsels. Capi. vii.

¶ The generalle rules of warre, taken out of Uegetius.

Thus endeth the Table.

THE FYRST BOKE OF SEXTVS IVLIVS FRONTINVS vvherin ar conteyned the sleightes and policies exercised in vvarre before the felde be pyght.

¶ Of concelynge and kepynge close & purpose or counsill. Cap. 1.

AFTER THAT M. Portius Cato, had ouer­com the cites of Spain, and thought that in pro­cesse of tyme they wolde rebell, throughe truste of theyr stronge townes, sente his letters to euery one of the sayd cities, comman­dynge theym by and by to beate downe theyr walles and bulwarkes, thretening them warre, onelesse they forth with ful­fylled his cōmandement. He caused his sondry letters in one daye to be delyue­red to all the cities, wherby eche of them thought, that that commandement was gyuen to them alone, and so by feare o­beyed his letters. Where as if they had knowen lyke commaundemente gyuen out to all the other cities, they happyly [Page] by conspiracy wolde haue rebelled.

Hamilcar capytayne of Carthage, to thentent he myght pryuily and vnloked for, aryue with his nauy in Sicile, gaue tables sealed to all the shyppe maysters, wherin he had written, whither he inten­ded his vyage, gyuynge them in com­maundement, not soo hardy to open or rede them, except that by force of tempest they were dryuen from the course of the ammyrall shyp.

Gaius Lelius sente in ambassage vn­to Syphax, to thentent he myght wyse­ly espye and serche out the councyll and conueyaunce of his ennemies, toke with hym vnder a colour and pretence of sla­ues, certayne of his chiefe capytaynes, of whiche one called Lucius Statori­us was halfe knowen of his ennemies, bycause they had bene ofte to gether in warre, Lelius, to hide what he was, toke a staffe, and corrected hym lyke a slaue.

Tarquinius superbus the father, sup­posynge that it shulde make greatly for his purpose, if the chiefe of the Gabiens were slayne, bycause he wold commit to [Page] no man his mynd, he answered nothing to the messanger sente frome his sonne, but walking by chaunce in his gardein, with a lyttell rodde strake of the heades of the hyest poppies, the messāger retor­nynge ayen without any aunswere, told the younge man Tarquinius, what he hadde sene his father do, and he vnder­stode, that the chiefe of the citie were so to be serued.

¶. Cesar mistrustinge the Egiptians, made as thoughe he hadde bene sure of them, passynge the tyme there, in behol­dynge the pleasures, the workes, and oc­cupations of theyr Cytie Alexandria, gyuynge hym selfe to bankettynge and feastynge, as one taken and enamou­red with theyr commodities and pleasu­res, fallynge from his olde wonte vnto the maners and lyfe of the Alexandri­ans. and in the meane tyme, he prepared and conueyed in to the citie a garrizon, wherwith he held and kept the contray.

Uentidius in the warre of the Parthe­nians, perceyuinge that one Pharncus a Cirreslen borne, which were associate [Page] with the Romaynes, dydde vtter vnto the Parthenians, all that was doone in the hoste, by policye conuerted the false­hode of the barbarouse straunger, vnto his owne greatte profyte. for he fayned hym selfe to stande in dreade, leste those thynges shulde happen, whiche he most coueted: and wyshed for those thynges to chaunce, whiche he feared most of all. Therfore he being pensiue and not a lit­tel afrayde, leste the Parthenians shuld come vpon him, and passe ouer Euphra tes, before that his legyons coulde re­payre vnto hym, which were in Cappa­docia beyonde Taurus, he wente ernest­lye in hande with the traytour, that he shulde by some solemne and accustomed poynte of falshode, entise the Partheni­ans to passe ouer theyr host by Zeugma, for as moche as it semed to be the nerest wave, saying that if they toke that way, he wolde lyghtly delude and auoid their arowes by the oportunitie of the place & helpe of the hilles. for if they dyd arange forthe theyr army into the open champi­on grounde, he shuld there stande in vt­ter [Page] dispaire. The barbarouse host being by hym brought into this opinion, lefte the hylles, and led about theyr army the lower waye: and whyles they were pre­parynge all thynges nedefull, and ley­inge bridges ouer the brode water, whi­che was a very laboriouse and paynfull worke, they spente and loste aboue. xl. dayes: In the whiche tyme Uentidius had gathered his strength together, and stode in a redynesse. iii. dayes before the Parthenians came, and so ioyned with theym in battayle, and sleinge the bet­ter parte of them, wonne the felde.

Mithridates being enclosed by Pom­peius, sought meanes to flee the morow folowynge, and to cloke this his pur­pose, he sent forth his men a forraging, euen vnto the valeys harde vnder his ennemies nosis. And furthermore to put awaye all suspition, he appoynted with many his ennemies, to talke with them on the morowe, and commanded many fyers to be made through all his army, And the nyght folowynge, at the sounde of the trumpette, in the seconde tyme of [Page] watch, he brought forthe his hole army, euen by the tentes of his ennemies.

The emperour Domitian, called also Germanicus, sekynge all meanes, how to represse the Germayns, whiche kepte them selfes in their armour, knewe very well, that if the Germaynes shulde per­ceyue the commynge of so great a capi­tayne and emperour, that they wold pre­pare theym selfes to warre, with moche more endeuour and greter enforcement, deceyued them by a pretense of his go­inge into France. And so sodenly brake in vpon that barbarous and fierce nati­on, and vanquisshed them, to the great sauegarde and welthe of the prouinces.

¶ What tyme Asdrubal and Anniball his brother, lay with theyr armies in son dry placis, Claudius Nero, chosing and setlyng his campe, nye vnto Anniball, forasmoche as the sayde Nero coueted to matche and breke the strength of As­druball, before his brother Annibals strength and his were ioyned togyther, hauynge also lyttelle confydence in his owne power, made haste to his felowe [Page] Liuius Salinator, that was appoyn­ted to warre ayenste Asoruball: And to thende Anniball shoulde not perceyue nor suspecte his departynge, whan he had picked out ten thousand of the most valyant men of his hoost, he comman­ded the other, that he lefte behynde, to kepe watche and warde, as they were wont to do, kyndlynge as many fyres, and settynge forthe the same face and bragge of the armye, as before whanne they laye all togyther, lest Anniball sus­pectynge somewhat theyr smal number, shulde set upon them. And so he depar­ted priuily, and came to his felowe, and ioyned theyr armyes in one, sufferynge in no wyse the campe to be enlarged, lest Asdruball, perceyuynge some token of his commynge, shoulde haue refused to fyght: so with bothe theyr powers togi­ther, they set vpon hym, and ouercame hym, and than he agayne with all spede possible returned vnto Anniball. Thus by one policie, he begyled the oone, and oppressed the other, two of the moste ex­perte and skylfull capitaynes of Car­thage.

[Page] ¶ Themistocles capitaine of Athenes, exhortynge the cytezens to repayre spe­dily their walles, whiche they had caste downe by the commaundemente of the Lacedemoniens, made aunswere vnto the ambassadours, sente from Lacede­mon, to interrupte that their pourpose, that he hym selfe wolde come, and putte awaye their suspition. And thyther he came, where faynynge hym selfe sycke, he droue forthe a certayne space, and whan he perceyued, that his cautell and crafte was suspected, he ernestly conten­ded, that the rumour was false, whiche they had herde, requiryng them to sende some of the noble men to Athens, which myght credibly informe them of the for­tification of the Citie: and priuily con­ueyed letters to his frendes, wyllynge them to retayn these ambassadours, vn­tyll they had fully fynyshed theyr work, and thanne after to sende worde vnto the Lacedemonians, that the citie was well strengthned and defensed, and that theyr ambassadours and noble menne [Page] myght in no wyse retourne agayne, be­fore that they hadde sent Themistocles home. the whyche requeste the Lacede­moniens were fayne to fulfylle, leste the losse of one man shoulde haue bene the deathe of many.

Metellus Pius in Spayne, beinge demaunded what he was mynded to do the day folowynge, aunswered on this wyse: If this cote on my backe knewe, and coulde vtter it, I wolde bourne it.

Whan a certayne man axed Licinius Crassus, what tyme he wolde remoue his armye, he aunswered, Arte thou a­fraid, thou shalte not knowe that by the trompette?

¶ To serche out the secretes of ennemies. Capit. ii.

SCIPIO Aphricanus, ta­kyng his occasion and time conuenient, sente Lelius in ambassage to kynge Sy­phax, and with hym certain of his chiefe capitaynes and centurions in slaues apparell, whose charge was to [Page] viewe and marke, of what strength the kynges army was. They goinge about this, of purpose let go an horse, and run nynge vppe and downe after hym, sawe the place, where the greattest parte of al the kynges prouision lay, whiche whan they had shewed Scipio, the warre by fyer was ended.

¶ Whan the Carthaginenses percey­ued, that Alexanders ryches and power was so greate, that he gaped also after Aphryke, they caused one of theyr cyty­zens Hamilchar, a quycke wytted man, and full of courage, fayninge hym selfe banyshed, to go vnto the kynge, and by all endeuour and study to wynne his fa­uour, whiche at length obteyned, he dis­closed the kinges secretes vnto his con­trey men.

¶ The same Carthaginenses sent cer­tayne men vnto Rome, there to tary for a longe tyme, vnder colour of ambas­sage, and so to espy from tyme to tyme, what they intended.

¶ M. Cato in Spain, bicause he coude by no other meanes come to knowlege [Page] of the councille of his ennemyes, com­manded. iii. hundreth souldiers violent ly to runne al together vpon the watche men, and to snappe vp, and safelye to brynge one of them to hym, whiche man Cato so racked and tormented, that he vttered all the secretes of his company.

¶ C. Marius cons. in the warres a­gaynste the Cymbrians and the Almay­nes, to the entente to trye, whither the frenche men and the Genowayes were his faythfull frendes or no, sent them a letter, wherof the fyrst parte commaun­ded, they shulde in no wyse open the la­ter parte beinge sealed, vntyl a certayne tyme: Afterwarde, before the daye ap­poynted was come, he sente and requy­red those letters agayne, and whan he perceyued by the seale, that the letters had ben opened, he vnderstode they were not his frendes.

¶ There is a nother way, wherby capi­taynes may perceyue moche them selfe, As Aemilius Paulus, which in the war of the Hetrusciens at Colonia, suffering his armye to wander in to the playne, [Page] sawe a farre of a great flyghte of birdes rise and sodenly flushe out of the wodde, wherby he perceyued, that there lay em­bushementes couertly. wherfore he sent out strayght way outriders, and founde that there laye. x. thousande of the Bo­yens, redy to receyue the Romayns. thā sente he forth his legions an other way, where they were not loked for, and on al sydes dyd discomfite them.

¶ Lykewyse, whan Thyamenes, the sonne of Horrestis, herde that his enne­mies were lodged on a mountaine, very stronge of naturall situation, he sente his currors afore to know, and they ma­kynge relation, it was not trewe, that was supposed, he marched forwarde: and as he behelde, a great flyght of fou­les to flye togither from the hylle suspe­cted, and in no wyse to alight, he demed, that the hoste of his ennemies lay there couertly, and so conductynge his armie aboute an nother waye, he begyled the deceyuours.

¶ The kepynge of an order in warre. Capi. 3.

ALexander Macedo, hauyng a ve­hement and fierce army, toke euer this waye in warre, to fyghte in playne battayle.

¶ Likewise C. Cesar in the ciuil war, hauynge his armie by longe vse perfect in feates of armes, and knowynge the army of his ennemyes to be yonge and vnexpert, alwayes endeuored hym selfe to trie with his enemy in a pyght felde.

¶ Fabius Maximus, lyenge in warre ayenst Anniball, wanton and proude of his great vyctories, determyned not to fyght, but onely to defend & kepe Italy, and therby deserued to be called Cuncta­tor, a tarier, slowe in fyght, and yet to be taken for the best and wysest capitayne.

¶ The Byzantes ayenst Philyp, esche­wynge and auoydynge all daungier of playne fyght, neglectyng the defence of theyr borders, kepte them selfes within the munimentes of their cities, and ther by brought to passe, that Philyp beyng [Page] soore agreued, and lothe to abyde the longe besiegyng and assaultes of them, wente his way.

¶ Has drubal sonne of Gisgon, at the se cond warre of Carthage ayenst Spain, where as scipio laid hard to his charge, deuided his army discomfited into son­drye cities, and therby brought to passe, that Scipio, bycause he wolde not be troubled with the assaut of so many and dyuers cities, withdrewe his army into places of reste, for all the wynter.

¶ Whyle Anniball taryed styl with his armye in Italy, Scipio conueyeng his into Aphrike, made the Carthaginenses of necessitie cal him home to the defence of his owne countrey, and so droue the force of his ennemies out of Italy.

¶ To conducte an armye through places besette with ennemyes. Cap. 4.

EMilius Paulus cons. conductynge his armie throughe a strayte, nyghe vnto the see side, the Tarentines laying wayte for hym with a nauy, and setting vpon his companye with Scorpions, [Page] couered the syde of his hooste, passinge forthe by, with suche as he hadde before taken prysoners, for regard of whome, his ennemies forbare their shotte.

¶ When Agelilaus, capytayne of the Lacedemonians, retourned from Phri­gia, laden with pillage & spoyle, his en­nemies pursued hym, and at all places apt for battaile, prouoked him to fyght, wherfore he set his prisoners and capty­ues on both sides his army, and so whi­les his ennemies fauored them, the La­cedemonians at theyr commoditie went away euen by them.

¶ Bycause the same Agesilaus coulde not passe with his host certayne straigh­tes, defended and kept by the Thebans, he vaunced his banners towarde theyr citie of Thebes, whereof, the Thebans beinge afrayde, left the strayghtes, and wente to defende theyr citie, and so Age­silaus came backe, and wente on the same waye, that he intended before, no man withstandynge hym.

¶ Nicostratus, capitayne of the Aeto­lians ayenst the Epirotes, seing the pas­sages [Page] into theyr borders, were straytely kepte ageynste hym; he made a face, as thoughe he wolde breake in by an other place: whither whan all the multytude of the Epirotes ranne to defende, he lea­uynge there a fewe to make a shewe, as thoughe the hole hoste taried still, with the residue entred in that waye, that he was not loked for.

¶ Kynge Philip of Macedon, in his iourneye towarde Grece, harde that the straytes, called Thermopylas, were ta­ken and kepte of his ennemies, and that the Ambassadours of the Aetoliās were come to hym, to intreate of peace, ke­pynge them surely, by great iourneys, hasted to the straytes, where they that were set to defende them, beinge care­lesse, and lokynge for the retourne of the ambassadours, he passed the straytes.

¶ Whan Iphicrates capytayne of A­thenes, warrynge agaynste Anaxibius of Lacedemon, shulde conducte his ar­my by places kepte and defended of his ennemies, his passage being on the one syde let with cleues of hylles, and on the [Page] other syde with the see, taryenge stylle a season, there came a daye moche colder than was wonte, and therfore no manne suspectynge hym, he pycked out all the strongest of body of his hoste, which be­inge warmed with wyne and oyle, com­maunded theym to swymme so farre by the sees syde, tyll they were past the roc­kes, and so vnwares to set vpon, and op­presse the kepers of the straytes.

¶ Whanne Cn. Pompeius coulde not passe ouer a certayne ryuer, by reason of his ennemies, whyche laye on the other syde, he vsed this polycie, ofte tymes to range out his hooste towarde the ryuer, and to recule ageyne to his campe, at lengthe his ennemye beinge perswaded, that he wolde do so stylle, he sodaynly ru­shed out, and so wonne the passage.

¶ Alexander Macedo, beinge lette of Porus kynge of Inde, to passe ouer the ryuer Hydaspes with his armye, vsed this policie: Fyrst he made his souldiors to range oute busyly towarde the water, and after that by this maner of exercise, he had forced them to lye at their fence on [Page] the other syde of the banke, he sodeynly sent ouer his armye by the vpper part of the ryuer.

P. Claudius cons. in the fyrste warre of Carthage, bycause he coulde not con­uey his army from Rhegio vnto Messa­na, by reason that the Carthaginenses had besette the narowe see, spred abrode a rumoure, that he coulde not contynue the warre, bycause he hadde taken it in hande, without consente of the people, & made a face, as though he wolde haue sayled into Italye. The catthaginenses beleuynge, that he wolde sayle thyther in dede, departed thens: and soo he tourned about his shippes, and arriued in Sicil.

Whan the capitayns of the Lacedemo­mens, had pourposed to sayle ouer vnto Syracusa, and were in feare of the na­uie of the Carthaginenses, whiche laye dekt and redy vnto warre, they caused. x. shyppes, whiche they had taken in bat­tayle of the Carthagin. to go out before, as thoughe they had come home agayne with vyctorye, cowplynge theyr other shyppes vnto them on bothe sydes, and [Page] at the styrne also: vnder the whiche co­loure they deceyued the Peneans, and passed ouer.

Whan Philyp myght not passe the na­rowe sees, called Cyanee, by reason that the nauye of the Atheniens kepte all the conuenient passages there, he wryt vn­to Antipater, that Tracia was vp, and rebelled, the garrison, which he there left, by disceyte taken and slayne: wherfore his wyll was, that he shulde set all other thynges asyde, and folowe hym thither, and so he ordered the matter, that the A­theniens toke the messanger, that bare the letters, at the syght whereof, suppo­synge they had gotten knowledge of all the priuities of the Macedoniens, depar ted with their nauie, and thā passed Phi­lyppe the straytes, no manne withstan­dynge hym.

Whan Chabrias of Athens coulde not enter the hauen of the Samians, being kepte of by a garrison of his ennemies, that lave in shyppes before the hauen, he commaunded a fewe of his shyppes to passe by the hauen, coniecturynge, that [Page] they, whiche lay there for defence, wold make out after theym, and they, by this policie intised out, no man in maner re­systynge, he opteyned the hauen with the reste of his nauye.

¶ To escape out of dangerous pla­ces. Capit. v.

VUhan Q. Sertorius in Spayne, shulde nedes passe ouer a ryuer, his ennemies euen at hande, pursuyng him, he caste out a trenche in maner of a cro­ked mone, whiche whanne he had fylled with wodde, and other suche lyke thyn­ges, he sette a fyre, and thus excludynge his enmyes, frely passed ouer the fludde.

Lykewise Pelopidas a Theban, in the warre ayenst the Thessalonians, sought passage. for his campe conteynynge a great ground on the ryuer syde, he made a trenche with old house rafters, stakes, and other stuffe mete to bourne, and set it on syer, and therby kepte backe his en­nemyes, whyle he passed the ryuer.

What tyme Luctatius Catulus was put to flyght of the Cunbriens, this one [Page] hope to saue his armye he hadde, if he might dryue his ennemies from a floud, the banke wherof was by them kept and defended: so he made a shewe of his ar­my, vpon a hyll not farre of from the ry­uer, as thoughe he wolde there haue pyghte his tentes, commaundynge the hoste not to vnlode in any wyse, nother to laye downe packe ne burden, no man to breake the araye, or to parte from his standarde: and the better to deceyue his ennemyes, he commaunded to reare vp in theyr full syghte, certayne tentes, and to kendle fyers, some to make a trenche, some other he sente a forragynge and to gather wodde, in suche wyse, that they myghte be sene to go abrode. The Cun­brians supposyng, that they intended al suche thynges in very dede, chose theym selfe a place also, & as sone as they were scatered abrode in the countrey, to pour­uey all suche thynges, as were necessary for them that entended to tary, Catulus got good occasion, not only to passe ouer the ryuer, but also to trouble and greue his ennemies.

[Page] When Cresus mighte in no wyse wade ouer the ryuer Halis, nother yet coulde make bote or brydge, he caste a dyche be­hynde his army, and so turned the course of the ryuer that waye.

Whan Cn. Pompeius lyinge at Brin­duse, and purposynge nowe to departe out of Italy, and so to dyffer and put of the battayle, for as moche as Cesar laye at his backe with an armye, wolde take shyppynge, he stopped and closed vppe some wayes with walles, some he inter­cut with dyches, settynge vpryghte in them stakes, couered with hyrdels and erthe, some wayes towarde the hauen, he fensed with great tres, layd ouerthwart, thycke together, in gret quantitie, which thyng done, vnder a colour, as thoughe he wolde haue helde and kepte stylle the citie, he lefte a fewe archers, to kepe the walles, conueyenge the reste of his ar­mye vnto shyppe, withoute any greatte noyse or busynes, and anon after that he had taken shyppynge, the archers folo­wed him by wayes well knowen in smal vessels, and ouertoke hym.

[Page] Whan Herculeius, legate vnto Ser­torius, hadde brought a smalle armye in Spayne, into a longe way, that was ve­ry narow, betwene two stype hylles, and perceyued, that a great company of his ennemies made towarde hym, he caste a great dyche ouerthwarte the waye, with a trenche meete to bourne, and sette fyre theron, and so kepte of his enemyes, and escaped.

Whan Cesar in the ciuyle warre, had sette his armye in aray agaynste Afrani­us, and coulde not recule backe without danger, by stelthe brought backe certayn of the fyrst and seconde aray, and caste a dyche of. xv. fote behynd them, & thyther after the sonne set, he receyued his army.

Pericles of Athens, beynge dryuen by them of Peloponesus into a place inuy­roned with stype hilles, where was but two wayes to escape out, before the one waye, where he intended to breke out, he let cast a dyche of greatte bredthe, vnder pretence to shutte out his ennemies, and to the other syde he ledde his hoste, as though he wold there haue broken forth. [Page] Wherfore his ennemyes, beleuynge that he coulde in noo wyse escape that waye, where he hym selfe had caste the dyche, withstode hym with all theyr power on the other syde, then dydde Pericles caste bridges, prepared for the nonce, ouer the dyche, and that waye conueyed oute his army, where no man resisted him.

What tyme Cornelius Cossus consul, in the warre against the Samnites, was founde of his ennemyes in an vnegall and inconuenient place, P. Decius his chiefe capitayn, counsayled him, to make out a small bande of men, and to preuent his ennemies, and soo to take the hylle, proferynge hym selfe to be theyr guyde, and by that polycie his ennemye beinge prouoked to stoppe hym frome the hylle, the consul escaped, and he the same night beinge besieged of his foes, brake oute, and came agayne safe with his compa­ny to the consuls armye.

A. Sylla, being betwene certayn strai­tes at Esernta, sent vnto the hoste of his enmies, desyrynge the capitayne of com­munication, and so treated with hym of [Page] certayne conditions of peace, entending no suche thynge indede. At length, per­ceyuyng his ennemies to waxe somwhat slacke and negligent, by reson they were entred into a treatie of peace, he brake out by nyghte, leauynge behynde hym a trumpetter, to deuide the watches of the nyght, that the hoste myght be thoughte to remayne stylle there, commaundynge hym, to tary and gyue the fourth watch, and than to folowe after. And thus he conducted his armye safely with al theyr stuffe and ordynaunce into a sure place.

The same man, in the warre agaynste Archelaus, lieutenaunt vnto Mithrida­tes in Cappadocia, beinge in distresse by reson of an inconuenient place and mul­titude of his ennemies, fell to an intrea­tie of peace, and toke a truce for a tyme: wherby his ennemies toke lesse hede vn­to hym, and so he escaped.

Whan Hasdrubal, Anniballes brother, myght not conueniently escape out of a certayne thycke wodde, by reasone the hyghe ways and those quarters were be­set, he fell to intreate with C. Nero, pro­misynge [Page] to departe out of Spayne, soo that he wolde gyue him passage with his army. then after he findinge certayne ca­uillations at the conditions, droue forth moche tyme, sendynge awaye euery day in the meane while, parte of his army by narrowe pathes, that were nothynge re­garded. And afterwarde he fled awaye hym selfe easily with the other fewe that taried with hym.

Spartacus by nyght slewe his priso­ners, and certayne bestes, and with their carcases fylled vp the dyche, where with Marcus Crassus had enclosed hym, and so he passed ouer.

The same man also, whan he was be­set in Lesbio, on that syde, where the hill was most daungerouse and pitchelong, and therfore not kept, let downe his men with scalynge ropes, made of certayne wythes and twygges, and by that mea­nes he not onely escaped, but also on the other syde soo amased theym, that with lxxiiii. swordes, he put to flyght certain great cohortes of his ennemies.

The same man also enclosed by L. Ua­rinus, [Page] proconsull, pitched vp stakes here & there before the entryng of his campe, and set theron deade carkases, clad and harneysed lyke menne, to make a shewe vnto them, that were afar of, that watch and warde was diligently kept, leauyng also fyres in euery quarter of the campe, vnder the which deceytfull colour, he de­luded his enemyes, and conueyed away his hoste by nyght.

Brasidas, capitayne of the Lacedemo­niens, broughte in to the daungier of a greater multitude of the Atheniens, thā he might make his party good with, wil­lyngly suffered his ennemies to enuiron hym, to thentent that the hoste, by ran­gynge them selfe rounde about in great length, garland wyse, myght be the thin­ner, and soo he brake out on that partie, where he ꝑceyued fewest withstode him.

¶ Whan Iphicrates in Tracia hadde pyght his tentes in a low place, and had knowledge, that his ennemyes laye vp­pon an hyll nygh to hym, and that there was but one waye to comme downe, at night he commaunded a smalle number, [Page] whiche he left in the campe, to make ma­ny fyres, leadynge out the reste of his ar­mye, and disposyng them on bothe sydes of the foresayde waye, suffered the bar­barouse alyens to passe by, bryngynge them euen into the same places of daun­ger, that he alyttell before was in, with the one parte of his army, he slewe their rerewarde, and with the other, he chase an apte place to pitche his tentes.

¶ Darius to disceyue the Scythes, at his departinge lefte dogges and asses in his tentes, whose barkynge and bray­inge the ennemies heryng, thought Da­rius to be there styll.

By lyke errour the Genowayes, blyn­dynge the Romaynes, tyed buguls here and there vnto trees with wythes, the whiche with theyr ofte lowynge, made the ennemies beleue the host lay styll.

Hanno inclosed of his ennemyes, made a greatte fyer of suche stuffe, as bour­neth quickely and taryeth not longe, in that place, where he sawe he myght beste breke out: then his ennemyes fleynge to stop the other passage, he brought his ar­my [Page] throughe the myddeste of the flame, coueryng theyr faces with theyr shyldes, and theyr legges with clothes.

¶ Anniball purposynge to flee, partely bycause of the inconuenyent places, and partly for lacke of vitaile, Fabius Mar­tinus holdynge hym harde, by nyght ty­ed lyttell fagottes of small styckes to ox­ons hornes, and fyrynge the fagottes, he let the oxen go. and when the bestes were troubled with the fyer, whiche increased as they moued theyr heades, they run­nynge hyther and thyther, lyghtened all the hylles where they became. The Ro­mayns at the fyrst thought it some mon­struous token, but after they had shewed vnto Fabius all the matter, he fearynge some deceypte and gyle, kepte styll his campe, and soo Anniball departed with­out any resistence.

¶ Of layinge and makynge traynes by the waye. Cap. vi.

Vvhan Fuluius Nobilior shuld con­duct his armie from the Samnites vnto the Lucanians, and knew by trai­tours, [Page] that had left theyr own capitains, and come to hym, that his enemies wold sette vppon the rerewarde, he caused his strongest legion to go formoste, and his cariage to come behynde, whervpon the ennemies hauynge occasion, beganne to ryfle theyr fardels and cariage. here Ful­uius appoynted. v. cohortes of the fore­sayd legion on the right syde of the way, and. v. on the lefte, and so his ennemies beinge busy about their spoyle, he inclo­sed and slewe them.

The same Fuluius, his ennemies folo­wynge hym at his backe, camme vnto a ryuer, the whiche not withstandynge it coulde not stoppe hym, yet by reasone of the swyftenesse, sommewhat hyndred his purpose, he layd one of his legions pri­uily on this syde the ryuer, that his ene­mies contemnynge the smalle company, that was with hym, myght the boldlyer folowe after, this doone, the legion that laye in wayte for the nonce, brake oute of theyr embushement, and so discomfited theyr ennemyes.

Iphicrates, for the inconueniencye of [Page] places, was fayne to leade his armye all along into Thrace, and it was told him, that his ennemies wolde sette vppon the vawarde: wherfore he commanded cer­tayne cohortes to goo and tary on eyther syde, the resydue he had spedily to march forwarde. the hole armye passyng forth, he reteyned with hym a sorte of the most pycked men: and so his ennemies being occupied all aboute, in spoylynge, weary also, with his men freshe, lusty, and well ordered, he set vpon them, and after they were dyscomfyted, he toke awaye theyr pyllage.

¶ The Boyens, knowyng that the Ro­maynes hoste shoulde passe through the wodde called Litana, cutte and hewed al the greatte trees in suche wyse, that they had a very lyttell holde to stande by, re­dye to falle at any impulsion, and they hydde them selfe at the vttermooste trees so cutte. and as soone as the Romayns were entred the wodde, they throwynge downe the trees nexte vnto theym, ouer­threwe also those, that were farther of, by whiche meanes the ruyne growynge [Page] or, they all to crushed a great nomber of theyr ennemies.

¶ Howe thynges that we want, may seme not to lacke, or howe we may supplye the vse of them. Capit. 7.

L. Cecilius Metellus, bycause he lac­ked shyppes, to conuey his elephan­tes ouer the water, ioyned barrelles and tonnes togyther, and couered them with bourdes, and theron sette his elephantes and so paste the see at Sicile.

Whan Anniball coulde not compel his elephantes to take the streame of a depe ryuer, neyther had any vessels to conuey them in, he commaunded one of the fier­cest elephantes to be wounded vnder the eare, and as soone as he that strake hym had so done, to swymme ouer the ryuer, and then to ronne streight forthe. The e­lephante, beinge sore moued and greued with the wounde, swamme after hym o­uer the ryuer, to reuenge his griefe, & so gaue all the other stomake to do the like.

Whan the capitayns of carthage shuld tacle theyr nauye, and wanted stuffe to [Page] make ropes, they clipped womens heare, and made ropes therof. Lykewyse dyd the Masiliens and the Rhodiens.

M. Antonius gaue his souldiers bar­kes of trees in stede of tergates. Spar­tacus and his army vsed shildes of osy­ers, couered with beastes skynnes.

The noble dede of Alexander of Mace­don I thynke worthy to be remembred in this place. He leadynge his armye through the desertes of Afryke, was gre­ued with extreme thyrste. whan one of his souldiours brought hym water in a salet, he poured it out in the syghte of all his army, countynge more profyt, in gi­uyng them example of temperancy, than either to haue dronke the water hym self, or to haue bestowed it on some, the other remaynynge styll thirsty.

¶ To set ennemies at diuision. Cap. viii.

VUhat tyme Coriolanus by warre wolde reuenge the shame of his con demnation, he commaunded his men of armes in any wise to spare the senatours landes, burnynge and wastynge all that [Page] longed to the common people, therby in­tendinge, discension sowed among them, to set the commons agaynste the lordes.

¶ Anniball not able to matche Fabius in strengthe and feates of warre, thyn­kynge to greue hym by some sclaunder, forbare to hurte Fabius landes and pos­sessions, and spoyled other mennes. On the other syde, Fabius, to thende the cy­tezens shulde not mystruste his fydelitie, gaue all his landes to the comon welthe, through which great noblenes of minde, his trouthe and loyaltie was nothynge suspected.

¶ Fabius Maximus, the fyft time that he was consull, bycause the army of the Gaulles, the Umbrians, the Etruscians, and Samnites ioyned together agaynst the Romaynes, (whiche to withstande he fortified his fielde beyonde the moun­tayne Apennine) wrote letters to Fului­us and Posthumius, that laye in garry­son to defende the citie, that they shulde remoue with theyr power to Sitium: whiche thynges doone, the Etruscians and Umbrians drewe home to defende [Page] theyr owne, leauynge behynde them the Samnites and Gaulles, whom Fabius and his felowe Decius did set vpon, and ouercame.

¶ What tyme a huge nombre of the Sa bines lefte theyr owne costes, and inua­ded the borders of the Romaynes, Mar­cus Curius sent forthe by secrete wayes a power of menne, to sette fyer here and there, on theyr vyllages and townes, and so were the Sabines fayne to retourne, and to rescue the wast and destruction at home. Thus Curius withoute fyght, droue backe the great host, and greuous­ly assaulted theyr borders, nowe in ma­ner vacant, fleing them that they caught here and there scatered.

¶ T. Didius mystrustynge his smalle nombre, sought meanes to prolonge the battayle, vntyll the commyng of certain legions, that he loked for: and whan he also perceyued, that his ennemies went to mete, and kepe backe the legyons, he called his souldiers together, comman­dynge them to be in a redynes to fyghte, gyuynge them warnynge, neglygentely [Page] to kepe theyr prysoners: of the whiche some fled awaye, and broughte worde to theyr company, that Didius was prepa­red to battayle, the whiche thynge harde, they lefte of to laye any longer wayte for the legions, & by that meanes they came safe without any resistēce vnto Didius.

¶ In the warre ayenste the Carthagi­nenses certain cities had purposed to fal from the Romaynes vnto them, but fyrst they imagined, how to get home agayne the hostages, which they had giuen vnto the Romaynes: Therfore they fayned, that there was a great sedytion amonge the borderers, the whiche coulde not be aswaged and appeased, excepte the Ro­maynes sente ouer theyr ambassadours, and whan they were sente, and come, the cities kepte them, as contrary hostages and pledges, and wolde not suffre them to retourne home, vntyll they had recei­ued agayne theyr owne.

¶ The Romayne ambassadours, sente vnto kynge Antiochus, which had nowe after the conquest of the Carthaginens, Annibal in court with him, whose coun­sayle [Page] he moche vsed ayenst the Romay­nes, brought to passe by their sondry tal­kynges with Annyball, that the kynge suspected him, whyche before was great­ly in his fauour, and worthy so to be, both for his wylynesse, and greate experience in warre.

¶ Q. Metellus, warrynge agaynst Iu­gurth, corrupted the ambassadours sent to hym, that they shuld betray Iugurth. Also whan other came, he dyd lykewise. and euen soo vsed theym, that were the thirde tyme sent to hym. But as for the takynge of Iugurth, the matter wente slowely forwarde, for he wold haue him delyuered alyue: but yet he wroughte a great feate by this polycie, for whan the letters, that he addressed to Iugurthes frendes, were intercepte and taken, he slewe theym all, and beynge spoyled of his counsaylours, he coulde afterwarde gette no frendes.

¶ Whan that C. Cesar had taken a cer­tayne water lagger, and had knowlege by hym, that Afranius & Petreius that night wolde remoue theyr tentes, he pur­posyng [Page] to lette his ennemies of their in­tent, withoute vexynge of his armye, by and by in the begynnynge of the nyghte, made his men to crie and cal for vessels, and to dryue mules with moche noyse a­yenst the campe of his aduersaries, and to contynue that noyse the moste part of the nyght: and so made them beleue, whi che of purpose he caused to tary styl, that he hym selfe had remoued.

¶ Whan the Affricanes passed the sees into Sicille, with a great hoste to assaut Dionisius kynge of Siracusa, he for­tyfyed Castelles in dyuers places, com­maundynge the kepers neuer the lesse, to yelde theym to theyr ennemyes, and whan they were dysmissed, to retourne priuily vnto Syracusa, whiche castelles of necessitie the Aphricans were dryuen to furnyshe with garrisons. And by this meanes, whan Dionisius had broughte the armye of his ennemies, to a smalle number, as his desyre was, and had ga­thered his own strength togither, setting vppon them, vanquished his ennemies.

¶ Agesilaus of Lacedemon, makynge [Page] warre ayenste Tysaphernes, fayned to conducte his armye into Caria, there to take the aduantage of the hylles ayenst his enemies, whiche were stronger than he in power of horsemen. by the whiche bragge and polycie, he entyced Tysa­phernes into Caria, which done, he brake into Lidia, the heed of the kyngedom of his ennemie, and oppressynge those that he there founde, gatte the kinges tresure.

¶ To pacifye the sedition of sowldy­ours. Capit. 9.

VUhan A. Manlius consule, hadde ꝑceyued, that his sowldiours grud­ged agaynste the menne of Campania, where they were nowe lodged, conspy­rynge togyther to slee theyr hostes, and after to take away their goodes, he spred abrode this rumour, that they shulde lye there stylle all the wynter. and thus they of their purpose let and disturbed, he de­lyuered Campania from greate perylle, and as tyme and occasion serued, punys­shed theym that were causers of that se­dition.

[Page] ¶ What tyme the legyons of the Ro­maynes were furiousely sette and bente on peryllous sedition, Lucius Sylla re­stored them from theyr rage vnto a qui­etenes by this policie: He commaunded, that worde shulde be broughte hastily to the hooste, that their ennemyes were at hande, and that they shoulde rayse vp a crye, and call them to harneys, and blow vp the trumpettes, whereby he brake of the sedition, they al togyther consenting, as nede required, agaynst their enmies.

¶ What tyme Pompeius hooste hadde slayne the Senatoures of Millan, for feare of trouble and busynes, that might haue happened, yf he shulde haue callid the offenders aloone to examination, he sent for them all togither, as well for the fautlesse, as the gyltie, so that they semed to be sent for, for some other purpose. and therefore appered they that were fautie, with lesse feare, bycause they came not alone: and they, whose conscience pleded them not gyltie, gaue good attendaunce, to kepe them that were fautie, leste per­aduenture theyr escape and flight, might [Page] haue tourned them to displeasure.

¶ Howe to inhibit the desyre to fyght at tyme inconuenient. Cap. x.

Q. Sertorius hadde lerned by expe­tyence, that he was not able to matche with the hole host of the Romai­nes, therfore to instructe the barbarouse people, that vnaduisedly desired to fight with them, he brought forthe two horses before them all, the one lusty and strong, the other feble & weke: and two yong mē also of lyke condition, the one strong and lustye, the other leane and feble. and the strong felowe he commaunded to plucke of the weake horses tayle all at ones, the feble felowe to plucke of the lusty horses tayle by lyttell and lyttell. And whan the weake man had done that he was com­maunded, the myghtye man of armes was styl wrastlynge and tuggynge with the weake horse tayle, and all in vayne. Nowe I haue shewed you (saide Serto­rius) by this example, the power of the Romaynes army, he that setteth on them all together, shall fynde them vnuincy­ble, [Page] but he hat setteth on them parte by parte, shall easyly crop, and weare them to noughte.

¶ When Agesilaus, capytayne of the Lacedemoniēs in warre ayenst the The­bans, had pyghte his tentes alonge the ryuer side, and perceynynge the power of his ennemies moch stronger than his, to restrayne his army from rasshe desyre to fyghte, sayde, that he was warned of god, to fyght on the hylles. and thus lea­uynge a lyttel garrison on the ryuer side, gat vp on the hylles. The Thebans, ta­kynge this to be done for feare, passed o­uer the ryuer, and the garryzon beinge easely put to flyghte, pursued very gre­dely after the other. and soo by inconue­niencye of the place, they were ouercome of a smaller nombre.

When Scorilo, capitayne of the Daci­ens, knewe, that the Romaynes were at dyscorde amonge theym selfes, nor yet thought the tyme mete to assayle theym, for outewarde warre causeth Cytyzens to growe to a concorde, he caused in the syght of the people two dogges to fighte [Page] together, to which most egrely fightyng, he shewed forthe a wolfe. and forthewith the dogges lefte theyr malyce, and felle vpon the wolfe. By which example he a­layde and ouercame the rage of the bar­barouse people, that other wyse wolde haue torned to the Romaynes profytte.

Howe to incourage and stomake an armye to fyght. Capit. xi.

M. Fabius, and Cn. Manlius consu­les, in warre ayenst the Hetrusciēs, theyr armye refusyng to fyght, by reason of sedition, fayned them self to prolonge and put of the battayle wyllyngly, vn­tyll suche tyme the souldiours, constrai­ned with reproches of theyr ennemyes, desyred to fyght, makyng a solemne oth, that they wolde retourne ageyne with vyctorie.

¶ Whan Fuluius Nobilior muste ne­des trie the matter in fyght with a smalle armye ayenst a greatte noumber of the Samnites, whiche were very haute and proude, by reason of fauorable fortune, he fayned, that he had corrupted one of [Page] the legions to betraye their felowes, and that this myght be the better beleued, he commanded the Tribunes, the Centu­rions, and all the fyrste order, to brynge togyther all the redy moneye, golde, and syluer, that they had, that he myght shew the traytours their rewarde, promysing to restore them their money agayne, whā he had opteyned the vyctorie, with great rewardes besyde. the whiche perswasion gaue the Romaynes greate comfort and courage: wherby they pighte a fielde by and by, and gatte a worthy vyctorie.

¶ Whan C. Cesar shulde fyght agaynst the Germaynes, and Ariouistus, percei­uynge his souldiours to be of small cou­rage, sayde in his exhortation to them, he wold haue no mo that day to helpe hym, but the tenth legion. wherby he brought to passe, that the tenthe legion, as with a speciall testimonie of manlynes, was en­couraged, and so were the other for very shame, least those alone shulde haue had the prayse of manhode.

¶ Q. Fabius, whiche knewe very well, the Romaynes to be of so lyberalle and [Page] honest nature, that by despite and contu­meliouse dealynge, they wolde be soone moued, vexed, and greued: lokynge also for noo ryghte nor egall dealynge of the Penians, sent vnto Carthage ambassa­dours, to intreate of peace, vpon certain condytions, whiche whanne they were brought and perceyued to be vnreasona­ble, full of insolency and pryde, the Ro­maynes army was strayghte styred and encouraged to fyghte.

When that Agesilaus had pyghte his fielde, not far from Orchomeno, a citye that was in leage with hym, and percey­ued, that many of the armye hadde theyr chyefe ryches and treasure within the campe, he commanded the townes men, that they shuld receiue nothynge into the towne, belongyng to his army, to the en­tent his souldiers myght fyght the more fiercely, knowynge that they fought for lyfe and goodes.

When Epaminundas shulde fyght a­yenst the Lacedemonians, to thende that the strengthe of his souldiers mighte be holpen with some feruente affection, he [Page] pronounced in his exhortation, that the Lacedemoniens had determyned, if they got the vyctory, to slee all the men, and to make theyr wifes and chyldren bonde for euer, and to beate the cytye of Thebes downe flat to the ground. With the whi­che wordes, the Thebans were soo mo­ued and agreued, that at the fyrste bront they ouercame the Lacedemoniens.

Eutidias capitayne of the Lacedemo­niens, preparynge hym selfe to battayle, the same day that other of his companye had obteyned in battayle on the see, al­thoughe he knewe nothynge what was done, publisshed abrode, that theyr syde had got the vyctory. wherby his souldy­ours were constant and moche imbolded to fyghte.

A. Posthumius in the battayle, wher­in he had encountred with the Latines, settynge forthe the shappe of two yonge men on horsebacke, greatly stomaked his men of warre, sayinge, that it was Ca­stor and Pollux, whiche came to helpe them, and so he recouered the fielde.

Archidamus capitayne of the Lacede­moniens, [Page] warrynge ayenst the Archadi­ans, caused priuily by nyghte, certayne harneys to be layde within his campe, and horses to trample aboute the place where the harneys was. On the morowe he shewed the trackes or fotynges of the horses, as thoughe Castor and Pollux hadde there ryd, perswadynge, that they wolde not fayle to come and ayde them in theyr battayle.

¶ Whan Pericles, shuld gyue battaile, he espied oute a certayne wodde, frome whens both ye hostes myght be sene, whi che wodde was very greate, thycke, and darke, dedicate to father Pluto: there he ordeyned an image lyke a man of greate stature, boted vp aboue the myd thighe, in a robe of pourple, with a greatte and comely bushe of heare, sytting on a hygh chariot, drawen with whyte horses: the whiche as sone as the banners were dis­played, and the token of battayle gyuen, appered out in the syght of both hostes, and called Pericles by name, exhortynge and encouragynge hym, sayenge, The goddis ar on the Atheniens part. which [Page] caused his enemies at the fyrste encoun­tre to tourne theyr backes and flee.

L. Sylla, to encourage his menne to fyght, feyned that the goddis hadde she­wed hym, what shulde befall. And after in the syght of his army, euen a lytell be­fore the battayle, he prayed to a lyttell i­mage, that he hadde from Delphis, and desyred, that he wolde haste the vyctorie to hym promysed.

C. Marius had with hym a certayne witche of Siria, of whom he fayned to know al aduentures, that fel in batayle.

Q. Sertorius, hauynge a very barba­rous hoste, and dulle of vnderstandyng, ledde about through Lusitania, a verye fayre and goodly white hynde, playnely affirmynge, that he knewe by her afore hande, all thynges that were eyther to be done, or to be eschewed, to the entente those barbarous felowes shulde obey all his commaundementes, as though they had come from heuen.

Whan Alexander Macedo shulde doo sacrifice, he writte with a certayne water made by crafte for the nonce, in the same [Page] hande of the southesayer, that he shulde put into the beastes bowels, the letters sygnified, that the vyctorie shulde be gi­uen to Alexander: the which letters, quik ly receyued and printed on the warme li­uer, and by the kyng shewed to the army, couraged theyr hartes, as thoughe god had promysed them victorie.

Epaminundas warring ayenst the La­cedemoniens, thought it mete to increase the good affiance of his men of armes, with some poynt of religion, toke awaye by nyghte the harneys and armure, that was offred and set vp to adorne the tem­ples, perswadynge his souldiours, that the goddes folowed hym in his iourney, to ayde and helpe them in battayle.

¶ Whan Agesilaus had taken certayne of the Persians, whose apporte was ve­ry terrible, as longe as theyr apparayle was on, whome he stryped naked, and shewed theyr whyte and effemynate bo­dies to his souldiars, to the entente they myght despice them.

Gelo the tyran of Syracuse, entrynge warre ayenste the Penians, after that he [Page] had taken many of them, broughte forth the weakest and most vncomly persons, naked in the syght of al his army, to per­suade them, that they were but wretches, and men worthy to be despised.

Cyrus kynge of Perse, intendynge to concitate the myndes of his people, to wery and angre them with paynefull la­bour, helde them all daye at worke, and vtterly tyred them in he wynge vp a cer­tayne wodde: and the morowe after he made for them a verye plentuous feaste, demaundynge in the feaste tyme, whiche daye lyked them best. And when they all alowed the pastyme of the daye presente. And yet these ( (que) he) muste he come by, by the other. for excepte ye fyrste ouercome the Medes, ye can neuer lyue in fredome and at pleasure. Wherby they toke great courage and desyre to fyght, and subde­wed theyr ennemies.

Bycause L. Sylla in warre ayenst Ar­chelaus Mithridates lieuetenant at Pi­rea, perceyued his souldyars had lyttell courage to fyght, he so weried them with continuall labour, that they were glad to [Page] desyre, that the token of battayle gyuen they myght fyght.

Fabius Maximus, fearynge leste his host wolde not continue the fyghte man­fully, by reason they myght quickely flee to theyr shyppes, commaunded them to be set on fyer before he began the batayl.

¶ Howe to put awaye feare, that souldi­ours conceyue in all vnlucky chaunces. Cap. xii.

SCipio, conucyinge his hoste oute of Italy into Aphrike, in landynge, by chance slypte and cought a fall and per­ceyuynge that his souldiours were ther­at abashed, with greatte constancye and bolde stomake, tourned that, whiche cau sed feare, into comforte, sayinge, Harke what I saye my souldiours, I haue fal­len vpon Aphrike, and oppressed it.

Whan C. Cesar, takynge shyppe, hast to falle, he sayd, I perceyue O countrey, what thou meanest. By whiche interpre­tation he broughte to passe, that they all beleued he shulde safely retourne from whence he departed.

[Page] ¶ Sempronius Gracchus consule, his hoste beinge ranged in battayle ayenste the Picentes, and bothe partes beynge confounded with a sodeyne erthe quake, comforted and couraged his men to in­uade theyr ennemyes, beinge superstiti­ousely amased, and by this exhortation he ouercame his ennemyes.

Whan Sertorius sawe, that the oute­syde of his horsemens tergates, and the horses breastes sodeynely, as it had bene by some wonderfulle prodigie, appered blouddye, he by and by expounded it to be a playne token of victorie, bycause those partes of the shieldes and horses, are wont to be sprinkeled with the bloud of theyr ennemies.

¶ Epaminundas perceyuynge that his souldiours, were sadde and sorowfull, bycause that the banner clothe, was blo­wen of by a great wynde, and caryed in to a graue, where a Lacedemonian had ben buried, sayd, Be not afrayde my sou­diars, this sygnifieth the deathe of the Lacedemoniens, for sepulchers be ador­ned with funerals.

[Page] The same Epaminundas, seynge his souldiours were afrayde with a flaake of fyre, that fell from heuen in the night, sayd, Surely god sheweth vs this light, in token of comforte.

As he an other tyme, beinge redye to fyght ageinst the Lacedemonians, wold haue sytten downe, by chance his chayre fell vnder hym: wherof his souldiours were greatly abashed, saying, that com­monly suche chaunce betokened greatte mysfortune, No not so, quod he, but here by we be warned, that it is no time no we to sytte.

L. Sulpitius Gallus, knowynge that the Eclyps of the mone was at hand, lest his souldiours shulde take it for a heuye token, warned them therof before hand, declarynge vnto them al the reason, and causes of the eclyps.

Lykewyse dyd Agathocles Siracusa­nus in warre avenst the Penians, what tyme the eclypses happened, the day be­fore they shulde fyght, expounded all the reason therof vnto the armie, leste they shulde take any conceite therat, & taught [Page] them, that what so euer chanced there, it was by course of nature, and not apper­tayned to theyr affaires.

Whan on a tyme there fell a great and terrible flushe of lyghtnyng in Pericles campe, and made his souldiours great­ly afrayde, he callyd them togyther, and in all theyr syghtes with two stones bea­ten togyther, strake oute fyre, shewynge them, that lykewise the vyolent dashing to gyther of coutrary elementes, and bre­kyng out of the cloude, caused the lyght­nynge, wherby he alayde all theyr trou­ble and feare.

Whanne that Timotheus of Athens shulde fyght by water ayenst the Corci­reens, and the shyppe saylynge forthe to encounter their enemyes, the shyp may­ster hearynge oone of the rowers snyse, was going backe, than said Timotheus vnto hym, What, arte thou amased to here that oone of so many thousandes hath caught colde?

Whan that Chabrias of Athens shuld foght by see, and perceiued that his soul­diours were soore amased with a lyght­nynge, [Page] that flashed out euen before the nauie, as a prodigiouse fortoken of some mysaduenture, he sayd, Nowe syrs is the chief time to encounter with our enmies, whan Iupyter the great God hym selfe, sheweth his power to be present with vs.

Thus endeth the fyrste boke.


The preface.

THE exaumples that instructe and teache a ca­pitayne, what he ought to doo, and howe to be­haue hym selfe before the battayle, are in myne opinion sufficiently declared in the fyrste boke, nowe I wolle shewe you, what is wont to be done in the self battayle, and what after the fielde is done.

¶ To chose the oportunitie and tyme conuenient to fyght. Ca. i.

WHAN Publius Scipio in Spayne knewe that Hasdruball capitayne of the Penians had ranged out his armye earely in the mornyng, before they [Page] brake theyr faste, he kept in his, vnto the vii. houre, cōmanding thē to syt at rest, & take their repast. and whan his enemyes with hungre, thyrst, and longe taryenge, were nowe tyred in theyr harneys, and beganne to recule to their campe, sodenly he ranged forthe his hoste, and gyuynge battayle, ouercame them.

Whan that Metellus Pius warred a­gaynste Herculeius in Spayne, and that this Herculeius by and by at the sprynge of the day, had raynged out his army e­uen vnto Metellus campe, the season of the yere beinge moste feruente and hote, he kepte his in vnto the. vi. houre of the daye, and so his men beinge fresshe and lusty, ouercame easelye the other weryed with great heate.

Whan the same Metellus ioyning his power with Pompeius agaynst Serto­rius in Spayne, had ofte ranged out his armye, his ennemie euermore refusynge to fyghte, bycause he thoughte hym selfe not able to matche them bothe: after on a certayne tyme, he perceyued, that Ser­torius souldiours were greatly encoura­ged [Page] to fyght, valyantly exercising feates of armes, chargynge and dischargynge their speares, thought it best to forbeare for a tyme, tyll that theyr heate and cou­rage were abated: and so reculed his ar­mye, & caused Pompeius to do the same.

Posthumius in Sicile laye with his host. iii. myles from the Penians, the di­ctatours wherof ranged out their army dayly euen before the Romayns campe, the whiche he resisted with a lytell bende of men, and smal skyrmyshes, standing euen before the trenche. Whiche custome the Penians nowe despisyng, he keping the residew within his campe, freshe and redye, after his olde wonte, with a fewe susteyned thassault of his ennemies, and kept them skyrmyshyng longer than he was accustomed. And thus they weried, and sore an hungred, after the. vi. houre, beganne to recule, whome Posthumius with his army freshe & lusty, vāquished.

Forasmoche as Iphicrates of Athens had knowledge, that his ennemies, con­tinually vsed to eate at a certayne tyme, he commaunded his men to take theyr [Page] repast more timely, and ranged them out in battayle, and settynge vpon his enne­mies, he soo dalyed with theym, that he neyther wold gyue them batayle, nor yet suffer them to departe. nowe whanne it drewe towarde nyghte, he reculed backe agayne, kepynge his men neuer the lesse redy in theyr harneys: and whan his en­nemyes beinge weryed, not onelye with standynge at theyr defence, but also with longe fastyng, made hast to refreshe their bodyes, and to take theyr repaste, Iphi­crates againe brought forth his army, & set vpon his ennemys being vnredy and out of order.

The same Iphicrates warringe ayenst the Lacedemonians, kepte his campe a longe space, harde by his ennemies, and both parties went forth at certayn dewe tymes a forragynge. On a certayne day he sente abrode aboute theyr busynes the slaues and drudges of the armye in soul­diours apparell, kepynge the souldiors stil within: and whan his ennemies were scatered abrode for lyke busines, he wan theyr campe by assault, and the vnarmid [Page] retornynge vnto the rore, and noyse, here and there with theyr burdeyns, he easely eyther slewe, or toke prisoners.

Whan Uirginius consull sawe afar of, his ennemies racynge out all abrode, he commanded his to pitche theyr dartes in the grounde, and reste them: then with his army lusty and fresche he sette on the other nowe almost breathelesse, and put them to flyghte.

Fabius Maximus knowinge, that the frenche men & the Samnites, were most valiant at the fyrste brayde and that the courage of his men grewe and encreased more and more as the fyghte continued, commaunded his souldiours, that they shulde be content at the fyrste encountre to susteyne and forhere, that so with tari­enge they myght wery theyr ennemyes, the whiche thynge succedynge, he sent in socour vnto them, & with al his strength in the vawwarde, oppressed and subdu­ed his ennemies.

Philip at Cheronea, remembryng that he had warryours hardened with longe vse and exercyse, and that the Athenien­ses [Page] were quicke and fyerce, but vnexerci­sed, and onely vyolent at the fyrste brayd, he of pourpose prolonged the battayle, and anone after, the Athenienses fayn­tinge, he auanced his baners more fierce ly forwarde, and slewe them.

¶ The Lacedemonians, beinge certifi­ed by theyr espyes, that the Messenians were set on suche a rage, that they came to battayle, with theyr wyues and chyl­dren, differred to fyght.

When Cesar in the cyuill warre, had enclosed the hoste of Affranius and Pe­treius within a trenche, he pyned theym with thyrste, in so moche that they therby erasperated, distroyed all that withstode them, and profered to fyght: Cesar kept in his men, supposynge it no mete tyme for battayle, whan yre and dispayre had inflamed his ennemies.

It is playne, that Iugurthe, hauynge wel in mynd the puissance of the Romai­nes, vsed alway to gyue battayle to ward nyghte, to the entente, that if his menne shulde be put to flyght, they myght haue the oportunitie and succour of the nyght [Page] to hyde them.

Lucullus in warre aienst Mithridates and Tigranes in Armenia the greatter, at Tigranocerta, whan he hauynge but xv. thousande men, and his ennemys an innumerable multitude, whiche therfore were vnrulye, toke this aduauntage, to inade his ennemies oute of araye and order, and so forthwith disparpled them, that the kynges them selfes were fayne to caste away their cote armure, and flee.

Claudius Tiberius Nero, in warre a­yenst the Pānoniens, seing the fierce bar barous felowes come forth in aray early in the mornynge, kepte in his, and suf­fered his ennemys to be beaten with the myste and rayne, as it chaunced the we­ther to be very foule that daye. and after whan he perceyued their courage fayn­ted, and their bodies were soore weake­ned with the rayne and longe standyng, the token of battayle gyuen, he assayled and ouercame them.

Whan Cesar in France had perceyued, that Ariouistus kyng of the Germayns, had an ordynaunce in maner of a lawe, [Page] not to fyghte in the wane of the moone, than chiefly he ioyned batayl with them, and ouercame his ennemies, entangled and lette with their superstitious obser­uynge of the tymes.

Uespasian the emperour, on the saboth day, whan it is not lauful for the Iewes to do any ernest busynesse, assaulted and ouercame them.

To chose a place to fyght in. Cap. ii.

MArcus Curius perceyuynge, that kynge Pyrrhus armye, beinge at large, myght not be resysted, dyd his in­deuour to fyght in strayte places, where they thronged togyther, myght be a lette to them selues.

¶ Cn. Pompeius in Cappadocia chose a hygh place, and theron pight his ten­tes, where the stypyng of the hyll holpe the couragious settynge out of his soul­diours, and so he easily ouercame Mi­thridates, euen with the violent decours and descendynge downe from the hylle.

¶ Whan C. Cesar fought against Pharnaces, Mithridates sonne, he ordeyned [Page] his aray on a hyll, the whiche thyng got hym spedy vyctorie. For the dartes thro­wen from aboue, vppon the barbarouse people, that came vnderneth, forthwith put them to flyght.

¶ Whan Lucullus shulde fight ageinst Mithridates, and Tygranes in Arme­nia the gretter at Tygranocerta, he toke quyckely the playne toppe of the nexte hylle, with parte of his armie, and froo thens rushed downe vpon his ennemies vndernethe, and inuaded their horsemen on the one syde, and puttynge somme to flyght, some oute of araye, so pursewed them, that he retourned with ryght noble vyctorie.

Uentidius agaynst the Parthians mo­ued not once his armye, before his enne­myes were within halfe a myle of hym, and then with a sodeyne race he marched so nere them, that theyr arrowes, whiche dyd good seruice a farre of, coulde nowe do hym no harme nere hande. By which policie, and with a lustye bolde courage, as thoughe he mystrusted nothynge, he quickely vanquysshed and subdued the [Page] barbarous people.

When Anniball shulde fyghte ageynst Marcellus at Numystron, he fensed his armye on the one syde with holowe bro­ken wayes: and vsynge the naturall sy­tuation of the place, for a fortifycation and defence, he ouercame a ryghte wor­thy capitayne.

¶ Whan the same Anniball at Cannas knewe that the brooke Uolturnus, farre passynge the nature of other ryuers, sent out in the mornynge excedynge ayre and wynde, which reysed and blewe vp sand and duste, he so ordered his battayle, that all the vyolence therof, shuld be on their backes, and in the faces and eies of the Romaynes: by the whiche incommodi­ties wonderfully greuing his ennemies, he opteyned that famous and notable vyctorie.

¶ Whan Marius shuld fyght on a day appoynted agaynst the Cymbriens, and Deuche men, he fyrste strengthened his souldiours with meate, and than caused theym to reste before the campe, to putte theyr ennemyes to the more peynes, in [Page] trauaylynge the space that laye betwene bothe hostes. and whan he had put them to this labour, he added thervnto an o­ther incommoditie, that is to say, he soo chose his grounde, and ordred his aray, that the wynde, the duste, and contrarye sonne laye in the face of his ennemies.

Epaminundas capitayne of the The­bans, rangynge out his army ageynste the Lacedemonians, commaunded the horsemen to race out before, and to reyse vp a greate duste in his ennemyes eies, pretendynge as thoughe he wolde haue set vpon them with the horsemen, condu­cted the fote men from that parte, where the horse men were, and came behynde on theyr backes vnwares, and slewe thē.

Thre hundred against an innumerable multitude of the Persians, kept the strai tes of the hil called Thermopylas, where mought but like nomber of men mete to­gether to fyght, and by that meanes, as touchyng the meting together, they were equall in nombre with the barbarouse a­lyens, and beinge moche more valyaunt in warre, slewe a great nombre of them. [Page] neyther had they ben ouercome, excepte the traytour Ephialtes had led theyr en­nemys about, and oppressed them on the backe syde.

¶ Whan Themistocles capytayn of A­thens perceyued, that it was moste pro­fytable for the Grekes, to trie the matter agaynste Xerxes multitude, in the stray­tes of Salanes, and could not perswade the cities therto, by polycie he broughte to passe, that his enemies compelled the Grekes to do accordynge to his aduyse: dissemblynge with Xerxes, as though he wold betray his contrey, sent him word, that the Atheniens intended to flee, and that it wolde be a very harde thynge for hym, to lay siege to al their cities. Wher­by he perswadid the barbarous host, whi che was disquieted, with lyenge out all nyght in watche, to fyght with the Athe­niens, fresh and lusty, euen in those strai­tes, that he desyred, where in no wise Xer­xes coulde vse his greatte noumber of souldiours.

To order the arraye. Cap. 3.

VUhan Cneus Scipio in Spayne agaynst Hanno, at the towne na­med Indibilis, perceyued, that the army of the Carthaginenses was on this wise ordered, that in the right wyng were the Spanyardes, a sturdy kynde of souldi­ours, the whiche not withstandyng had nowe in hande an other mannes matter: and in the left winge were the Aphriens, not all thing so sure in strength and man lynes, but of moche more constant mynd and purpose: he brought backe and with drewe the lefte wynge of his armye, to the ryght wynge, whiche he furnysshed and besette with most valyant warriors, and so assayling the weakest of his enne­mies, with the strongest of his army, and vanquyshynge the Aphriens, he easilye constrayned the Spanyardes, whiche stode as though they had ben lokers on, to yelde them selfe.

Artaxerxes, in battail agaynst the Gre­kes, for as moche as he had the greatter nombre, deuysed his araye to be spreade broder, then the host of his ennemys, and [Page] set the horse men in the fore frunte, and the lyght harneysed in the wynges, & so caused the mydward to procede somwhat softer for the nons, wherby he inclosed the host of his enmies, and so slew them.

¶ Contrary wyse Anniball at Cannas, somewhat withdrawyng the wynges of his hoste, and aduancyng forth the mid­warde, at the fyrste brunte and metynge droue the Romaynes backe, but whan they were nowe ioyned in fyght, the win­ges at a certayne watche word comming forwarde, the mydwarde gyuynge som­what backe, enclosed their enmies, whi­che gredily folowed the mydwarde: and so pressed them on bothe sydes, and slewe them, vsynge the polycie of the olde and longe taught armye. For this maner of order and aray, scasely any man may ea­sily put in vre, but namely he, that is an experte warriour, redy at all poyntes.

¶ Asdrubal in the second warre of Car­thaginenses, sought meanes to auoyde the necessitie of fyght, and therfore con­ducted and lay with his host on a rough rocky hylle behynd vynes: Liuius Sa­linator, [Page] and Claudius Nero brought all their power vnto the syde wynges, lea­uynge the fore frunt voyde, and soo set­tynge vppon hym on bothe sydes, ouer­came hym.

¶ Xantippus capitayne of the Lacede­moniens in Aphrike, ageynste M. Atti­lius Regulus, sette his lyght harneysed in the forwarde, and in the rerewarde the chiefe and strengthe of all the hoste, and cōmanded other his souldiors, after they had flung their dartes, yt they shuld giue place to their ennemies, and as soone as they were come agayne into their order and araye, by and by they shulde rounne forthe on eche syde, and breake out agein from the wynges, and so gette behynde their ennemyes: that whan their enne­mies were no we come, and receyued of the stronger warde, they myghte inclose them rounde aboute.

¶ Sertorius vsed the same feate in Spayne ageynste Pompey.

¶ Cleandridas a Lacedemoniē against Lycaonos set his host very thicke thron­ged togyther, that it myght muster moch [Page] lesse than it was, and his enemies ther­by takynge the lesse regarde, euen in the very fyght, he opened and deuyded his order and arraye into syde wynges, and so inclosng his enemys, distroied them.

¶ Whan Castronius of Lacedemonia came to succour the Aegyptians against the Perseans, knowynge that the Gre­kes were the better menne of warre, and more dreade of the Perseans, theyr ar­mure and apparell chaunged, he set the Grekes in the forefrunt, and whyle they held the Perseās hard, & egally matched them, he sent to theym a bande of the E­gyptians armed lyke Grekes, the Per­scans, whiche were scante able to resyste the Grekes, whom they toke for Aegyp­tians, no we perceyuynge an other mul­titude come vpon them, whome they be­leued to be Grekes, were vtterly dismai­ed, and fledde.

¶ Cn. Pompeius in Albania, percey­uinge that his ennemyes were stronger bothe in nombre, and of horse men, com­manded his horse men, that in the strai­tes, nere vnto a lyttell hyll, they shoulde [Page] couer theyr helmettes, lest by theyr bright nes they myghte be sene: Then to march forth on horsebacke, and as it were to go forthe before the fotemen: and charged them also, that at the fyrste assaulte, they shoulde gyue backe, vntyll they came to the fote men, and thenne flee out in syde wynges: the whiche thynge doone, the place beinge dyscouered, the battayle of the fote men appered sodenly in the mid­des, & inclosyng his enmys, slewe them.

¶ Whan Anniball in Aphrike agaynste Scipio, had furnyshed his army of Pe­nians and other that aided hym, For he had in his host straungers not onely out of dyuers partes, but also of Italye: next to. lxxx. elephantes, whiche he hadde set in the forewarde, to trouble and breake the arraye of his ennemyes, he sette the frenchemen, Genowayes, Baliares, and the Mauritans, to the intent they shuld not flee, the Penians beinge at theyr bac­kes: and beynge set ageynste his enne­mies, if they dyd none other hurte, yet at leaste they shulde wery theym: then his owne and the Macedons, freshe & lusty [Page] to encountre with the Romaynes weri­ed, he set in the myddell warde: and laste of all he ordred the Italians, whose fide­lytie and faynte courage he mystrusted, bycause he had brought many of theym out of Italy ageynste theyr wylles. Sci­pto, ageynste this order and arraye, set the strengthe of his legion, ordred in thre batayles in the front, the speare men and the chiefe and strongeste souldiours: he ioyned not his cohortes to gether, but lefte a space betwene them, through whi­che the elephantes dryuen by theyr enne­myes, myght easely passe without trou­blynge or breakinge the order of his bat­tayles: those spaces betwene he fylled with souldiours in lyghte harneys, that the arraye shulde not be sene or shewe o­pen: whiche had in commaundement, that at the violent commynge of the ele­phantes, they shulde eyther recule backe, orels go a syde. farther he ordeyned, that the horsemen shoulde be in the wynges: and ouer the Romayne horsemen in the ryght wynge he appoynted Lelius, and Masinissa ouer the Numidians in the [Page] lefte wynge: whiche prudente order, no doubte, was cause of the victorie.

C. Cesar, by the same meanes, that is to saye, with stakes, kepte of the hoked chariottes of the frenche men.

Whan Alexander at Arbela, was in drede of the multitude of his ennemies, and yet neuerthelesse had good affyance in the manlynesse of his souldiours, he so ordered his battayles, that they might tourne them selfe euery way, and fyghte on euery syde, if they chaunced to be en­closed of their ennemies.

Archelaus ageynst L. Sylla, set cha­riottes, armed with hokes lyke sythes, in the fronte of his battayle, to trouble and breake the array of his ennemies, in the seconde battayle he sette al the foote men in array after the facion of Macedons: in the thyrde battaylle, as the Romay­nes vsed, he sette them, that came to ayde hym, myngled with fugitiues, that were fledde out of Italie, whose constancy he moche trusted: the lyght harneised he set vttermooste of all. Than to inclose his ennemies he ordred his horsemen in two [Page] wynges, of whome he had a great num­ber. Agaynst these ordinaunces, Sylla lette caste a brode diche on eyther syde of his campe, the heedes of whiche he for­tified with bastiedes or fortresses: to the intent he wolde not be inclosed of his en­mies, and assayled on all sydes with the number of fote men, and namely of the horsemen, whiche were very stronge.

Than he ordered his foote men in thre battayles, leauynge spaces for the lyght harneysed, and for the horsemen whome he sette vttermoste of all, that whanne nede requyred, he myghte sende theym forthe. Farther he commaunded theym, that shuld defende the standerde, whiche were in the seconde battayle, to driue sta­kes in the grounde thycke together, by­twene the whiche, whan the waynes ar­med with sythes, approched, he receyued his armie. Than at laste makynge all a great shoute togyther, he commaunded the souldiours, that were lyght harney­sed, to throwe their dartes, whiche done, the enemies waynes armed with sithes, eyther combred with the stakes, or feared [Page] with the clamour and noyse, or greued with the dartes, tourned agayne vppon their owne host, and disturbed and brake the array of the Macedones: whiche re­culynge backe, and Sylla pursuing, Ar­chelaus sette to incountre hym, his hors men, the whiche the horsemen of the Ro­maynes put to flyght, and acheued the vyctorie.

Whan that C. Duillius perceyued his great shyps to be deluded with the exce­dyng swift nauy of the Carthaginenses, and that the manlynesse of his sowldy­ours stode hym in no stede: he imagined handes of yron, to catche and claspe his enmies shyppes to his, whyles he might caste ouer brydges, and so come togither to trie the matter, by the whiche meanes he distroyed them.

¶ Howe to trouble and disorder the araye. Capit. 4.

VUhan that Papirius Cursor shuld encountre with the Samnites, in tyme of battayle he commaunded Spu­rius Naucius, his company knowinge [Page] nothyng therof, that a fewe of the drud­ges and horsekepers, rydyng on mules, & drawynge grene bowes after them on the grounde, shulde runne out togyther ouerthwart the hyll with a great noyse. & as sone as these felawes were come forth on this maner, Papirius beholdyng thē, cried with a lowde voice, that his felowe was surely come to preuente hym of the vyctorie. By the whiche bragge the Ro­maynes were greatlye encouraged, and dryuynge their ennemies fiercely before them▪ put them to flyght.

F. Rutilus Maximus in his fourthe consulshyppe, at Samnium assayed by all meanes, howe be it in vayne, to breke through the aray of his ennemies, yet at the last he priuily brought in a company of speare men, and sent them about with Scipio, to take the other syde of the hyl, where they might comme downe on the backe syde of his ennemies. the whyche thynge doone, the Romaynes courage encreased, and the Samnites being dis­mayde, and seckynge to flee, were all togyther slayne.

[Page] Whan that Minutius Ruffus was o­uermatched with the great multitude of the Scordisciens and the Daces, he sent his brother, and a fewe horsemen before hym, with the trumpetours, to blowe a larum: and so it came to passe, that when his ennemyes harde the great noyse, and sawe a face of a great multitude appere out of the hylles, they were vtterly ama­sed and fledde.

Acilius Glabrio consul, agaynste the hooste of kynge Antiochus, whiche he brought into Achaia throughe the stray­tes of Thermopylas, had not ben decey­ued, but also discomfited by the inconue­mency of the place, excepte he had sente Portius Cato tribune to ouerthrowe the toppes of the mountayne Callydronius, and so hadde sodeynely appiered on the backe syde the hyl, ouer the kynges cāpe. for by this meanes was Antiochus host disturbed and put to flyght, the Romay­nes breakyng in on bothe sydes of them, and takynge theyr campe also.

Whan C. Sulpitius Petreius consul, shuld fyght agaynst the french mē, he cō ­maunded [Page] the horse kepers and carters, priuily to conuey them selfe into the next hylles with theyr mules, and to aduance and shewe them selfes, whan both hostes were ioyned together in fight, as though they hadde ben horsemen. at the whiche syght the frenche men, supposynge that there came socour to the Romayns, gaue backe, where they had almost gotten the vpper hande.

Whan Marius, nere vnto the waters called Aque sextie, purposed the day folo wynge to fyght agaynst the duche men, he sente by nighte Marcellus knyghte, with a small power of fotemen, and cer­tayne horsemen, on the backe syde of his ennemies, and that they myghte make a shewe of a great multitude, he comman­ded the horse kepers, cookes, and drud­ges to goo also harneysed, takynge theyr beastes with them, couered and laden with beddynge, and other baggage, and to come down on the backe side their en­nemys, whan they perceyued the battayl began. by the whiche colour theyr enne­mys were striken with so gret feare, that [Page] they tourned theyr backes and fled.

¶ Licinius Crassus in the battaylle of the fugitiues, in the campe of Calamar­cum, rangynge oute his army agaynste Castus and Canimocus, capitaynes of the frenche men, sente behynde the hylle xii. cohortes, with C. Promptinus, and Q. Martius Rufus his capitains, whi­che whan the battayle beganne, makyng great shoute and crie, soo sharpely set on their ennemies behynde at their backes, that they were discomfited: and in euery place, where they shulde haue foughte, sought meanes to flee.

¶ Marcellus fearyng, lest the cry of his souldiours, shuld disclose the smal nom­bre of them, commaunded the drudges, horse kepers, and all the rascalles, that folowed the host, to make noyse and crye to gether, and soo vnder the colour of a great multitude, he feared his ennemys.

¶ Whan Ualerius Leuinus fought a­gaynst Pirrhus, and had kylde a rascall souldiour, he helde vp his sworde al blo­dye, and made bothe the hostes beleue, that he had slayne kynge Pirrhus. wher­fore [Page] his ennemyes, supposyng them selfe to be destitute, by the deathe of theyr ca­pitayne, all abasshed with that lye retur­ned agayne into theyr campe.

¶ Iugurthe in the batayle agaynste C. Marius, hauyng knowlege of the latine tongue, by longe conuersation with the Romayne hoste, came out in to the fore­warde, cryinge in latyne, Ego C. Marium occidi, I haue slayn Marius, which wor­des caused many Romayns to recule.

¶ Mironides of Athens, in a doubtfull and daungerouse battayle agaynste the Thebans, sodenly lepte forthe in to the ryghte wynge of his host, cryenge with a loude voyce, that he had got the victory on the lefte wynge. Wherby he so encou­raged his owne men, and so discomfited his ennemies, that he gatte the vyctorie.

¶ Cresus agaynste a myghty power of horsemen of his ennemies, sette oute a great nomber of camelles, at the which straunge syght, the horses beinge ama­sed, not onely ouerthrewe those, that be­strod them, but also bore downe the aray of the foote men, makynge theym a pray [Page] for their ennemies.

¶ Pirrhus kynge of the Epirotiens, in battayle with the Tarentines agaynste the Romaynes, after the same maner brake the aray with elephantes.

The Carthaginenses also ofttymes v­sed the same policy ageinst the Romans.

¶ Whan the Uolsciens on a tyme had pitched their tentes nere vnto groues & woddes, Camillus sette fyre on all that wolde bourne, euen vnto his ennemies tentes, and brent them out of their cāpe.

¶ The Spanyardes ageinst Hamilcar sette oxen in their forward with waynes fast yoked one vnto an other, and in the waynes layd they brondes apt to burne, with drie styckes, myngled with brym­stone, and whan the token was gyuen to fyght, they set those thynges a fyre, dry­uyng the oxen vpon their ennemies, and so amased them, and brake theyr aray.

¶ The Phalisciens, and the Tarquini­ens decked and set forth certayne of their souldiours in prtestes apparaylle, with fyrebrandes and serpentes, like furies of helle, and so troubled and disordered the [Page] Romaynes araye.

¶ Whanne Athas, kynge of Srithia, fought agaynst a huge hoste of the Tri­bulliens, he commaunded, that women, chylderne, and all that were vnmete to battayle, shulde brynge droues of asses, and oxen, on the backwarde of their en­nemies, auauncyng, and shewyng their speares in their handes: than he caused a rumour to be spred abrode, that the far­ther Scithiens were come to ayde hym. by the whiche polycie, he putte his enne­mies to flyght.

¶ Of traynes and disceytes. Cap. v.

ROmulus layenge parte of his ar­my in secrete embushement, appro­ched vnto the Fideniens, from whom he faynyng hym selfe to flee, brought them hastily pursuyng him, thither where his imbushementes lay, whiche being spar­pled out of order, they assayled on euery syde, and easily slewe.

Q. Fabius Maximus consul, beynge sente to succour the Sutrines agaynste the Hetrusciens, so ordered the matter, [Page] that the hole power of his ennemies, set agaynste hym: than dissemblynge as he feared them, and as though he fled, got the higher grounde, on whom folowing him out of aray and order, he sharply set, and not onely vanquyshed them, but al­so gotte their campe.

Sempronius Gracchus ageynste the Celtiberiens fyrste makynge as though he had bene afrayde, kepte in his hoste a certayne space, and afterwarde sent oute the lyght harneised, to prouoke and vere his ennemies, and so to recule agayne. Whan he had thus entysed and brought farther his enemies, and by chasyng in & out, sette them out of order, he sodeynly strake out, assaylynge them so sore, that he toke their campe also.

Q. Metellus consul, kepynge warre in Sicilia ageynste Hasoruball, was the more circumspect, bycause that Hasdru­ball besydes his great armye, hadde also the helpe of. Cxxx. elephantes, fyrst ther­fore he shewed to mystrust hym selfe, and as oone discouraged, kepte his armye within the precincte of the citie, Panor­mus, [Page] castynge a great dyche before hym. than after perceyuynge, that Hasdruball hadde sette his camelles in the foreward of his fielde, he commaunded his speare men, to goo and throwe their dartes on the elephantes, and streight waye to re­cule backe into their campe, the whiche thyng done, the guyders of the elephan­tes beinge soore moued so to be mocked, droue their beastes euen into the verye dyche, where at the fyrste being combred and lette, some were slayn, and some dri­uen backe agayn vpon their owne com­pany, to the great trouble of the hole ar­mye. Than Metellus, tarienge for this occasyon, auaunced forwarde with all his host, and settyng on them on the syde, slewe the Penians, & so conquered them, and also their elephantes.

Tamiris quene of the Scythians, fei­nynge as though she for feare had fied, entysed out Cyrus, capitayn of the Per­seans, vnto certayne straytes very welle knowen of her souldiours, where soden­ly she tourned her hoste, and wanne the vyctorie, beynge holpen by the situation [Page] of the place.

The Egiptians pitchynge their fielde in a marishe ground, couerid the ground with reite or wides of the see, and at the fyrst bronte of the battayle, faynynge to flee, they ledde their ennemyes, that fo­lowed and chased theym into the fenne, and so enclosed them.

Uiriatus, whiche of a robber and ro­uer, became the capitayne of the Celti­beriens, fayninge as though for feare he fled, to gyue place to the Romayn hors mē, brought them into a verye foule and depe gogmier, and whan by sure pathes well knowen, he was escaped and gone, he slewe the Romaynes ignorant of the places, and drowned in mudde.

Fuluius chyefe capytayne in the bat­tayle agaynste the Cymbrians pight his campe very nygh his ennemyes, & com­maunded his horsemen to chase theym euen vnto their campe, prouokyng them fyrste to fyghte, and than to fayne theym selfe to flye, and to retrace agayn. Thus he accustomed them certayne dayes, vn­tyll that he perceyued, that the Cymbri­ans, [Page] chasynge theym very gredily, were wonte to leaue theyr campe without de­fence: after espieng his time, while part of his armyes kirmyshed with them, as they were wont to do, conueyd hym selfe priuily with the lyght harneysed, on the backe syde of their tentes: and beinge out of order, sodeynly sette vpon theym, and passynge ouer the bulwarke, wanne theyr campe.

Cneus Fuluius, whan the Phalisciens hoste, farre greatter than the Romayns, had pight their tentes in the Romaynes borders, sette on fyre certayne vyllages a good way from the hoste, by his owne souldiors, to the entent the Phalisciens, thynkynge their owne felowes to haue doone it, myghte scatter abrode in hope of pyllage.

Alexander hauyng a company of Epi­rotes ayenst the Illyriens, sent forth cer­tayne of his men in the Illyriens appa­rayle, gyuynge them commaundement, to waste and distroy his owne countreye Epirus: the whiche thynge, whan the Illiriens espied, they nowe carelesse, be­ganne [Page] to run forth on euery syde to pyl­lage, supposing those that set the townes a fire, to be spies & scoutwatches of their owne parte, and so they were intised and led into daungerous places, where ma­ny of them were slayne, and the rest put to flyghte.

Leptenes Syracusanus also warryng vpon the Penians, commaunded to set a fyer his owne fieldes, vyllages, and certayne castelles: the Penians, suppo­synge their owne felowes hadde doone that enterprise, ranne out to helde them, and soo they were receiued, and slayne of their ennemies.

Maharbal, sent of the Peniās ageinst the Aphriens, that rebelled, perceyuyng that this nation was very gredy and de­syrous of wyne, myngled a great quan­titie therof with Mandrage, which hath a vertue to caste men into a deade slepe. this doone, he made a lyghte skyrmyshe with theym, and of purpose gaue place: and after in the nyght fayned to departe thens, leauynge behynde hym, certayne packes in his campe, with the wyne in­fected. [Page] the barbarous alyens perceiuyng he was fled, came and toke the campe, and for ioye soo gulled in the wyne thus infected, that they laye alonge strayght on the grounde lyke dead men, Mahar­bal turnyng ageyn, toke and slew them.

Anniball perceyuynge, that bothe his owne hoste, and the Romaynes also lay in suche places, where was but lyttelle wodde, leauyng for the nonce in that ba­rayne and deserte coste, greate plentie of cattayle in his campe, departed thens, whan the Romaynes came, and founde the cattayle, they slewe and eate verye moche of the flesshe, whyche coulde not be holsome, bycause they wanted wodde to dresse it. Anniball knowynge this full well, returned by nyght, whan they fea­red nothynge, and were very vnlusty, by reason of the fleshe, that they eate halfe rawe, and vexed them very soore.

Whan Tiberius Gracchus in Spayn hadde knowlege, that his ennemie was verye nedy, and troubled for lacke of vi­tayles, he forsooke and lefte his campe, plentuously furnished of all maner mea­tes: [Page] than his enmies takyng the campe, & ingurgyng them selfes immoderately, became all heuy and vnlusty, Gracchus sodeynly retourned with his hooste, and oppressed theym.

They that warred ageynst the Erithri­ens, takyng a spye of theirs, that lay out in a hygh place, slewe hym, and clothed in his apparayle, one of their owne men, whiche gyuynge the Erithriens a token from the same place, called and broughte them forthe to theyr discomfiture.

The warriers of Arabia, perceyuinge, that theyr custome was knowen, whiche vsed to gyue warnynge with smoke by daye time of theyr ennemes comminge, and with fyre by nyghte, commaunded, that this custome shulde be continuallye kept: but after theyr ennemyes aproched nere them, that custome was laide asyde. theyr ennemyes therfore supposyng, that theyr commynge was not knowen, by­cause the lyghtes were not sette vp after the olde maner, came in amonge theym hastily, and were discomfited and slayn.

Alexander Macedo, his ennemye pit­chynge [Page] his tentes in the hygher ground, conducted parte of his hoste asyde, com­maundyng the rest to kendle vp fyers af­ter theyr accustomed maner, and setting out a face of the matter, as thoughe the hole host had layne styll, he conueyed his power about by hygher regions, and so draue his enemy from the vpper groūd.

Memnon kynge of Rhodes, hauynge a great power of horsemen, and desyring to bryng his enmy down into the valey, whiche kept hym selfe on the mountayn: sent certaine of his souldiours, vnder the colour of runnagates, to his ennemyes, to tell, that Memnons host was so vex­ed with perillous sedition, that now one parte of his host fell away, and after an other, and that credence myght be giuen to this theyr sayenge, he caused smal ca­stels and holdes to be furnished with de fence in the syghte of his ennemyes, as thoughe the seditiouse persones had or­deined such places of socour one agaynst an other. than came they, that kepte the hylles, downe into the valey, and assaul­ted the castelles, where they were by the [Page] horsemen enclosed, and discomfited.

Harridas kynge of the Molossiens, be­inge assaulted of Ardias Illirius, whi­che had the greater hoste, sente in to the costes of Aetolia, suche as were vnable to fyght, spredyng abrode a rumour, that he wolde gyue vp his cities to the Aeto­lians, but he him selfe in the meane time, with all that were able to beare weapon, deuysed and layde wayte in the hylles, and holowe wayes, wherby the Illyri­ens shulde come. they fearynge leste the Aetolians wolde preuent them, and take all that belonged to the Molossiens, as men hastynge to pillage, regardyng not theyr order and aray, made greate haste: and as they came out of order, fearynge noo suche thynge, Harridas sodeynelye brake out of his inbushmentes, and van­quisshed them.

T. Labienus, leuetenaunt to C. Cesar agaynst the frenche men, couetynge to assayle them, before they receyued ayd of the Germaynes, pretended a colour of desperation, and remouynge his hoste to the other syde of the water, spredde a ru­mour [Page] abrode, that he wolde departe the daye folowynge. The frenche men, be­leuynge hym to flee, appoynted to passe ouer the ryuer that was betwene them. Labienus perceyuing that, tourned his army, and euen in the water slewe them.

Whan Anniball perceyued, that the campe of Fuluius the Romayne capy­tayne, was negligently kepte, and that he enterprised many thinges vnaduised­ly: in the dawnynge of the daye, the mist beinge some what thycke, and the ayer therwith moche obseured, he made a few of his souldiours to shewe theym selfe to those that kepte watche in the Romayns tentes: whyle Fuluius addressed hym so­deynly thitherwarde with his hoste. An­niball on the other syde inuadynge hym, toke his campe: and so brake out on the backe of the Romaynes, sleinge theyr ca pitayne with. viii. M. valiaunt menne of armes.

The same Anniball perceyuynge, that the Romayns host was deuided betwene Fabius, whiche was dictatour, and Mi­nutius, mayster of the horse menne, and [Page] that Fabius wayted nothynge but an occasyon, Minutius beynge inflamed with desyre to fyghte, pytched his tentes in a fielde, that lay betwene his enemis: and after that he hadde layde pryuily in wayte, a certayn of fote men in the rocky and holowe wayes, he sent a company to take the next hyll, & so to call out his ene­mie. Minutius had no sooner broughte forth his hoste to assaulte them, but they, which Annibal had layd in wayte, arose, & vtterly had destroid Minutius host, if Fabius had not socoured theym in theyr great daunger.

Whan the same Anniball laye at Tre­bia, where he mighte beholde Sempro­nius hoste, he sette his vnder capitayne Mago, with chosen men of armes, the wether beinge excedynge colde, at the ri­uer, that ranne betwene them. than cau­sed he the horsemen to race out, euen vn­to Sempronius pale, therby to prouoke hym to folowe them, commandyng, that at the fyrste settynge out of the Romay­nes, they shuld recule ouer at suche four­des as they knewe well. The consul vn­aduysedly [Page] settynge vpon, and folowing after them, caused that his hoste yet fa­stynge, was clunged and frosen, by reson of the feruente colde, before they coulde passe the ryuer. Anniball forthwith, they being ouercome with colde and hunger, set out agaynste them his armye, whiche he had cherysshed for the same purpose, with fyer, oyles, and meate: Mago also appoynted for the same purpose, fyerse­ly set on them behinde and slewe them.

The same manne at Trasimenus in a place, where a strayght way leadeth vn­to the fote of an hyll, and thense in to an open fielde, fayned to flye, and escaped by the strayghtes into a brode fielde, and there pitched his tentes: and by nyght, settynge in araye his menne of armes, brought forthe his hoste in the dawninge of the day, being also holpen with a mist by the hyll that hunge ouer the straygh­tes on bothe sydes: Flaminius styll pur­sued hym, vntyll he came into the stray­tes, where he was iclosed before, behind, and also on bothe sydes, and was slaine, bothe he and all his company.

[Page] The same Anniball agaynste Iunius, that was dictatour, commanded at mid­nyght. vi. C. horsemen, deuided into son­dry companies, to shewe them selfe con­tinually by course about theyr ennemies tentes: and after that the Romayns with lyenge out in wayte al nyght in the rayn were sore disquieted, and weried, the ca­pitayne Iunins, gyuynge them a token to recule, Anniball brought forth his ar­mye, that had layne all nyght at rest, and inuaded their tentes.

Whan Anniball had pyght his campe at Cannas, he caused. v. C. Numidians to flye frome hym vnto the Romaynes, and that they myghte the better be bele­ued, they yelded vp their swordes, and their tergats, and soo were receiued into the rerewarde. and as soone as both ho­stes ioyned togyther, they drewe theyr shorte weapons, whiche they bare about them priuily, and caught vp the tergats of them that were slayne, and soo slewe the Romaynes.

The Iapigiens also gaue vnto P. Li­cinius proconsul, vnder a pretēce to yeld [Page] them selfes, certayne vyllages and tow­nes: and whan they were receiued in the rerewarde, they slewe the Romayns.

Whan both the army of Syphax, and also the Penians hoste, lay against Sci­pio Aphricanus, he appoynted by nyght to sette vpon Syphax armye with fyre, bycause there was of wodde, and other thynges apte to bourne great plenty: to the entent he myght bothe slee the Nu­midians, for feare runnynge out of their tentes, & also receyue the Penians, whi­che no doubte wolde come forth to helpe their felowes, and both came to passe af­ter his owne mynde and sentence.

¶ Pompeius kepynge warre in Arme­nia agaynste Mithridates, whyche had the greatter power of horsemen, dispo­sed by nyghte. iii. thousande souldiours in lyght harneys, and. v. hundred horse men in a valey amonge the shrubs, be­twene the two hoostes, and in the mor­ninge at the breake of the daye, he sente forthe agaynst his ennemies, horsemen so addressed, that whan the hole hoste of their enemies, shulde enter battayle with [Page] them, they myghte kepe theyr araye, and gyue backe a lyttell and lyttelle, vntylle they had gyuen space vnto them that lay in wayte for the same purpose, to ryse be­hynde on the backe of theyr ennemies: and whan they had so done, they turned agayn, that semed to haue fled, and slew their enmies, tremblynge for drede, whi­che they had gotte betwene theym. also the fote men approchynge nere, gored in the horses: wherby they quite abated the courage and great affiance, that the king had in the multitude of his horsemen.

Mithridates, whom Lucullus ofte ty­mes ouercame by very power of chiual­rie, sette vpon hym agayne by craft, sub­ornatynge and priuily hyrynge a certain excellente man of strengthe, callyd Ada­thantes to runne away vnto Lucullus, and fyrst by all meanes to wynne his fa­uour, and than to slee hym, whych thyng he manfully attempted, all thoughe he myste his purpose. for not withstandyng that Lucullus reteyned hym as oone of his knyghtes, yet he layde priuie wayte on hym, supposynge, that it was neyther [Page] mete, rashly to trust a fugitiue, runnyng frō his capitayn, nor yet to forbyd other to do the same. Thā after he had shewed his diligent seruice & labour in many ba tayles, and was put in greatte truste, he chose the tyme for his purpose, whan all was at rest and quiete in the pretors pa­uilyon: but fortune fauored Lucullus. for this felawe, that mighte at all tymes whan he wolde, come vnto the capitayn, if he were waking, cam nowe by chance, whan he was a sleepe. therfore whan he wolde haue gone in, to the capytayne, as though he hadde brought worde of some sodeyne chaunce, or other thyng nedeful, and beinge obstinately kepte oute by the seruantes, that had greatte regarde vn­to theyr maysters helthe, fearyd leste he had ben suspected, and so fledde agayne vnto Mithridates, disapoynted of his pourpose.

¶ Melanthus capitayne of the Atheni­ans, whome Xanthus kynge of Boetia prouoked vnto battayle, was no sooner come within his reache, but he sayde, O Xanthus, thou doeste vnlaufullye, and [Page] contrary to thy couenant, to come forthe agaynst me alone man, with an other fo­lowyng the. whan Xanthus maruayled, who that shoulde be, that accompanyed hym, and loked backeward, Melanthus stept in, and slewe hym at one stroke.

¶ Whan Iphicrates of Athens, at Che­ronessum, vnderstode, that Anaxibius, capitayne of the Lacedemonians, ledde his hoste by lande, he conueyed the moste valyaunt warriours out of the shyppes into a secrete place, commaundynge the shyppes neuerthelesse, as thoughe they had ben styll manned with souldiours, to passe ouer the sees openly, and so by land he brake in behinde the Lacedemoniens, fearing no suche thynge, & oppressed and discomfited them.

¶ For as moche as Alcibyades, capy­tayne of Athens, agaynste the capytayne of the Numidians, and the Lacedemoni­ans, had vpon the narow see called Hel­lespontus, a great host, and many shyp­pes, he landed part of his souldiours by nighte, and hydde parte of his nauy be­hynde certayne promontories, saylynge [Page] forthe hym selfe with a small nombre, to prouoke his ennemies: whom makynge towarde hym, he styll fled, vntyll he had brought them, where his shyppes laye. Then they fleinge and landynge, were slayne by those, that he before had landed for the same purpose.

Whan the same Alcibiades shuld fight in battayle on the see, he caused to set vp mastes in a certayne promontorye, com­maundyng his men, that as sone as they perceyued the battayle begyn, they shuld hoyse vp the sayles. Whiche feate caused his enemies, yt supposed, whan they sawe the mastes, that an other nauye came to ayde him, to turne away and flee.

¶ To lette an ennemy escape, lefte he beinge in­closed, shulde through dispaire, renewe the battayle. Cap. vi.

IN the battayle, wherin Camillus was capitayne, the senate thought it beste, that the Gaules, whiche desyred vessels to passe the ryuer Tybris, shulde be ca­ried ouer, and also holpen with vittay­les. And afterwardes to men of the same [Page] nation, seekynge to flee by Pomptinus fielde, the Romayns gaue way, the whi­che is therfore callyd Gallica via.

¶ Whā L. Martius a knight of Rome, whom the host chose to be their capitain, after the two Scipions were slayne, had enclosed the Carthaginenses, whiche to sell their lyues derely, fought very egre­ly: he somwhat slacked, and opened the wardes of his armye, gyuynge theym space to flee: and soo beinge sparpled a­brode, he slewe them, without any dan­ger of his owne men.

¶ What tyme Cesar hadde enclosed the Germaynes, whom dispeire caused most fiercely to fyght, he commaunded, to let theym passe, and as they fledde, he sette vppon theym.

¶ Whan the Germaynes, at Trasime­nus, were enclosed of Anniball, & fought excedynge fiercely: he opened the army, and made them a way to gette out: bea­tynge them downe as they fled, without any losse of his owne men.

¶ Whan Antigonus, kynge of Mace­donia, had compelled the Aetolians, to [Page] take them to their places of succour and refuge, and afterwarde perceyued, that they beynge constrayned with hunger, had determyned to breake oute, and dye manfully togyther, he gaue them a way to flee: and so breakynge their vyolente rage, slewe theym, whan they had tour­ned theyr backes.

¶ Whan Agesilaus capitayn of the La­cedemoniēs in battayl against the The­bans, perceyued, that his enemies were inclosed through the situatiō of the place it selfe, and that they fought therfore the more fiercely, as men in dispayre, he slac­ked and opened his araye, makynge the Thebans a way to escape out, and than closynge agayne his army, without losse of any of his owne parte, slewe theym fleinge.

¶ Whan Cn. Manlius consule retour­ned out of the fyght, and founde the Ro­mayns campe taken of the Hetrusciens, and all the wayes in, strongely kepte, he so troubled his ennemies, inclosed in the campe, that in the greatte outrage, they slewe bothe hym, and also many of his [Page] men: his lieuetenant perceyuynge that, remoued their standyng, and gaue them way to passe out agayne towardes their owne companye, and as soone as they were sprede abrode, he pursued theym a­gayne, and slewe theym, by helpe of the other consul Fabius that mette hym.

¶ Whan Themistocles had vanquys­shed Xerxes, he wolde in noo wyse agree, that the bridge shuld be broken, ouer the whyche he wolde returne home, sayeng, It was better to dryue hym oute of Eu­rope, thanne to enforce hym to fyghte of despaire.

The same Themystocles sente one to Xerxes, to brynge hym worde, in what pe­rylle he was, onelesse he fled quyckely.

Whan Pirrhus kynge of the Epiro­tes had takē a certayn citie, & perceyuing that the citizens, theyr gates being shut, were compelled by extreme necessytie to fyghte manfully: he made them a waye to flee.

The same Pirrhus amonge his other preceptes, belonginge vnto a worthy ca­pitayne, hath lefte in remembrance, that [Page] a man shulde not ouer fiercely folow his ennemye, not onely, leste necessitie shuld compell hym to play the man, but alsoo that he might euer after be the better wil ling to flee: for as moche as he wyl sup­pose, that he that hath the vpper hande, wyll not pursue hym vnto deathe.

¶ Howe to dissemble abuersities. Cap. vii.

Vuhan Tullus Nostilius, kynge of the Romaynes, in battayle agaynst the Ueients, sawe, that the Albanians, forsakynge the Romayns, gat them vp­pon the nexte hylles, the whiche thynge sore troubled the Romayns: he sayde all a loude, that the Albanians had so done by his commaundemente, to inclose his enemyes: wherby he put the Ueientes in great feare, and the Romaynes in great comforte. and thus by wysedome he re­stored the matter, that beganne to go to wracke.

¶ Lucius Sylla, his lieutenant fleinge from hym with a greate power of horse­men, in the settinge forth of the battayle, sayde playnly, that he commaunded him [Page] so to do, and by that meanes he not one­ly areysed the myndes of his souldiours out of dispayre, but also gaue them good hope and comfort, that some profit shuld folowe therof.

The same Sylla, whan they that came to ayde hym, were by chaunce inclosed of theyr ennemyes and slayne, standynge in dreade, leste that misaduenture shulde discourage all the rest of his army, sayde openly, that those felowes had conspired to forsake hym. Wherfore he sent them of set purpose, in to those inconuenient pla­ces. Thus vnder a colour, as he had re­uenged hym selfe, he cloked that many­fest calamite, and comforted al his army.

Whan kynge Syphax ambassadours broughte worde vnto Scipio, that he shulde not passe oute of Sicilia in to A­phrike, in truste of his societie and ayde, and fearynge lest these tydynges myght abate his souldiors courage, to here that the leage and societye betwene them and the kynge was broken: he sent away the ambassadours quickly: and spred abrode a fame, that Syphax had sent for him of [Page] his owne accorde.

When a barbarouse alyen in battayle had brought worde vnto Q. Sertorius, that Herculeius was slayne, he strayte slewe hym with his dagger, lest he shuld haue borne these tydynges any further, and discouraged the army.

Alcibiades in a sore battaylle agaynste the Abydiens, perceyuynge a messanger make great haste to warde hym, with sad and heuy chere, wolde not suffer hym to doo his message openly, but after by se­crete relation, he had knowlege, that his nauye was assaylled of Phannabasus, the kynges lieutenaunt, he kept all thin­ges close, bothe from his ennemies, and also from his owne men: and the batayl ended, went and rescued his nauie.

Anniball takynge his iourney towarde Italy, was left and forsaken of. iii. thou­sande carpenters, whiche were horsemen fightyng in chariottes, and lest his other men shuld haue ben therby discouraged, he sayde openly, that he hym self had sent them away, and that credence myght be gyuen to his sayeng, he sent also certayn [Page] home ageyne, that coulde away with no great labour.

L. Lucullus, perceyuing, that the hors men of Macedony, which were hyred to helpe hym, sodeynely consentynge togy­ther, fledde frome hym to his ennemies, commanded to blowe the trumpettes to battayle, and sent forth certayne compa­nies to folowe theym, his ennemies sup­posynge that they shoulde ioyne in bat­tayle, receyued the Macedoniens fleing to them, with the poynt of their wepons. they than perceyuynge, that the contra­ry part receyued them not, and that they were in great ieoperdy of them that they forsoke, by necessitie compelled, tourned them selfe vnto fyght, and fiercely inua­ded Lucullus ennemies.

Whan Datames, capitayn of the Per­seans agaynst Anthophradates in Cap­padocia, perceiued, that part of his hors­men were fledde away, he commaunded all the reste to folowe hym, and whan he had ouertakē them, he lauded and gaue them great thankes, that they hadde soo cherefully sette oute before hym: he also [Page] exhorted and encouraged them, manful­ly to sette vppon his ennemye. The whi­che thynge brought these runawayes for very shame to repentaunce, in soo moche that they chaunged theyr purpose, thyn­kynge that it was not perceyued.

T. Duintius Capitolinus consul, on a tyme whan the Romaines began to flee, imagined and fayned, that his ennemies on the other wynge were put to flyghte. and so comfortynge and strengthnynge his men, obteyned the vyctorie.

Whan Cn. Manlius agaynste the He­trusciens, perceyued that his felowe Fa­bius, whiche gouerned the lefte wynge, was sore wounded, & therfore part of his host began to flee, beleuyng that the con­sul had ben slayn, he ranne agaynst them with companyes of horsemen, cryenge, that bothe his felowe lyued, and that he had vanquished the ryght wynge. by the whiche constant and bolde mynde, he re­freshed and renewed his mens courage, and got the vyctory.

Marius agaynst the Cimbrians and Almaynes, when they that pytched the [Page] tentes, hadde soo vnwysely chosen theyr campe, that the water was in the barba­rouse mens handes, his army complay­nynge and callynge for water, poynted theyr ennemys, with his synger, saying, Yonder you must fetche it. by the whiche secrete incitation, he so moued them, that strayght waye they dystroyed the barba­rouse alyens.

¶ Howe to order the Battayle by con­stancy. Capi. viii.

SCruius Tullius a yonge man, in the battail, wherin Tarquinius the king encountred with the Sabines, percey­uing, that the souldiers fought nothinge freshely, toke the standarde, and violent­ly flange it among his ennemies, the Ro maynes so ardently foughte to wynne a­gayne theyr standarde, that they recoue­red theyr standarde and also the vyctory.

Furius Agrippa consull, for as moche as a wynge of his army began to recule, plucked the baner from hym that bare it, and flonge it amonge the horsemenne of the Hernitiens his ennemies. wherby he [Page] restored the battayle, the Romaynes en­deuoured them selfe with hygh courage, to recouer their standerde.

T. Duintius Capitolinus lykewyse flunge his standarde amonge his enne­mies, the Phalisciens, and bad his soul­diours go fetche it ageyne.

Whan M. Furius Camillus, marshal of the hoste, and hauynge the consulles power, behelde his armye stagger and stand at a stay, caught violently the stan derde bearer, & drew hym with his han­des vppon his ennemies the Uolsciens, and Latines: and than very shame made all the other to folowe.

Whan M. Attilius consule in the bat­tayle agaynste the Samnites, sawe cer­tayne of the souldiours flee ageyne into their tentes out of the fielde, sette out an armye of his agaynste them, affirminge, that they shuld fyght with him, and with worthy citezens, if they wolde not gladly fyghte with theyr ennemies. and by that meanes he brought them all agayne into the battayle.

L. Sylla, whanne the legions reculed [Page] and gaue place vnto Mithridates hoste, ledde by Archelaus, with his sworde dra­wen, ranne forth into the forewarde, and callynge his souldiours, sayde, If any man inquyre of you, where ye lefte your capitayne, answere, fyghtyng in Boetia. for shame wherof they all folowed him.

Diuus Iulius at Munda, his men re­culynge backe, commaunded his horse to be led out of his syght, and stept forth a fote in to the forewarde, his souldiours beinge ashamed to leaue theyr capitayne destitute, began lustyly to fyght a freshe.

Philippus fearynge lest his men wold not susteyne and endure the vyolence of the Scythians, set his most trusty horse­men on the rere warde, commaundynge them, to suffer none of theyr felowes to flee out of the fyght, and to slee all suche as wolde neades departe. by reason of the whiche charge, it came to passe, that they, whiche were mooste fearefull and cowardelyke, chose rather to be slayne of theyr ennemies, thanne of theyr owne fe­lowes, and so he obteyned the victory.

¶ What thynges are to be doone after the bat­tayle, ys the mattier prosper, and to confirme and establishe the resy­due of the warre. Ca. ix.

VUhan C. Marius had vanquyshed the Almaynes in battayle, bycause the nyghte was at hande, he enclosed the resydue, fearynge and kepynge them all nyght wakynge, by noyse and crienge of a fewe souldiours. wherby on the morow he more easily ouercame theym, disquie­ted all the nyght before.

Whan Claudius Nero had ouercome the Penians, with theyr capitayne Has­druball, hastynge oute of Spayne into Italye: he cutte of the sayd Hasdrubals heed, and flung it into Annibals Army: wherby Anniball was soore afflicted for sorowe of his brothers dethe, and the ar­mye stode in despayre of the ayde, that was comminge to them.

L. Sylla shewed vp to them that were beseged in Praeneste, the heedes of their capitaynes slayne in battayle, sette vpon speares endes: and so abated and brake their obstinate frowardnes.

[Page] Arminius, capytayn of the Germains, lykewyse commaunded to stycke vp the heedes of them that were slayne in bat­tayle, and sette theym vp euen before the trenche of theyr ennemies campe.

Whan Domitius Corbulo besyeged Tigranocerta, and the Armenians see­med styffely to endure the siege, he putte to deathe one of their chiefe magistrates, whiche he had taken in warre, and flung his heed with a slynge, into the citie. the whiche heed by chance fell in the middest of the counsell, where the barbarous fe­lowes were assembled the same tyme, at the whyche syght, as a thynge monstru­ous, they were abasshed, and made haste to yelde them.

¶ Howe in harde chaunces to ease aduer­syties. Cap. x.

VUhan the nyght had broken of that greuous and sharpe battaile, which T. Didius fought ageynst the Spany­ardes, wherin was great nomber slayne on bothe sydes, Didius caused many of his mennes carcases to be buryed in the [Page] nyght: on the morowe after the Spani­ardes came forthe to do lykewise: and by cause they founde a greatter number of theirs slayn, than of the Romayns, they argued them selfe to be ouercome by rea­son of the nomber, and condescended to the requeste of the Romayne capitayne.

Whan T. Martius a Romain knyght beinge gouernour of the resydue of the hoste that remayned after the deathe of the two Scipions, perceyued, that two hostes of the Penians laye at hande, not many myles asonder, he encouraged his souldiours to set vpon the host, that laye next hym, at mydnight, beinge carelesse and out of order, throughe affyaunce of theyr victory: and slewe them, leauynge not so moche as a messanger to beare ty­dynges of the miserable mischaunce. and then gyuing his souldiours a lytte space to rest them, the same nyght with al hast, preuentynge the fame of the thing done, inuaded the other army. And thus twise in one nyght enioying like chance of ba­tayle, and euerye where dystroyenge the Penians, he restored Spayne agayne to [Page] the Romayns.

¶ Howe to vetayne and keepe wauerynge myndes faythfull. Capi. xi.

P. Ualerius at Epidaurus, fearynge that they of the towne wolde deceyue hym, for as moche as he had but smalle aide, preparyd games of exercise a good waye from the citie, and whan the moste parte of the multitude was thither assem bled, to se the syghtes, he shut the gates after them, and wolde not let theym in a­gayne, vntyll he had receyued hostages of the chiefest of the citie.

¶ Whan Cn. Pompeius suspected the Catinenses, and feared leste they wolde not receyue his garrison, he desired them to suffer in the meane space, such as were syck and diseased, to be refreshed among theym in theyr citie, the whiche thynge graunted, he sent thither his moste vali­aunte men of armes, as though they had ben sycke and dyseased, the whiche toke the citie and kepte it.

After that Alexander hadde conquered the Thraciens, iourneying to ward Asia, [Page] he feared leste after his departinge, they wolde rebel, wolde nedes take with him, as though it were for honor, the kinges, the gouernours, and all suche as seemed carefulle for theyr lybertie lost, leauynge the commons behynde, & makinge mean men theyr gouernours. & so he opteyned, that neyther the nobles, beinge bounde with his benefites and pleasures, wolde desyre any chaunge, neyther coulde the commons goo about any suche thynge, being spoyled of their chiefe gouernours and heedes.

Whan Antipater sawe that the Neci­eus, herynge that Alexander was deade, arose together, to inuade and trouble his empire, he dyssemblynge as thoughe he knewe not for what pourpose they came, gaue them thankes, that they were assem bled to ayde Alexander, agaynst the La­cedemoniens, addynge here vnto, that he wolde certifie the kynge thereof by wry­tynge. Howe be it forasmoch as he neded not their helpe as than, he exhorted them to departe home agayne. By the whiche asseueration and affyrmaunce, he dys­patched [Page] the peryll that was at hande by reason of the commotion.

¶ What tyme amonge the women that were taken prisoners in Spayne, a vir­gine of excellent beautie, and also of no­ble parentage, whiche rauished all mens eies, was brought vnto Scipio, he cau­syng her to be kept with hygh dyligence, restored her to Luceius her spouse, and forther gaue vnto hym for a dowery, the golde that her parentes had broughte to redeme her. By the which manyfold ma­gnificēce, the hole nation was ouercom, and submytted them selfe to the Romain Empyre.

¶ It is also writen, that Alexander Ma cedo, with so highe abstinence regarded a virgin taken in warre, of excellent be­aultie, forasmoche as she was espowsed vnto a prince of the nexte nation, that he wolde nat ones beholde her face, sending her forthewith vnto her spowse. by the whiche benefytte he allured and wanne the hartes of all the nation.

The emperour Cesar August, building turrettes and places of fēce in the costes [Page] of Fraunce, in the warre, wherin he ouer comynge his enmies, deserued that sur­name Germanicus, commaunded, that the price shulde be trewely payde, for the fruites of all those places, whiche he had enclosed with his trenche. and by that re­noume & fame of Iustyce, he made them all his faythfull frendes.

¶ What thynges are to be doone before the campe, whan menne mystrust theyr puyssannce. Capit. xii.

VUhan the Uolsciens were about to assaut T. Quintius campe, he kept watch and ward with one cohort, and let all the rest of the army lye in quiete, com­maundynge the Trumpettes no we and than to blowe, rangynge on horsebacke about the tentis. whan he had by this de­ceytefull bragge, kepte of his ennemies, and helde them wakynge all nyghte, in the dawnynge of the daye, he brake oute sodeynly vpon them, beinge werye with watche, and easily ouercame them.

¶ Whan Phares capitayn of the Athe­niens, loked after succour and ayde, and [Page] feared leste his ennemies, despysyng his small power, shoulde in the meane tyme assaut his tentes, he cōmanded the more part of his men, to go out by night on the backesyde, and to retourne ageyne into the campe that way, frome whens theyr ennemies myght playnely see theym, as though newe succour and strengthe had comen to hym. And thus he defended his hoste with feyned succour, vntylle it was furnished with ye ayd, which he loked for.

Whan Iphicrates of Athens, hadde pight his tentes in the playne champyon grounde, and knewe that the Thraciens wold come by night from the hilles, whi­che had but one waye to come downe by, to robbe and spoyle his campe, he priui­ly conducted forthe his army, and distri­buted them on ech syde the way, that the Thraciens shulde passe by: where he set vpon them on both sydes, and oppressed them, runnynge downe vnto the campe, wherin the fyres were diligentely mayn­teyned by a fewe that remayned behynd, to make a shewe, as there hadde layne a great multitude.

Of fleinge away. Cap. xiii.

VUhan the Gaules shuld fyght with Attalus, they delyuered all theyr golde and syluer, to be kepte of certayne men, that myghte scatter it abroode, if it happened them to be putte to flyghte, to the entent they myght the more easily es­cape theyr ennemyes, beinge let with ga­therynge vp the praye.

Tryphon kynge of Siria, being van­quyshed, scattered money al the way that he fledde. and so he hyndered Antiochus horsemen, that pursued hym, and esca­ped theym.

¶ Whan Q. Sertorius was putte to flyght of Quintius Metellus Pius, he supposed not a thynge sure inough only to fle, but also warned his souldiours, to disparple them selfes diuers wayes, and tolde them whyther he wolde haue them resorte.

¶ Uiriatus capytayne of the Lucitani­ens, escaped the Romayne army, and al­so the daungerouse incommoditie of the costes, by the same reson that Sertorius [Page] dydde, fyrste disceuerynge his host, and then assemblynge it together agayne.

¶ What tyme Porcennas host laye sore vpon Horatius Cocles, he had his men retorne into the citie by the bridge, and to hewe it downe behynde hym, to thende theyr ennemies shulde not folowe them: and all the meane space, while this thing was doynge, he hym selfe standynge be­fore the head of the brydge, kepte of his ennemies, and at length, whan he hard the brydge cracke, as it brake, he sprange in to the myddest of the ryuer, and swam ouer, not with weapons, but with woū ­des all to loden.

¶ Whan Afranius fled from Cesar in Spayne vnto Ilerda, Caesar styll pur­suynge nere vppon hym, he stayde and pighte his tentes. and whan Cesar had done lykewyse, and sente his men a for­ragynge, sodeynly he gaue a token to de­parte agayne.

¶ Philippus beinge discomfyted in E­pirus, lest the Romaynes shuld oppresse hym fleinge, opteyned a truce to burye them that were slayne, by reason wherof, [Page] the watche beinge somwhat negligente, he escaped.

Whan P. Claudius was ouercome of the Penians in battayle on the see, and must nedes breke out through the strēgth of his ennemies, he commaunded other xx. to be garnyshed and sette forthe lyke shyppes of victory: at the syghte wherof the Penians supposed the Romains had gotten the vyctory, and this he brake out terrible and dreadful to his enemys.

The Carthaginenses beinge vanquy­shed by see, and ymagynynge, howe to turne backe the Romaynes, that folo­wed and pursued them, fayned them sel­fes to be dryuen vppon the shalowe son­des. and whyles they that chased theym, stode in dout what to do, for feare of lyke misaduēture, where none was, they gaue them space to escape and go theyr way.

Whan Comminius Atrabas vanquy­shed of D. Iulius, fledde out of France into Britayne, and arryued by chaunce in a part of the Ocean with a gayl wind, but with a lowe tyde, although his ship­pes stacke faste in the drye strondes, yet [Page] neuer the lesse he commaunded to hoyse vp the sayles: than Cesar that pursued and folowed hym, seynge afarre of, the sayles swellynge with fulle wynde, and supposynge his enemy to haue ben pluc­ked from hym, with prosperous passage, returned backe ageyne.

The ende of the seconde boke.



IF I wyst that the two bokes afore, dyd accordingly answere to their titles, and that they hadde hytherto assured the reder to harken to them, I wolde nowe descriue the stratagemes and policies, touchyng the as­saute and defense of townes, nother wyll I make any delay by presocution, but woll fyrste wryte what thin­ges ar nedefull for the assautyng & conqueryng of tow­nes, and than what thinges may instructe the besieged.

Of sodeyne assaute. Capit. i.

WHAN T. Quintius Consul had vanquyshed the Equi­ens; and the Uolsciens, and determyned to conquere the towne called Antium, he as­semblynge [Page] his armye to gyther, declared to them, howe necessarie, and howe easy a thyng it was to do, if they wold spedily go theraboute. and with that lusty cou­rage, that his exhortation had kyndeled vp, he sette vpon the citie.

¶ Marcus Cato consydered, that the meanes to obteyne a certayne Citie in Spayne, was to inuade them vnwares: and soo he traueyled, in the space of two dayes, throughe a rough rocky and de­serte grounde. iiii. dayes iourneye: and oppressed his ennemyes, dredynge noo suche thynge. And after whan his soul­diours, that had wonne the victorye, in­quired of hym, howe this mater came so easely to passe, he answered: That then they got the victorie, when in two dayes, they trauayled. iiii. dayes iourney.

¶ showe to deceyue them that be be­syeged. Capi. ii.

VUhā Domitius Caluinus had be­sieged Luca, a Citie of the Geno­wayes, not onely sure fensed with situa­tion and prouysion, but also with force [Page] and strength of men, he vsed ofte tymes, to range about the walles with al his ar mye, and soo to recule agayne in to his Campe: the whiche custome perswaded the townesmen to thynke, that the Ro­maynes vsed this feate onelye for a pa­styme: and therfore lyttell regardynge what theyr endeuour was, Caluinus no longer ranged out after his olde wonte, but sodeynly assauted the citie, and scaled the walles, so sore oppressyng them, that they were fayne to yelde them selfes, and theyr towne.

C. Duillius consul, ofte tymes exerci­synge his men of warre and also his ma­riners, caused the Penians to be careles: and therfore they lyttell regarded hym, at the tyme, when he sodenly layde his na­uy harde to the wall, and scaled it.

Anniball toke many cities in Italy, by sendynge certayne of his men of armes before hym, arrayed lyke Romaynes, the whiche by reason of the longe warre be­twene them, spake also latyne.

The Archadiens besiegynge a castell of the Messenians, prepared certayn ar­mure [Page] and apparayle, after the fascion of their ennemies, at the same season, whan they had knowlege, that theyr ennemies shoulde haue other succours come vnto them, and puttyng on the sayd lyke har­neys and apparayle that they ware, whi­che the Messenians loked fore, came and were receyued as theyr felowes, and soo with slaughter of their enemies, wonne the castelle.

Cimon capitayne of the Atheniens, in­tendynge priuily to take a certayne citie in Caria, he vnloked for, sette fire on the religious temple of Diana, and the wod, which stode without the walles: & so the townes men, runnynge oute, to helpe to quenche the fyre, he toke the citie voyde of them that shulde defende it.

Whan Alcibiades capitain of Athens, layde siege to a cite of the Agrigentines, strongely fortified: he desyred, that they myght consulte and talke togyther: and as it were of thinges pertayning to both their welthes, he longe reasoned and ar­gued in the Theater, and thus whyle he withhelde the multitude vnder a coloure [Page] of counsaylynge, the Athenians, whiche he had appoynted for the nonce, toke the citie vndefended.

Epaminundas of Thebes, in Archa­dia vpon a holy day, seinge the wyfes of his enmies wandering without the wal­les, sent out amonge theym many of his souldiours in womens apparaylle: and they beinge receiued at nyght within the gates, toke the towne, and opened it to their companye.

On the feast day of the Tegeates, whā all the multitude was gone forthe of the citie to do sacrifyce vnto Minerua, Ari­stippus capitayn of the Lacedemoniās, sent his souldiours like market men in­to the citie Tegea, dryuynge beastes la­dyn with chaffe. and thus no man regar­dynge them, they set open the gates vn­to their owne company.

Antiochus in Cappadocia besiging the castel Suenda, toke the capuls that wēt for corne, and sleynge▪ the drudges that droue them, sent his souldiours backe in to the castell in theyr apparel, as though they had commen agayne with corne. by [Page] the whiche errour the kepers beinge dis­ceyued, they entred in to the castell, and let i theyr felowes.

Whan the Chebās by no power coulde brynge the hauen of the Sicimens vn­der theyr subiection, they furnysshed a mighty gret shyppe with men of armes, settinge out a face of marchandise to dis­ceyue them, and layde at the farder syde of the walles a small company of men, to whom certayne of the shyppe vnarmed, ran forthe and sayned to picke a quarell, & so to make a great fray: the Sycintens beinge called forthe to apeace the fraye, the Chebans shippes toke both their ha­uen, and the citie.

Whan Chynarchus Aetolus had slain Carmades, kyng Ptolomeus lieftenant, puttynge on the cloke and hatte of hym, that was slayne, was arayde lyke a Ma­cedonian, and he by this errour receyued for Carmades, into the Samnites ha­uen, wonne it.

¶ Howe to entyse enmies to treason. Cap iii.

VUhan M. Marcellus had entysed one of the Syracusās, named So­sistratus [Page] to betraye the cytie, he knewe by hym, that the watche wolde be some­what negligent, on the holy day, wherin Ephirides their capitain was euer wont to gyue them meate and wyne plentye: Marcus priuyly waytinge for that mery feast day, and the sluggishnes that wold folowe thervpon, scaled the walles, slew the watche, and opened to the Romayns host the citie, afore tyme of great renome through worthy vyctories.

¶ Whan Tarquinius superbus coulde in no meanes cause the Gabiens to yelde them selfes, he sent Sextus Tarquinius his sonne, al to beaten with roddes, vnto his enmies: he accusyng his father of cru eltie, perswaded the Gabiens to vse his hatrede ageynste the kynge, and beinge chosen Capytayne of their warre, he be­trayed the Gabiens.

¶ Darius the kynge of Persians, lette Zopirus his companion, whose fidelyrie he had well tried, in all to manglyng his face, of purpose, go vnto his ennemies, and by reason of those great iniuries, he was thought to be Darius most mortall [Page] ennemy: whiche perswasion he greately forthered, with the manly feates, that he dyd agaynste the Persians in battayle: and so beynge made capitayne of Baby­lon, delyuered the citie to Darius.

¶ Philip beinge kepte out of the towne of the Samnites, corrupting theyr chefe capitayne Appolonius to betraye the ci­tie, perswaded hym, to set a wayne loded with free stone, in the entryng of the ga­tes: and by and by a token gyuen, he pursued the townes men, and oppressed them, troubled at the gate, that was stopt with the wayne.

¶ Anniball at the Citie of Tarentyne, the whyche was kepte of the capytayne Liuius, with a garison of the Romains, entysed a certayne Tarentyne, named Eoneus, to betray the citie, and thus in­structed hym, that he shulde go on hun­tynge by nyght, as though he durste nat do it by day tyme, for feare of his enne­mies, and agaynste he came forth, Anni­ball prepared wylde bores for hym, the whyche he broughte vnto Liuius, as though he had taken theym by venerye. [Page] And whā he had thus done many times, and therfore was lyttel taken hede of, v­pon a certayne nyghte, Anniball arayed his men of armes in hunters apparayle, and myngled theym with Eoneus com­pany, the whiche beinge laden with ve­nyson, and receyued of the watche, forth with sette on and slewe theym, and brea­kynge downe the gate, lette in Anniball, with his army, and slew al the Romains, excepte those that fledde before into the Castelle.

¶ Whan Lysimachus kynge of Mace­donia, assaulted the Ephesians, whiche had receyued a greate robber on the see, named Mandro, to ayde them, the why­che ofte tymes before hadde broughte shyppes laden with pyllage vnto Ephe­sus: to this manne, corrupted to betraye them, he delyuered his most valyāt war­riours, whom he brought into Ephesus, with theyr handes bounde as his priso­ners, whiche afterward quyckly takyng weapons out of the castel, delyuered the citie vnto Lysimachus.

¶ By what meanes ennemyes maye be made nedy Capi. iiii.

FAbius Maximus wastynge and de­stroyinge the countrey of Campaine, to thende he wolde leaue them nothyng, on truste wherof they myght endure the siege, he de parted from them in the seede tyme, to the entent they myghte sowe the residue of theyr corne: and when it was spronge vp, he retorned agayn, and trode it to nought, and so by famyn he got thē.

¶ Antigonus dydde lykewyse agaynste the Atheniens.

¶ Whan Dionysius hadde taken many cities in battayll, and purposed to assaut the Rheginiens, the whiche had great a­bundaunce of vyttayles, fyrst he fayned peace with them, and desired to haue vit­tayles mynystred vnto his armye of the towne: the whiche thynge obteyned, and the grayne consumed, he sette vppon the Citie destitute of vyttayls, and ouer­came theym.

Alexander entendynge to assaute Leu­cadia, that had great abundaunce of vit­tayles, [Page] fyrste got the holdes that were in the borders, and gaue leaue to all that wold, to flee vnto Leucadia, that the vi­tayles by reason of the multitude myght the sooner be consumed.

¶ Whā Phaleris of Agrigentyne wold haue conquered certayn places, strongly fortified in Cicilia, he feined a leage with them, and lefte the residue of the grayn, yt he had, with them: than after he found the meanes, that the roufes of the cham­bers, wherin the grayne laye, myghte be so opened, that the wether myghte dryue in. whan they in confidence of this, that was layde vp in store, had wasted awaye theyr owne grayne, he settyng on theym, in the begynnynge of sommer, assaulted and compelled them for nede of vyttaile, to yelde the citie.

¶ Howe to perswade, the syege to conty­newe styll. Cap. v.

VUhan Clearchus Capitayne of the Lacedemoniens, vnderstoode, that the Thraciens had purueyed them vyt­tayles, and all thynges necessarye for a [Page] longe season into the mountaynes, and that they had great affiance, that Clear­chus shulde be constrayned to gyue ouer his siege, and departe thens for lacke of vitayle: at the same season, that he sup­posed theyr ambassadoures wolde come vnto hym, he caused one of theym, that were taken in warre, to be slayne, and af­ter in the syght of the ambassadours, to distribute hym lymme meale vnto the ar­mye, as it were to eate: whyche thynge broughte the Thraciens in beleefe, that there was nothyng, but he wold do it, to continue his siege, whiche coulde fynde in his harte, to taste so detestable dishes: and so yelded them selues.

Tiberius Graccus herynge the Luci­tans say, they had vttayles ynoughe for x. yeres, and therfore feared not to be be­sieged, aunswered, The. xi. yere I wyll conquere you. Whiche sayinge so feared the Lucitans, not with standynge theyr gret prouisiō, that they forth with yelded.

¶ Whan it was reported vnto A. Tor­quatus, besyegynge a certayne citye in Grece, that the youth there was very di­ligently [Page] exercysed in shotyng and throw­inge of dartes, he answered: I wyl short­ly sel them so moche the dearer.

¶ Howe to destroy the garrisons of ennemies. Cap. vi.

VUhen Anniball was retourned into Aphricke, Scipio perceyuyng, that many townes, which reason warned him to subdue, were kept with stronge garri­zons, deuysed and set in sondry quarters: he sente nowe and than a certayne power of men, to trouble and vexe theym, and laste of all he came hym selfe, as though he wold destroy the cities: Than he fai­nynge feare, fledde backe. Anniball sup­posynge that he had ben afrayd in dede, gatheryng togyther all his strength and puissaunce, as thoughe he shoulde haue fought a fielde, beganne to folow after. Scipio, bryngynge to passe that thynge that he desyred by Macinissa, & the Nu­midians, toke the cities being nowe de­stitute of their garrisons.

¶ P. Cornelius Scipio, consyderynge howe greatte a difficultie it was, to con­quere [Page] Delminum, bycause euery manne ranne thyther to defende it: began to as­saute the other townes. and whan eche man was retired home to the defence of his owne, he toke Delminum, voyde of succours.

What tyme kynge Pirrhus wold con­quere and subdewe the chiefest cite of the Iliriens, dispeyrynge to wynne it, began to assaulte the other cyties. and by this feate he broughte aboute, that his enne­mies, on trust that theyr chiefe citie was strongely inoughe fortified, determined to go and defend the other. Which thing done, he called backe all his puissaunce, and tooke the Cytie, voyde of suche as shulde defende it.

Whan Cornelius Ruffinus consul had a certayne tyme layde siege to the towne Crotana, which by reason it was defen­ded with a stronge power of the Lucani­ens, was inuincible: he made a counte­naunce to gyue ouer his enterprise, than sent he a prisoner, entysed with a greate rewarde, to Crotana (as thoughe he had escaped from their custody) to perswade, [Page] that the Romaynes were departed and gone. Which thing the Crotaniens sup­posynge to be trewe, dismyssed their gar­risons: and soo beinge destitute of those that shulde defende them, and vnable of them selfes to kepe the towne, were op­pressed and taken sodeynly.

Whan Mago capytayne of the Peni­ans, had ouercom Cn. Piso, and enclosed hym in a certayne towre, suspectyng that ayde wolde come to succour hym, sente a runneaway, to perswade them that came after, that Piso was alredy taken. wher­by he dyscouraged and kept them backe, whiles he accomplyshed his vyctory.

Whan Alcibiades wolde haue wonne the Syracusans in Sicilia, he sent vnto them a wytty and politike felowe of the Latanensians, where he than laye with his army: this manne, broughte into the counsell house, informed them, that the Catanians were most greuously set and bent agaynst the Athenians: in so moch, that if they myght be ayded of the Syra­cusans, they wolde subdewe bothe them and Alcibiades. wherby the Siracusans [Page] were perswaded, to go with all theyr po­wer to Catana, and leaue theyr owne ci­tie: the whiche Alcibiades on the backe syde, assauted, and being destitute, accor­dynge to his hope, he sore afflycted.

¶ Of deryuinge and turnynge the course of ry­uers an oter waye. Capi. vii.

P. Seruilius constrayned the towne Isaura, by tournynge awaye the ry­uer, where they fette all theyr water, for thyrste to yelde theym selfe.

C. Cesar in Fraunce, pyned the citie of the Caducians for lacke of water, not withstandynge a ryuer ranne aboute it, and that they had great plenty of welles: which thynge he brought to passe by vn­dermyning the welles, and kepyng them with artyllery from the ryuer.

Lucius Metellus, in the hythermore Spayne, knowynge that his ennemies had pyghte their campe in a lowe place, brought the ryuer aboue them: and they beinge sore troubled with the sodeyne o­uerflowynge of the water, by enbusshe­ment layde for the nonce, he slewe them.

[Page] Alexander laying siege vnto Babylon, through the myddest whereof, ranne the ryuer Euphrates, lette caste a dyche, and raysed a great bulwarke on the top ther­of, that his enmies myght suppose hym to caste out erthe, for his some other vse. and so the ryuer sodeynly beinge turned, he entred into the cite, ouer the way, that the water was wonte to haue his course, nowe beynge dried vp.

It is sayd, that Semiramis, besieging the Babyloniens, lykewyse tourned the course of the ryuer Euphrates.

Clisthenes of Sycion, brake vp the cō ­dyte, that broughte the water into the towne of criseans. And within a whyle after, beinge soore greued with thyrst, he restored to thē the water, corrupted with the herbe Helleborus: which water, whā they had dronke, cast them into a las ke. and so deceyued, he toke them.

¶ Howe to feare them that are befeged. Ca. viii.

VUhan Philip coulde by noo power get the castel Trinassum, he began to caste vp erthe before the walles, and [Page] made as thoughe he wolde vndermyne theym. Wherfore they of the castell, fea­ringe, lest they shuld haue ben ouerwhel­med, yelded them selfe.

Pelopidas of Thebes, purposynge to conquere two townes at ones, of the Magnecians, whiche stode not farre a sonder, at the tyme that he moued one of his armies to the one of theym, he com­manded, that. iiii. knyghtes shulde come from the other army, with garlandes on their hedes, and a notable mery chere, as thoughe they broughte tydynges of vic­tory, and to helpe forthe this dissimula­tion, he ordeyned, that a wodde, whiche stode betwene bothe the townes, shulde be set on fire, to make a shewe as though the towne had burned. Besydes that, he caused certayne prisoners in the townes mens apparayle, to be led and broughte thyther. By the whiche asseueration he so amased the besyeged, that they nowe thynkynge theym selfes halfe ouercome, yelded vppe.

Whan Cyrus kynge of Perse had in­closed Cresus at Sardes, to which hold [Page] there was noo commynge, by reason it was fensed with a rough rocky hylle, he caused mastes to be reysed vp as hyghe as the toppe of the walles, whervpon he set images of armed men, arrayed lyke Perseans, and in the nyght made theym to be brought harde to the hyll. Than as soone as the day appered, he gaue assaut to the towne on the other syde. now whā the sonne arose, and those images gliste­red, and shone lyke men of armes, the inhabitantes thought surely their towne had bē taken on that syde: wherfore they of feynt courage thynkyng to fle, caused their ennemies to gette the vyctorie.

¶ Howe to breake out on that syde, where we are nat loked for. Cap. ix.

SCipio at Carthage, a lyttel before the goinge out of the tyde, folowyng (as he sayd) god his guyde, approched to the walles of the citie: and in the fallyng of the water, he brake in on that syde, where no man loked for hym.

Fabius Maximus, sonne to hym that was callyd Cunctator, consyderynge the [Page] situation of the citie Arpos, which was kept with a garison of Annibals, sent in the darke nyght syx. C. souldiours, whi­che shuld scale the walles, on the strōgest syde of the towne, bycause it was leeste frequented and taken hede of, and so set open the gates. they beinge holpe with the great rushe and noyse that the fall of the water made, (whiche caused that the noyse that they made in their busynesse, was not harde) dydde as they were cō ­manded: he on the other syde, after a to­ken gyuen, set vpon Arpos, and won it.

Whan Marius in the warre agaynste Iugurthe, at the floud Mulucha, wolde conquere a castell, set on a stony hyll, vn­to whiche there was but one strayte and narowe way, on euery other syde beinge pitchelonge downerighte lyke a wall: a certayne Lumbarde, a symple souldiour, shewed vnto hym, that as he by chance went gatherynge of snayles amonge the rockes, he came to the toppe of the hylle, where he sawe, howe the castell myghte easely be wonne. then Marius sent forth certayne centurions, and amonge them [Page] the best trumpettours, & the most wigh­tiest and nymblest felowes, bare heeded and barefoted, to the intent they myghte the more easelye espie and see farre and nere, euery thyng by the rockes, their ter­gates and weapons they hāged on their backes: so those felowes led by the lum­barde, fastnynge dartes and nayles in the rockes, clamme vp, and came on the backe syde of the castel, whiche they foūd voyde without defence (for they within thought it nedeles, to defende that part) then they began to blowe vp their trum­pettes, and to make greate ado, as they were commaunded: Marius manfullye encouragynge them in this aduenture, beganne fyercely to assaute the castel. the men of armes within being called backe by the vnarmed multitude, whiche cried, that the castell was wonne on the backe side, caused Marius to pursue harde af­ter, and to conquere the castell.

Lucius Cornelius cons. tooke many townes in Sardinia, by this policie: he vsed by nyght to lay parte of the mooste valyant men of his host in imbushment: [Page] whome he commanded to lye and waite priuily for the tyme, in whiche he shulde come in the nyghte: and whan he came, and that his ennemies wolde issue out, to encounter with hym, he wolde make as though he fledde, and drawe them pur­suynge hym farre frome their citie: than they that lay in embushement shulde as­sawlte and wynne the cyties lefte with­out defence.

Whan Pericles capitayne of Athens, wolde conquere a certayne citie, whiche was stronge and surelye defended with great consent and agreement of the in­habytantes: he commanded in the night, to sowne vp the trumpettes, and to make great noyse and clamour, on that parte of the walles, that laye towarde the see: his ennemies supposynge he wolde haue entred into theyr towne that way, left the gates: by the whiche vnkepte and vnde­fended, Pericles entred in.

Alcibiades capitayne of Athens, com­mynge vnwares by nyghte to Cyzicum, to thentent to wynne it, commaunded to blowe his cornettes, on the other syde of [Page] the walles, the inhabytauntes, whyche had ben able ynoughe to defend that side of the walles, runne to the other, where they thought them selfe only to be assau­ted, and were not: and so Alcibiades got into the towne.

¶ Thrasybulus capitayne of the Mile­sians, to thentent to get the Sycionians hauen, skyrmyshed nowe and than with the townes men by lande, and whyle the ennemies assembled, and repayred thy­ther, where the byckerynge was, with a nauye vnloked for, he toke the hauen.

Pericles intendynge to get a castell of the Peloponesians, whiche had but two wayes to come vnto it, the tone he closed vp with a dyche, the tother he strongely fortified. Than they of the castell, lyttell regarding the other syde, where the diche was, inforced them selfes to defende that parte onely, where they saw the strength of their enemies lye. Pericles preparing bridges, and casting them ouer the diche, where his ennemies toke none hede, got into the castell.

Antiochus in warre ageynst the Ephe­sians, [Page] commanded the Rhodians, which came to ayde hym, that they in the nyght shuld inuade the hauen with great brute and noyse. And whyle all the multitude ranne thither hastily without aduisemēt, leuyng the other places of fence vnkept, Antiochus assauted the citie on the other syde, and toke it.

¶ Of the traynes that are layde, to intyce out the Besieged. Cap. x.

CAto in the syght of the Lacetayns, whom he had besieged, conueyeng asyde his other sowldiours, caused cer­tayne Suessauians, that came hyred to warre, men of small courage, to assaute the walles. Whan the Lacetanes hadde lyghtly beaten those backe, and gredily chased them fleynge, Cato gotte the citie with the other cohortes, whiche he had priuily hydde.

¶ Lucius Scipyo in Sardinia, with greate busynesse leauyng the assault that he had intended to make to a certayne ci­tie, made as though he fledde: and whi­les they of the towne rasshelye folowed [Page] after: by his other men, whyche he had priuily laid therby, he inuaded the town.

¶ Whan Anniball had besiged the citie Hymera, he suffered his campe, to be ta­ken of purpose, commandynge the Pe­nians to recule, as though their enemies had preuayled. Which feate so deceyued the Hymerians, that for ioye therof, they lefte their citie, and ranne oute harde to the Penians campe. And thus Anniball toke the citie by them, whiche he had pri­uely layde in wayte for the same purpose.

¶ Himilco of Carthage, at Agrigentū, layde pryuily in wayte nere to the towne parte of his armye: and commaunded, that whan the townes men were yssued out a good waye of, they shulde set grene wodde on fyre. Than yarly in the mor­nynge, with the other parte of his army, he went to entyce out his ennemies, and makynge as though he fledde, reculyng backe a lyttell and lyttelle, drewe them a good way from the citie. Than they that laye in embushement nere the walles, as they were commaunded, sette the griene wodde a fyre. The Agrigentines behol­dynge [Page] the smowlder ryse vp, supposed veryly, that theyr citie had bene on fyre: and whiles they fearefullye ranne backe to defend it, they were incontred of those, that laye in embusshement nere the wal­les, and so betwene them, and the other, whom they pursued, nowe folowynge at their backes, they were discomfit & slain.

¶ Uiriatus layinge certaine souldiours in imbusshement, sente forthe a fewe, to dryue the Socobrigians beastes awaye, whiche to rescue they ranne out a pace, & folowed after the robbers that made sem blaunce to flee, tyll they were come to the imbusshemente, whiche brake oute, and slewe them.

¶ Whan Lucullus kepte two partes of the Citie Heraclea with a garrison, the Scordiscians horsemen makynge sem­blance to dryue away theyr beastes, pro­uoked thē to issue out of the towne. Then feynynge to flee, they brought Lucullus pursuinge them, where theyr imbusshe­ment lay: whiche slewe hym, and. viii. hundred men of armes.

¶ Chares the capitayne of Athens, as­sautynge [Page] a citie lyinge on the see cooste, layde a nauy pryuely behynde certayne promontories: Than commaunded he, that one of his swyftest shyppes shoulde make out harde by his ennemies garri­son: whiche sene, all the shippes that lay to kepe the hauen, made out a mayne to pursue her: Than Chares with his other shyppes, swypte in to the hauen, and got the citie.

¶ What tyme the Romaynes in Sicilia layde siege to Lilybei, bothe by land and see, Barca, the capytayne of Carthage, commaunded parte of his nauy, to shew them selfes a far of in theyr armur: whan the Romaynes sawe that, they made out towarde them with al spede. Than Bar­ca, with his other shyps, whiche he kept in secrete, gotte the hauen of Lilybei.

¶ To dissemble retreate. Ca. xi.

VUhan Phormion capitain of Athēs had ouercome the countreye of Cal­chidense, and theyr ambassadours came to require the cause why, he gaue theym benigne and curteys aunswere. and the [Page] night that he intended to sende away the ambassadours, he fayned, that his cyte­zens had sent hym letters: whiche wylled hym in any wyse to retourne home: and retretynge a lyttell backe, dysmyssed the ambassadours: They bryngynge tydin­ges, that all thynge was wel, and Phor­mion departed, the Chalcidens throughe hope of the humanitie shewed them, and departinge of the army, neglected the ke­pinge of theyr citie: Than Phormion re­turned agayne by and by, whose power they, not lokynge for any suche thynge, were not able to resiste.

¶ Whan Agesilaus capitayn of the La­cedemoniēs, had besieged the Phocensi­ans, and vnderstode, that theyr garisons were now greued with the incomodities of the warre, he retreated a lyttell backe, as it were for some speciall businesse, gy­uynge theym good occasion to departe. Not long after he returned agayne with his army, and ouercame the Phocensi­ans, beinge destitute of succours.

Alcibiades ageynste the Byzantians, whiche kepte theym selfes within theyr [Page] walles, layde an imbushement, and fey­nynge to retreate backe, oppressed them vnwares.

Whan Uiriatus retreatyng backe, had gone. iii. dayes iourneye, he wente the same ageyne in one daye, and fyndynge the Sogobrians careles, and occupied about theyr sacrifice, oppressed them.

¶ When Epaminundas perceiued, that the Lacedemoniens were come to Man­tinia, to ayde and succour his ennemye, he thought it possible inoughe, to winne their citie Lacedemonia, yf he coulde get thyther priuily. Wherfore he commaun­ded many fyres to be made by nyghte, to cloke his goinge, as thoughe he had re­mayned stylle: but he betrayed of a run­away, and ouertaken of the Lacedemo­niens hoste, lefte his iourneye taken to­warde Sparta. Neuer the lesse he tour­ned this his polycie ageynst the Manti­nians. for makynge lykewyse fyres, as though he wolde tarye stylle, he deceiued the Lacedemoniens, and iourneyeng. xl. myles backe agayne to Mantinia, toke it destitute of aide and succour.

¶ Nowe contrary wise, touchynge the safegarde of the besyeged, what disygent exercise they shulde vse. Cap. xii.

WHAN THE citie of Athens was besyeged by the Lace­demoniens, Alcibiades fea­rynge the neglygence of the watches, gaue thē in charge that they shuld take good hede, & marke well the lyght, that he by nyghte wolde shew them out of the castel: & at the sight therof, they shuld sette vp their lyghtes: In whiche busynes, he that was founde rechelesse, shulde suffer for it. Thus they dilygentely lokynge for the token of the capitayne, kepte their watche through­ly, and eschewed the perylle suspected in the nyght.

Whan Iphicrates, capitayn of Athens kepte Corinthie with a garrison, and v­pon the commynge of his enemye, went aboute to viewe, howe the watche and warde was kepte, he founde oone of the watche menne on slepe, whiche he strake through with his speare: for the whiche dede, whan some rebuked hym of cruel­tie, [Page] he answered, Lyke as I found hym, soo haue I lefte him. It is sayde, that E­paminundas of Thebes, dydde suche a lyke dede.

¶ Howe to sende forthe and receyue in a mes­sanger. Cap. Xiii.

THe Romaynes besieged in the Ca­pitoll, sente Pontius Cominus to Camillus, to besieche hym to come home from exile: whyche to deceyue the watche of the Gaules, was lette downe by the rocke Tarpeia, and swymmynge ouer Tyberis, came to the Ueians: and whan he had done his message, he came ageyn to his companye the same way.

¶ The Campanians, beseged & straitly hold by dilygent watche of the Romans, sent for the a felowe suborned as a runne awaye, that hadde in his belte or sworde gyrdelle, a letter, the whyche (fyndynge an occasyon to escape) he bare vnto the Penians.

Some men also haue sent letters writ­ten in parchement sowed in venyson and beastes bealyes.

[Page] Some also haue thronged beastes to­gether, ouer ageynst theyr ennemies, and so escaped the watche. Some haue writ­ten in the insyde of theyr scabbardes.

¶ L. Lucullus to certifie the Cyriceni­aus of his comming, whiche were besie­ged of Mithridates in theyr cytie, that hadde but oone narowe waye, to enter into it, whiche was strongelye kepte and defended of his ennemyes, a lyttelle brydge, ioynynge the sayde Cytie to the mayne lande: caused oone of his soul­diours, whiche was a good maryner and well skylled in swymmynge, to sytte be­twene two bottes blowen full of winde, with letters inclosed within theym, the whiche he fastened together beneth with two square staues, egally distaunt a son­der, and so to passe. vii. myles by see. xx hi the thynge this simple souldiour accom­plysshed, guydynge his course with his legges, as it were with rudders: and soo deceyued them, that stode at wache, thin­kynge it had ben a monster of the see.

Hircius consull, sente vnto Decimus Brutus, that was besieged of Antonius [Page] to Mutina, letters writē in leade, which beinge bounde to the souldiours armes, they swamme ouer the ryuer Scultella.

The same Hircius with bristels bound letters about pygeons neckes, (the whi­che he hadde before kept in darke places hungry) whiche he wolde let flee as nere the walles as he coulde. The pygeons beinge fayne of lyght, and gredy of their foode, flewe vp to the hyghest buyldyn­ges: and so were taken of Brutus, whi­che by that mean was certified of al thin­ges: and afterwarde he ordeyned meate to be laide in certayn places, that the py­geons myght flee thyther.

¶ Howe to introduce succours, and to prouyde vyttayles. Cap. xiiii.

VUhan Ategua a cytie in Spayne, was in the Ciuvle warre besyeged of the Pompeians, Maurus, that was kynge for a space in tyme of varyaunce, as thoughe he had ben of Cesars parte, and one of the chiefe capitaynes, callyd vp certayne of the watche, of whiche he refused some for the nonce: by the whiche [Page] constant and bold disceite, he introduct & brought Pompeius garrison, throughe the myddes of Cesars hoste.

While Annibal laye at siege before Ca­silinum, the Romaynes seute thither ba­relles of meale downe the streme of the ryuer Uulturus, to the intente the besye­ged shulde take them vp: whiche whan Anniball with castynge a chaine ouer the ryuer had stopped, they scatered nuttes in the ryuer, whiche passed the chaynes vnto the citie: and with that foode they holpe and susteyned the nede and scacitie of theyr felowes.

Hircius sent in salte to the Mutinensi­ans besyeged of Antonie (wherof they had great nede) packed in wyne vessels, by the ryuer Saniturnus.

The same Hircius sent beastes downe the streme, whiche being receyued, great ly relieued the nede of his frendes.

¶ Howe to make those thynges, which we want, seme plentuouse. Capi. xv.

VUhan the Gaulles had besieged the Capital, the Romaynes in theyr ex­treme [Page] famine, threwe out breade among their ennemys, and therby making them beleue that they had abundaunce of vit­tayle, endured the syege tyll Camillus came to succour them.

It is sayd, that the Athenians vsed like policie ageynst the Lacedemontans.

Whan they that were besieged of Anni­ball at Casilinum, semed to be broughte to extreme famyne, by reason that Anni­bal destroied the herbes, that was a gret parte of theyr foode, by ofte plowynge of a place, that laye betwene his campe and the walles: they sowed theyr seedes in place prepared and tylled. wherby they brought to passe, that they were thought to haue vittayle inoughe, tyll the sedes than sowen, shuld be rype to serue them.

Whan the Chracians were besieged on an hygh mountayn, into the which their ennemies had no way to come, euery mā bringinge a littel quantitie of wheate or other vittayles, they fedde theyr beastes therwith, and so let them stray vnto their ennemies campe: whiche whan they had taken and kylde, and founde in theyr in­trayles [Page] a manifeste token, that they had eaten corne and other vittailes, they sup­posed that those men muste nedes haue greatte plentie of suche thynges, wher­with they fed theyr beastes, and therfore they brake vp theyr syege and departed.

Thrasybulus capytayne of the Mile­sians, his souldiours beinge sore greued with the longe siege of the Aliattes, whi­che hoped to compell them by famyne to yelde them selfes, vpon the commyng to hym of the Aliattes ambassadours, com­maunded to brynge all theyr corne in to the markette place, and at the same tyme he made a great feast throughe all the ci­tie. and soo he perswaded his ennemies, that he had plentie inoughe to endure a longe siede.

¶ What remedy agaynst traytours and renneawayes. Cap. xvi.

VUhan Cl. Marcellus knewe the purpose, and counsell of Batteus of Nolan, whiche endeuoured hym to corrupte the commons, and thoughte to do Anniball a pleasure, bycause he was [Page] by his benefite healed of his hurtes, that he had among the Cannensians, and de­lyuered out of prison, home to his fren­des: for as moche as Marcellus durste not slee Batteus (lest for his punishment he shulde sette the other Nolans in his toppe) he sent for hym and sayde, He was a right valyant man of armes, and that he knewe it not before, and exhorted him, to stycke styll on his parte. and with ho­nourable and courteis wordes gaue him an horse. With whiche benignitie he not only bounde hym, but also the commons (by whome they were moche ruled) to be faythefull and true to hym euer after.

Amilcar capitayne of Carthage, seing that the Galles oft tymes felle from him vnto the Romayns, and nowe of custom were receiued as frendis, subornated cer­tayne of his most trusty men, in like ma­ner to feine them selfe to forsake theyr ca­pytayne: whyche slewe the Romaynes whan they came forthe to receyue them. whiche crafy polycie dyd not onely fur­ther Amilcar at this present tyme: but al­so caused the Romaynes afterwarde to [Page] suspecte such as were runagates in dede.

Whan Hanno capitayne of Carthage in Sicilia, vnderstode, that the Gaulles that he had hyred, about foure thousand, wold leaue hym and go to the Romans, bycause they were behynde vnpayde of theyr wages certain mōthes, he durst not punyshe theym for feare of sedition, but promysed verye lyberally to recompense the iniurie that they had by prolonginge the tyme. Wherfore the Galles thanked him. At time conuenient he sent his most trusty steward to Otacilius Consul, whi che as thoughe he had fledde awaye for varyaunce betwene hym and the capy­tayne in a certayne compt makyng, she­wed, that the next nighte he myghte take at aduauntage. iiii. thousande Gaulles, whiche were sent forth to gette pray and pillage. Otacilius nother gaue credence by & by to the renawaye, nor yet thought it a matter to be despised: but laied an im­bushment for them, of the mooste picked men, that he had: whiche incountrynge with the Gaulles, satisfied the dryfte of Hanno double, they slewe the Romayns, [Page] and were them selfes all slayne.

Anniball by lyke policie was reuenged on those that forsoke hym, and fledde to his ennemies. For whan he knewe, that certayne of his souldioures were fledde the nyght before, and wyst wel yt his en­nemies spies were in his campe, he pro­nounced openly, that those runnagates, whiche were gone forth by his comman­dement, to harken and spye what his en­nemies dyd and intended, shoulde not be callyd counnynge and witty warriours. The Romayn spies, herynge those wor­des, retourned and tolde theym to theyr companye. Than the Romayns, taking those runawayes, and cuttynge of their handes, sent them to Anniball agayne.

¶ Whan Diodorus kepte and defended Amphipolis with a garrison of men, and suspected two thousand Thraciens, whi­che semed to be bent to spoyle and distroy the citie, he fained a lye, that a fewe ship­pes of his ennemes were arryued at a stronde harde by the citie, whiche myght easily be taken and spoyled. In hoope wherof, he sent forth those holowe harted [Page] Thraciens, and than shut the gates, and wold no more receyue them in.

¶ Of eruptions and breakynges oute of ennemies. Cap. xvii.

THe Romaynes, whiche laye in gar­rison to defende the Panormitains, herynge, that Hasdruball was commyng to lay siege to them, of purpose set a fewe here and there one, to defend the walles: whose small nomber, Hasdruball despi­synge, and rasshely approchynge to the walles, was by eruption of the Romay­nes slayne.

Whan Emilius Paulus Campe was vnprouidedly assayled of all the Lyguri­ans together, he makynge a countenāce to be a frayde, kepte in his souldiours a longe tyme. Than after whan his enne­mies beganne to waxe werye and faynt, he brake out at. iiii. gates of his campe, & slewe & toke the Lygurians prisoners.

Uelius lieuetenaunt to the Romaynes, kepynge the castell of Tarentine, sente ambassadours to Hasdruball, to gette hym libertie safely to departe thence: by [Page] the whiche crafty dissemblynge he caused his ennemyes to be careles: and so strake out sodeynly, and slewe them.

¶ Titurius Sabinus, agaynste a huge hoste of the Galles, by kepynge in his armie, cowardly at his defence, shewed hym selfe to be afrayde, and this to aug­ment, he sent forthe a runnagate, whiche shoulde affirme the Romayne armie, to be in despaire, and to seke meanes to fle. The barbarouse alyens encoraged with hope of vyctorie, loded them selues with wodde and bowes to fyll the dyches: and with great haste and courage sette vpon the Romaynes tentes pitched on an hyl: from whens Titurius with all his po­wer rushynge downe vppon them, slewe the Galles by heapes, and toke many of them prisoners.

¶ The Esculanians, when Pompeius came to assaute theyr towne, set to defend the walles a fewe feble olde men: And while the Romayns as careles for them, toke lyttell hede, the townes men soden­ly brake out, and put them to flyght.

¶ The Numantines beynge besyeged, [Page] dyd not so moche as make defence before theyr bulwarke, and kepte them selfe so close, that Popilius Lenates boldely be­ganne to reyse vp ladders and scale the walles. Whiche after suspectynge some deceyte & gyle, (for euen then they made no resistence) and so wning to the retreat: The Numantines breakynge out, sette vpon them, tournynge theyr backes, and descendynge downe.

The constancie of the besieged Cap. xviii.

THe Romaynes beseged of Anniball hard at their walles, boldly to shew they nothynge mistrusted, sent forth suc­cours at a gate on the other syde, to aide their armies that were in Spayne.

¶ The same Romaines wolde after the tenant was deade, lette for noo lesse price the fielde, where Annibal had pight his campe, thā it was wont to go, before the warre beganne.

The sayd Romayns beinge besieged of Annibal, & they besiging Capua, decreed not to reuocate and call home agein their armie, vntyl they had taken the towne.

The ende of the thirde boke.



SITHENS I haue nowe by moche redynge, ga­thered togyther, the stratagemes and polycies of warre, and with no small diligence, digested them in thre bokes, accordyng to my promyse (which I trust I haue accomplyshed) I woll in this fourthe, exhibite and declare to you suche thynges, as coulde not aptely be descriued with the polycies of the forsayde bookes, beinge rather exaumples of stratagemes or sleightes, than stratagemes them selfes, which although they be worthy feates, yet haue I separated them, bicause they are of dyuers matters, leste some by chance readynge those, shulde suppose theym to be omitted for lacke of knowlege: and therfore woll I explicate them, as thin ges remaynynge of the other, and wolle obserue lyke order in their description, as before.

¶ Of discipline of warre. Cap. 1.

PVBLIVS SCI­pio at Numātia, redres­sed the army, which was corrupted with ye slouthe and idelnes of the capy­taynes that had ben be­fore hym, dismyssynge a greate number of the slaues and drudges, brynging the fouldiours by dayly exercise, to do theyr [Page] duetie: whiche he caused to make many iourneys, and to beare on theyr backes, as moche vittayles as shulde serue them many dayes: so that he accustomed them to suffer colde and sharpe showres, and to wade ouer waters a fote. Nowe and than he imbrayded them of fearefulnesse and cowardise, breakynge such vesselles in pieces, whiche they vsed more of de­lycacie, than for nede in theyr expedition. In this behalf, the reproch, that he gaue to the capitaine C. Meuius, is right no­table, to whome he sayde, To me but a whyle, to thy self and to the cōmon weale thou shalt euer be lewde & vnprofytable.

Q. Metellus in the warre Iugurthine with like seuerite restored the Discipline, that was decayed and neglected amonge the souldiours: and further prohybited them, that they shuld vse none other flesh but rosted or sodde.

It is written, that Pirrhus shulde saye to hym that toke vppe souldiours, Chose thou those that be gret, and I wol make them stronge.

¶ Whan Scipio Aphricanus sawe a [Page] souldiour beare a targate galyardly dec­ked and trymmed, sayde, He maruailed not, that he had so curiousely garnysshed his tergate, wherein he had more truste than in his sworde.

¶ Whan Philyp had prepared his ar­mye to go forthe, he commaunded, that no man shulde haue any carte, or other thynge vsed for cariage with hym, nor a horseman to haue but one page. x. foote men one slaue, whiche shulde beare quir­nes and cordes: whan they wente forthe in such places, as they lay in the sommer, he commanded theym to beare on theyr neckes meale for thirty dayes.

Caius Marius, somewhat to ease the armie in carieng their traficke and bag­gage, wherwith they were greatly loded, deuysed their vessels and vittayles into fardels laide vpon staues, vnderset with forkes, whiche made their burthen lygh­ter, and they myght more easily rest vn­der it. Whervpon they were called in pro uerbe, Marius mules.

Whan Theogenes of Athens ledde his hoste towarde Megara, and was inque­red [Page] howe the army shuld be ordered, said, He wolde euen there order his battayles. Than priuily he sent forthe the horsmen, and commaunded theym lyke ennemies to retourne and fiersely sette vpon theyr felowes. Whiche thynge doone, he per­mytted the battayl to be thus ordred, that they that remayned with hym, as it were prepared to encoūter with their enmies, shulde take euery manne what place he wolde, and whā the faint harted felowes drewe backe, the stronge and valyaunt, boldly stepte forth into the forefront: and as he founde theym standynge, so he ad­uaunced them in the order of chiualry.

¶ Lysander of Lacedemonia corrected a certayne man, bycause he strayed from his company. And whan the man sayde, he strayed not from the army to robbe or steale any thynge, he answered, I wolle that thou shewe no spece or lykelyhod of robberye.

Whan Antigonus hard, that his sonne had taken vp his lodgyng in a womans house that had three verye fayre dough­ters, he sayde: My sonne, I here say, ye [Page] be to straytelye lodged, where be many masters in the house, take a larger Inne. Thus he beinge commanded to remoue and go thense, Antigonus caused to pro­clayme, that no man vnder the age of fif­ty yeres, shoulde lodge in the house of a sole woman.

¶ All be it that N. Metellus cons. was let by no lawe, but that he mighte conty­nually haue his sonne in his companye, yet wolde he rather haue him wynne wa­ges in warre.

Whan Publius Rutilius cons. mighte accordynge to the lawe, haue his sonne always in his company, yet he made him a souldiour in the legion.

T. Scaurus forbad his sonne to come in his syghte, bycause in the foreste Tri­dentine he gaue place to his enemies, the yonge man pressed with shame of that re proche and infamy, slewe hym selfe.

The auncient Romaines and other na­tions dyd constitute and make theyr ten­tes and pauilions throughe the hole bo­dye of thyr army, lyke rounde cotages: where as the olde worlde knewe none o­ther, [Page] but walled townes.

Pirthus kynge of the Epirotes, was the firste, that ordeyned to lodge his hole armye within one trenche or bulwarke. After whan the Romaynes had ouerco­men hym in the fieldes Arusine, nere the citie Statuentū, and had got his campe, markynge and obseruynge howe he or­dered his armye, by lyttell and lyttel they came to this maner of pitchynge of ten­tes, and lodgynge their armye, that is nowe vsed.

P. Nasica lying with his army in their wyntryng places, ordeined that his soul­diours shulde falle to buyldyng of ship­pes, though the vse of them was to hym nat nedefull: leste they shulde be corrup­ted with slouthe and idelnes, orels by re­son of leysure, hauynge nothynge to do, wolde imagyn and commytte some iniu­rie ageynst those that were confederates and frendes to the Romaynes.

Clearchus, chieftayne of the Lacede­moniens, sayde to his armie, The capi­tayne ought rather to be dredde, than the ennemie: sygnifienge that they, whyche [Page] feared the doubtefull darte of deathe in battayle, if they left their capitayn, were sure of extreme punyshement.

By the counsayle of Appius Claudius the senatours decreed, that they whiche were taken by kyng Pirrhus, and after sent home ageine, if they were horsemen, shulde be made fote menne, if they were fote men, shulde be made lyghte harney­sed men, & all suche to lodge without the campe, tyll eche of theym, had broughte home two spoyles of theyr ennemyes.

Otacilius Crassus cons. commanded, that they, whiche taken of Anniball, and crepynge vnder the yocke of reproche, were retourned home, shulde lye without the trenche of the campe, that they being vnfensed, myght accustome them selfes to perylles, and waxe the more bolde and hardy agaynste theyr ennemies.

P. Cornelius Nasica, & Decimus Iu­nius consuls, fyrst bette with roddes, and after solde those, that were condempned to haue lefte and forsaken the host.

Domitius Corbulo in Armenia, com­maunded, that the two wynges and thre [Page] cohortes, whiche at the castell, in the be­gynnynge of their assaulte, gaue backe to their ennemies, shulde lodge without the trenche of the campe, tyll they had by contynuall laboure and prosperous ex­ploites, redemed their reproch & infamy.

N. Metellus in Spayne, commanded fyue cohortes, that had gyuen backe and fledde their ennemyes, to make their te­stamentes, and sent them ageyne to reco­uer the place, that they had loste, threat­tynge that they shoulde neuer of hym be receyued, excepte they retourned with vyctorie.

The Senatours commanded P. Ua­lerius the consul, to leade the army van­quyshed at Siris, vnto Sirinum, and there to fortifie their campe, and in theyr tentes to passe away the wynter.

[...]. Piso, commaunded that Titius, ca­pytayne of a cohorte, bycause he gaue backe and fledde his ennemyes, shoulde stande dayly before the pauilyons of the chief capitayns, the cincture of his gown cutte of, his cote vngyrde, and bare foo­ted, tyl the watch came, and that he shuld [Page] neyther feast nor bayne hym selfe.

Sylla commanded the cohort and cen­turions, throughe whose warde their en­nemies had broken, to stande before the pauilyons of the heed capitayns, helmed and vngyrded.

Domitius Corbulo in Armenia, com­maunded an officer to cutte the garmen­tes of Aemilius Rufus, capitayn of the horsemen, bycause he gaue place to his ennemies, and hadde not welle furnys­shed his wyng with armure: and in that dishoneste and shamefull apparayle, to stande before the heed capitaynes pauy­lyons, vntyll they were sent out.

Whan Attilius Regulus shoulde passe ouer from Samnium into Lucerna, and his hoste was encountred and put backe by his ennemies, he sente forth a cohorte agaynste them, and commaunded to slee those that fledde, as rebelles.

Cotta consul commaunded P. Aureli­us his kinseman, whom he made gouer­nour of the army at the siege of Lipara, while he went to Messana, to knowe by diuination what shulde betyde, bycause [Page] his bulwark was burned, and his camp taken, to be beaten with roddes, and to be taken in the nomber of the simple soul diours, & to do such dueties as they dyd.

Whan Marcus Cato, after a token gi­uen, had lowsed from the coste of his en­nemies, where he had layne a certayne space, and saw one of his souldiours left on the shore, crienge, callynge, and bec­kenynge to be taken in: He made about with all his nauy to the shoore agayne, and commaunded the same souldiour to be taken and streyght put to deathe: wyl­lynge rather to make hym an exaumple to the other, then that he shulde be slayne of his enemies, with reproche & infamy.

Appius Claudius slewe with a clubbe euery tenth souldiour, brought forth by lotte, the whiche had fledde and gyuen backe from their ennemies.

Aquirius behedded thre of the centuri­ons, bycause their ennemies had broken through their warde.

The legion that beate downe the place, callyd the kynges towne, without com­maundement of the graunde capitayne, [Page] was so punyshed, that foure thousande of them were commytted to warde, and slain. More ouer, the senatours decreed, that they shulde in no wyse be buried nor mourned for.

¶ L. Papyrius Cursor, beinge dictator, required, that Fabius Rutilius, maister of the horsemenne, shuld be beaten with roddis, and beheeded, bycause he fought ageynst his commaundement, not with­standyng he hadde the vpper hande: no­ther wolde he forgyue the punyshement, for the contention or intercession and re­queste of the souldiours, and fleinge to Rome pursued hym: neyther wolde he there remytte the dredefull punyshment, vntyll that Fabius with his father felle downe at his knees, and that also the se­nate & people made intercession for him.

¶ Manlius, that afterwarde was na­med Manlius the proude or imperious, caused his sonne, whyche agaynste his fathers commaundemente, had encoun­tred with his ennemye a challenger, and gotte the vyctorie, to be beaten with rod­des, and haue his heed stryken of.

[Page] This Manlius the sonne, the hoft pre­parynge seditiousely to aryse agaynste his father for his sake, sayde: That no man was of so great estimation, that for his sake the disciplyne of warre shoulde be broken. and thus opteyned, that they suffred hym to be punyshed.

Q. Fabius Maximus cut of the righte handes of them that fledde awaye from theyr capytayne vnto their ennemies.

¶ The effecte of disciplyne. Cap. ii.

IN the tyme of ciuyl warre, whan Bru­tus and Cassius hoste shuld take their iourney togyther throughe Macedonia, and Brutus came fyrst to a ryuer, in whi­che he must nedes make a bridge to passe ouer: yet Cassius army both in makyng of the brydge, and spedy passynge ouer, out went Brutus. the whiche vygour or strength of knyghtly discipline, brought to passe, that not only in warkes, but al­so in the chiefe poynt of warre, Cassius and his men, excelled Brutus and his.

¶ Whan C. Marius was at his lyber­tie, to chose oone of the two armies, he [Page] wolde, eyther that, whiche hadde ben in warre with Rutilius, or that whiche had ben with Metellus, and afterward with hym selfe: he chose the lesse, whiche was Rutilius armye, bycause it was thought to be more experte in discipline of warre.

Domitius Corbulo, with two legions, and a very smal nomber of such as came to ayde hym, traded in the discipline of warre, withstode the great power of the Parthians.

Alexāder Macedo with. xl. M. mē accu stomed in chiualrie by Philip his father, continually vnto his tyme, set vppon in maner al the hole world, and vanquished powers innumerable of his ennemies.

Cirus in warre ageynste the Perseans with. xiiii. M. men of armes, ouercame innumerable difficulties.

Epaminundas capitayne of the The­bans, with foure thousande men, of the which only. iiii. hundred were horsemen, ouercame the host of the Lacedemoniēs, in whiche was. xxiiii. M. footemen, and xvi. hundred horsemen.

Fouretene. M. Grekes, whiche number [Page] came to helpe Cirus ageinst Artaxerxes, ouercame in battayle a hūdred thousand barbarous alyens.

The same. xiiii. thousande Grekes af­ter their captaynes were loste in warre, commyttynge the gouernaunce of theyr retournyng home vnto one of their own army, callyd Xenophon of Athens, retur­ned and came home safe and sound, pas­syng through many vnknowen and dan gerous places.

Xerxes beinge sore troubled at the strai­tes Thermopyle, by thre hundred of the Lacedemonians, after that he had with great difficultie ouercomme them, sayde, This thynge deceyued hym, that he had many men, but good and experte men in knyghthode he had none.

¶ Of continency and sober abstinence. Cap. iii.

IT is written, that Marcus Cato was contented with the same wine, that his maryners vsed.

Whan Cyneus the ambassadour of the Epirotiens, broughte vnto Fabricius a greate somme of golde for a presente, he [Page] wolde none of it, sayenge, that he wolde rather rule theym that hadde golde, than haue it.

¶ Attilius Regulus, beinge a man in most high authorite, was so pore, that he founde hym selfe, his wyfe, and his chil­derne with a lyttelle plotte of grounde, tylled by one baylye of housbandrye, of whose deathe whan worde was brought hym, he wrote vnto the Senate, to pro­uyde an other to occupie his roume: for seynge his seruant was deade, he muste nedes applye his husbandrie hym selfe.

¶ After Cn. Scipio had accomplysshed his worthy enterprises and noble feates in Spaine, he deceassed in great pouer­tie, and left not behynde hym soo moche money, as shulde suffyse for the dowery of his doughters, to whome, for verye nede, the senate was fayn to gyue dowe­rye of the common treasure.

Lykewyse dydde the nobles of Athens vnto the chylderne of Aristides, whiche after he had ben in moste high rome and authoritie, departed in great pouertie.

¶ Epaminundas capitayn of the The­bans, [Page] vsed so gret abstinency, that in his houshold stuffe was there no more foūde but one brasyn caudron, and one spitte to roste his meate on.

¶ Annibal, which vsed to ryse very yer­ly afore day, neuer rested vntyl the nyght came agayne, at length in the twye light he rested hym self at supper, neither with hym were there any more beddes layde to meate, than two.

The same Anniball beinge in warfare vnder the graunde capitayne Asoruball, ofte tymes slept vpon the bare grounde, and hadde noo more but his cloke to co­uer hym.

It is lefte in remembraunce also, that Emilius Scipio was wonte to eate his breadde, as he walked in his iourneye with his frendes.

The same thynge is also tolde of Alex­ander Macedo.

We rede also that Masinissa being nowe lxxxi. yeres of age, was wonte at noone, eyther standynge before his pauilion, or elles walkynge vppe and downe, to eate his meate.

[Page] Whan Caius Curius had vanquished the Sabiens, and the mesure of ground and landes that valyaunt men of warre are wonte to receyue, was granted hym by decree of the Senate howse, after a more ample maner: he helde hym selfe cōtent with the porcion, that was custo­mablye gyuen: affirmynge, that he was an euyll citizen, whiche was not contente to lyue as other dyd.

¶ Also the continencie of the hoole Ro­mayne armye, hath ben oft very notable, as the hoste, that was led by M. Scau­rus. For Scaurus hath left in memory, that the apple tree, whiche was enclosed at the foote of his campe, was lefte the morowe after, whan the hoste remoued, standing, without touchyng of the frute.

¶ After that L. Mummius had taken Corinthe, and had not onely adorned I­taly, but also al the prouynce, with ryche tables and costly ymages: he of so great spoyles, toke so lyttelle to his owne vse, that the Senate was faine for very nede to gyue dowerye vnto his doughter of the common treasure.

☞ Of Justyce. Cap. iiii.

VUhan Camillus had besyeged the Phalisciens, the scoole maister vn­der pretence to walke abrode, broughte the Phalisciens chylderne withoute the walles, and delyuered theym vnto hym and sayde, The citie muste nedes graunt nowe all his requeste, to obteyne ageyne these their so deere hostages. Camillus, not onely abhorryng this falsehode, but alsoo byndynge his handes behynde his backe, delyuered hym to the chylderne, with roddes to dryue hym hoome before them vnto their fathers. By the whiche benefitte he gotte the vyctory, the whiche his wylle and desyre was nat to obteyne by fraude. For the Phalisciens, for this Iustyce, wyllyngly yelded them selfes.

¶ Kynge Pirrhus physition came vnto Fabricius, capitayne of the Romaynes, and promised to poyson Pirrhus, so that he wolde gyue hym a rewarde worthy of so great an enterprise. Fabricius thyn­kynge he had noo nede to pourchace his vyctorie so wyckedly, detected the phisy­tion to the kynge. The whiche faythful­nesse, [Page] as of duetie, compelled Pyrrhus to seke the Romaynes frendshyp.

¶ Of Constancie. Cap. v.

VUhan Cn. Pōpeius souldiors thret ned to spoyle the moneye, that was caryed in the triūph, Seruilius & Glau­cia, exhortynge hym to deuide it, leeste it wolde cause sedition, he affirmed, that he wolde no triumphe at all, but rather dye, than bowe and obeye to the lewde lyber­tie of his souldiours. And whan he had ernestly reprehended them, he caste forth his lauriate bundelles, borne in sygne of vyctorie, byddynge them fyrste to spoyle those, and by that odiouse proffer, he pa­cyfyed theym.

In a tyme of sedition amonges the ci­tizens, that rose in harneys, whanne the souldiours were in their moste pride and fiercenes, Caius Cesar feared not to put the holle legyon out of wages, behead­dynge the captaynes of the sedition. Af­terwarde those, whiche he had put out of wages, besechynge hym, not to put them to that reproche and infamy, he restored, [Page] and had most valiant warryors of them.

Whan Posthumius had encoraged his souldiors to warre, & they ageyn deman­ded of hym, what his wylle was, he bad them folowe hym, catchyng and aduan­synge the standerde, he fyrste of all in­uaded his ennemies: the souldiours fo­lowed after hym, & obteyned the victory.

Whan L. Marcellus was comen vn­wares into the handes of the Gaulles, he tourned his horse rounde aboute, to loke, on whiche syde he myght gette out, whan he sawe hym selfe sore inuironned on euery side, he callid ye goddis to helpe, and strake into the myddes of his enne­mies: and as they stode bashefully mer­uaylynge at his boldenesse, he escaped, and slewe their capitayn also. and where was scant hope of lyfe, thens he brought spoyles of great rychesse.

Whan Paulus had loste his hooste at Cannas, and Lentulus in so great dan­ger offred hym a horse to flee, he answe­red, that he wolde not lyue after so great a losse and slaughter, not withstādyng it chanced not through his defaut: & so sat [Page] styll on the same stone, wherto he leaned, being sore wounded, vntyll that he was oppressed, & thrust through of his enmis.

Uarro his felow in offyce, with greater constācie, remayned alyue after the same distruction, to whom the Senate, with yt hole voice of the peple, gaue thākes yt he dispaired not of the common welth, & the resydue of his lyfe tyme welle approued, that he preserued hym selfe, not for desire of lyfe, but for loue of the cōmon welthe. For he lette both his beard and his heare growe, and neuer after eate his meate, syttynge at the table. and whan the peo­ple profred to gyue hym any honour and dignitie, he refused it, sayenge, That it behoued the cōmon welthe to haue more prosperous rulers.

Sempro. Tuditanus, and C. Octaui­us, chiefe capitaynes in warre, whan all was loste at Cannas, and they but a ve­ry fewe togyther, being also enclosed on euery syde, counsayled their felowes, to drawe their swordes, and to breake oute with them euen through the garrison of their enmyes, affirmynge, that they were [Page] bent so to do, though no man els wolde folowe them. and with. xii. men accom­panied, they brake through the warde of their ennemies, and came safe and sound vnto Canusium.

C. Fronteius Crassus in Spayne, go­inge forth to get his pray, with thre thou­sande men, and circumuented of Asdru­ball in a daungerous place, his purpose and counsell tolde vnto the fyrste order onely, in the begynnynge of the nighte, whan he was nothynge loked for, brake out through the watche of his enemies.

P. Decius, chiefe capitayne in warre, ageynst the Samnites, counsayled Cor­nelius consull, beinge taken in a daun­gerous cooste of his ennemies, to sende forthe a lyttell power of men, to preuent and take the hylle that was at hande, of­ferynge hym selfe to be their guyde: and his enemies being intised an other way, lette out the consull, and besette Decius, the whiche wrastled out of those straites, also by nyghte, and came ageyne safe to the consuls armie.

The same polycie he vsed vnder Atti­lius [Page] Calatinus consull. for whan he saw the hoste was come downe into a valey, his ennemies lyenge in the vpper sydes rounde aboute, he required and toke of the consul. iii. hūdred souldiors, whom he encoraged manfully to fight for the hole army, & ranne downe into the myddes of the valey, his ennemie commyng downe on euery side to oppresse them, and being holde a good whyle with sharpe fyghte, gaue the consull good occasion to range and spreade out his armie.

A certayn noble man of Lacedemonia, Phylyp, sendynge theym worde, that he wolde vtterly forbydde them many thin­ges, excepte they delyuered vp the citie, sayde, what? woll he forbydde vs also, to dye for our countrey?

Whan it was sayde, that the Perseans, wolde sende oute arrowes as thycke as cloudes, vpon the Lacedemonians, Le­onidas answered, We shall fyght the bet ter in the shadowe.

Whyle Celius a hygh iuge sat to gyue sentence, a Hickwall alyghted & sat vpon his heed, whervpon the Wissardes gaue [Page] aunswere, that if the byrd were let scape, theyr ennemies shulde haue the victory: if she were killed, the Romaynes shulde obteyne, but Caelius with all his fami­lye shulde perishe. at the whiche answere Caelius slewe the byrde, and so came it to passe, that the Romayns gat the victory, and Caelius, with. xiiii. of the same fa­mily and kinred were slaine in the batrel. Some reporte this of Lelius, and not of Caelius.

Publius Decius, fyrste the father and efte the sonne, in theyr magistrate vow­ed theym selfes to dye for the common welthe, and sprynging out on horsebacke amonge theyr enemis gotte the victory, and lefte it vnto theyr countrey.

Whan P. Crassus in warre, ageynste Aristouicus, fell into his ennemyes han­des, betwene Aelia and Mirina, & was caried away a lyue, he abhorringe capti­uitie in a Romayne consull, with his ry­dynge rodde threste oute the Thratians eye that helde hym: whiche beinge soore moued with the spitefull dede, & with the griefe of his maime, thrust him through. [Page] Thus willingly he auoyded the reproche and shame of seruitude.

M. Cato, the sonne of Censorius, in battayle, felle through the stomblyng of his hors, and after he had recouered, and perceyued, that his sworde was slypt out of the scabarde, fearynge to be sclaunde­red, he retourned backe vppon his ene­mies, and his sword recouered at length, gatte ageyne vnto his owne company.

The Peteliniens, inclosed of the Pe­nians, for great nede of vyttayles, thrust out their fathers, mothers, & their chyl­derne, prolonged their owne lyfe with beastes hydes, moysted and dryed ageyn with the fyer, with leaues of the trees, and with all kynde of beastes, so endu­rynge the siege of a. xi. monthes.

The Casiliniens besieged of Annibal, were brought to so greatte nede and fa­myne, that a mouse was solde for a hun­dreth pence: and though the one famys­shed, that solde it, the other lyued that bought it: yet they styll contynued faith­full vnto the Romaynes.

¶ Whan Mythridates lay de syege vn­to [Page] C [...]icū, he brought forth the prisoners, yt he had taken of the cite, & shewed them to the besiged, thynkyng to compel them by compassion and pitie, to yelde theym selfes. But they, exhortynge the pryso­ners, manfully to endure the death, kept styll their fealtie vnto the Romayns.

The Aeginenses, what tyme their wy­ues and chyldern were slayne of the Ui­athotiens, chose rather to behold the tur­ment of those their so dere pledges, than to fall from the Romayns.

The Numantiniens, rather than they wolde yelde them selues, agreed to die al to gether, and brente theyr howsen, slewe theyr wyues, theyr chylderne, and theym selues, that there remayned not one to be taken prisoner: soo that theyr ennemyes coude not triumphe, nother of their goo­des, theyr Citie, nor yet of theyr persons, but of theyr name onely.

☞ Affection and moderation. Cap. vi.

VUhan Q. Fabius sonne exhorted hym, to take a commodiouse place, thoughe it were with the losse of a fewe [Page] menne, he sayde, Wylte thou be oone of those fewe?

As Xenophon syttyng on horsbacke cō ­maunded the fote men to take a certayne hyll toppe, one of them grudgynge, and sayinge, that he myghte easely syttynge on horsebacke, commande them so pain­full thynges, he lighted of his horse, and set vp that symple soldiour, and began to runne hym selfe a fote vnto the hyll ap­poynted: the souldiour not able to abyde the shame therof, his felowes laughinge hym to scorne, lyghted down of his owne accord, and they al coulde scasely brynge Xenophon to take his horse ageyne, and to reserue his labour to other dueties be­longynge to a capitayne.

As Alexander, lyinge out in warrefare the wynter tyme, sat by the fyer, and per­ceyued a souldiour in the army all moste deade for colde, made hym sytte in his owne place, saying: If thou haddest ben borne in Persia, it had ben treson for the to haue sytte in the kynges seate, but to hym that is borne in Macedonia, it is lawefull.

[Page] Diuus Augustus Uespasian, percey­uynge a certayne yonge man, wel borne, vnable vnto warre, yet by reason of gret pouertie thruste into the longe order and araye, appoynted him a certayne fee, and so honestly dysmissed hym.

¶ Of dyuers counsels. Cap. vii.

CEsar was wōt to say, that the same counsell pleased hym ageynste his ennemye, that many physitions vsed a­gaynst the diseases of the body, that is, to subdue theym with famyne, rather than with force.

Domitius Corbulo sayde, that an ene­my must be ouercome with a brode chyp­pyng axe, yt is to say, with diligent labor.

L. Paulus sayde, that it became a no­ble capteyne to be aged and auncient in maners, meanynge that sage and sober counsayle was to be folowed.

It is reported, that Scypio Aphrica­nus, whan some men callyd hym a sory lyghter, sayd, My mother broughte me forthe to be a worthy capitayne, and nat a common souldiour.

[Page] Caius Marius to one Teutonius, pro­uokynge and chalengyng hym to fyght, aunswered, If Teutonius wolde fayne dye, he may go hang hym selfe. and whā he hadde appoynted hym a player at the sword, a wretched person, and very aged, he sayde, If thou ouercome this felowe, I wyll take the victor to taske.

Celius capitayn of the company in the forwarde, whan the Romaines were be­sieged in Germania, fearynge lesse his aduersaryes, wolde conueye a heape of wodde, lyenge therby, vnto his fortresse, and so fyre his tentes, fayned that he lac­ked wodde, and sent forth on euerye syde to steale it: bryngynge thereby to passe, that the Germayns them selfe toke great peyne to remoue the wodde away.

Cn. Scipio in a battayle by see, threwe into his ennemyes shyppes, tankerdes of pytche and tarre, that both the weight therof myght hurte theym, and also the sheddynge therof, myght nourysshe and encrease the fyre.

Anniball fyrst taught king Antiochus, to cast vessels full of adders, into his en­nemies [Page] shyppes. wherof the souldiours amased, myght be let bothe in fyght, and in all their other dueties, belongyng vn­to the shyppe.

¶ The same thynge dyd Prusias, whan his nauy beganne to shrynke.

¶ M. Portius violently brake into the nauie of his ennemies, and whan he had tumbled out the Peniens, distributynge theyr armure and badges, wherby they were knowen amonge his souldyours, he drowned many shippes of his enmis, deceyuing them with felowlyke apparel.

The Atheniens beinge oft tymes gret­ly disquieted and troubled by the Lacede moniens, came vpon certayne festyuall dayes, whiche they kepte hyghe and ho­ly, without the walles vnto Mynerua: and hauynge al thyng therto belonging, made as thoughe theyr intent were to do sacrifice: hydynge priuily theyr armour and weapons vnder theyr clothes. And whan they had done theyr sacrifice, they retourned not immediatelye to Athens, but forthe with in good order of battayle marched towarde Lacedemonia, at the [Page] tyme whan they were least loked for: and so ouer ranne and spoyled the countreye of theyr ennemyes, whiche were wont to robbe and spoyle them.

Cassius set certayne of his great shyp­pes on fyer, whiche were lyttell worth for any other purpose: and beinge dryuen with the wynde amonge his ennemyes shyps, set them also a fyer & brent them.

Whan Marcus Liuius had put Has­druball to flyghte, and was by certayne exhorted to pursue his ennemies to deth, he answered: Lette some remayn alyue, to beare tydynges to oure ennemyes of our vyctorie.

Hasdruball entrynge into the borders of Numidie, and intendynge to subdue them, affyrmed, whan they prepared to resyste hym, that he came but to take ele­phantes, wherof Numidia had greatte plentie: and made promyse, not to hurte them, so that they wold graunt hym this his requeste. and whan they were depar­ted a sunder by reason of that perswasi­on, he sodeynly sette vppon them, and so brought them vnder his subiection.

[Page] Ptolomeus, being to weake to encoun tre with Perdicca, whiche had a stronger and more valiaunt army, caused a fewe horsmen to driue al the beastes, drawing the wagons after the host, and he going before them with that smalle power that he had, broughte to passe, that the duste reysed vppe by the beastes, mustred as thoughe an other army to ayde hym had folowed after. The feare of whose com­mynge so bashed his ennemies, that he ouercame them.

Whan Mironides of Athens shoulde fyght with the Thebans, whiche hadde moche better horsemen than he, informed his hoste, that there was some hope of helthe, if they kepte theyr grounde: but if they fled or reculed backe, there was no remedy but death. By the whiche rea­sone, he strengthened his men, and wan the victory.

Iphicrates captein of Athens, apoin­ted his nauye in apparell lyke his enne­myes, and whan he was arriued among them, whom he suspected, and was recei­ued with highe reuerence, theyr falshode [Page] spied out, he spoyled theyr towne.

¶ After the fyelde foughte at the lake Trasimenus, where was gret slaughter of the Romayns, and. vi. M. taken pri­soners, a pacte and couenaunt made, An­niball suffered the confederates and fe­lowes of the Romaynes, gentyllye to de­parte home to theyr owne cities: and to reporte, that the cause of his warre was onely to set Italy at libertie, and by their helpe and meanes, certayne people com­mitted them selues into his gouernance.

¶ What tyme the Locriens were besye­ged of Crispyn, captein of the Romayne nauye, Mago spredde abrode a rumour that night vnto the Romaynes host, that Hanniball hadde slayne Marcellus, and was come to delyuer the Locriens, that were besieged: and after he sent out horse men priuily, commaundyng them to mu­ster and shewe them selues on the moun­taynes, that laye in the syghte of the Ro­maynes hoste. by the whiche pollycie he brought to passe, that Crispine, thinking Anniball to be at hande, toke shyppyng, and fledde.

[Page] ¶ P. Scipio in Lidia, perceyuing that Antiochus hoste was soore beaten with gayne, that fell day and nyght contynu­ally, and not onely his men, and horses began to faynte, but also his bowes the strynges beinge wette, were weake and vnprofytable, encouraged his menne to pytche the fielde the morowe folowyng, not withstandyng it was a dismall day, and by this counsell, he wan the victory.

¶ Whan the Vacceians in a pyght field were hardly matched with Sempronius Gracchus, they compassed all their ar­my with waynes, furnysshed with valy­ant men of armes, in womens apparell. Whan Sempronius boldly vanced for­warde, to besiege his enmies, as though he had gone agaynst a companye of wo­men, they that were in the waynes, sette on, and put hym to flyghte.

Eumenes Sardianus, one of Alexan­ders successours, was inclosed in a cer­taine castell, where he coulde not exercise his horses, auaunced them vp before at certayne houres dayly, in suche wise that they rested vpō their hinder fete, hauyng [Page] their forefete reysed vppe on hyghe, and whan they sought to haue their naturall wonte and standyng, they trauersed and flonge with their heles vntil they swette.

¶ What tyme the barbarous aliens pro mised Cato men to conducte hym in his iourney, and also a garrison to ayd him, so that he wolde gyue them a great some of money, he stacke nat at the matter, to promyse them largely, bycause he might other paye them obtaynynge the victory with the spoyles of his ennemies, or by their deathe be lowsed of his promyse.

¶ Quintus Maximus commaunded to calle vnto hym oone Statilius, a noble man of armes, & approued in dede, whi­che intended to flee frome hym vnto his enemies, and made an excuse vnto him, that through the enuye of his felowes, he neuer knewe vnto that day his manly qualities: than gyuynge to hym a horse and money: he opteyned, that this man, whiche came vnto him feareful, his con­science accusynge hym, departed chiere­full. And soo of hym that was before to be mystrusted, he had a faythful and va­lyant [Page] man of armes euer after.

Whan Phylyp hard, that one Pithias, a valyant warriour of his, had withdra­wen his good wyl from him, bicause that he had scante to susteyne his. iii. dough­ters, and was nothynge relieued of the kynge, certayne men warned the kynge, to take hede and beware of hym. What quod the kynge, if I had a parte of my body diseased, shoulde I rather cut it of, than heale it. Afterwarde he priuily cal­led Bithias vnto hym, and perceyuyng, howe poore and harde a life he lad, gaue hym money largely, and so euer after he founde hym more trustye, faythfull, and better than euer he dyd before.

T. Nuintus Crispinus, after the great misauenture in the battayle, ageyust the Carthaginens, wherin his felow Mar­cellus was slayn, ꝑceiung, that Annibal had gotten the signet of his sayde frende Marcellus, he sent letters throughe out all Italy, that they shulde gyue noo cre­dence, if any pistle came vnto them sea­led with Marcellus signet. throughe the whiche monition, Annibal his disceites, [Page] wherby he attempted to gette Salapia and other cities, were all in vayne.

After the gret losse and dyscomfiture at Cannas, the hartes of the Romaynes were so dismayde and discomfited, that a great parte of them, whiche were lefte alyue, toke counsell with the nobles, and determyned to forsake Italye, Publius Scipio beinge yet a very yonge manne, broke vyolently into the same company, where as these thynges were reasoned, and playnly protested, that he wolde slee hym with his owne hande, whiche so e­uer of theym wolde not take an othe, to stande and abyde by the common welth, and whan he had fyrst bounde hym selfe with an othe, he drewe his sworde, thret­nynge to slee hym, that was nexte hym, if he made not the same oth. thus by fear he compelled hym and the other by his example, to sweare the same othe.

¶ Whan Milciades had scattered and ouerthrowen a great number of the Per­seans at Marathon, he compelled the A­thenians, whiche prolonged the tyme in thankes giuynge, to make spede toward [Page] the aide of a citie, whiche the Perseans nauye intended to inuade. And whan he had preuented them, & replenysshed the walles with harneyssed men, the Perse­ans thynkynge the number of the Athe­nians to be great, and that the battaylle at Marathon was foughte with one ar­mye, and the walles kepte with an other, made about streyght way with their na­uy, & toke their passage ageyn into Asia.

¶ what time Pisistratus had taken the Megarenciens nauy, wherin they came to Elewsis by nyght, to haue rauysshed the women of Athens, beinge as than occupied in the sacrifyce of Ceres, and had wel reuenged their grefes, in sleinge a gret number of the sayd Megarenses, he manned the same shyppes, that he had taken of theirs, with souldiours of A­thens, settyage oute in syghte aboue the hatches, certayn women ordred lyke pri­soners: at the which syght the Megaren­sians beinge disceyued, and scatteringe out to mete them, as though they had bē their owne companye, whiche after their enterprise luckely achieued, had returned [Page] home, and so being vnarmed were ageyn discomfyted.

¶ Whan Conon capitayne of the Athe­nians, had ouercome the Perseans na­uye, at the Ilonde Cyprus, he put theyr harneys vpon his owne souldiours, and than sayled into Pamphilia, where his enmies, were in the same shippes, whiche he had taken of theyrs. The Perseans bycause they knewe the shyppes and the apparayle of them, whiche stode aboue the hatches, toke no hede to theym selfe, and so they beinge sodeynly oppressed, were in one selfe day, vanquished in bat­tayle bothe by see and on the lande.

The ende of the fourth boke.

¶Bycause the pages shulde not be vacant, we haue added these generalle rules of warre, taken out of Vegetius.

IN all battayles of expedition this is a sure rule, That what so euer is profytable to the, is hurtefull to thyne aduersarie, and that, that helpeth hym, hyndreth the. Therfore after our enne­mies [Page] mynd and intent we shuld nothing do, or dissemble, but do that onely, whi­che we iudge profytable for vs. For than thou begynnest to do agaynste thy selfe: whan thou folowest that that he wolde faynest thou dyddest. Ageyne, what soo euer thou enterprisest for thy profite, shal be agaynst hym, if he woll folowe it.

He that in warre moste laboureth and exerciseth his souldiours in trauayles, that longe to the warres, shall alwayes susteyne leaste perylle and daungier.

Neuer range out in the front of the bat­tayle, a souldiour, of whome before thou haste had none open profe.

It is better to vanquyshe thyn ennemy with neede, with sodeyne inuasyons, or with terror, thā with fyghtyng in playne battayle: in the whiche Fortune is wont to beare a greatter stroke than vertue.

Those counsayles are beste, whyche thyne aduersarie knoweth nothynge of, tyll they be done in dede.

Occasion or sodeyne happe in battayle helpeth more than vertue or strength.

In solycitynge and receyuynge of en­nemies, [Page] whiche faithfully flee vnto the, is great truste: for the fleers from thyne ennemye to the, are to hym more harme­full, than they that thou sleest.

It is better to kepe many stronge war­des behynde the forefront, than to sprede to wyde thy warriours.

It is harde to ouercome hym, that can truly iudge his own strength, and what power his aduersarye hath.

More auayleth vertue and strengthe than multitude.

The well chosen place, dothe often ty­mes more auayle thā vertue or strength.

Nature bringeth forth few strong men, but wel diuised ordinance maketh many.

The armye with labour profiteth, with idelnesse, waxeth dull.

Neuer brynge oute thy souldyours to fyght a battayl, except thou se them hope to haue the vyctorie.

Sodayne dedes of warre affrayeth the enmies, the vsual featis ar not regardid.

He that with his people disparpled, pur sueth his enemies vnwisely, may happe to gyue to his ennemie the vyctorie, that [Page] he before had gotten.

He that prepareth not before, wheate and vyttayle necessarie for his hooste, is vanquyshed without weapon.

He that hath mo people, and is stronger than his ennemie, let hym make his fore­warde foure square: whiche is the fyrsie maner of assaylinge.

He that is febler than his foo, lette hym set his ryght wynge ageynst his enmyes lefte wyng, whiche is the seconde maner.

He that feleth hym selfe strongest in the lyft wynge, let him assayle his ennemies ryght winge, which is the thyrde maner.

He that hath in bothe wynges stronge souldiours, and well exercised, lette hym sette on bothe wynges at ones, whiche is the fourthe maner.

He that can beste rule his lyght harnei­sed, lette hym inuade eyther wynge of his ennemies, settynge the archers in the forefront, whiche is the fyfte maner.

He that trusteth neyther in the number nor in the strength of his souldiors, and must nedes fyght, let him with his right wynge assayle his ennemies left wynge, [Page] stretchynge out the reste of his army like a spyt or broche. whiche is the. vi. maner.

He that hath fewer and weaker souldi­ours, lette hym so pytche his fielde, that he haue on his one syde a mountayne, a citie, a see, a ryuer, or some other thynge, and this is the seuenth maner.

He that trusteth in his horsmen, let him ordeyne his fielde in a playne, and let the burthen of the battayle reste mooste on the horsemenne.

He that trusteth in his footemen, lette hym pytche his felde on a knap or highe grounde, and lette the burthen of the ba­tayle reste most on the foote men.

If thou suspect, that a spye of thyn en­nemye lurketh in thyne hoste, command, that euery man be in his owne lodgynge by day light, & anon the spy is perceiued.

Whan thou wottest, that thy counsaylle is discouered to thyn enmies, than it be­houeth the, to chaunge thy purpose.

Treate thou with many, what oughte to be done, but what thou wylte doo, dis­close that to fewe, that ar most faithfull, or els kepe it secrete to thy selfe.

[Page] Peyne and drede chastyseth souldiors whan they lye styl, in settynge forwarde, hope and mede maketh them better.

Good capitayns neuer fyght in a pight fielde, excepte they be dryuen thereto by sodeyne happe or great nede.

It is a gret wise policy, rather to greue thyn enmie with hūger, thā with wepon.

Let not thyne enmie knowe, with what ordinaunce, in what maner wyse, or how thou intendest to assayl him, lest he p̄pare ordynance to withstand or distroy thyne.

Londini in aedibus Thomae Ber­theleti typis impress.

Cum priuilegio ad imprimen­dum solum.


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