Written by Io. FORBES, Pastour of the English Church at MIDDELBVRGH, for the instru­ction of his flocke: And now published by some of them for the good of others.

Blessed is he to whom the Lord imputeth not sinne, Psal. 32. 2.
This is the name that they shall call him, The Lord our righteousnes, Ier. 33. 6.
For God was in Christ reconciling the world to himselfe, not imputing to them their sinnes, 2. Cor. 5. 19.
For he made him who knew no sinne to be sinne for vs: that we might be made the righteousnes of God in him, 2. Cor. 5. 21.

AT MIDDELBVRGH, Printed by Richard Schilders, 1616.

To his welbeloved in the Lord, the faithfull of the English Church in MIDDEL­BVRGH, whose love to the trueth hath entertained his Ministerie amongst them, The Author wisheth grace to discerne, and in humilitie to embrace and cōstant­lie to hold the truth in faith and love vnto eternall life.

THE love of you, dearely beloved, whom I have and yet do serve in the Lord, stir­red by the earnest and for­ward desire of some of you, hath mooved me to alter my former determination, of ab­stayning from all writing, e­specially during the present estate of Gods Church, more wasted and whithered, then watered, and builded in grace, by superfluitie of writing: I ever was loth to put my hande to the penne, and rashlie to adventure the declaring of my minde, in so deepe mysteries: seeing so many, by their inconsiderate forwardnes in writing, doe darken the trueth, more then cleere it, and doe breed contention, rather, then godly edifying. The sight of whose weaknes, ioyned with the conscience of myne owne inabilitie, as being in iudgement farre inferior, so also in vttering by word, and expressing in writt, the con­ceptions [Page] of my minde, fa [...]re lesse prompt and able, then many who have so stumbled: hath made me afraide, to medle in such sort, with the sacred truth of God. More­over, in this contending age, I see and perceyve, that answering of errours, doth more kindle then quench the fire of endlesse strife: presumption of knowledge, decey­ving the mindes of manie: and true humilitie, so neces­sarie a vertue, for learning the mysteries of God, so farre remoued from men, even otherwayes of excellent giftes, that the most part, striving in preiudged humor, more for victorie, then truth: it is hard to finde, almost one, who in this heate of contention, doth not in something, more or lesse marre the soundnes of Gods truth. So dangerous a thing it is to do any thing, in contentious manner, and through vaine glorie, and not in that meeknes of minde, whereby every man esteemeth others better then him selfe. Philip. 2. 3. and therefore wisely doth the Apostle forbid oppo­sitions of science, falsly so called, in the handling of Gods truth:1. Tim. 6. 20. 2. as a thing which maketh both them which professe it, to erre concerning the faith: and also turnes others a­way from the truth: and commandeth the servant of the Lord,2 Tim 2. 24. 25. not to strive, but being gentle toward all men, to in­struct thē with meeknes: and willeth those that are strong in the faith, to receive vnto them, the weake in faith: but not vnto cōtroversies of disputations,Rom. 14. 1. because that doth greatly harme such as are weake: who thereby are cast in a greater doubtfulnes and vncertaintie of the maine foū ­dations. For as a ship before one faire wind, is carried for­ward in hir course, & saffely brought to the havē: which by contrary blastes, is not onely hindred, but greatly en­dangered, if not drowned: even so the faith of the Saints, [Page] which is to be promoved by the onely simple and sound breath of Gods mouth,1. Cor. 1. 10 in his faithfull servants, all both minding & speaking one thing,Phil. 2. 2. must needes bee marvey­lously hindred in many,Rom. 15. 6. and in many quite destroyed by these so many contrarie doctrines, blowing every one against another, and casting the faith of the children of God, vpon so many daungerous Rockes: and tossing it with so manie windes and waves, that it is no marvayle, to see so many, make wofull shipwrackes. It were more to the honour of God, and profit of the Saints, if the Builders were more carefull of keeping vnitie in the truth, in following the true paterne of holsome wordes, in faith and love,2. Tim. 1. 13. which cannot bee condemned: then curious in shewing their knowledge.Tit. 2. 8. And that all Pa­stours, did labour, after th'example of that Prince of Pa­stours, to lead his people by the still waters: rather then by the turbulent streames of their fighting opinions, and by strange language, to divert the children of God, from the waters of Shiloa, that runnes softlie: which only are able to refresh the Cittie of God. In so doinge, they should not have sinned, in quenching so many smoking flaxes, and breaking so many brused reedes. I speake not against the faithfull labours of Christes witnesses: cōtending with courage against the errors of the com­mon adversarie, either within or without the house of GOD: and opposing them selves, both in plaine sim­plicitie of trueth, and moderate helpe of arte, to eve­rie corrupt doctrine. But my speach is against our owne intestine debates, arising not so much vpon any substan­tiall contrarietie, as to much curiositie of judgement, whereas in one and the same pointe, they holding the [Page] substance, doe contende for the shadowe. as is too ma­nifest in this same pointe, whereof I am by your Chri­stian importunitie, forced to write touchinge the Iustification of a sinner before God. Wherein even they who doe holde Christ, to bee our righteous­nesse, according to the word: doe yet notwithstanding greatly perturbe the peace of the Church, and destroye the faith of many: and give matter of offence to all, in striving for the difference, which is in the measure, ra­ther thē in the matter of their faith. They that see more deepely, by importune and vntimely forwardnes, ren­ting such as are yet old bottells, with their new wine: and they who are not come so farre in knowledge, in vnadvised temeritie, iudging and condempning that, whereto as yet they themselves have not attained. Both fayling in the duetie of love: the one not contenting to have their faith with them selves, vntill without hurte and offence of others, they may imparte it to their edifi­cation, and not to their destruction: the other sorte, not having learned in sobrietie, to be wise according to the measure of their owne faith, doe not admitt what more the Lord reveyleth to others. as though the measure of their faith and knowledge, should bee the rule and li­mittes of the spirit, to binde the whole Church, and every man therein. And this woefull seed of contradi­ction (while men are too much addicted to the vaine de­ceyte of their owne reason) hath now at last, not onely troubled the faith of the weake ones, but hath begunne, to cast darknes vpon the mindes, of some of the stron­gest sorte. while they evanish in their owne reasonings [Page] about the trueth of God reveyled in the Gospell: as did the Gentiles, in that trueth which God made manifest vnto them in the creatures.Rom. [...]. 2 [...]. These have bene the causes of my vnwillingnes, to give any thing in write, and that now, being overcome by your request, I doe follow a plaine maner of declaration of my minde, without con­tention with anie, or direct disputing against anie: as be­ing resolved, to have no parte, in the noysome wrang­ling, of this contentious age. But as one desirous to walke honestlie, in all things: I endevour, to keepe mee within the measure of my owne faith: and to benefitt the Church of God, with that which he hath given me: not hindring, nor envying that others, who have recey­ved more, do more good in our common Lords worke. Of whom (as hee who is onely able to give it) I most humbly crave the gratious direction of his spirit, in this and all my labours: with his blessing therevpon, to your comfort, and theirs who shall have the vse thereof. His grace be with you. Middelburgh, 20. Iuly, 1615.

Yours in the Lord Jo. Forbes.

A Table of things contayned in this Treatise, according to the order of the Chapters.

FOure groundes proponed which serve to make vs conceyve aright of the nature of the benefits dispensed vnto vs by God in Christ. 1. The knowledge of Gods Decree. 2. Of Christ as Mediator. 3. Of the order of the benefits. 4. Of their difference.
Chap. II.
Of the two chief things to be considered in Gods Decree, to wit, the substance, and chief cause of it. The twofold description of Gods Decree or Predestination. And of that which is the most proper.
Chap. III.
Of the substance of Gods Decree consisting in three things. 1. the persons who are ordayned. 2. that wherevnto they are or­dayned. 3. the meane whereby. Of which the first two are spo­ken of in this chapter.
Chap. IV.
The third part of the substance of Gods Decree touching the meane of adoption, that is IESVS CHRIST.
Chap. V.
Of the cause moving God to decree, that is, the will of God cleared from the Persons who are ordayned vnto adoption.
Chap. VI.
The same cause cleared from that thing wherevnto they are ordayned.
Chap. VII.
The same cleared from the meane whereby they are orday­ned to be adopted.
Chap. VIII.
Of the second groūd, which is touching Christ the Mediator.
[Page]Chap. IX.
Of the third ground touching the order of Gods benefites, specially of Adoption and Iustification, and of five things ser­ving to cleare the same.
Chap. X.
Of the first of those fiue touching the order of subsistinge of the persons of the Trinitie.
Chap. XI.
Of the second of these five, touching the severall obiectes wherein the grace of God is to be considered.
Chap. XII.
Of the third of these five touching the difference of order be­twixt Gods dispensation and our perception.
Chap. XIII.
Of the fourth of these five touching the different extent or largenes of Gods benefites amongst them selves.
Chap. XIIII.
Of the last of these five touching the covenant of God.
Chap. XV.
Of the first reason why most men place Iustification in or­der before Adoption.
Chap. XVI.
Of the second reason why most men place Iustificatiō before Adoptiō, drawen from Io. 1. 12. examined in the first point, that is touching the persons there described.
Chap. XVII.
The examination of the same reason from the second and third pointes therein to be considered, that is the benefit be­stowed, and him who bestoweth it.
Chap. XVIII.
Of the fourth and last ground, serving to cleare the nature of Gods benefites touching the difference of these benefits. and first of the divers manner of speach vsed in scripture touching them. 2. Of these things wherein they agree, and vse hereof.
[Page]Chap. XIX.
Of the twofold distinction of the benefits. 1. according to the maner that we enioy them. 2. according to their particular nature.
Chap. XX.
A proposition of the doctrine of Iustification & things there­in to be intreated, And first of the divers opinions of men tou­ching iustification in generall.
Chap. XXI.
The foure principall points controverted. 1 touching the ef­ficient cause. 2. touching the materiall cause. 3. touchinge the formall cause. 4. touching the subiect iustified. and the first handled.
Chap. XXII.
Of the second point touching the materiall cause of Iustifica­tion: the different opinions of men, reduced to foure principall: and examination of them.
Chap. XXIII.
Of the true matter of our righteousnes, what it is, & wherein. & the first handled shewing that Christ only is the matter therof.
Of the second point touching that wherein Christ is our righ­teousnes: the different opinions of men therein: and the truth examined by six grounds out of the word.
Chap. XXV.
Of those things in Christ which are required to make that wherein he is our righteousnes, to be righteousnes both in his Person, Priesthood, and actions.
Chap. XXVI.
Of the formall cause of iustification cōsisting in three things, 1. in Gods giving. 2. in his imputing. 3. in the maner of both. that is by grace. The gift being two fold: the first which is faith is first intreated of in foure pointes: and first, what kinde of gift it is.
[Page]Chap. XXVI.
Of the second point touching faith: to whom, it is given, and in what part or facultie it is wrought.
Of the third point touching faith: what it is: of the divers sig­nifications of it. of the true signification of it, when it is said to be imputed vnto righteousnes: of the particular nature thereof, both as it is wrought by God in our hartes, and as our heartes worke by it.
Chap. XXIX.
Of the fourth and last point touching faith, that is, the end & vse wherefore it is given vnto vs: consisting in foure things.
Chap. XXX.
Of the second gift which God giveth in iustifying, which is Christ crucified.
Chap. XXXI.
Of the second point touching the forme of Iustification con­sisting in imputation: the signification of the word: the thinges that are said to be imputed, and what it is that in iustification is imputed.
Chap. XXXII.
Of the third point touching the forme of iustification, consi­sting in the grace of God.
Of the obiect of iustification both what man is in him selfe, and what by grace, when he is iustified.
Of the finall cause of iustification.
Chap. XXXV.
Of the description of iustification considered in the particu­lar points thereof, gathered out of the former grounds.

A Treatise tending to cleare the Doctrine of Justification.


THE Evangelist Luke, wil­ling to make Theophilus, to ac­knowledge the certaintie of those things, whereof he had bene instru­cted: did search out perfectly all thinges, from the beginning: and then did write vnto him, frō point to point. According to whose ex­ample, (for giuing the more full as­surāce to mindes desirous of know­ledge) it shall not be amisse, being to treat of the true nature of the Iustification of a sinner, that we first beginning at the very foundation, do shortlie speak of those points, vpon the knowledge whereof, chieflie dependeth the light and evidence of this matter.

Amongst divers others: there are foure principall groundes. vpon the sound knowledge▪ whereof, it evidently appeareth, that the right conception, of the true nature of Gods saving be­nefits in Christ, doeth chieflie depend.

  • [Page 2]The first is, The sound knowledge of Gods De­cree or Predestination.
  • The second is, The knowledge of Christ, as Me­diator betwixt God and vs.
  • The third is, The right order of the benefits im­parted vnto vs.
  • The last is, The sound knowledge of the speciall difference and distinction, of those benefites a­mongst them selves.

These foure points haue such affinitie one with another: and the knowledge of each one so depēdeth vpō another, that hard­lie can any one of them be soundly knowne, without the sound knowledge of the rest. For error in one, doth bring commonly, if not continually, errour in all. Which is manifest, if we lay be­fore our eyes, the different opinions of men, touching this point, which we haue in hande: in the which we shall evident­lie perceyve, that as many mayne differences as are amongest them, concerning the iustification of a sinner: so many different iudgements have they, touching Gods Decree, Christes merite, the order of Gods dispensation, and nature of the benefites dis­pensed. For according to our mistaking, or confounding, or wrong placing of any of those respectivelie, wee doe mistake, confound and order amisse, the benefites of God: in our con­ceyving, speaking, or writing of them. Wherefore it is more then evident, that it is dangerous to erre in any of these foure: and therefore before we come to the particular consideration of the benefite of our iustification, I doe esteeme it first necessarie, that for the clearing of the true nature thereof, wee lay some solide goundes in our myndes, concerning the knowledge of these foure pointes: so farre as in generall, is requisite to preserue vs [Page 3] from errour in the particular consideration of any one blessing bestowed vpon vs in CHRIST.


FIRST then touching Gods Decree, the true nature there­of cannot rightly be knowne, except besides other thinges therein to be considered, we specially vnderstand: First, what is the substāce of it: And secondly, what is the chief ground and cause of it. Which two things doe principally teach vs how to make a right reference of all Gods benefits vnto it, and of it vnto them. and therefore they are chieflie to be marked of vs. The matter or substance of Gods Decree, is two maner of wayes considered in the Scriptures: First more properly: which maner in shew seemeth more strict, and yet doth imply the largest sense. Secondly, in a more improper manner according to the conse­quent fruites and effects following necessarily vpon the proper substance and nature of Gods Decree, whereby it is most proper­lie described: which proper description is chieflie to be percey­ued in those places of scripture, where the spirit of God purpose­lie sets it downe, in the owne proper nature: expresly distin­guishing it both from Gods purpose or foreknowledge going in order before it, and from Gods election and remanent blessings in the execution thereof following in order after it.

Of these places there bee two principally to bee marked, which being compared togither, do make vp the full and sound nature and description of the Decree of God in so farre as it is re­strayned to the vessels of honor, in which respect we speake of it in this treatise. The one place is in the first chap. to the Ephes. vers. 5. The other is in the 8. chap. to the Rom. ver. 29. In the first it is thus described, He hath predestinated vs vnto adoption through Iesus Christ in him selfe, according to the good pleasure of his owne will vnto the prayse of the glorie of his grace. And this is the most proper and most perfect definition of Gods Decree, from the next and most pro­per blessing vnto which we are predestinate, and wherevpon al the rest (from which the Decree of God in other places is more [Page 4] improperly defined) do consequently depend as necessarie ef­fects and adherents thereof. And this appeareth to bee manifest by the other place, where it is thus described: Those whom hee knew before, he also praedestinated to be made like to the Image of his Sonne. Which place compared with the former, doth shew evidentlie, that in the former description, conteyned in the first chap. to the Ephe. all blessings wherein stādeth our cōformitie to the Image of Christ, are such necessarie consequences of adoption and in­separable adherents thereof: that to be predestinate to adopti­on includeth them all. And for this cause is it that sometimes the Decree of God is described from them, as namely from eter­nall life, Act. 13. ver. 48. As many as were ordayned vnto eternall life, be­leeved. And from salvation, as 1. Thess. 5. 9. God hath not appointed vs vnto wrath, but to the obtayning of salvation through our Lord Iesus Christ, &c. And these we call more improper descriptions of Gods De­cree, because they are taken from the fruites and effectes, or inse­parable consequences of that blessing wherevnto wee are saide most properly to be predestinate, which is adoption, whereby Gods Decree is most properly described, because in Gods dis­pensation to vsward it presupponeth no preceeding benefite, whereof it should be the effect, but is the next ende wherevnto God doth ordayne vs: and so the first blessing of God, which he doth bestow vpon vs in Christ: comprehending in it by necessa­rie consequence all the rest: as inseparable fruites and effectes thereof: and therefore is it that in that other place, in the 8. to the Rom. Gods Decree is described from the making of vs cōforme to the Image of his Sonne: which alwayes presupponeth the making of vs sonnes, in his sonne, to goe before it.


HAving now considered the places where the decree of God is most properly described, wee are next out of them to marke what is the substance of it, which is cleerly sett downe to consist in three thinges.

  • [Page 5]The first is, The Persons who are ordayned.
  • The second is, The thing wherevnto they are or­dayned.
  • The third is, The Meane whereby they are to re­ceive that wherevnto they are ordayned.

Touching the persons, they are described in the 8. Chap, to the Rom. from Gods foreknowledge or purpose, where it is said, Those whom he knew before, them also he predestinated: and there­fore is it that predestination is said to be according to the purpose of God, Ephe. 1. vers. 11. And to the same effect election is said to be according to the foreknowledge of God, 1. Pet. 1. 1. and 2. And this is that sure foundation of God which never fayleth: as sayeth the Apostle to Ti­moth. the 2. Epist. chap. 2. v. 19. whereof also Iames speaketh Act. 15. 18. as the ground of the calling of the Gentiles to the parti­cipation of grace with the Iewes: when he sayth, from the begin­ning of the world God knoweth all his owne workes. Which two places, lead vs to the consideration of these two things: First, that the foreknowledge of God, or his purpose doth comprehend the de­terminate and complete number of all that are predestinate, and according thereto effectually called. Secondly, that those who are so called, that is according to Gods purpose or foreknow­ledge, doe remayne sure, and never can so fall away from grace and from the trueth of God, that they should erre frō the marke. But heere it is not my purpose to speake more of the persons that are ordayned: because heereafter we wil have occasion at grea­ter length to entreat of them.

The second thing in the substance of Gods Decree to be con­sidered of vs, is that wherevnto they are ordeyned, which by the Apostle is called Adoption, that is sonneship or filiation. When he sayeth, he hath predestinated vs vnto adoption: which be­nefire implieth all the rest, which consist in these things where­of we are made partakers in the sonne of God: to make vs con­forme to his Image both in death and life, in suffering and reig­ning [Page 6] with him. Which as we haue said, appeareth evidently by that other description of predestinatiō set downe in the 8, chap. to the Rom. where it is said, that he hath predestinated vs to be made like to the Image of his Sonne. Whereby it is evident that the thing, whereto first and principally we are predestinate, is to be sonnes, by adoption: and secondarily in and vnder that adoption, we are, by infallible consequent, predestinate, to bee made like vnto the only Sonne of God. For first we are made Gods sonnes in his sonne: & then we are made like Gods sonne, in his sonne, for the conforming of vs vnto Christ, succeedeth not only in order, but also in some respect, in time, vnto our be­ing sonnes in him, according to that saying of Iohn, in his 1. E­pist. chap. 3. vers. 2. We are now the sonnes of God, but yet it is not made manifest, what we shalbe: and we knowe that when hee shalbe made mani­fest, we shalbe made like him, for we shall see him as he is. And to the same effect speakes the Apostle to the Colossians, chap. 3. vers. 3. and 4. saying, That we are dead, and that our life is hid with Christ in God: and when Christ, who is our life, shall appeare, then shall we also appeare with him in glorie.

For this ground is to be well marked, that the likening of vs who are made sonnes in Christ, requireth necessarily, the ma­nifestation of Christ vnto vs, to goe before in the same blessings, wherein we are to be made like vnto him. For as to make vs sonnes by adoption, requireth necessarily the revelation of Ie­sus Christ, as the sonne of God vnto vs: so the conforming of vs vnto him, either in death or life, requireth necessarily that he be manifested to vs in his death and crosse, and in his life and glo­rie. Therefore doth Peter in his 1. Epist. chap. 1. vers. 13. ascribe the bringing of all grace to vs, vnto the revelation of IESVS Christ, saying: Trust perfectly in that grace which is brought vnto you, in the revelation of Iesus Christ. And of this it commeth to passe, that in this present life, we are in some measure made like vnto Christ, in the communion of the benefites flowing from his death and suffering, and his resurrection from the death: because he hath alreadie appeared to vs in these things. But in this life, we are not, neither shalbe made like vnto him in his glorie, which fol­loweth [Page 7] the resurrection frō the dead: because in that, we cannot be made conforme vnto him; vntill that he appeare vnto vs a­gaine, in glorie. but we rest in full assurance of it: because of our conformitie in his death, alreadie begunne. For as sayth the A­postle Rom. 6. 5. If we haue bene planted with him vnto the similitude of his death, we shall also be planted with him to the similitude of his resurrecti­on. And this assurance made the Apostle Paul, to labour above all things, to know Christ, and the vertue of his resurrection, and the fel­lowship of his sufferings, in being made conforme to his death, Phil. 3. 10. because as in the same place he declareth by that cōformitie, vn­to his death, he did know, that he should attayne vnto the resur­rection from the dead: that is, the glorious and immortall estate in all perfection, which the Saints doe enioy, in the resurrection from the dead. In respect of this ground, it is, that first & prin­cipally, as we haue said, we are predestinate vnto adoption, as vnto that wherein Christ is first of all to be manifested vnto vs: and in the communion whereof, is builded and grounded, our communion with him, in all other things, wherein he is heere­after to be revealed vnto vs: to this ende that we may bee made like vnto him.

This is one of the mayne pointes, chiefly to be marked, in the consideration of the substance of Gods Decree. Which not being rightly conceyved, maketh that not onely the Decree of God it selfe, is mistaken by many: but also that the benefites of God in Christ, are both wrongly defined, and ordered, and spe­cially the benefite of Iustification: as heereafter wee will see more cleerly.


THE third thing to bee marked in the substance of Gods Decree, is the Meane, whereby we are to attayne vnto that, wherevnto we are predestinate: that is, whereby God hath ordayned vs, to be Adopted, which is Iesus Christ, ac­cording as the description of predestination contayneth: when [Page 8] it fayeth. That we are Predestinate to be adopted through Iesus Christ. Of which point for avoyding idle repetition, we will not speake much, vntill we come to the second of these foure points: which we haue propounded to be considered: because vnto it, it pro­perly belongeth: onely these two things, we are to marke, by the way: First, that Iesus Christ, is not the cause why, but the Meane, whereby God doth ordayne vs to adoption. Which will more clearly appeare, when we speake of the cause, mooving God to predestinate vs.

The second thing that we haue to marke, is, that all other se­condary Meanes, whereby in the Scriptures we are said to be made sonnes, or iustified, &c. as namely, the Gospell preached, the Sacramentes, & faith: are no wayes to be esteemed Meanes, simply in respect of them selves, but only by relation, and refe­rence to Christ: in and by them revealed, offered, and receyved. Which is most evident, by the description aforesaide of predesti­nation: in the which nothing saving Christ alone, is set downe to be the Meane, whereby God ordayneth vs to be adopted: so that it is not the word but Christ revealed by the word, neither the Sacraments, but Christ signified by the Sacramentes, nor faith, but Christ receyved by faith, which in proper sense ma­keth vs sonnes, and iustifieth vs. They only by consequence and mediatly being said in Scripture, to make vs sonnes, and Iusti­fie vs, &c. because they are the meanes, appointed of GOD, whereby we atteyne vnto Christ, who is the onely proper and immediate meane, whereby we are Adopted and Iustified, &c. Neither are they appointed mediate Meanes, absolutely neces­sarie, vnto our adoption and iustification: Christ onely being the immediate and absolute necessarie Meane, appointed of God for the enioying of these blessings: as being the onely matter & substance of them, in him selfe. The word Sacraments and Faith being in them selves, neither part nor portion of the Matter and substance of these benefites, but onely the signes, or seales, or in­strumentes of enioying him, who alone is the substance. And that onely vnto such, as are partakers of the outward dispensa­tion of the covenant. others who die before they either heare [Page 9] faith preached, or are made partakers of the Sacraments, such as are many children of the faithfull, & such also as are called like vnto the thiefe, in the last houre: being adopted of God, and iu­stified through Christ, without them, and therefore, when in the Scriptures, the spirit of God doth indifferently attribute our a­doption, iustification, salvation, &c. vnto Christ, and vnto [...]aith: yet they are not of a like large extent, nor alike relatiue, in all persons adopted, iustified, and saved, &c. For albeit actuall be­leeving, doth necessarily imply Christ: yet to be adopted and iu­stified through Christ, doth not alwayes, in all persons, necessa­rily imply actuall beleeving: seeing that faith, commeth of hea­ring the word preached: and therfore is to be restrayned to such as are by outward dispensation called: which all that are adop­ted, and iustified, are not: for we are to distinguish betwixt these two things: that is, to be partakers of the covenant, and to bee partakers of the outward dispensatiō of the couenant: and there­fore when it pleaseth God by outward dispēsation, to call those who are within the covenant: these meanes are then necessarily required vnto salvation. For we are bound to these outward Meanes, when it pleaseth God to vse them towards vs, for our calling: but God is no wayes bound to them, nor his grace in Christ, but that he may freely, by his grace, without them, per­forme his Decree through Iesus Christ in vs: after the manner knowne to him selfe: whose wayes are past finding out, els, if those meanes, were absolutely necessarie in all, who are with­in the covenant: then certainly the children of the faithfull, who, according to the Scriptures, are within the covenant, dy­ing without externall dispensatiō of the covenant: should, con­trarie to the scriptures, not be accounted holy.

Of this it followeth, that whē it is said in scripture, that with­out faith it is vnpossible to please God: that wee are to vnder­stand that saying, prudently, least we fall in a dangerous error: so as to esteeme the children, of whom cōsisteth the kingdome, not to be acceptable to God: who notwithstanding, are bapti­sed, as belonging to God in Christ▪ and heyres of that righte­ousnes, which is by faith: although they haue never heard saith preached.

[Page 10] Of all these things we may easily perceive, that seeing Christ, who is the matter of our righteousnes & life, is not the cause why but the Meane, whereby, God doth decree to adopt vs, & iustifie vs, &c. that faith, which is no material but instrumental Meane, can much lesse be the cause why, but a meane, wherby, God doth predestinate vs, to be adopted, iustified, and glorified: otherwise faith, which is powerfull onely in respect of Christ: should be of greater respect, with God, then Christ himself: which were abo­minable to thinke. In danger of which sinne, many notwithstā ­ding do fall: in defining, both Gods decree, and our iustification. When as they distinguish not, first, betweene the thing which is decreed, and the cause moving God to decree that which he de­creed. Secondly, whē they distinguish not, in the thing which is decreed, that whervnto we are ordeyned, from the Meane, wher­by God doth ordayne to adopt vs. & thirdly, whē in the meane, they distinguish not, betwixt that, which is absolutly necessarie, in all within the covenant: frō those things, which only are ne­cessarie, in such, as not only are within the covenant, but also are called by outward dispensation thereof: and which are not, sub­stantial partes of our righteousnes, but accidentall meanes ther­of. except we will say, that to be iustified by Christ, and by faith, is one, and the same thing, in proper and not borrowed speach. which is impossible: except we hold that faith in proper and not figurative speach, doth signifie Christ.

These oversights, cause some to make faith the cause moving God to predestinate vs to adoption, &c. and others, to esteeme faith, not to be the Meane, and that instrumentall & that in some case only: but the very matter of our righteousnes. and that not in borrowed or figurative, but in simple and proper speach. of which matter we shall have occasion to speak heereafter.


THis much being spoken, of the substance of the Decree. we are next to consider, what is the cause that moved God to make this Decree. Where we are to observe, that we doe not speak of the final cause: which is the prayse of the glorie of [Page 11] Gods grace. neither yet of the Materiall cause, and that which in the schooles is called causa procataretica, that is the formost after the first, or after the beginning: which in the substance of Gods Decree, we haue already declared, to be Christ. but the cause we inquire of, is that, which in the schooles is called proegumena, that is to say, which goeth before all causes, and doth leade, order, & guide al the rest. Which the Apost. setteth down in these words: according to the good pleasure of his will. by which words, it is evident, that nothing, either in Christ as Mediator, or in Man himself, or any thing els, without God: but only Gods owne will in him selfe, was the cause that did move God, to predestinate such as are predestinate, and to predestinate them vnto that wherevnto they are predestinate, that is adoption: and to predestinate them to be adopted, by no other Meane, except through Iesus Christ alone. so that both Gods action of decreeing, & the persons who are predestinate, and the thing wherevnto they are predestinate, & the Meanes whereby they are predestinate, doth depend vpō no cause without God, but vpon the cause that is in God him self: and vpon no cause in God him selfe, except only his will. Which sometimes is called in the scriptures his Mercie, his love, his grace, his purpose, his gift, his good pleasure and counsell of his will. And for the clearer vnderstanding of this point, we are carefully to marke, these two phrases, conteyned in the descrip­tion of predestination. The first is, that God is said to have pre­destinate vs in him selfe. The seconde is, that he is said to haue predestinate vs according to the good pleasure of his owne wil. By the first of these sayings, the spirit of God would teach vs, that God went not without him selfe, neither consulted with a­nie thing but him self, neither looked to any thing that was not in him self: when he did predestinate vs. and so cōsequently that the Decree of God, or predestination, is an action of God, not in Christ the Mediator, nor in vs that are his members, but in God him self. For the benefites of God towards Mankinde, and the fruites of his love to the vessels of honour, are clearely distin­guished in scripture, in three degrees.

The first is, of those things, which God doth in him selfe. of which kinde are, his purpose, foreknowledge & predestination.

[Page 12] The second is, of those things which he doth in Christ the Me­diator. of which kinde are our election, redemption, and bles­sing of vs with all spirituall blessings, &c.

The third is, of those thinges which he doeth in vs through Christ. of which kinde are our adoption or calling, our iustifica­tion, and sanctification, and glorification, &c.

By the second pharse, the spirit of God would teach vs, that albeit in God, there be many things set downe in scripture, to be considered, as the fountaynes of Gods working: as namely his infinite wisedome, his omnipotent power, his infinite good­nes, &c. yet this action of predestinating vs to adoption, is only attributed to the will of God. which limiteth the infinitenes, both of his wisedome, power, & goodnes, in all his actions out­ward, toward the creatures: both in their creation and govern­ment, & dispensation of all blessings towards vs, both bodily & spirituall. Heereby we may learne, that our blessednes, if wee shall examine it, in the cause: doth surmount all reason, and all the capacitie of the reason, of man and Angell: seeing it is buil­ded vpon no reason of any creature, or ground of reason in any creature: but vpon the will of the Creator. which is not moo­ved, directed, or ruled by any thing, that is in the creature, but by it selfe alone: and is the rule of all reason, in the creature, and of things done by the Creator, vnto the creature.

This shall yet be more easily perceyved, if we shall severally consider it, in those three pointes of the substance of Gods De­cree, before mentioned: that is in the persons predestinate, in the thing whereto they are predestinate, and the Meane whereby.

Concerning the persons: who can give a reason why Iacob should be beloved, and Esau hated, before any of them, had done either good or evill: except onely the Will of God? as it is written. I will shew mercie to whom I will shew mercie: and will haue compassion vpon whom I will haue compassiō, Exod. chap. 33. ver. 19. Rom. chap. 9. ver. 15. And the spirit of the Lord, giving the rea­son, why the Lord did set his loue vpon Israell, and did choose them: doth remove all respectes, which can bee considered in them. First their number, Deut chap. 7. saying: The Lord thy God [Page 13] hath chosen thee to be a precious people vnto him selfe above all people that are vpon the earth: the Lord did not set his loue vpon you, nor choose you, because you were more in number, then any people, for you were the fewest of all peo­ple. Secondly, he removeth their power and strength, Deutero. chap. 8. saying: Beware least thou say in thy heart, My power and the strength of myne owne hande, hath prepared me this aboundance. And thirdly, he remoueth their righteousnes, Deut. chapt. 9. saying: Speake not thou in thine heart, saying: For my righteousnes, the Lord hath brought me in to possesse this Land. And shortly after in the same chap. Vnderstand therefore, that the Lord thy God, giveth thee not, this good Lande to possesse it, for thy righteousnes, for thou art a stiffnecked people. Fourth­lie, he cleareth this ground most evidently in the 10. chapter of Deutero. by removing all praerogative and respect of right, or reason in respect of right, why the Lord should haue chosen thē aboue any other people, all people being alike belonging to the Lord, saying: Behold heaven, and the heaven of heavens, is the Lord thy Gods: and the earth, and all that therein is: notwithstanding the Lord set his delight in thy Fathers, to loue them, and did choose their seed after them, even you, above all people, as appeareth this day.

Moreover, the same point is yet further cleared by the Lord him selfe in the Prophesie of Ezechiel, chap. 16. by removing all respect of their worthines, or perfection, declaring their wret­ched estate, in them selues, in filthines, and naturall corruption, in the very tyme, when the Lord did choose them, saying: In thy nativitie, when thou wast borue, thy navell was not cut, &c. And when I pas­sed by thee, I saw thee polluted in thy owne blood, and saide vnto thee: When thou wast in thy blood, thou shalt live, &c.

And this ground, is made cleare, by Christ him selfe, Math. chap. 11. vers. 25. 26. when he speaketh of the persons vpon whō the Lord bestoweth his grace, and of the reason moving him thereto, saying: I thanke thee O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, be­cause thou hast hid these things from the wise and men of vnderstanding: and hast opened them vnto babes, It is so Father, because thy good pleasure was such. These wordes doe plainely teach vs, that the will of God onely, without any reason in the creature: yea which is more, contrarie to all reason that may seeme to bee in the creature, is [Page 14] the cause of Gods mercy towards man. When the simple are pre­ferred to the wyse: the weake, to the strong: the poore, to the rich: the vyle, to the honorable: and which is yet more strange: the sicke, to the whole: and sinners, to the righteous. Therefore to conclude this point, we shall see sufficiently the evidēce of it, by comparing the first of Iohn. vers. 13. with the first of Iames, vers. 18. in the 1. of Iohn it is said, That the prerogative to bee the fonnes of God, is given to those who are borne, not of bloods, nor of the will of flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. And in Iames it is said: That of his owne will, God begate vs. Of which it appeareth evidently, that the per­sons who are ordayned vnto adoption, are pre destinate, chosen and called: for no cause without God, either in Christ as Medi­ator, or in them selves: but only of Gods free will, & good plea­sure. For it is not in him that willeth, nor in him that runneth, but in God, that sheweth mercy, Rom. chap. 9. ver. 16.


WE are next to consider the same ground, in that where­vnto we are ordayned: which is adoption: including in it, our conformitie with Christ in righteousnes, holines, life and glory, &c. of all which benefites, there is not one, which is not the gift of God: and that of meere grace: according to his wil & good pleasure. For albeit al blessings be in Christ: yet nei­ther he, nor any of thē in him, are given to vs, but according to the wil of God. so that he is a Saviour & Redeemer of none but of such as pleaseth God of his good will: so that his death & sa­tisfaction for sinne, is not for any, nor imputed as righteousnes. vnto any, for any cause, either in Christ, or Man: but only to such as it is the wil of God to give it. therefore doeth the Apostle say, Rom. chap. 11. ver. 7. that the Election hath obtayned it. to shew vs that the cause of obtayning the promise, & all blessings therein con­tayned, dependeth neither vpon Christ as Mediator, nor vpon Man, but vpon the Lords free choice: who giveth Christ, for whō and to whom he will: and therefore is Christ him self called the [Page 15] gift of God, Iohn chap. 4. ver. 10. and Iohn chap. 3. ver. 16. be­cause even he is given vnto vs of grace: according as the words of Iohn declare manifestly saying: God so loved the world, that hee gave his onely begotten Sonne. And although all power bee given vnto Christ both in heaven and earth: yet in dispensing of life, he is limited by the Fathers will. and therefore saith him selfe, that al power is given him to this end, that he may give eternal life, not to all, simply and indifferently: but to all, that the Fa­ther hath given him. Iohn chap. 17. vers 2. And that because such is the Fathers will: as Christ him self witnesseth, Ioh. cha. 6. ver. 39. This is the will of my Father that sent me, that of all which hee hath given me, I should loose none. and the reason why hee restrayneth his dis­pensation of life vnto the Fathers will, whose will and pleasure is that he should save only those whom he had given vnto him, is declared by Christ him self in the verse immediately precee­ding, saying: I am come downe from heaven, not that I should doe myne owne will, but the will of him that sent me. which wordes plainly teach vs, that the dispensation of life, dependeth not vpon the will of Christ as he is Mediator, much lesse vpon the will of Man: but only vpon the good wil & pleasure of God. And this is cleere in all the blessings bestowed vpon vs in Christ, & of al the meanes which God grants vs to bring vs to the communion of the bles­sings, which all, are said in scripture to be according to the will of God: and to be given vs freely by grace: as namely the reve­lation of the mysterie of godlines, Eph. chap. 1. ver. 9. & preachers to reveale it. Eph. cha. 3. ver▪ 7. &c. and Gala. chap. 1. ver. 15. 16. al­so the benefit of our calling, 2. to Timot. chap. 1. vers. 9. also our beleeving, and by faith assenting to the calling of God, 1. to the Corint. cha. 12. ver. 9. 11. and Ephe. chap. 2. ver. 8. Phil. chap. 7. ver. 29. and 2. chap. ver. 13. Rom. chap. 11. ver. 7. Ioh. chap. 6. ver. 36. 37. and 44. 45. and Math. chap. 11. vers▪ 25. 26. and Mat. chapt. chap. 13. ver. 11. Also the gift of perseverance, 1. to the Corinthi. chapt. 1. vers. 8. 9. and Iohn chap. 10. verses 28. 29. and 1. Epist. of Iohn chapter. 2. vers. 27. and chapter 3. vers. 9. 1. to the Co­rinthians chapter 15. vers. 57. and 58. 1. epist. to the Thess. chap. 5. ver. 23. 24. and 2. epist. to the Thessal. chapter 16. verse 17. [Page 16] and I eremy chap. 31. vers. 32. 33. and chap. 32. ver. 40. & so forth of all the remanent benefites of God, and namely of our Iustifi­cation: for we are iustified freely by grace. And therefore even the righteousnes of Christ whereby we are iustified, is said to be the gift, of God, & that of free grace, Rom. chap. 5. vers. 15. 16. 17. For of whatsoever worth, vertue, & value, the satisfaction made by Christ be of in Gods sight: far exceeding al vnworthines and weaknes of all mankinde: yet it is no farther extended nor gi­ven to any moe, but such as is the good will & pleasure of God, Neither is it contrarie vnto this, that all the blessings of God are said to be in Christ, and we said to be blessed with all spirituall blessings in him. For neither he nor they in him are made ours for any cause, either in him, or vs: but onely by the will & good pleasure of God, which is manifest by the saying of the Apostle, Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 6. which is, That God by his grace hath freely made vs acceptable to him selfe in his beloved Sonne. Which wordes doe evi­dently witnes, that although GOD give vs no blessing but in Christ, yet the cause moving God is only his owne grace and good pleasure: which excludes all other cause whatsoever, ei­ther in Christ or in vs. Neither is this to be vnderstood of the be­nefites themselves onely, but also of their measure: which also dependeth wholy vpon the purpose and good pleasure of Gods will. Which is cleare by the speech of Christ, in the 20. chapt. of Math. ver. 23. And Marke, chap. 10. ver. 40. where he sayeth: To sit at my right hande and at my left hande, is not myne to give: but to whom it is prepared of my Father.

Moreover, this is not onely to be vnderstood of the blessinges them selves, and of their measure: but also of all the circumstan­ces concerning their dispensation. Which wholy depend vpon the will of God: who hath assigned the seasons, which were or­deyned before: and the bounds of mens habitatiō, Act. chap. 17. vers. 26. And who hath put the times and seasons in his owne power. Actes chap. 1. vers. 7. and hath appointed a day of grace to every one that shalbe called. Hebr. chap. 3. ver. 13. and 15. and Hebr. chap. 4 vers. 7. 8. and 9. so that the reason that one is called from the wombe: another in his mid-age: another in the houre of his [Page 17] death. why the Gospell is salvation, first vnto the Iewes, and next vnto the Gentiles: why Christ did come at such a time: died at such a time: and the Gentiles not called till such a time: is the onlie appointmēt of Gods will, who, as saith the Apostle, Ephe. chap. 1. vers. 11. Doth all things according to the counsell of his owne will. Thus it is manifest, that not onely the blessings in Christ, & the measure of them: but all circumstances of these blessings, either in respect of persons, place, time, or maner, doe depend wholie vpon the counsell of Gods will.


IT resteth now thirdly, that we trye the truth of this same ground in the third point of the substance of Gods Decree, that is in the Meane whereby we are predstinate vnto adopti­on, which is Iesus Christ. of whom it is manifest in the Scrip­tures, that he is the Meane of our happines by the same will of God. as is evident by the Apostle, Coloss. chap. 1. vers. 19. & 20. For it pleased the Father that in him should all fulnes dwell, and by him to re­concile all things to him selfe, making peace by the blood of his crosse. For first there was no cause in Christ, why hee should haue beene made Man, and sinne for Man. Secondly, there was no cause nor rea­son in vs which could move the Father, to give him to the death for vs: or which could move him, to become our brother, and to lay down his life for vs, but as sayth Iohn, cha. 10. vers. 18. He re­ceyved this commandement from the Father to laye downe his life. And the Apostle Peter Acts chap. 2. ver, 23. sayeth plainly: That he was de­livered by the determinate counsell and foreknowledge of God. And the scriptures doe witnes, Hebr. chap. 3. ver. 2. & Hebr. chap. 5. ver. 5. that Christ did not take this office to him selfe to be either King, Priest or Prophet of the house of God: but that the Father did give it him. and as he receyved it from the Father, so doeth he performe it, not according to his owne will, but according to the will of the Father that sent him. that is, hee layes downe his life for none but such as the Father willeth: that is the sheep which the Father giveth him: that he should give them eternall [Page 18] life, Ioh. chap. 10. 14. 15. 16. compared to Ioh. chap. 17. ver. 2. and Esay chap. 8. ver. 18. compared with Hebr. chap. 2. ver. 13. 14. and 15. 16. & 17. neither doth he make intercession for any but for such as the Father had given him: but secludeth all who were not given him of the Father from al benefite of his intercession, and fruit of his death, Ioh. cha. 17. ver. 9. Thirdly, he manifesteth the name of God, and giveth the wordes and the glorie which the Father hath given him, to no others, saving those alone whom the Father had given him. In the same chapter 6. vers. 22. and 26. Fourthly, he giveth eternall life to none but such as the Father hath given him. Iohn chapter 6. verses 37. 38. and 39. And Iohn chapter 10. vers. 26. 27. 28. 29. And Iohn chapter 17. vers. 2. for the worke which he performed on earth▪ the Father did give it him, that hee should doe it: as he him self witnesseth Iohn chapter 17. and verse 4. Wherefore also in the performing thereof, when the bitternes of that cuppe which the Father had given him to drinke, maketh him in his agonie to will, If it were possible that it might passe from him: He ran­geth his owne will in order, and submitteth him selfe to the will of his Father, saying: But not my will, but thy will be done. Mathew chap. 26. vers. 39. and 42. Of all which groundes it evidently followeth, that what Christ is, as Mediatour: and what he doeth, as Mediatour: and to whom he doth any thing, by Mediaton and intercession, is all by the will and appointe­ment of GOD, according to his good pleasure. Whose Decree, and free election, according to his will, boundeth and limiteth IESVS Christ the Mediatour, in his suffering, intercession, and whole performance of his office, and dispensation of all bles­sings vnto righteousnes and life, as is cleare in the 11. chapt. to the Romanes, verses 5. and 7.

Of all that is spoken, touching either the substance or cause of Gods Decree: we may easilie perceyve, that the whole Decree of God, in all the substance of it, dependeth vpon nothing but onely vpon the will of God: so that he predestinates, because it is his will, and he predestinates so many and no moe, because it is his will. And hee predstinates them to adoption, because [Page 19] it is his will. and he predestinates this adoption to be thorough Iesus Christ, because it is his will.

Whilest men in humble reverence, doe not acknowledge this, and acquiesce in it, as the trueth of this matter, they not onely fall in blasphemouse errores against God: but involve themselves in the daunger of that curse, pronounced by the Prophet Esay, chapt. 45. vers. 10. Woe be to him that striveth with his Maker. Woe vnto him that sayeth to his Father, what hast thou be­gotten? Or to his Mother, What hast thou brought foorth? Which sure­lie they doe, which search for a reason of this will of GOD, as though the Lord could not be iust, in ordayning some vnto a­doption, and not others, vpon his onely will: but that some cause there must be in the creatures of this difference of his will: what is this else but to buyld the equitie of Gods doeings vpon the creature, and not vpon God the Creator him selfe. making things iust, not because he willeth them, but because he willeth them according to that, which he findeth in the creature: and which in the iudgement of man, seemeth to be a iust reason why God should doe so. even as though the Potter, of one & the same lumpe of clay, did not freely according to his owne will, make one vessel to honor, & another to dishonor, without any respect of any worthines, or any reason whatsoever taken frō the clay. Surely it is a wretched Divinitie which doth not simply acknow ledge all things iust which God willeth: evē because he willeth thē: although they not only passe the capacitie, but also appeare most cōtrary to humane reason. For, are not his iudgements vn­searchable, & his wayes past finding out? who thē shal finde out the reason of his counsels, and declare the causes of his will? We will conclude this point, with the saying of Augustin, touching these mē, lib. pri. ca. 2. de Genes cont. Manich. They seeke to know the causes of Gods will, when as the will of God it selfe, is the cause of all things that are: for if the will of God have a cause: there is something that goes before the will of God, which is not lawfull to beleeve.

The vse we are to make hereof, in the doctrine of iustificati­on, is great: for first, heereby wee learne, that Gods Decree is not buylded vppon our righteousnes, as the cause thereof, [Page 20] but by the contrarie, that our righteousnes is builded vpon Gods Decree. For God doeth not predestinate vs, because of our righ­teousnes: but he maketh vs righteous, because he hath predesti­nate vs: so that whether our righteousnes consist in Christ and his sufferings, or as some doe thinke in workes, or as others doe esteeme in faith: yet it still holdeth, that this righteousnes, is ne­ver the cause why God predestinateth vs. Secondly, wee learne of this point: that whatsoever be our righteousnes, we must goe aboue our selves, & aboue our righteousnes, to search the cause why it is ours. For it is not any thing in vs, nor any thing in that, that is our righteousnes, but the will of God in God him­selfe, which is the ground of our enioying it. Thirdly, we learne heereby, that whatsoever we seclude from the Meanes of our righteousnes, iustification, and life, yet Christ can never be se­cluded. seeing God Decrees, to doe all what he decrees: tho­rough him alone. Thus much concerning the Decree of God, and the nature thereof.


NOW followeth the second point: which standeth in the knowledge of Christ, as he is Mediatour. Whereof, be­cause divers things have bene already spoken, we wil be the shorter. The mayne point, chieflie to be considered in this head, is this: that no man is made, that, vnto the which GOD doth predestinate him, in him selfe and through him selfe, but in and through another, which is IESVS Christ onely: who being ordeyned of God, the Meane of al his mercie to Mākinde, he commeth in, as Mediatour betweene God & vs, in all things decreed of God for vs: so, as we are to expect nothing of all that is decreed concerning the vessels of honour, whether it bee in making of vs sonnes, or making vs cōforme to the Image of his Sonne, in righteousnes and glorie: but only in and through Ie­sus Christ our Lord: in whom alone all the promises of God are yea and amen. For he is the first borne among all the sonnes of God: and the beginning and first begotten of the dead: for it is [Page 21] the Fathers will, that in all things hee have the praeeminence, Rom. chap. 8. ver. 29. Col. chap. 1. ver. 18.

Thus, albeit God in him selfe and of him selfe ordayne vs to great dignitie and manifold vnspeakeable blessings, yet this ho­nour doeth he reserve vnto his only begotten sonne, that of all these blessings we shall enioye none, except in & through him onely: so that it is true that we are ordayned to nothing with­out Christ: but not in that deceitfull sense, whereby the mindes of many are deluded: as though he were the cause why GOD doth ordeyne vs to adoption. The Scripture teacheth vs farre o­therwise: distinguishing betwixt the cause why God decreeth vs to adoption: and the cause why he ordeyneth vs to this ado­ption through Christ onely. Setting downe the cause of the De­cree, to be his owne will & good pleasure in him selfe. And de­claring the cause, why he ordeyneth vs to be adopted through Christ to be this, that Christ might be the first borne among ma­nie brethren: and that he might have the praeeminence in all things: wherevpon it followeth, that albeit he be not the cause why we are ordeyned to adoption, yet notwithstanding seeing it is Gods will to performe towards vs his gracious purpose and good pleasure of his wil, only in and through Christ, that of ne­cessitie, we must first enioy him, before we can enioy any thing, of that that is decreed. And therefore it was the Fathers will that in him should all fulnes dwell, Coloss. chap. 1. vers. 19. That out of his fulnes, we all should receyve. Iohn chapt. 1. vers. 16. And for this same cause is it said, That God hath made him wisedome, righteous­nes, sanctification, and redemption, and that vnto vs, 1. Corinth. chapt. 1. verse 13.

For whatsoever God hath made Iesus Christ the Mediatour, he hath made him that for our cause: so that the love of God to vs and the good pleasure of his wil towards vs, is the cause why Christ is made of God the meane of our salvation. And there­fore, in the consideration of Gods Decree, Christ as Mediatour, commeth in order, after the consideration of that wherevnto we are ordayned: although in the executiō and performāce of Gods Decree, Christ in vs must goe before all other things ordayned [Page 22] for vs: for that is the nature of all Meanes, which are subordi­nate to that, whereof they are appointed to be Meanes.

Thus God first in order purposeth and decreeth what to doe to vs: and secondly by what Meanes: but when hee performeth his Decree, he first prepareth the Meanes: and then accompli­sheth thereby, his purpose and decree towardes vs. For if the Lord had never ordayned vs, that are men, to bee made his sonnes: he had never ordayned his sonne, to bee made a Man, this is cleere by the Apostles speech wherein he declareth the cause why the sonne of God, did take mans nature vpon him. Hebr. chap. 2. ver. 14. saying: For asmuch therefore, as the children were partakers of flesh and blood, even he likewise tooke part with them: And thereafter shewing the cause why not only he tooke our nature [...] but also did take it with the same infirmities (sinne only except) wherewith our nature is indued, he vseth these speeches: For it became him in all thinges to be made like to his brethren. Hebrewes chap. 2. vers. 17. according to which grounde it is saide in another place, That God sent his Sonne in the flesh, in the similitude of sinnefull flesh, Roman. chap. 8. vers. 3. This point is evidently cleare by the same Apostles speech, Galath. chap. 4. verses 4. and 5. when hee sheweth the ende wherefore God sent his sonne in the flesh, say­ing: VVhen the fulnes of tyme was come, God sent foorth his owne Sonne, made of a woman, &c. that we might receyve the adoption. Letting vs see that in Gods execution hee giveth vs the adoption to the which he ordayned vs by the same Meane thorough the which he ordayned to give it vs. Thus we may see evidently, that that parte of Gods Decree, touching the Meane of our adoption: doeth in order of Decreeing, depende vpon the former parte, touching the adopting of vs: but in order of performing, the sending of Christ, made of a woman, and made vnder the Law, and made righteousnes, sanctification, and redemption, &c. doth goe before our adoptiō. For he was not made the cause of eternall salvation to his owne, till he was perfited, Hebr. chap. 5. vers. 9. For which cause the Apostle sayeth Hebr. chap. 2. vers. 10. when hee gives the reason why he was made to taste of [Page 23] death: That Christ being to bring many children to glorie, it became him for whom are all these things, and by whom are all these thinges, to perfite or to consecrate the Prince of their salvation, through afflictions.

This shall be yet more cleare if wee consider who it is that is appointed the Meane, of our adoption, that is not the Fa­ther, nor yet the holy Ghost, but the Sonne only. and that be­cause hee onely is that, vnto the which wee are ordayned. For this grounde we must holde: that what so ever wee are made by grace: it must firste bee in GOD him selfe: and then made ours by our communion and fellowship with GOD.

Now this blessing of sonne-shippe which is ordeyned vn­to vs, is no propertie of the Father, nor yet of the Holy Ghost, but of the seconde person onely: who by that propertie is di­stinguished, both from the Father, and from the Holy Ghost: and therefore although the Father and the Holy Ghost doe with the Sonne, not onely ordeyne vs to adoption, but also adopt vs: yet they neither ordeyne vs to adoption, neyther doe adopt vs, through any, but the Sonne alone: for the Father and the Holy Ghost are not the Sonne, neither can be, because their personall properties are incommunicable: howsoever their naturall properties bee common: yea one and the same in all three. because the nature of all three is most simply one and the same.

Of which it commeth to passe, that we being adopted tho­rough Christ: and so consequently called to the communion of Christ in that, which he is by subsisting, that is sonnes: wee are also made partakers of the Divine nature, as sayeth the Apo­stle Peter. that is, we are made like to all three, in that which they are by nature. for all three have but the selfe same com­mon nature and essence, albeit in subsisting and personalitie, none be that that the other is, and therefore none of them, ex­cept the Sonne alone, can bee a meete Mediatour betwixt GOD and vs in the worke of our adoption. For this office of Mediation is not the office of the Divine nature: but of a Divine person, that hath the Divine nature.

[Page 24] For if it were the office of the Divine nature which is common to all three alike: and as we have said one and the same in all three, surely it should no lesse belong to the Father, and to the Holy Ghost, then to the Sonne: but as saith the Apostle, 1. to Ti­moth. chap. 2. ver. 5. There is but one Mediatour betwixt God and Man, that is the Man Christ Iesus.

But as every common nature is communicate to others by their personall subsisting, flowing from a person of that same nature (for no nature hath any existing but by subsisting) even so we can not be made pertakers of the Divine nature, except first we have our subsisting from one that is of the same nature, and from that person of that nature, which is that, in personali­tie and subsisting, which we are ordayned to be: that is fonnes. for we must be pertakers of the Divine nature, by subsisting the sonnes of God, which cannot be naturally, neither in, nor tho­rough our selves: therefore it is ordayned to be through Christ. by making vs one with him, who by nature, is the onely Sonne of God, that by our fellowship with him, through grace, in that which he onely is by subsisting, or personalitie: we only conse­quently by grace, be made pertakers of the Divine nature, in our conformitie to the Image of God.

For as among men nature doth not produce nature, but one person by procreation of another person doth communicate the same nature: even so in the Godhead, the nature produceth not nature, else there should be many Deities, & so many Gods: but a person produceth a person: and production of a person, carieth with it, communion of nature: even so God doth first make vs his children by adoption in Christ: in which respect he is saide in the scriptures to beget vs: and we are said to be borne of God: which birth bringes with it the participation of the Divine na­ture.

Thus we have to distinguish our communion and fellowship with Christ: which God by his grace bestowes vpon vs, in that personall proprietie of his sonne: whereby we are made mem­bers of his bodie, flesh of his flesh, and bone of his bones: that is, the sonnes of God, and brethrē of Christ: which is our adop­tion. [Page 25] From that communion which foloweth herevpon, & stan­deth in our participation of the Divine nature: whereby we are made one with Father, Sonne, and holy Ghost. Thus by Gods mercie, in calling vs to the felowship of Christ in his sonne-ship: the Father of Christ is made our Father, and his spirit our spirit, and so consequently the nature of all three communicated vnto vs. And for this first vnion with Christ, which standeth in the communion of the dignitie of his sonne-ship: all Gods children are said in the scriptures to be one, in Christ, Galath. chap. 3. ver. 28. And the whole body mysticall is said to be but one, and is called Christ, 1. Corinth. chap. 12. ver. 12. and for that cause, the promise of God is said to be made, to the seede, as to one, & not to the seedes, as to many, Galat. chap. 3. ver. 16. where we may perceyve, the vnspeakeable goodnes and infinite wisedome of God, in his Decree: Goodnes, in ordayning vs to be his sonnes: and Wisedome, in ordayning him onely to be the meane of our adoption, who in him selfe only is that which GOD ordayneth vs to be. Of which it is manifest, that the Decree of our adopti­on, goeth in order before all, not only other benefites in Christ, but also before the ordayning of Christ him selfe, to be a Media­tor. For if this office of Mediation, did not hang and depend v­pon that, which we are ordeyned to be, surely the Father, or the holy Ghost, should no lesse have bene Mediators, then the sonne. Besides these things, it is also heereby manifest, that the benefite of adoption, is the first of all benefites in Christ, and foundation of all the rest. For which cause it is that Gods Decree is most properly defined from it: but of this we shall haue occasion to speake hereafter.

The vse that we haue to make of this point, in the doctrine of iustification, is: that seeing God, ordayneth vs to nothing, but through Christ: our righteousnes, can not consist of any thing, that is not in Christ: for as we are made all other thing, whatso­ever we are made, in him, so also are we made the righteousnes of God in him, 2. Corint. chap. 5. ver. 21. which ground wel mar­ked, doth cleare many errors: specially those, which are about [Page 26] the matter of our righteousnes. of which, it is a wonder, that such controversies should be among learned men. when as the Scrip­ture of God speaketh plainely, that God hath made Christ, righ­teousnes vnto vs. 1 Corinth. chap. 1. vers. 30. And that hee is, all in all things. Coloss. chap. 3. vers. 11. And that he filleth all, in all things. Eph. chap. 1. vers. 23. Wherevpon it followeth, that neither, in whole, nor in part, can possibly our righteousnes, consist in any thing, that is in our selves, nor yet in any other thing without our selves, but in Christ only. And thus much concerning the second point.


THE third thing, needfull to be knowne, for the right vn­derstanding of the nature of Gods saving benefites is, the order in the which they are Decreed, and accordinglie dispēsed vnto vs. In which point, I know there is great neede, of circumspect & considerate dealing: because, albeit in my iudge­ment, the mistaking of this point, bee no small occasion of the errors, which are mantayned by many of great learning, as in o­ther things; so speciallie in the point of iustification: yet, not­withstanding the speaking against an error, by the most part received: and almost contradicted by none: must needes at the first, bee distastfull to many: except their mindes bee by grace sanctified, with a greater love of the truthe, then of themselves. The maine point which cleareth all, standeth in this, whether adoption or Iustification be in order first. The greater part, doe holde that Iustification is first. so that first, we must bee iustified in Christ, before wee be adopted to bee sonnes. and therefore, they devide reconciliation, which they make to comprehend both: in Iustification, as the first part, and adoption as the se­cond. But what inconvenience may aryse vpon this opinion, and what an open entry it maketh to many errors, we shall per­ceyve by these things that follow.

Some there bee, and those but fewe: that holde the contrary [Page 27] opinion: and doe rather point at it, then expresly treate of it. esteeming Adoption, to be before Iustification: or rather to bee as if it were the whole: and Iustification reconciliation &c. to be comprehended in it, as the parts thereof: or to follow vpon it, as inseperable accidents and infallible consequences thereof: or to bee nothing, except the way of Adoption. Which opinion seemeth most to agree with the Scriptures.

The special ground wherby the first of these opinions is main­tayned, is (besides other places of Scripture) that saying which is in Iohn chap. 1. vers. 12. which is: as manie as receiued him to them he gaue prerogative to bee the sonnes of God, that is, to those that beleeved in his name. Vpon which place, they, who defend the former opinion, seeme chieflie to rely. as though it did import, Iustification ne­cessarilie to goe before Adoption: because that Christ, giveth prerogative to be the sonnes of God, to none, except such as first have received him, and have beleeved in his name.

But before I either speake of these opinions, or yet of this place of Iohn: it shall bee first expedient, for the better satisfaction of all mindes, to lay some groundes, vpon the knowledge where­of, the light of this point dependeth much, in my iudgement.

Besides other grounds, there be five of greatest consequence and most expedient to be knowne, for clearing our iudgement in the knowledge of the order of Adoption and Iustification.

The first is, the order of subsisting in the blessed and eternall Trinitie.

The second is, the distinct consideration of the order of Gods gracious love, in the three severall obiects, in the which it is to be considered.

The third is, the order of our sense and perception of the bles­sings of God in our selves.

The fourth is, the difference of extent and largenes, of one benefite, in respect of another, amongst themselves, by mutuall reference of one to another.

The fist and last is: the consideration of the covenant of grace, which God hath made with man in Christ.


THE first ground, is most necessarie to be knowne: not on­ly to the end that we may know God in him selfe aright: but also, that we may know, his gracious working to­wards vs aright. Wherein by the speciall consideration of the Trinitie: three things are to be marked.

First, That every worke of grace, is the worke of all three.

Secondly, That the order of their working, is according to the order of their subsisting: so that in every worke, the Father is first, the Sonne second, the holy Ghost third, in order of wor­king.

Thirdly, That in respect of these two former groundes, these workes of grace, which according to the maner and order of subsisting, are most properly attributed to every person: accor­ding as their maner of working doth chieflie shine and appeare in every worke: are to be ordered, according to the order of the persons them selves. So that the actions, attributed to God the Father, are in order first: the actions attributed to the sonne, in order seconde: and the actions attributed to the holy Ghost, in order third. And this consideration, of the order of Gods wor­king, is no more to be altered, then the nature of God it selfe: in whom the vnitie of essence, is no more essentiall, then the Tri­nitie of persons.

These three pointes, are cleare in the scriptures of God. The first: when one, and the selfe same worke, is sometimes attribu­ted to the Father, sometimes to the Sonne, and sometimes to the holy Ghost. to teach vs that not onely these three persons, are but one God in nature: but further, that what thinges the one doth, the other doth also. according as Christ sayeth: My Father worketh vnto this time, and I also worke, Iohn chap. 5. ver. 17. And a­gaine: VVhatsoever things the Father doeth, the same things doth the Sonne. likewise, Ihon chap. 5. vers. 19.

The second of these pointes, is likewise manifest in the scrip­ture: when in one and the same worke: The Father is made in [Page 29] order of working, first: the Sonne, second: and the holy Ghost, third: according to the saying of Christ: The Sonne can doe nothing of him selfe, except he see the Father working. Iohn chap. 5. ver. 19. And againe, I doe nothing of my self. as I heare I iudge. Ioh. cha. 5. ver. 30. And againe: The thinges that I speake, I speake them so as the Father said vnto me, Iohn chap. 12. ver. 53. And againe, The Spirit he shall not speake of him selfe: but whatsoever he shall heare, he shall speake. He shall glorifie me, for he shall receyve of myne, and shew it vnto you. Iohn chapt. 16. verses 13. and 14. By which speeches, it is manifest, that as the Father, subsisteth in order first, and so in order possesseth life before the Sonne: and the Sonne before the holy Ghost: even so in operation of life and all good grace in vs: the Father in or­der worketh before the Sonne, and the Sonne, before the Holy Ghost. According to which order, we are taught in the scrip­tures, to worship God, praying and giving thankes to the Fa­ther, in the Sonne, by the holy Ghost. according to the order of our accesse vnto God: which is vnto the Father, through the Sonne by the Spirit, Ephe. chap. 2. vers. 18. Drawing neare vn­to God, in our ascending vp to him, according to the order of his drawing neare vnto vs. that is, we ascende by God, in God, vnto God: who of him selfe, and in him selfe, and by him selfe, worketh all grace in vs. of him selfe as the Father, in him selfe, as the Sonne: and by him selfe, as the holy Ghost. For no man hath any grace, either of him selfe, but of God alone, and that as he is the Father: either in him selfe, but in God alone, and that as he is the Sonne: either by him selfe, but by God alone, & that as he is the Holy Ghost.

The third point, is likewise manifest in scripture. When as the worke of creation, and of the first beeing and existing of all thinges, be it either naturall or spirituall, is attributed vnto the first person: of whom are all things and the worke of dispen­sation, and redemption is attributed to the seconde person: in whom onely we enioye all grace. And the worke of consum­mation and sanctification is attributed to the holy Ghost. For according to the distinction, that is inward, arysing from the inward properties, whereby these persons are distinguished: [Page 30] there is also a distinction outward, in the workes of outwarde dispensation: according to the terme in which is the beginning of acting. Neither is this only to be considered, in the actions of outward dispensation, towardes vs: but in the actions that are inward in God himselfe. according to which ground, Christ acknowledgeth that the Father hath given him to have life in himselfe. Iohn chap. 6. vers. 26. For albeit all operation of bles­sings in vs, proceede from the nature and essence of God, as the common beginning and terme in all three: yet notwithstāding thy are restrayned in respect of order, to one beginning: that is to one of those three persons: according as in every worke, the manner of every persons working, either of, in, or by, doth most cleerely shine.

And as they are thus restrayned: so also they are in order to bee considered. So that whatsoever workes of grace, are chieflie attributed to the Father, must needes in order of dis­pensation bee first. And what workes are chieflie attributed to the Sonne, must needes in order bee second. And the workes chieflie attributed to the H. Ghost, must needes in order bee third.

Of this it will follow, that adoption being chiefly the action of God the Father (for none save he who beares the person of a Father can properly bee said to adopt any to be Sonnes: for the Father and the Sonne are relative) must in order goe before our redemption, which is chiefly the action of the Sonne: for he on­ly dyed to redeeme vs: and he only bought vs by his blood vnto God. Revel. chap. 5. vers. 9.

And seeing our Iustice or righteousnes, consisteth in the acti­on of our redemption; for as sayeth the Apostle Rom. chapter 3. vers. 24. we are iustified freelie by his grace through the redemption which is in Christ Iesus. Therefore it must follow, that iustification in order of dispensation must follow adoption. For albeit all blessings be bestowed vpon vs of the Father, in the Sonne, in whom alone wee are adopted iustified and glorified, &c. Yet still the former respect of order must perpetually be kept.

[Page 31] For which cause it is that in the Scriptures, the Decree of God or his predestination, is defined from the benefite of adoption: as the first and chiefest of all blessings: and the first fruite of the love of God, in the first Person, that is the Father vnto Man­kinde.

And for this same cause is it that in the Scriptures wee are said first to bee the Fathers: and to bee given by him vnto the Sonne: for as the Sonne hath nothing of himselfe, but of the Fa­ther: so he hath not vs of himselfe but of the Father. Therefore sayeth he: Thyne they were and thou gavest them vnto me, Iohn chap. 17. vers. 6. And againe; Behold I and the Children whom God hath given mee. Esay. chap. 8. vers. 18. and Hebr. chap. 2. vers. 13.

Thirdly it is for the same respect, that in the Scriptures the first of all the workes of grace in vs, which is the bringing of vs vnto Christ, is still attributed vnto the Father: as his speciall worke. For no man commeth vnto the Sonne, but by the Father. Iohn chapter 6. verse 65. Neither can any man come to mee sayeth Christ, except the Father which hath sent mee, drawe him. Iohn chapter 6. vers. 44. Vpon which worke, dependeth two other principall workes of grace.

The first is, our embracing and receyving of the Sonne: ac­cording to the saying of Christ, All that the Father giveth mee, shall come vnto mee. Iohn chapter 6. vers. 37.

The second is, the infalliblenes of Christ his saving of vs. ac­cording to his owne saying: This is the Fathers will that hath sent mee: that of all which hee hath given mee, I should loose nothing: but should rayse it vp againe at the last daye. Iohn chapter 6. vers. 39. For whatsoever we have of Christ, whether it be righteousnes, sanctification or life, &c. it wholy dependeth, vpon this worke of the Father his giving and bringing vs vnto him. For as the Sonne hath vs not of himselfe but of the Father; so he dispenseth nothing to vs of himselfe: neither is hee redeemer to vs of himselfe, but accor­ding to the will of the Father. For according to the order of the persons, so becomes God our God in order. And therfore accor­ding to that order, are we baptized in the name of the Father, [Page 32] of the Sonne, and of the holy Ghost. God sealing vs vnto him­selfe, and his blessings vnto vs, according to the order that he is our God: and in which he dispenseth his blessings vnto vs.

Thus by this first ground it is manifest, that the benefite of sonne-shipp, (which is the proper worke of God, as he is the Father) must in order be first of all. and next the benefite of free­dome and christian libertie by redemption, and so consequent­lie of righteousnes, must be second in order: seeing it is the work of the Sonne. For If the Sonne make vs free, we shalbe free in deed, saith Christ, Iohn, chap. 8. ver. 36. and that the worke of sanctificati­on or glorification in the which it comprehended sanctificati­on, must be third in order of dispensation: seeing it is the worke of the Holy Ghost. And this order the Apostle plainly confir­meth, in setting downe the order of Gods working, in the exe­cution and accomplishing of his Decree, Rom. chap. 8. verse 30. saying: VVhom he predestinated, them also he hath called: and whom hee hath called. them also he hath iustified: and whem he hath iustified, them hee hath also glorified. The whole execution of Gods Decree beeing comprised in these three workes: our calling, our iustification, and glorification: according to the number of the persons and order of their working. For (as we haue marked) two speciall blessings in Gods Decree or Predestination, are ordayned vnto vs. The first and principall is our adoption, or making vs sonnes through Christ. according as is manifest by the definition of predestination, set downe by the Apostle, Ephe. chap. 1. verse 5. The second which is included and implyed in the first, is, The making vs (now being sonnes) to be like to the Image of the Sonne of God. as is cleere by the definition of predestination set downe by the Apostle, Rom. chapter 8. vers. 29. Both these bles­sings are accomplished in the execution of this Decree. The first blessing which is adoption, is chieflie performed in our calling: when as we are brought by the Father to the Sonne, and are gi­ven vnto him, and haue it given vnto vs to come vnto him, that is, to beleeve in him, or to receyve him: which are all one in ef­fect. The second blessing which is the making of vs like to the image of the Sōne of God, is performed in the other two points: [Page 33] that is in our iustification and glorification. For the Image of God, consisteth in righteousnes and holines of truth: which be­gunne in this life, is the beginning of our glorie, wherein wee shall be perfited in the life to come.


THE second ground followeth, which consisteth in the be­holding of Gods saving grace, in the several obiects wher­in it is to be considered, which are three.

The first is God himselfe, in whom our life is hid, Colloss. chap. 3. vers. 3. Who is the Father of lightes, from whom every good giving and perfect gift commeth downe to vs. lames cha. 1. vers. 17. For our grouth in blessednes, is nothing els but A filling of vs with a greater fulnes of God. Eph. chap. 3. vers. 19. Vntill at last he be all in all. 1. Corinth. chap. 15, vers. 28.

The second obiect is Christ, God and Man, as Mediator be­twixt God and vs: in whom it pleased the Father that all fulnes should dwell. Coll. chap. 1. vers 19. and out of whose fulnes we all receive grace. Iohn chap. 1. vers. 16. therefore he is said to fill all in all things. Eph. chap. 1. vers. 23. and to be the first borne amongst many Bretheren. Ro­manes chap. 8. vers. 29. and to have the preeminence in all things. Coll. chap, 1. vers. 18. and to be the first fruites, 1 Corinth. chap. 15. ver. 23.

The third obiect is our selves, who out of Christs fulnes have received grace. For even in vs it may be seene what is the riches of the glory of the inheritance of God: and what is the excee­ding greatnes of his power. Eph. chap. 1. vers. 18. and 19.

Thus our life and salvation, is first in God himselfe, as in the first fountaine, and in him it is ours, by the eternall purpose and Decree of his good will and pleasure.

Secondly it is in Christ, as the Mediator betwixt God and vs: to whom belongeth the birthright and all the blessings thereof: and that not only in consideration of his divine nature: in re­spect whereof he alone is only Sonne and heyre of all things: but also in consideration of his humane nature, in the which by personall vnion thereof, with his divine nature, hee is become [Page 34] the Sonne of God and our Brother, and is made head both of Men and Angells.

Thirdly, life and salvation is in vs, who are in Christ: through whom, as the appointed meane, we receive from God all saving graces. for nothing cōmeth to vs from God immediatly, but me­diatly, through Christ: in whom only all the promises of God are yea and amen. 2 Cor. cha. 1. ver. 20. And therefore the Decree of God is first accomplished in him as our head and Prince of our salvati­on: who must bring the rest of his Fathers children vnto glory, Heb. ch. 2. ver. 10. as being the first fruites of them that sleepe, 1 Cor. cha. 15. ver. 20. and our forerunner vnto heaven, Hebr. chap. 6. vers 20.

Of this it is evident, that nothing of all Gods Decree is accō ­plished in vs, vntil first it be accōplished in Christ. And in what­soever order God performeth al things in him, in that same order doth he also performe thē in vs: so that whatsoever blessing is first accomplished by God in Christ the man, must needes be the first in order, both in Gods Decree and dispensation towards vs.

Now albeit in all these three obiects our happines bee to bee considered: yet in none of them can we so cleerlie perceive it, as in Christ: who is the only Image of the invisible God. Colloss. chap. 1. vers. 14. in whom onely God is manifested. For all that ever we are to see of God, either in this life, or in the life to come, we are to see it only in Christ. for which cause the Ministers of the Gospell, are said to give the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Iesus Christ, 2 Cor. ch. 4. ver. 6. And as God himselfe, so also his grace is only to be seene in the Lord Ie­sus. Therfore saith the Apostle, 2 Tim. c. 1. v. 9. 10. that the grace of God which was given vs in Christ, before the world was, is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Iesus Christ.

And as touching our selves, whatsoever grace or glory com­meth vnto vs, by the sight of the glory of God in the face of Iesus Christ: it is in vs but in part, which in him is fully. And many things yet rest vnaccomplished in vs, which are accomplished in him. having in vs no other subsisting, but that which faith giveth them. Wherefore the Apostle speaking of the glory wherewith God hath crowned man, which yet we cannot see in our selves: sendeth vs to Iesus, as to the cleerest light, whereby to perceive [Page 35] the accomplishment of that which is written, touching man in the 8. Psalm. Hebr. ch. 2. vers. 6. and for this cause saith Augustin, that Christ himselfe is the cleerest light of predestination and grace. Whose humane nature did by no preceeding merit either of faith or workes, purchase that it should be received in vnitie of person by the Sonne of God: so that that Man, should bee the only Sonne of God: for Christ the Man as he is Man, is made the Sonne of God of meere grace, who according to his divine na­ture was from everlasting the only begotten Sonne of God.

Seeing therfore that in Christ, the cleerest sight of predesti. and grace is to be had: if we would know in what order God doth a­dopt & iustifie vs, we must first cōsider in what order God maketh Christ adoption & righteousnes vnto vs. For if he make him our brother in order, before he make him our redēption of righteousnes: thē surly our adoptiō in order must go before our iustificatiō.

Concerning Christ, it is cleere in the Scripturs that it is so, whe­ther we respect Gods election before all time, or his performing therof in time: for the one, that is the dignity of Christ, as man to be the Son of God: is performed in the incarnatiō; the other wherby he is made our righteousnes: is therafter accomplished in his suffring. For when the word was made flesh, that flesh in subsi­sting and personalitie, was made the Son of God: never having frō the first moment of cōception, any subsisting a part of it own, but only that of the second person of the Trinitie. beeing not so much as cōceived by the H. Ghost in the wombe of Marie, but in vnitie of person, with the eternal Son of God. Therfore iustly do the Fathers call this benefit, gratiam Vnionis, that is, the grace of V­nion. Thus in the very first action of Dispensation, toward the Son of Marie, the grace of siliation shineth cleerely, before all o­ther grace. After which in order followeth the action of God, making him our righteousnes: when as he made him, now being his Sonne in our nature, sinne for vs, which he could not haue bene made for vs, vntill first he was our brother. Like as we can have no right to his redemption, except we first be his brethren. For brotherhood is the foundation of redemption: in so farr that according to the Lawe and Ordinance of God, Christ can not offer vp him selfe a ransome for any vnto God, but [Page 36] such as are his bretheren. Neither can any have part or portion in his oblation, whose brother he is not. For hee that sanctifieth and they that are sanctified are all of one, wherefore he is not ashamed to call them Brethren. Hebr. chap. 2. vers. 11.

This ground is made manifest by the lawe of God: whereby it is ordayned, that the first borne of every man and beast, that is the male that first openeth the wombe: and the first ripe of all fruites, shall be offered and consecrate to the Lord: that in the consecration thereof, all the rest comming of the same Wombe, or being of the same Masse or Kinde, might likewise bee conse­crated to God. For as sayeth the Apostle, Rom. chap. 11. vers. 16. If the first fruites be holy, so is the whole lumpe. And this is that which the Apostle will signifie, when hee sayeth that Christ is the be­ginning & first be gotten of the dead, that in all things he might have the preeminence, Coll. chap. 1. vers. 18. Revel. chap. 1. ver. 5. As also when he sayeth that Christ was made the first fruites of them that sleepe. 1 Corinth. chap. 1. vers. 20. this same thing doth the Apostle declare in the 8. to the Romanes. When hee sheweth the reason why God hath predestinate vs to bee made like to the Image of his Sonne, which is, that he might bee the first borne amongst many Brethren. For his prerogative in birth, is made manifest by this, that in his consecration we are conse­crated, according as sayeth the Apostle, Hebr. chap. 10. vers. 14. with one offring hath he consecrated for ever, those that are sanctified.

Thus the very lawe of God doth teach vs, that as the first borne Male did consecrate all the rest of the same wombe, that is brethren begotten of the same parents, and no other: and e­very first ripe fruite of every mans ground and in heritance did consecrate to God the remanent fruite of the same ground and inheritance and no other: eaven so Iesus Christ is consecrate for none but for his brethren, and none are consecrate by him, who are not brethren with him. For it is not his oblation that maketh brotherhood, but it is brotherhood that maketh his oblation. Wherevpon it must follow, that seeing Christ must first be our Brother, before he redeeme vs, that we also must first be adopted, before we bee iustified.

[Page 37] This same the Lord would seeme to declare by the lawe of redemption which he established in Israel: whereby all right of redemption, is given to the neerest kinsman.

As also by the law touching the prerogative of the first borne: whereby he is made Lord amongst his brethren, but amongst none other. by which it appeareth cleerly, that brotherhood is both the ground and limitation of Christs office, both as Redee­mer and Head of the Church; and this same brotherhood is the ground of all right that we can pretend vnto the death or life of Iesus Christ ourhead.


THE third ground serving to cleere the order of the bles­sings of God: is the difference betwixt the order of Gods dispensation and our perception or sense of his benefites. For that is not alwayes formost in order of dispensation, which is first perceyved by our sense: for in our conception of Gods be­nefites, we ascend from the later in order, to the former. Gathe­ring the knowledge and certeintie of the blessings going be­fore, by the sense and feeling of those which follow after.

Hereof we have many examples in Scripture. For as Christ teacheth vs, it is with every man that is borne of the Spirit, as it is with him, who heareth the sound of the wind blowing, but cannot tell whence it commeth, nor whither it goeth. Iohn cha. 3. vers. 8. Thereby informing vs, that the man begotten of God, knoweth neither from whom the working of the Spirit is, nor yet what is the end of it at the first, vntill afterward, that the effects following manifest both the Author, the worke, and the end thereof. According to which Iohn sayeth, 1 Epist. chapter 1. vers. 6. By this we know we have fellowship with God, because we walke in the light: and againe, by keeping his commande­ments, we know that we know him, and yet surely wee must have fellowship with him, and knowe him, before wee either walke in the light, or keepe his commandements. So also by confessing that Iesus is the Sonne of God, we know that God [Page 38] abideth in vs & we in him, as saith the same Apostle, Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 15. yet God must be in vs by his spirit, & we in him, before we can give any such confession: for no man can doe so much as call Iesus Lord, but speaking by the spirit, 1. Corint. chap. 12. ver. 3. Likewise it is said, that we know that God loveth vs, because we love him: and yet as saith the same Apostle, we love him be­cause he loveth vs first, 1. Epistle, chap. 4. vers. 19. For the former blessings lying in our heartes vnperceyved, are made manifest vnto vs by these effects following. For as Iohn sayeth, Heereby do we perceyve Gods love to vs, by giving his sonne for vs, 1. E­pistle chap. 4. ver. 9. For the love of God towardes vs, which did goe before as the cause, is not perceyved of vs, but by the giving of his sonne for vs, as the effect following. And to this end is it, that Peter 2. Epist, chap. 1. ver. 10. willeth vs by our succeeding holines, as the fruite of our righteousnes, to make our calling and our election sure.

Thus wee see, that the blessinges of GOD are not at the first perceyved of vs, in the order wherein they are dispensed. For there is a cōtrarie course of order, betwixt the Lords dispen­sing of his grace to vs in Christ, and of our perceyving of the graces imparted vnto vs. for we ascend vpward vnto God the fountayne of all blessing, backe agayne by the same steps, by the which he did descend first vnto vs. The ladder of God, reaching from heaven vnto earth, doeth bring GOD downe to vs, from the vpmost steppe to the lowest: but it leadeth vs vpwarde to God, from the lowest to the vpmost. Therefore God doeth not beginne in dispensation to vsward, where wee beginne accor­ding to our apprehension, to rayse our myndes vpwards, in the collection of the benefites dispensed. But if we will rightlie know how God hath made that ladder: we must beginne at the vpmost, nearest vnto God, & steppe downe to the lowest, where first wee began to steppe vp vnto God. so shall we know the right order of Gods dispensation towards vs.

It may be probablie thought, that the negligent considerati­on of this point, maketh many to mistake the right place of ado­ption. For although we doe not thoroughly perceyve, neyther [Page 39] have the cleere knowledge of our adoption, vntill the time that we have remission of sinnes, and feele the peace of God, and ioye of his Spirit in our heartes, and that confidence and bold­nesse whereby we may crye Abba Father: yet it followeth not, that these goe in order before our adoption.

But even as our Iustification is thoroughly perceyved and confirmed in vs, by our succeeding sanctification (for hee that doeth righteousnes in righteous, Iohn first Epistle, chapter the thirde, verse 7.) eaven so our Adoption, is cleered and confir­med vnto vs by our succeeding Iustification and fruites thereof. For our Adoption hath the accomplishment of it, partly in eve­rie one of the remanent blessings of God, and wholy, in the ioynt and full accomplishment of them all. Therefore are wee saide still in this life, to waite for our Adoption, Rom. chapt. 8. vers. 23. because our Adoption is not fully finished, vntill our full redemption be performed. But more cleerely of this in the next ground: which serveth to cleere both this third ground, and the mayne point which we have in hande.


THE fourth ground standeth in the marking how every benefite goeth above each other amongst them selves, in largenes of extent. for that benefite, which is comprehen­ded vnder another, must needes in order follow that which doth comprehend it: and that which doth cōprehend all the rest, must needs in order go before them all. For things which are vniver­sal and general, go before things which are speciall & particular.

Now amongst the benefits of God, we finde in scripture, that re­demptiō is of very large extent: so that it doth cōprehend vnder it, both our iustification & glorification, for it is defined oftētymes by both. Touching iustification it is cleere, when as redemptiō, is defined so oft by remissiō of sinnes: and we are said to be iustified freely through the redemption that is in Christ Iesus, Ephe. cha. 1. ve. 7. and Rom. 3. 24. And as concerning glorification, Christ expresly calleth it our redemption, Luke chap. 21. ver. 28.

[Page 40] As touching the rest of the benefites, wee shall have occasion to speake of them hereafter, and we will now only speake of A­doption: comparing it with Redemption: to try which is of largest extent: for if it bee larger then Redemption: I thinke in the iudgement of all men, it shall bee without contradiction esteemed, the first blessing of all: but especially it shall be found in order to go before Iustification: seeing that our righteousnes, is comprehended in our Redemption.

For cleering this point, if we marke narrowly the Scriptures of God, we shall see, that as our Redemption comprehendeth vnder it, our Iustification, Sanctification and Glorification: so our adoption comprehendeth vnder it our whole Redemption, and all the parts thereof. which is manifest by three speciall reasons.

The first is, because Adoption is extended by the Spirit of God, to the last blessing, wherein standeth the accomplishment of our Redemption, that is the redemption of our bodies: from the which, as from a part, Adoption is described, Rom. chap. 8. vers. 23. and that because our Adoption, is not fully accompli­shed, but in the full accomplishment of our Redemption. There­fore sayeth Iohn, 1 Epist. chap. 3. vers. 2. That now we are the Sonnes of God: but yet it hath not appeared what we shall be. Thereby declaring, that eaven to our selves, the cleere and full sight of our Adop­tion, is not, nor shall not be given: vntill the day of the second appearing, of the Lord Iesus: when all things Decreed shall be finished. Therefore that day, is called by the Spirit of God, the day of the Revelation of the Sonnes of God, Rom. cha. 8. ver. 19. Out of which place, it may evidently bee gathered, that our whole Redemption and every part thereof, and especially the last part, is nothing els but a manifestation of our Sonne-ship or Adoption. And therfore it must follow, that Iustification, which is a part of Redemption, must serve to this same vse in part, like as the whole parts of Redemption fully accomplished,Iunius in ami­ca col­la. [...]m Armin. serve for it in whole. And this is the cause, why by a most learned Divine, Iustification and all subsequent benefits, are called Via Adoptionis, that is the way whereby Adoption is performed.

[Page 41] The second reason is taken from that ground, which was layed downe in the XI. chapter, by which it was cleared, that Christ can redeeme none, but such as are his brethren. For by his consecration, he was to bring none but childrē vnto glorie, Hebr. chap. 2. ver. 17. and therefore it must follow, that Adop­tion in order must goe before Iustification: seeing whatsoever Christ doeth in the flesh, he doth it wholy for his brethrens sake. so that our whole Redemption is the fruite of our Adoption, and an infallible consequence thereof.

The third reason, is taken from the definition of Gods Decree or Predestination: which vnder the benefit of Adoption alone, comprehendeth all the blessings of God, and whatsoever GOD of his eternall purpose hath ordayned vnto vs, for our full feli­citie in Christ. for by it alone, without mentioning any of the rest of the benefites in Christ, predestination is defined, Ephe. chap. 1. vers. 5. to shew vs, that it contayneth all vnder it, and is of the largest extent of all: as being before all, in all, & through all the rest. For then is an adopted sonne, fully a sonne, when he enioyeth the full inheritance. and we know that to be adop­ted, includeth and implyeth the enioying of the inheritance al­wayes: and therefore the Adoption of God must needes have included vnder it our righteousnes: seeing that righteousnes is a part of the inheritance, which is by faith, Heb. chap. 11. vers. 7.

It is true that Adoption is taken in two diverse senses, not onely by Divines, but also by the Scriptures themselves. But in what sense soever it bee taken, yet in respect of order, it is ever first. For if we take it in that sense, whereby the nature of Adop­tion is thought most properly to be expressed, when it signifieth a severall blessing, distinguished from all the rest: then it is no­thing different, either from our eternall election in Christ, be­fore all time, or then our effectuall calling in time. Which is the first action of God his gracious dispensation, preceeding our iu­stification: as witnesseth the Apostle, Rom. chap. 8. vers. 30. and it consists in the bringing of vs vnto Christ, by the Father, and ingrafting of vs by faith in him, as the Sonne of God: and by that vnitie with him, making vs Sonnes: that we may bee likewise [Page 42] heyres. But if we take Adoption in that more large sense: where­in it is taken in that foresaid definition of Predestination; Wher­by it comprehendeth all the remanent blessings, from the first to the last: then it partlie differeth from the rest, and partly is nothing els but the rest. For in so farr as it concerneth our cal­ling or chosing in time, it is different from iustification and the rest, and goeth before them all: and the rest must necessarily fol­low it, as inseparable adherents thereof. For whom hee calleht them he iustifieth: and whom he iustifieth, them he glorifieth. Rom. chap. 8. vers. 30. But as it concerneth the rest of the benefites, it is nothing different from them. Therefore it is described by them, as parts: because they are the full accomplishment of it. In which sense as wee have said before, they are called by some, the way of A­doption.


THE last ground for cleering this point, is the due consi­deration of the Covenant of God with Man. In the which, two things are especially to be marked.

The first is, Those to whom the Lord maketh his promise.

The second is, The promise it self, which God maketh to them.

Touching the first, the promise is not indefinitely made to all men, but to Abraham and to his seed alone. For God hath said, he will be his God, and the God of his seed after him. Therefore no man that is not of this seed, doth obtayne any part of the promise: because it is a benefite belonging to none, except to the seed onely. Of which it is manifest that we must bee Abra­hams seed, before we have right to the promise.

Now what is meant by the seed, the Apostle telleth vs, Gal. chap. 3. vers. 16. saying: he sayeth not to the seeds as speaking of many, but vnto thy seede as of one, which is Christ. That is Christ mystically considered with his members: who all spirituallie ingraft in him, make the body, whereof hee is the heade: as is manifest by the Apostles speech, 1 Corinth. chapter 12. vers. 12. Nowe we are made the seed, by our Adoption. For to be the seed of A­braham, is to be the children of God, as is cleere by the Apostle, [Page 43] Rom. chap. 9. where he saieth: Neither are they all children, because they are the children of Abraham, but in Isaack shall thy seed bee called, that is, they that are the children of the flesh, are not the children of God, but the children of the promise are counted for the seed. This same the Apostle confirmeth Gallat. chapter 3. verse 29. saying, And if yee be Christs, then are yee Abrahams seed and heyres by promise. Of these things it fol­loweth, first, that to be of the seed and to be the children of God and to be Christs, is all one thing.

Secondly, that wee must be the children of God, that is of the seed, before wee can enioy the promise. And so consequently, that we must be Adopted before we be iustified: seeing iustifica­tion is a part of the promise, made vnto the seede: as is cleere by the words of the Covenant. Ierem. chap. 31. and Hebr. chap. 8. I will be mercifull to their vnrighteousnesse, and I will remember their sinnes and iniquities no more.

This ground is yet more cleere, by the Apostles speech, Rom. chap. 9. where he answereth the doubt which might rise, vpon the reiection of the Iewes. videli. Whether GOD had fayled in performing of his promise? seeing they were the seed of A­braham which were reiected. The Apostle answeres this, and cleeres the constant truth and veritie of God, in performing his promise vnto the seed, according to his Covenant: by defining the seed aright: shewing that they are not accounted for the seed, be­cause they are the children of Abraham, according to the flesh, but because they are children of the promise. In which discourse, the Apostle layeth those as necessary and infallible grounds.

First, that we must be of the seed before wee claime the pro­mise.

Secondly, that beeing of the seed, wee must be partakers of the promise. For otherwise God should faile in his truth, and his word should be of none effect.

Of which things we may perceyve, that the grace of God in which standeth our Adoption, by which wee are made of the seed, must goe before all the graces contained in the promise, which is made vnto the seed, seeing the beeing of the seed is the ground and foundation of enioying the promise.

[Page 44] This leades vs to the knowledge of another point, which serves to cleare our iudgement touching this same ground. To wit, in what order to place the fruites and effects of our faith. Which, as we shall heare hereafter, is the effectuall instrument of God, by the which all blessings are communicate vnto vs. For in this life wee enioy no saving blessing but by faith onely: for by it we embrace our Adoption, and are made the Sonnes of God. As witnesseth the Apostle, Galath. chap. 3. vers. 26. saying: ye are all the Sonnes of God by faith in Iesus Christ, and by faith we ap­prehend our righteousnes & are iustified, Rom. c. 3. v. 28. Gal. c. 3. v. 8. And so of all the rest of the blessings. Thus both the parts of the Covenant, are wrought & effectuate in vs by God, through faith. for by it wee are both made the seed, and doe obtaine the promise: but as being the seed, must goe before the enioying of the promise: even so that fruite of faith in Christ, whereby wee are made the Sonnes of God, must in order of dispensation, goe before that fruite of faith, whereby we are made that, which is promised vnto the seed: and so consequently by faith wee must first be made Sonnes before we be made iust.

Thus much touching these five grounds, which serves for cleering the order of the blessing of God, dispensed vnto vs in Christ. Which was the third of these foure points, which we laid downe, as necessarie to leade vs to the knowledge of the right nature of the saving benefites of God: and so perticularlie of Iu­stification. So that it followeth, that wee should enter to speake of the last of the foure, touching the difference of one benefite from another: but first it shall not be amisse, to speake somewhat of that other opinion, which houldeth Iustification to bee in or­der before Adoption: and to consider the groundes wherevpon it is buylded.


THE grounds of any moment, which I have marked, wher­vpon this opinion is buylded, are two. The first is: It is thought an impossible thing, that God should adopt vs be­fore [Page 45] he iustifie vs. Because God cannot esteem those that are vn­iust, to be his Sonns. And this is the cause apparantly, that makes so many to put reconsiliation in the first place, and to divide it in iustification, as the first part thereof, and Adoption as the last.

The other ground is taken out of the Scripture, especially out of that saying, which is in the 1. of Ioh. ver. 12. Where it is said, as many as receiued him, to them he gave prerogative to be the sonnes of God, even to them that beleeve in his name, which are borne, not of blood, nor of the will of flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.

As concerning the first ground, although it seeme to have great shew of trueth: yet it is most dangerous, if it be not rightly conceived. For it may import so much as that the love of God and his grace, is not free, and freelie bestowed vpon vs: if so bee it should be builded vpon our Iustification: Which is contrarie to the course of Gods trueth in Scriptures. Which sheweth plain­ly that God loved vs, even while yet wee were sinners and vn­iust: yea while wee were enemies, Romanes chapter 5. and that when wee were polluted in our owne blood, hee did pit­tie vs, and of his love did promise life vnto vs, and washed vs with water, and purged away our blood from vs, and anoynted vs with oyle, and decked vs with ornaments. Ezek. chap. 16. Whereby it is evident, that our Iustification is not the cause why God acknowledgeth vs to be his children: but by the contrarie, his taking of vs to be his children, is rather the cause why hee doth wash away our filthines from vs, & iustifieth vs. For seeing the Lord loveth vs, before he iustifieth vs: there must bee some ground of this love, before our Iustification: seeing he loveth vs not, then as iust men: because we are yet sinners: and God doth iustifie the vngodly. And no other ground can preceede in dis­pensation, except our calling: which is nothing els in effect, but our Adoption: or at least, the first part and beginning of it. Which is the first fruite of his love toward vs: by the which wee are made of the seed, and so heyres of the promise of righteousnes, conforme to the reason of the Apostle Peter, Acts chap. 2. vers. 39. Where he sheweth that the promise belongeth to all that the Lord our God shall call. Which calling, is nothing els but the [Page 46] applying to vs in time of our eternall election in Christ before all time: which election is nothing els but our Adoption. This point is cleere if we consider, who they are, whose filthines God promiseth to wash away, Esay. chap. 4. and to whom he promi­seth to open the fountayne for sinne and vncleanes, Zach. chap. 13. that is, to the Doughters of Ierusalem, and to the house of David, and inhabitants of Ierusalem. Which in effect is as much as to say: Those who are the children of God, who are citizens with the Saints, and of the houshold of God. And this is that which we said before, that we must first be of the seed, before we enioy any part or portion of the promise: and so consequently righteousnes. For the love of God to his Sonne, as his Sonne, being the only foūdation of Gods love vnto vs: it must follow that the first ground of Gods love to vs in Christ, must be buyl­ded vpon our communion with him, in that which is the foun­dation of all Gods love to vs: that is the Sonne-ship. For it is for this cause, that it is saide in scripture, that Christ is the sonne of Gods love, and his beloved: and that God is said to make vs ac­ceptable or beloved to him selfe, in that his beloved Sonne.

Secondly, we shall perceyve the trueth heereof more cleerly, if we consider the grounds in Christ, wherevpon dependeth our Adoption and iustification in him.

Touching our Adoption, it must of necessitie be grounded, neither vpon the Divine nature of Christ, nor simply vpon his humane nature, neither vpon his Obedience and suffering in that humane nature, now assumed: but onely vpon his perso­nalitie and subsisting, whereby he is the Sonne of God. For which cause our nature, which hee assumed, was taken by him, in vnitie of subsisting or person with his Divine nature. In that personall vnitie of our nature assumed, with the sonne of God, laying the foundation of our Adoption, to bee the sonnes of GOD.

As touching our Iustification, it is buylded vpon his obedi­ence, in giving him selfe to the death of the crosse for vs: as it is cleare throughout all the scriptures.

These groundes being considered, we have next to marke [Page 47] in which of these two, is our communion by faith with Christ, first in order accomplished: that is whether first by faith, we are made partakers of his sonne-ship, in being made one with him as the sonne of God: or whether first we be made partakers of his obedience and death.

In answering of this question, I thinke there shall no man be founde, who shall not agree, that we must by faith have fel­lowship and communion with him selfe, as he is the Sonne of God: before we can have communion and fellowship of his sufferings. For how can his death be our death, vntill first he and we be one: seeing all vnitie and communion of his suffe­ringes, floweth from our communion and vnitie with him­selfe.

Wherevpon it may easilie appeare, that if that saying of those learned and holy men bee not rightly vnderstoode, it may make many to cast from them selves, the verie foundation and grounde, wherevpon the assured confidence and know­ledge of their Iustification in Christ dependeth. For no man can ever have hope, to have part in his death, that firste doeth not finde, that he hath parte in him selfe: for first we must bee fleshe of his flesh, and bone of his bones, and he of ours, be­fore any thing that ever he hath done in the flesh, be made ours. Of which it followeth, that we must first be sonnes, before we be iustified.

For as in earthly Mariage, Man and Woman are made one flesh, by coniunction of their bodies in one: and therevpon fol­loweth communion of all other things: even so in our spiritual Mariage with Christ, we have no communion with him in any thing that is his, vntill the time that first hee be ours and we be his: so as he and we be but one. And this agreeth with the saying of the Apostle, Gallath. chapter 3. vers. 29. where hee sayeth, And if yee bee Christs, then are yee Abrahams seed and heyers, according to the promise. Where the Apostle sheweth, that our beeing Christs, maketh vs the seed, that is, the childeren of God. And that our beeing the seede, maketh vs heyres of the promise: And so consequently, of the righteousnes, that is by faith.

[Page 48] This same is evident by the Apostles speech, Ephez. chapter 5. Where hee exhorteth men to love their Wives, as Christ loved his Church. Which love is declared in these effects, that hee did give himselfe for her, to this end that he might sanctifie her, pu­rifying her by the washing of water, that he might make her to himselfe glorious, not having spot or wrincle, &c. By which place it is manifest, that the death of Christ and fruites thereof, are the effects of his love, to those that are nowe alreadie his spouse, and ioyned with him in that spiritual Vnitie, which is by faith. And this we must acknowledge, except we will consent to that vile opinion, which overthroweth the foundation of all religion: which is, that even in the intention and purpose of God; Christ dyed equally and indifferently for every man alike. That is, that he did give himselfe to death, as well for those that perish, as for the elect of God. Whereas this place of the Apostle, sheweth the direct contrarie: that he gave himselfe only for his Church. Which is cleere by the Apostles argument, wherevpon he vrgeth the like love in husbands towards their wives, as was in Christ towards his Church. For the analogie of love, is buil­ded vpon the analogie of Vnion. The force whereof is this: if Christ so loved his Church, because those of his Church, are members of his body, of his flesh, and of his bones, so likewise ought men to love their wives: because they are one flesh and one body with their husbands. For as the Apostle requireth of husbands towards their wives, more then that common love, which they owe to all women: and that because they are one flesh with their wives: but not with any other women: even so he vrgeth it, from a like example in Christ: who beside and above that common love, which he carrieth to all flesh: did in greater measure declare his love to those that were members of his body, flesh of his flesh, and bones of his bones: in that he did give himselfe to death for them: to this end, that hee might iustifie them. For as the bonde of Mariage, doth oblige the hus­band to a particular and speciall love to his wife, wherein he is obliged to none other: even so the Lord Iesus, did submitt him­selfe vnto the Fathers will, to lay downe his life for none, but [Page 49] such as were given him of the Father, and made members of his body, and his spirituall spouse.

And if any will obiect, that this place of the Apostle is to be vnderstood of the order of Christ his doing, according to the e­ternall purpose and Decree of God: and not according to the Dispensation of God towards vs in tyme. It is easie to be answe­red: that the order of God in both is one and the same. For as the Lord doth particularly predestinate men, to Adoption, be­fore he give his Sonne to the death for their iustification; even so in tyme, he doth Adopt vs, that is effectuallie call vs, & bring vs to his Sonne, and make vs one with him, before he iustifie vs.

Moreover, this shall yet be more manifest, if we shall marke this one distinction of the fruites of faith. to wit, if we can dis­cerne betwixt the immediate fruite of faith, and the mediate fruites. The mediate fruite we call that, which is wrought by God in vs, even by the very working of faith in our heartes, to­gether and at once: and that is, our verie vnion and coniuncti­on with Christ. For by faith Christ dwelleth in our heartes: and this is the worke whereby we are made the sonnes of God. For as sayeth the Apostle: If we be Christes, we are the seed, Gal. chapt. 3. vers. 29.

The mediate fruites of faith I call those, which by vertue of this vnion, as the necessarie forerunning meane, faith produceth in vs: such as is our iustification, sanctification, &c. so that in a manner, we can distinguish betwixt these benefites and our faith: but more hardly betwixt our faith and Adoption: seeing our abyding in Christ, and Christes abyding in vs, is all one thing with our beleeving in Christ.

That saying therefore, of these learned Divines, that GOD cannot acknowledge vs his sonnes, before he iustifie vs: is not simplie and absolutelie to be vnderstood: but by comparison & relation: that is, because God powreth in our heartes, after our iustification, a more lively sense of his love, and a cleerer sight of our Adoption, then we receyved in our calling. And this ma­ner of speach the spirit of God vseth familiarly in the scriptures: [Page 50] which is comparatively to be vnderstood. as Iohn chap. 7. vers. 39. For the holy Ghost was not yet, because Christ was not yet glorified: Which is not to be vnderstood, as though the holy Ghost had not bene at all, but only that he was not in that measure that he was ther­after to be given. Likewise in that of Iohn ch. 16. Christ sayeth, touching his Disciples: hetherto have ye asked nothing in my name: which were great prophanes in vs, to vnderstand simply of those holy men of God: who knew Christ to be the Christ, & Sonne of the living God: and who were directed in their prayers by the spirit of God, who inditeth none, but in the name of Christ: al­beit more darkely and obscurely manifested in our hartes, then after the comming of the holy Ghost in greater measure.

Even so it may bee iustly saide of our Adoption: that God doeth not acknowledge vs his sonnes before hee iustifieth vs: because that, which in small measure and darkely was mani­fested to vs, in our calling, is more fully and clearely revealed in our Iustification. because then the spirit of Adoption is more aboundantly shed abroad in our heartes, for the sealing of our Adoption. For as we haue saide before, although our A­doption be begunne in our Calling, before our Iustification: yet hath it the clearer manifestation, and fuller accomplish­ment, in, and through all the rest of the benefites follow­ing our Calling. For as sayth Iohn in his first Epistle, chapter 3. verse. 2. VVe are now the sonnes of GOD, but yet it is not made mani­fest, what wee shall be. Therefore are we, who are already called, Iustified and Sanctified, still saide to wayte yet for our Adop­tion, Rom. chapter 8. verse 23.

Not as though we were not already Adopted, but because our Adoption, is not fully accomplished, vntill our bodies bee redeemed and fully glorified. So that with as good reason, wee may saye, that God doth not acknowledge vs to be his sonnes, whylest our bodyes are yet vile and corruptible: seeing we must Waite for our Adoption, vntill our bodyes be redeemed▪


THE second ground wherevpon this opinion is builded, is, the testimonie of Iohn. Which not the lesse in my iudgemēt, [Page 51] makes not much for it, if it be wel wayed. For it would appeare, that that place is mistaken by many: & that especially in three things.

The first is, in mistaking the right sense of that description, wherein the propertie of these, to whom Christ gives this bene­fite, is set downe.

The second is, the mistaking of the benefit it self givē by Christ.

The third is, the ground of both the former two: in not di­stinguishing betwixt the Fathers part and the Sonnes, in that worke of our Adoption.

Touching the first. the description of those persons, is set downe three maner of wayes. I. Those that receyved him. II. Those that did beleeve in his Name. III. Those that are borne of God.

Of these three, the first two, are interpreted to signifie Iustifica­tion. of which sense, that place well marked, doth give no war­rant, seeing in scripture these phrases, may as wel be interpreted of Adoptiō, as of Iustificatiō. For as by faith in Christ, we are iu­stified, so by faith in Christ, we are the sonnes of God, Gal. 3. 26. and therefore to restrayne beleeving in Christes name, & recey­ving of him, vnto the benefit of iustificatiō, is an oversight which easily may breed mistaking of the true sense, not onely of this place, but divers other places of scripture. so they take it for gran­ted, which in it self is questionable. Moreover, the place it selfe, and the very words of this description doe yeelde two sufficient arguments, to prove, that heere adoption by these phrases, is ra­ther designed, then iustification. The first argument lieth in the first wordes of the description: which is, Those that receyved him. Which phrase, is in the scripture still meant of the worke of the Fathers Calling of vs vnto the Sonne, and not of his iusti­fying of vs in him. For no man (sayeth Christ) can come vnto mee, ex­cept the Father that hath sent me, drawe him, Iohn chap. 6. ver. 34. Now to come vnto Christ, & to receive Christ, are both one. as is ma­nifest by Ioh. cha. 5. where that, wherwith in the 40. verse Christ chargeth the Iewes, vnder these words: (but you will not come vn­to me) is in the 43. verse, interpreted by Christ him selfe, in these [Page 52] wordes: And you receyved me not. For there is a great difference be­twixt these workes of the Father: to witt the bringing of vs to the Sonne, or giving of vs vnto him, or making vs to receyve him, which are all one, and the same thing: and the Fathers iu­stifying of vs in the sonne, whom now we have receyved. The first is the proper worke of God calling vs▪ The other is the worke of God, after our calling. Which evidētly appeares by the speech of Christ him selfe, Math. cha. 11. ver. 28. where first, he in­vites vs to come vnto him, and then promiseth to such as doe come, that he will give them rest vnto their soules: for God iu­stifieth none, who have not first receyved the sonne. For who cā be made the righteousnes of God in Christ, who is not first in­grafted in him. Now the first worke of faith, standeth in our re­ceyving Christ, and making him to dwell in our heartes: in, and through whom now receyved and possest by faith, the Lord doth thereafter iustifie and glorifie vs. so to make a Man to be iust, before he be a sonne, is as much as to make an accident or qualitie to be before or without a subiect: or to make a Man wise, before he be a Man. and this ground the Apostle cleers by his owne speech, when he coūted all but dongue, that he might gaine Christ, and be found in him: to this end, that he might not haue his owne righteousnes, but the righteousnes which is by the faith of Christ, Phil chap. 3. thereby playnelie he sheweth vs, that we must first gayne Christ and be found in him by faith, be­fore we can haue the righteousnes that is by the faith of Christ. so that to receyve Christ, and to be iustified in Christ, are in no sorte to be confounded: although they cannot be separated. For this is the principall cause, why Iustification and all rema­nent blessings are attributed vnto faith: because by faith onely, we are made one with Christ, and ioyned vnto him, who onely is the substance of all our blessings: as being made of God vnto vs wisedome righteousnesse, sanctification, and redemption, 1. Corint. ahap. 1. vers. 30 Vpon which vnion with Christ, followeth our cōmu­nion with him, both in death and life. For being once in him, we can not but be pertakers of all blessings in him. And of this worke of the Father, it is that the Evangelist speaketh in this [Page 53] place. which is the first worke of his gracious dispensatiō: when as he maketh vs to beleeve in his onely sonne. as is manifest by the Evangelistes owne words, interpreting the first phrase, that is, Those that receyved him: by these wordes, that is, Those that beleeue in his Name.

The second argument lieth in the third phrase of this descri­ption, which is, Those that are borne of God. By which wordes, both the two former phrases, that is those that receyved him, & those that beleeved in his Name, are, interpreted. thereby teaching vs, that this worke is not the worke of Iustification, but of A­doption, and of our receiving of Christ himselfe by faith: that in vnitie with him, we may be the Sonnes of God: and not our re­ceiving of his obedience by faith, vnto righteousnes. For by beeing borne of God, we are made the Sonnes of God. Which birth, especially is performed by the Father: when by his Spirit, he brings vs vnto the Sōne, & makes vs to receive him by faith in our hearts: so making vs one with him. By which Vnitie a­lone, it is, that we are made the Sonnes of God. For as the Vni­tie of Christs humane nature in subsisting and personalitie, with his divine nature, maketh that Iesus Christ the Man, is the Sonne of God: so our spirituall Vnitie by faith, with Iesus Christ the Sonne of God, makes vs also, to be the Sonnes of God.

Thus it is plaine by the third phrase, that the former two are not rightly taken, when they are expounded of those that are iustified.

If any man would expound this birth, not of our effectuall A­doption it selfe, but of the preparation of vs therevnto, (as some most learned and reverent Divines doe.) Yet never can it make the former opinion true: for our beeing borne of God, in the Scripturs can never be showen, to be meant of our Iustification. And if they take it for our Regeneration or Sanctification to the obedience of God, then it will follow, that wrongly they make Adoption to be a part of Reconciliation: If sanctification which is no part of Reconciliation, must goe before. For they them sel­ues acknowledge that Reconciliation hath but two parts: Iu­stification and Adoption.

[Page 54] Besides: this distinction of Adoption, wil hardlie be warran­ted by the 9. of the Romanes except men will make the Apostle playnely to contradict himselfe: who restrayneth the Adop­tiō, which he ascribes to the Iewes, onely to the seed of Abrahā according to the promise, and not according to the flesh. Be­cause otherwise, the trueth of God in his promise would have failed. Which consideration likewise appeareth evidently to de­stroy that distinction of Adoption (albeit first devised by one of the auncient Fathers) whereby one Adoption is made Adopti­on, but by figure and resemblance: the other in substance and effect.

But it seemeth that the ground of this opinion, (in some, though not in all,) is buylded vpon this, that they esteeme our Righteousnes to consist in the very act of beleeving: which may be more iustly said of our Adoption, albeit in a circumspect mea­ning.


TOVCHING the benefite it selfe, which Christ bestowes vpon those that receyve him: although we should grant it to be the same in sense which they expound it to be: yet it will never inferre, that in this place, To receyve Christ and be­leeve in his name, is to be vnderstood of Iustification: but (accor­ding as some of themselves say) of the worke of God in making vs to beleeve. Of the which followeth, the dignitie and prero­gative of being sonnes: as the first and immediate fruite of faith, in Iesus Christ. In which sense we denie not, but this place may be commodiously interpreted: although it seemeth that the spi­rite of God doth meane somewhat more. For vnderstanding whereof, we are first to consider the third point, which we have said to be the ground of the mistaking of this place: which stands in the not distinguishing, betwixt the Fathers worke and the Sonnes, in our Adoption: although in the same place, they bee cleerely distinguished by the Evangelist. Which oversight ma­keth great confusion in knowledge.

[Page 55] For we are to vnderstand, that although the three persons of the Trinitie, be neither in subsisting nor working to bee separa­ted: yet in both, they are still to be distinguished: and never to be confounded: if ever we thinke to have a cleere and vnconfused sight, of these great workes of grace, which they performe in vs.

Now in this place, the worke of the Father, and the worke of the Sōne in our Adoption, are cleerely and distinctly set down. Like as in other parts, the worke of the spirit, in the same Adop­tion, is distinguished from both: The worke of the Father, is our Vnion with Christ: when he brings vs vnto him, and makes vs to receive him, by beleeving in his name. And this is our com­ming to the Sonne: Which is the proper worke of the Father. For none can come vnto the Sonne, except the Father drawe him. And this is the principall act of our Adoption: which most properly is to be called Adoption: and as we have said, consisteth chiefly in our calling. For seeing most properly, it is the worke of the Fa­ther to adopt: certayne it is, that our Adoption, most properly must consist in the action of the Father. For which cause, the Fa­thers worke, in making vs to receyve the Sonne, that is to be­leeve in his name, is in this place expounded, by way of simili­tude, in a borrowed speech, that is, to be borne of God. For the begetting and working of faith in our hearts, is the chiefe and principall part of our spirituall birth: beeing the roote & ground of all that followeth.

The worke of the Sonne is next subioyned: which stands in giving to those who have receyved him, prerogative, or as some do render the word, dignitie, as others authoritie, and as others power to bee the Sonnes of God. Of all which significations of the word, there is none which doth not fitt this place: without giving any advantage vnto the Papists, in their forged sense of the word power. Which benefite proceeding from the Sonne, is alwayes to bee distinguished in our Adoption, from our Vnion and communion with him by faith: which is the worke of the Father: vpon which, as the cause, dependeth the other as the ef­fect: for to those, whom the Father doth give to the Sonne, to be his brethren, and in vnitie with him, to be the Sonnes of God: [Page 56] the sonne doth give the prerogative, the dignitie, the authoritie and the power belonging to the sonnes of God. And this work consisteth in the sonnes bringing vs to the Father. For none can come to the Father, but by the Sonne: for Christ suffred for vs, that he might bring vs to God, 1. Pet. chap. 3. vers. 18. And this is that, which is so often spoken of in scriptures by Christ him­selfe: that to those whom the Father giveth him, to those he gi­veth eternall life: and that he giveth the glorie that the Father hath given him, vnto those that beleeve in him. For whatsoe­ver prerogative, dignitie, &c. the Father hath given vnto the Sonne, the same doth the Sonne impart to vs that are his bre­thren. For the prerogatives and priviledges of sonne-ship, ap­pertayne onely to Iesus Christ, as the onely sonne of God. and therefore it belongeth to him alone, to communicate those pre­rogatives, to such as the Father doth first by Adoption make his brethren. For the prerogative of a sonne, is a dignitie depēding, not vpon the essence and nature of our Redeemer, but vpon his subsisting and personalitie. For as the prerogative of a father, is proper to the first person: so the prerogative of a sonne, is pro­per to the second person. and therefore, as we doe holde that to adopt, is the prerogative of the first person, because he onely is the Father: so to communicate the prerogatives belonging to those who are adopted to bee children, is the prerogative of the second person, because he only is the Sonne. And therefore is it said, if the Sonne make vs free, wee shall bee free indeed, Iohn chap. 8. ver. 36. for freedome, is the prerogative of a Sonne, and not of a servant. And therefore the whole libertie and freedom, bee it from ignorance, Sathan, sinne or death, which the saints enioy in Christ, is called by the Apostle, the libertie of the Sonnes of God. in which libertie is comprehended, both our wisdome, righteousnes, sanctification and redemption. Which preroga­tives, when we doe enioy them, then may we bouldly esteeme our selves the Sonnes of God. And this is that, which it seemes the spirit of God doeth meane, when he sayeth, that Christ doth give vs the prerogative to be the Sonnes of God: that is, that he bestowes vpon vs such priviledges and blessings, or such autho­ritie [Page 57] and power, over all our spirituall enemies, as may make vs, not only to glorie in God the Father of Christ, as our God and our Father: but also to carrie our selves in our whole con­versation, as becommeth the sonnes of God. For we do esteeme, that to be adopted or made sonnes, and to receyve prerogative to be sonnes, are two distinct benefites, of the two first persons of the Trinitie. For a man may bee a Sonne, and yet wante the prerogative, dignitie, authoritie, and power of a Sonne. For as saith the Apostle, Gallath. chap. 4. vers. 1. 2. The heyre while hee is a childe differeth nothing from a seruant, though he be Lord of all, but is vnder Tutors and Governours. vntill the time appointed of the Father. Which cu­stome of men, the Apostle applyeth to the Church of God. to let vs know, that it is a thing to be considered in the children of God, aswell as in the children of men: so the oversight standes in the not distinguishing betwixt the being of a sonne simply, which comes by procreation and birth: and the being of a sonne in prerogative, dignitie, authoritie and power of a sonne, which comes by age and fulnes of time, appointed by the Father.

For every child is a sonne to his Father, as soone as he is borne: yet longe after he receyveth not the prerogative of a sonne: but still is in condition as a servant.

But when the time appointed, for his freedome commeth: he, who was before a sonne by birth, but a servant in condition, be­cōmeth to be a sonne likewise by condition, aswell as by birth: when as the prerogative, or dignitie, or authoritie, or power, to be a sonne in estate, is given vnto him. And in this sense is this place to be vnderstood, if it be rightly taken: that is, that vnto them who were borne of the Father, and so which were sonnes by the Fathers begetting of them: Christ the sonne did give pre­rogative, or dignitie, or authoritie, or power, to be sonnes in cō ­dition and state. For as we have said before, the benefit of being sonnes simply, by begetting, or birth, or by adoption, is the pro­per worke of the Father: but to make vs sonnes in the condition and estate, belonging vnto sonnes, is the proper worke of the Sonne. For we have no boldnes to call the Father our Father, nor have wee any accesse vnto him as vnto our Father, but [Page 58] through Christ alone. Neither have we the libertie of the sonnes of God, from sinne, either by righteousnes or sanctification: nor any part of the glory of the sonnes of God, but frō Christ alone: in whom doth all fulnes dwell, and out of whose fulnes, we all receyve: and by whom only we come vnto the Father. And this distinction of these two works, of the Father, and of the Sonne, shineth cleerly in the wordes of the Evangelist: when he sayeth, that Christ did give prerogative to bee the sonnes of God, only to those who were borne of God: plainelie distinguishinge the Fathers worke, in begetting vs to be his sonnes, from the worke of the sonne in giving vs the prerogative to bee sonnes. which verifieth that to be a sonne by birth, and to be a sonne by prero­gative, are not to be taken in one sense, nor for one benefite: but for two distinct actions, of the first two persons of the Trini­tie. Which the same Apostle Iohn seemeth playnly to confirme, 1. Epist. chap. 3. vers. 1. 2. When he ascribeth the benefite, of being called the sonnes of God, vnto the love of the Father, and the benefite of the beeing that which the sonnes of God are, in pre­rogative and dignitie, vnto the Sonne: by whose appearing vn­to vs, wee are made that, which the sonnes of God should bee. And therefore, in this life, according as hee hath appeared vnto vs, by the Fathers worke in our calling, bringing vs vnto him, illuminating our vnderstandinge with the knowledge of him, and by faith making vs one withhim: so have wee receyved the prerogative to be the sonnes of God, in righteousnes and holi­nes, with freedome and boldnesse to call his Father our Father: but because as yet he is not manifested vnto vs in all the prero­gatives of the sonnes of God, therefore (although wee bee now, both sonnes by Adoption, and likewise in some measure by pre­rogative and dignitie,) yet it is not fully manifested what wee shall be: but when he shall appeare in glory, then shall wee ap­peare like him, in all things. In which likenes either in parte, or in whole, accomplished in vs, standeth the prerogative of the sonnes of God. For cleering of which point, wee are to observe that saying of the Apostle, 1. Cor. chap, 1. vers. 30. For of him you are in Christ Jesus, who is made of God vnto vs, wisedome, righteousnes, sanctifica­tion [Page 59] and redemption. In these wordes two distinct actions, are attri­buted vnto the Father, which must needes preceed in order, that action of the Sonne, whereby he gives vs prerogative to be the sonnes of God.

The first action of the Father is the making of Christ vnto vs, wisedome, righteousnes, sanctification and redemption: which are indeed the prerogatives of the sonnes of God.

The second action of the Father is, the making vs to bee in Christ: to the end that we may bee pertakers of these blessings, which Christ is made of the Father, vnto vs. Which action of making vs to be in Christ, cannot be distinguished from making of vs sonnes and Adopting of vs.

Vpon which two workes of the Father, followeth the action of the Sonne: who when we are by the Father, in him, hee ma­keth vs pertakers of all his own prerogatives, dignities & glory.

And after this worke of the Sonne, followeth the action of the holy Ghost: sealing vp in our hearts, both our Adoption or son-ship, and the prerogatives belonging to the sonnes of God.

Of this distinct consideration, of the distinct working, of the Father, Sonne and the Holy Ghost, it may easilie appeare, that the worke of the Sonne, is mistaken in this place, when it is in­terpreted to be Adoption, or making of vs sonnes simplie: wher­as it is to bee vnderstood, of a benefite, succeeding our beeing sonnes by Adoption, which is already accomplished, when we are begotten and borne of God the Father: after which, it is the Sonnes parte, to make vs in condition and estate the sonnes of God: by communicating with vs, the prerogative, and dignitie, and authoritie which is proper to the sonnes of God.

Thus fare have we thought good to speake touching the order of the benefits of God: in which point we have more largely in­sisted, because it is the speciall ground, wherevpon ryseth, not only the oversight of good men, but also divers heresies of wic­ked men, in this age. And we have further labored to cleere that place of Iohn, which most misleades men in this matter: that thereby it may be manifest, that by the Scriptures rightly vnder­stood, Adoption goeth in order before Iustification.


HAVING finished the three first grounds, serving to cleere the nature and order of the saving benefites of God: Now it rests that wee speake of the last: which is touching the speciall distinction and difference of those benefites amongst themselves. In which point, leaving all other opinions, we wil follow that which hath the greatest warrand and cleerest evi­dence, in the truth of God: which only in all such thinges, wee are to follow, as our guide and informer.

But before we beginne this point, there are three things need­full to be considered of vs.

The first is, the diverse manners wherein the spirit speaketh of them in the Scriptures.

The second is, what things they have common, in which they all agree and have no difference.

The third is, the vse that we are to make for our instruction of the preceeding point.

In these three things wee will be shorter perhaps, then their nature requyreth, setting them downe in short propositions.

Touching the first, we are to marke that in the Scripture those benefites are set downe, two manner of wayes: that is, either confusedly, or then distinctlie.

The confused manner of speech, is likewise two fold.

First, when as in respect of the inseparable coniunction of these blessings, and presence infallible of all the rest, where one is, beeing all lincked together, and every one imperting and impleying, all the rest: the Scripture putteth one for all.

The second manner is, when some one benefite, is putt for another: and these two sortes of speeches are playne by these places. Rom. chap. 8. vers. 23. 2 Cor. chap. 5. vers. 19. Eph. chap. 1. vers. 7. Col. chap. 1. vers. 14. Rom. chap. 5, vers. 9. 10. 11. &c.

The distinct manner of speech is, when these benefites are both in name and signification specially distinguished, one from another: as namely, Rom. chap. 8. vers. 30. 1 Cor. chap. 1. vers. 30.

[Page 61] This we thought good, first to marke, because there is great probabilitie, that in not consideration of the spirites different manner of speaking, is the speciall ground and cause, of many mens mistaking of the speciall difference and true order, of these saving benefites of God. As speciallie, when Iustification and Adoption are made partes of reconsiliation: which beeing pro­perly taken doeth in order, according to the Scriptures, succeed to them both. As also when one benefite is defined, by the pro­pertie of another: which error many doe fall in. Wee are there­fore to take heed, that wee put a speciall difference betwixt one and the same benefite, according as it is vsed by the spirit of God, in proper or improper manner of speech: when either it is put in the owne proper signification, or when it is put particu­larly, for another benefite then it selfe, or generally for all.

Touching the second point, there be six special things, where­in all the saving benefites of God agree.

The first is in their originall, or efficient cause: which is God alone: for he is the Father of lights, from whom commeth down all good gifts and every perfect donation, Iam. chap. 1. vers. 17. This may be confirmed by particular testimonies of Scripture, touching every particular benefite, as of Faith, Adoption, Iusti­fication, Peace or Reconciliation, Sanctification, Glorification, and our whole Redemption. For they are neither bred in vs by nature, nor acquired by our industrie, nor ministred by humane education, but are all the gifts of God.

The second thing wherein they all agree, is the cause which moueth God to give them: which is nothing but his grace and good pleasure. For none of them is obtayned by our desert, or meritt. For as, sayeth the Apostle, 2 Tim. chap. 1. vers. 9. God hath saved vs and called vs with an holy calling not according to our workes, but according to his owne purpose and grace. and this likewise is cleere by particular testimonies of the Scriptures, touching every one of these benefites.

The third thing wherin they all agree, is the meanes, through which God of his grace doth give them: which is Iesus Christ the Sonne: who is made of God vnto vs all these blessings: For [Page 62] in him all fulnes dwelleth, and out of his fulnes, we all receive grace. Which point also is most evident, throughout all the Scriptures in everie particular benefite.

The fourth thing wherein they all agree, is the instrument by the which God maketh vs to apprehend them all in Christ, which is Faith only.

The fift thing wherein they all agree, is that they are insepa­rable one from another: so that none can have one of them, but he must needs have all: for whom he calleth, them he Iustifieth, and whom he Iustifieth them he glorifieth. Rom. chap. 8. vers. 30 And as sayeth the Apostle: by the grace of God which is given vs in Christ Iesus, we are made riche in him, in all gifts: 1 Cor. cha. 1. ver. 4. 5. And the same Apostle gives thankes to God, because he hath blessed vs with all blessings in Christ, Eph. ch. 1. ver. 3.

The last thing wherein they all agree, is that they are never taken away againe, from those that receive them: For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance: Rom. ch. 11. ver. 29. And whom Christ loved, hee loveth to the end. Iohn chap. 13. vers. 1.

Now followeth the third thing to be considered of vs, which is, touching the vse arising vpon those former 6. points, which wee are to marke, for our right vnderstanding of the nature of Gods saving benefites: and this vse is sixe fould.

The first is, that none of these blessings is in vs by nature, nor from nature, nor any power or facultie in nature, but are all the supernaturall gifts of God.

The second vse is, that we are to acknowledge the good will of God and his free grace, to bee the only cause moving God to give these benefites. For by his grace he hath made vs freely ac­cepted in his beloved: so that even what in Christ hee gives vs, he gives it freely of grace: so that all respects is removed, why God should bestowe his blessings in Christ, except his owne grace in himselfe. Which we are carefully to marke, that we may keepe our selves from the error of these, who confound either the subordinate meane, through which, or the subordinate In­strument, by which God bestowes his blessings, with the cause moving God to bestow them: For although Christ be the meane [Page 63] through which, & faith be the instrument by which, God gives all spirituall blessings, yet the cause moving him to give all, is his grace. For hee gives Christ, and the righteousnes that is in him, and faith, freely, to whom he will, and withouldes them from whom he will.

Thus although the subordinate meanes, in and by which, God dispenseth his blessings, are not to be separate from his grace, yet they are never to bee confounded with it: but even Christ him­selfe, and all blessings in him, and the merit of his sufferings, and faith, by the which wee apprehend all, are still to bee distin­guished from the grace of God, which is the only cause, why ey­ther Christ himselfe, or the meritt of his suffrings, or faith to ap­prehend it, is given vs of God. Therefore in Gods working, the Scriptures still ioyne these three together, to wit grace, Christ and faith. Faith, as the instrument whereby we apprehend, and Christ as the subiect in which wee apprehend the blessings of God, and the grace of God, as the only cause moving God, both to giue faith, and Christ by faith, and in Christ al these blessings. So that it is a greevous sinne against the grace of God (for the prayse of the glory whereof, the Lord doth bestowe vpon vs all spirituall blessings) when we spoyle it of this prayse due to it al­one: by making any other thing to bee the moving cause why God doth blesse vs. As likewise it is a great sinne, when sepa­rating this grace, from the subordinate meanes, wee doe despise the meanes, and turne the grace into wantonnes.

The third vse is, that no where, except in Christ alone, is any of the saving blessings of God to bee found. And therefore it never can be accompted to be Gods Adoption, Gods Righteous­nes, Sanctificatian, Reconciliation or Redemption, which is placed in any thing without Christ. Wherevpon it must follow that they erre farre from the trueth, who place their righteous­nes, either in their faith, or workes: or who place reconcilia­tion, in their owne satisfaction.

For though Christ be the obiect of faith, yet it hath the being of it, in mans hart: & concerning works and our own satisfactions. [Page 64] It is cleere that they are not in Christ: who notwithstanding is all in all things, and filleth all in all things.

The fourth vse is, that without faith, God by his grace, com­municates noe blessing in Christ, in ordinarie dispensation. Therefore they must erre, who thinke that Christ and the bles­sings of God in him, may be apprehended, by the externall bo­dily action of man, in receyving the Sacraments: that is, as they call it, by the very externall worke wrought. This likewise teacheth vs, to perceive their error, who doe make Faith, which is but the apprehending instrument, to bee the blessing it selfe, thereby apprehended in Christ. Of which sort they all are, who place the matter of our righteousnes, in the act of our beleeving.

The fift vse is, to teach vs to be wise, in iudging of our selves, whether we be truly in the state of grace or no: for he that is de­stitute of any one of these saving blessings, he is destitute of them all: whatsoever foolish confidence he have to the contrarie. For as sayeth the Apostle Peter, 2. Epi. chap. 1. vers. 3. God through the knowledge of him that hath called vs, hath given vnto vs al things, that apper­tayne to life and Godlines: And therfore Iames sheweth that it profits nothing that a man say, he hath faith, if he have no workes. And Iohn 1. Ep. cha. 2. vers. 9. sayeth, Hee that sayeth he is in the light, and hatetb his brother, is in darknes vntill this tyme. and chap. 3. vers. 6. VVho soever sinneth, hath not seene Christ, neither hath knowen him.

The sixt and last vse is, to discover to vs the error of those who prophainly affirme, that the Saints effectually called, may fall from grace: which is a blasphemous denying of Gods faithful­nes, his righteousnes, and the stablenes of his counsell: vpon which the Scriptures, so often build, the certayntie of the saints persevering vnto the end: Vpon his faithfulnes, 1. Cor. chap. 1. ver 8. 9. who also shall confirme you vnto the end, for God is faithfull, by whō ye are called. And 1. Thess. chap. 5. ver. 24. Faithfull is hee who calleth you and will also doe it. vpon his righteousnes. 2. Thess. chap. 1. vers. 6. 7. For it is a righteous thing with God, to render to you which are troubled, rest with vs in the revelation of the Lord Iesus from heaven. And Heb. ch. 6. ver. 9. 10. But we perswade our selves better things of you, and such as ac­companie salvation, for God is not vnrighteous, &c. and vpō the stablenes [Page 65] of his counsell in the 17. and 18. verses of the same chapter, say­ing: Wherein God willing more aboundantly to shewe vnto the heires of pro­mise the vnchaingeablenes of his counsell, did binde himselfe by an oth, that by two immutable things, wherein it is impossible that God should lye, we might have strong consolation, which have our refuge to lay holde vpon the hope, that is layde before vs.


THvs having spoken of these 3. points: it followeth now that we speake of the particular difference, whereby the blessings of God, are every one distinguished frō another.

The difference that is amongst these benefites, is of two sorts.

The first is more general, depending vpon the different man­ner that we enioy them.

The second is more particular, rising vpon the particular na­ture of every benefite.

Touching the first, the benefites of God in Christ, are either such, as are made ours only by imputation and Gods gracious accompt: the thing imputed, remayning still in substance inhe­rent in Christ, and not in vs. for then they are such, as (flowing from the vertue of Christ) doe abide inherent in our soules and bodyes eternally.

Of the first sort, are Adoption and Iustification, which never can be said properly, to be inherent in vs (Adoption, beeing ta­ken in the proper sense, whereby it is distinguished from the rest: & not in that general sense mentioned before) for Christ alone, remayneth in himselfe, the only Sonne of God, and only righ­teous without sinne: wee beeing sonnes and righteous, never by any inhesion of these blessings in vs, but only by the imputa­tion of that sonne-ship and righteousnes which is Christs alone, vnto vs. Therefore the Scriptures, (touching these 2. benefites) doeth specially vse this phrase: to witt, that wee are the sonnes of God in him, and that we are made the righteousnes of God in him.

Of the second sort, are these benefits, which necessarily follow, [Page 66] vpon the two former: as being the end wherefore we are Adop­ted and Iustified. and these be peace with God, or Reconcilia­tion, ioy in the holy Ghost, Sanctification and Glorification, which is all one with Redemption: as it is taken in most parti­cular sense. Which all are so given vs in Christ, that by the sense and feeling of them inherent in vs, they are made to vs, sure to­kens of our effectual calling or Adoption & Iustificatiō. Which being blessings, not perceyved by any sense of them selves, in substance inherent in vs, are confirmed in vs by the others, as infallible effectes following them.

For which cause the Apostle Peter willeth vs by them, to make our calling and election sure. For in this are the children of God knowne, and the children of the Divell: VVho soever doeth not righteousnes, is not of God, 1. Iohn 3. 10. And againe, Know yee, that he that doeth righteously, is borne of him, 1. Iohn 2. 29. And againe, Hee that doeth righteousnes, is righteous, as he is righteous, 3. chap. vers. 7.

This difference, serveth both to cleare the order and nature of the benefites of God. For these, which are ours by gracious accompt, remayning still inherent in Christ only, they are both first in order, and are the grounds and subordinate causes of all the rest of the benefits, inhesively bestowed vpon vs in Christ. Therefore vnto these two, that is Adoption and Iustification, all the rest, are attributed, as effectes and infallible consequences, whyle it is saide: If wee bee sonnes, then are we also heyres, Rom. cha. 8. ver. 17. And againe, Whosoever is borne of God, sinneth not, 1. Iohn 3. 9. And againe, The sonne abideth in the house for ever. Iohn 8. 35. so touching righteousnes it is saide, The iust by faith shall live, Rom. 1. 17. And againe: Being iustified by faith, we haue peace towards God, & reioyce in the hope of the glory of God, Rom. 5. 1. 2. And againe: That, we being iustified by his grace, should be made heires, &c. Tit. 3. 7.

The second difference, ariseth vpon the different nature of the benefites: which appeare in the effectes of every one to­wardes vs. Which effectes may generally bee reduced to two.

The first is, the effect, of the making vs the sonnes of God. Which is most properly performed in vs in the blessing of Adoption.

[Page 67] The second is, the making of vs like to the Image of the sonne of God. Which is performed by the rest of the blessinges: that is our Iustification, Sanctification, and Redemption. Which albe­it they serve to accomplish our Adoption, by making vs to bee the sonnes of God by prerogative, dignitie, &c. yet wee are sonnes, before they be accomplished in vs. For as saith Iohn, 1. Epist. 3. 2. We are nowe the sonnes of God, although it is not manifest what we shall be.

So this generall difference, of the nature of Gods benefites, is carefully to be marked: that we may distinguish betwixt these benefites, by the which we are properly made sonnes, and so of the seed: which onely is Adoption. And these benefites, by the which, we enioye the promise, made vnto the seede: where by we are not properlie saide to be made sonnes, but onely in re­spect of the condition and estate, belonging to the sonnes. But properly by them we are made like vnto the Image of the sonne of God.

But although all these benefites agree in this pointe, and they all serve to make vs like vnto the Image of the Sonne: yet they differ in nature, every one from another, according to the difference of these thinges, wherein they make vs like vnto the Sonne of GOD. For by Iustification, the Lord makes vs righ­teous, and without sinne: as Christ is righteous, and without sinne. and reconcileth vs vnto him selfe, making vs one with him selfe, as the sonne is one with him. For peace or reconci­liation with God, is the effect and fruite of Iustification, as is cleere Rom. chap. 5. 1. In which we have to observe, that as the Father, by Adoption, maketh vs one with the sonne: so by Iustification, hee maketh vs one, with him selfe. Conforme to the saying of the Apostle, 2. Corinth. chapt. 5. vers. 19. For God was in Christ, reconciling the worlde vnto him selfe: by not impu­ting to them their sinnes: therefore is our peace and reconciliation with GOD, attributed vnto the Crosse of Christ, by the which sayeth the A­postle, hee killeth hatred, Ephe. 2. 16. and also our libertie and boldnes, to enter into the most holy place, is attributed vnto the bloud of IESVS, Heb. 10. 19.

[Page 68] Secondly, by sanctification, the Lord makes vs like to his Son by puritie, and holines of nature.

Thirdly by redemption, as it is particularly taken for glorifi­cation, the Lord makes vs like vnto his Sonne, in immortalitie, glory▪ and power. This order and difference, of these benifites, is cleere, 1 Cor. chap. 1. vers. 30. where wisdome, is put in the first place: which, specially answeres to our calling, wherein consi­steth our Adoption. In the second place, righteousnes. In the third, sanctification: and in the fourth place, redemption. Which place, is specially to be marked: for the right knowledge, both of the order and difference that is amongst is benefites of God. For in other places of Scripture, Redemption, as likewise Iusti­fication, and Reconciliation, are taken in a larger sense: to signi­fie the whole freedome of the sonnes of God, and every parte thereof in particular. And that because all libertie, peace and re­conciliation, whatsoever is given vs of God, floweth from the death of Christ: in the which standeth our righteousnes, peace & redemption. For which cause it is, that in the Scriptures, some­tymes our Iustification is ascribed to the death of Christ: some­tymes our Sanctification: sometymes our Reconciliation: and sometimes our Redemption. Because, howsoever these blessings, (as they are imparted vnto vs) differ both in order and nature: yet they proceed all, from one fountayne: and are all comprehen­ded, only in that one oblation, of Iesus Christ vpon the Crosse.

For cleering our iudgements therefore, in this point: we are carefully to marke these two senses, in the which, in the Scrip­tures, Redemption, Iustification, and Reconciliation, and San­ctification are taken.

Sometymes they are taken, for the action of God in Christ for his saints: when as God, was in Christ, reconciling the world to himselfe: according to that which hee had purposed in Christ. which was, as sayeth the Apostle, Eph. chap. 1. vers. 10. That in the fulnes of tyme, he would gather together all things in Christ Iesus, & as sayth the same Apostle, Coll. chap. 1. ver. 20. It pleased the Fa­ther to reconcile all things to himselfe, by him: making peace by the blood of his crosse.

[Page 69] In this sense, God at one tyme, by the only one oblation of Iesus Christ, in one worke, once performed, did eternally re­deeme, Iustifie, Sanctifie and Reconcill to himselfe, all his ellect, that ever were, is, or shall bee, vntill the end of the world. For Christ bare all their persons, vpon the Crosse: and God did lay vpon him, the iniquitie of them all: and did wound him, for their transgressions, and breake him for their iniquities: and did lay vpon him, the chastisment of their peace. Esa. 53. Therefore sayeth the Apostle, Heb. 10. that by that will of God we are san­ctified even by the offringe of the body of Iesus Christ once. And in the 9. chap. 12. verse, hee sayeth that Christ by his owne bloud entered once in the most holy place, and abtayned eternall redemption: and in that same Chapter ver. 28. it is sayd, that Christ was once offered, to take away the sinnes of many.

Now in this sense, there is neither, difference of tyme, nor order, nor distinction to be made: all beeing accomplished toge­ther and at once: by one worke, of one man, Iesus Christ the Lord.

Sometymes againe, they are taken for the worke of God in vs, and toward vs: in his owne tyme applying that, which hee wrough in Christ for vs, to every one of vs in particular: brin­ging vs, by effectual calling, to the knowledge & apprehension by faith, of our Redemption, Iustification, and Reconciliation, which God accomplished onely in that day of Christ, which all the Fathers desired to see: howsoever in divers ages, and divers tymes, they bee applyed, by God, to these, whō then, and in that day, by the death of his Sonne, he did Redeeme, Iu­stifie, and Reconcile vnto him selfe. And in this sense, we speake of these benefites, in this treatise: not as they were wrought by God, in Christ, for vs: but as in the dispensation of God, they are applied vnto vs, for whom Christ dyed. In which sense the Apostle speakes of them, 1. Coll. 1. 21. 22. saying: And you also which were in tyme past straungers and enemies, having your mindes exer­cised in evill workes, hath he now reconciled in that body of his flesh, by death.

And in this sense, it is, that both order and difference, is to be marked amongst these benefites. In consideration whereof, how so ever Adoption, and Iustification agree, in this, that they both [Page 70] are benefites bestowed by imputation, without inhesion in vs: yet, as they differ in nature, so doe they in order: in respect of the grounds, wherevpon they are builded, & whence they flow. For Adoption, neither dependeth vpon, nor floweth from the death of Christ: But from his personall propertie, of beeing the sonne of God. whereas Iustification, dependeth vpon, & flow­eth from his suffering. and therefore as our cōmunion with him in person goeth before our cōmunion with him in his suffrings, so doth our Adoption, in order goe before our Iustification.


HITHERTO have we spoken, of those groundes, whereby both the nature and order of Gods saving benefites, are most cleerly knowen. So that by these things, which are alreadie set downe, a modest minde, onely searching truth, and abhorring contention, may sufficiently knowe, what Iustifica­tion before God, is. yet notwithstanding, for the further con­tentement of those of weaker iudgement, we will speake some­thing more particularly of the benefite is selfe.

For the clearer vnderstanding whereof, and discovering of the trueth, which now almost lyeth hid, by the manifold opini­ons of men: it were needfull, that we should speake of divers things: as namely, of God him selfe, what place he hath in that worke. 2. of his grace. 3. of Christ and his obedience. 4. of faith. 5. of man him selfe, and of his workes. and lastly of the Lawe and of the Gospell. For all these points are called in cōtroversie: and mens iudgements is divers concerning every one of them, in the worke of Iustification: but to eschew longsomnes, wee will reduce all, that we are to speake, into these few grounds.

The first, shalbe touching the special divers and severall iudgements of men, concerning Iustification.

The second, shalbe touching the discussing of these pointes controverted, which are of greatest moment.

The third, shalbe concerning the worke it selfe of Iustificati­on: according as it is set downe in the truth of God.

[Page 71] And intreating of these three, we shall touch by the way, eve­rie one of these points mentioned. in doing whereof, if we shall insist somewhat more largely, then shall seeme expedient to ri­per iudgements, yet we hope that heerein we shall easily be par­doned: seeing we take this paynes, not for the instruction of those, that are of greater iudgement then our selfe, but for the helpe and cōfort of the simplest sorte. Who in this mayne point of salvation, may (through the diversitie of opinions) be brought in danger of destruction. For seeing there is no hope of life to a­nie, but such as are iustified by the righteousnes of God which is by the faith of Christ: it must followe, that this Iustice being taken away, and any other whatsoever put in the place there­of, all ground and certeyntie of salvation, must needes bee also taken away.

To come then to the first point. there be foure principall dif­ferent opinions: beside the opinion of Osiander: which beeing odious to all, we need not to speake of.

The first is of those, who devide the worke of Iustification be­twixt God and man: Christs merit and mans merit: faith and works: grace & debt: the Law & the Gospell: but in divers re­spects and considerations. For in respect of that, which they call the first righteousnes (which they esteeme nothing but a prepa­ration of a man, to iustifie himself, by a formall righteousnes in­founded in vs by grace). they give place to God, as the author & worker: and to his grace, as the cause moving him: and vnto Christs sufferings, as the cause meriting that grace: & vnto faith as the benefit in founded into vs by grace: and vnto the Gospell, as the instrument whereby this benefit is wrought in vs. Yet with God & his grace, they ioyne man in this worke: ascribing vnto him, freedome of will, so that God by his grace & man in his will concurre in the worke. God by his grace, helping mans will to beleeve. But in respect of that, which they call the second righteousnes, wherein they place the merit of eternall life, they seclude God from beeing the Iustifier: and ascribe iustification to man him selfe. they seclude grace and establish workes of free will, they seclude Christ, and the merit of his obedience, [Page 72] and place them selves and the merit of their owne workes. they seclude beleeving, and establish working: and for the Gospell, place the Law.

The second opinion is of those, who in iustification, make God to be the Iustifier, and that of his grace, and that by faith, but as our worke, of our free will: yet not of the Law, but of the Gospel. secluding Christ and his obedience wholy from our righteousnes: as likewise the Law and the workes thereof. So they give to God the worke of Iustifying: but the matter of their righteousnes, they wholy ascribe to their owne worke and act in beleeving. and place grace in nothing, but in Gods gracious accepting of mans imperfect faith, in place of the perfect righte­ousnes of the Law. and attribute vnto the merit of Christes obe­dience, this gracious acceptation of our faith: as though hee had dyed and suffered not for our Iustification, but to merit and ob­tayne at Gods hande, that our owne worke of beleeving, should bee graciously accepted as perfect righteousnes, albeit in it selfe imperfect. and where they may seeme to agree with the papist in asscribing righteousnes to their owne working, they thinke that they doe sufficientlie purge them selves from that blott by this subtill evasion: that they doe not attribute their righteous­nes, to a worke of the Lawe, but to a worke of the Gospell.

The third opinion, is of those; who attribute the worke of Iustification vnto God, but place their righteousnes, partlie in their faith, as their owne worke, and partly in the obedience of Christ. and make two actions of God, in Iustifying. In the one whereof, they give place vnto grace: in the other not. The first action is the imputation of our imperfect faith, for righteousnes. and that by grace. The second action is the imputatiō of Christs perfect obedience, for the supplying of that, which is wanting in our imperfect faith, for righteousnes, and that by Iustice.

All these three opinions, doe attribute Mans righteousnes, either wholy or in parte to his owne working, The first and last doe ioyne grace & merit together in Iustification. Which things are most contrarie to the truth of God: whether the workes bee of nature or of grace: of the Law, or of the Gospell.

[Page 73] The fourth and last opinion, is of those, who attribute the worke of Iustification to God alone: and placeth our righteous­nes onely in Christes obedience: and doe acknowledge saith to be nothing but the applying and apprehending instrument of Christes obedience: and the Gospell, to bee the instrument of faith: and all to be of grace. because God, giveth Christ, to bee righteousnes vnto vs, by grace: and imputes his obedience vn­to vs, by grace: and by grace, giveth vs faith, and vnto faith the Gospell. so that they attribute the whole prayse of the Iustifica­tion vnto God: and place the whole matter of righteousnes, in the obedience of Christ: secluding all workes of men, eyther of the Lawe or of the Gospell: and acknowledge the grace of God to be the onely cause, moving God to iustifie vs, by Christes o­bedience: as likewise of the giving of vs faith, to apprehend it, and this opinion only agreeth with the trueth.


NOw we come to these things, wherein especially stands the chiefest controversies, whereby the trueth of Iustifi­cation is most darkened. which we will reduce all, to these foure points.

The first shalbe, touching the efficient cause of Iustification.

The second shalbe, touching the materiall cause of it.

The third shalbe, touching the formall cause.

The fourth shalbe, touching the subiect, that is iustified.

Vnder these foure are comprehended the chiefe controversies touching this matter. For touching the finall cause, there is no great disagreement: therefore we have no need to speake much of it: yet notwithstanding because it serves to cleare that which we have so much insisted in before, touching the order of Adop­tion and Iustification, we will speake something thereof, after the other foure.

First then, touching the efficient cause of Iustification, the controversie is only with the Papistes: for in this point, albeit they agree with vs in parte, or rather in shew: yet they disagree [Page 74] from vs, in the chiefest substance of this question. For wee saye, that God onely doeth Iustifie: but they, albeit they graunt the first Iustification to God in parte, yet they asscribe the second Iu­stification (wherein they place the merit of eternall life) wholy to man him selfe. Now for discussing this controversie, wee have three thinges that may sufficientlie cleare our iudgement therein.

The first is, the manner and forme of the Scripture phrase, touching the Iustification of a man.

The second is, the testimonie of the Scripture, declaring who it is, that Iustifies a man.

The third is, the nature of the worke it selfe.

Touching the first, the Scripture speaking of Iustification, even whereas it is supposed to bee by the workes of the Lawe, speakes passivelie of man, and never activelie: to shewe it is a worke which he him selfe doeth not, but which is done vnto him by another. as for example, Rom. chapt. 3. vers. 20. by the workes of the Lawe, shall no flesh bee iustified. And againe, Gal. chap. 2. ver. 16. Knowing that a man is not Iustified by the workes of the Law. And againe, Gall. chap. 5. vers. 4. And yee are abolished from Christ, who soever are Iustified by the Lawe. As likewise, when Iustification is attributed vnto faith, the same passive forme of speach is vsed, as Rom. chapt. 3. vers. 28. VVe conclude then, that a man is Iustified by faith, without the workes of the Lawe. And againe, Rom. chap. 5. ver. 1. Being then Iustified by faith, &c. And Tit. chap. 3. ver. 7. That beeing Iustified by his grace, &c.

Which forme of speech is most cleerely vsed, Matt. chap. 12. v. 37. For by thy wordes, thou shalt bee iustified: and by thy wordes, thou shale be condemned. All these testimonies doe shew plainlie, that the worke of Iustification is not the worke of man him selfe, but of some other: And therefore Christ, Luke chap, 16. 15. layes this to the Pharises charge, as a speciall iniquitie, saying: Yee are those who iustifie your selves. And that this is to bee vnderstood, not only of a man in iudging him selfe, but also of one man in iudging an other, it is plaine by the Apostles doctrine, Rom. 14. 4. 10. 13. [Page 75] where he takes al power from all men of iudging one another, and to conclude this point, the Apostles testimonie touching him selfe, is sufficient, 1. Corint. cha. 4. ver. 3. whereby he cleereth both these pointes, to witt, that no other man had power to iudge him: and that he had no power to iudge him selfe, say­ing: I passe little to be iudged of you, or of mans iudgement, no I iudge not my owne selfe. In which places, all power of iudging, as it is re­ferred either to iustifying or condemning, in pardoning, or not pardoning sinne, in the absolving or not absolving from sinne, is vtterly taken from all men, whether in respect of them sel­ves or others.

Touching the second grounde, which cleereth who it is that Iustifies: there is nothing whereof the holy Scripture gi­veth more cleere testimonie then of this: still affirming, that is is God onely, who Iustifieth: as is manifest, Rom. chap. 8. ver. 33. where expressely it is sayde: It is GOD that Iustifieth: and in that same Chapter 30. verse, it is saide: Those whom hee hath prede­stinate, those hee hath called: and whom hee hath called, those also hee hath iustified. which place sheweth playnely, that it can belong to none but to God alone. seeing that he who iustifieth, must bee he who calleth, and hee who calleth must be he who predesti­nateth, which is onely God. And againe, the same Apostle gi­veth a cleere testimonie heereof, Rom. chapt. 3. ver. 30. saying: For God is one who shall iustifie circoncision of faith, and vncirconcision tho­rough faith. The like testimonie is conteyned, 1. Corinth. cha. 4. vers. 4. where the Apostle sayeth: Hee that iudgeth mee is the Lorde. Therefore sayeth the same Apostle, Rom. chap. 14. ver. 12. That every one of vs shall give accompt of him selfe vnto God.

Nowe wee come to the third ground, which consisteth in the nature of Iustification it selfe: which is not (as some inter­prete it to be) the making of vs inhesively iust, by renovation, or change of our nature: as though the word Iustificare, that is to Iustifie, did signifie, Iustum facere, that is, to make just. By which opinion, our Iustificatiō, and our Sanctification, are con­founded, and made one thinge. As though to Iustifie were the action of GOD, in regeneratinge and recreatinge vs: [Page 76] whereas it is the worke of God in iudging vs. so that Iustificar [...] doeth signifie Iustum pronuntiare, that is, to pronounce righteous, which is manifest by two reasons.

The first is, because in Scripture. Iustification is opposed to condemnation: as is cleere by the testimonie cited before, Mat. 12. 37.

The second reason, is taken from the description of Iustifica­tion, set downe in the Scriptures: where sometymes it is defi­ned to consist, in the remission of sinnes, sometymes in the for­giving of wickednes, in the covering of sinne, and not impu­ting of iniquitie: sometyme by the imputation of righteousnes. Which all doe prove manifestly, that Iustification is the Action of him, who is the Iudge of mankinde, in absolving man from sinne and the punishment thereof.

Of this it followeth, that vnto God onely it belongeth to Iu­stifie. and that for two speciall reasons.

The first is, because the Lord is the onely Iudge of all, Hebr. 12. 23. And therefore Acts 17. 31. it is sayd: He hath appointed a day in the which he will iudge the world in righteousnes. Of which day the Apostle also speaketh, Rom. 2. 5. 16. and the reason heereof is given by the Apostle, Rom. 14. 7. 8. to witt, because hee is our onely Lord, to whom we both live and die: and therefore ac­cording as in that same place the Apostle concludes, VVe all shall appeare before the iudgement seate of Christ, and every one of vs shall give accompt of him selfe to God. Whereby it is cleere, seeing God is the onely Iudge of the world, that to iustifie and to cōdemne, must onely belonge to him.

The second reason is: seeing Iustification consistes in remis­sion of sinnes, and not imputing of iniquitie: it followeth, that not any, except God alone, can iustifie: because none save God alone, can forgive sinne, as is cleere, Mark. 2. 7. and Luke 5. 21. therefore doeth the Lord him selfe saye, Esa. 43. 25. I, even I am he that putteth away thy iniquities for myne owne sake. And againe, 44. cha. vers 22. I have put away thy transgressions like a Cloud, and thy sinnes as a mist. Likewise David doth attribute the not imputing of iniqui­tie to the Lord, Psal. 31. 2. saying: Blessed is the man to whom the Lord [Page 77] imputeth not iniquitie. which also the Apostle cleerely sheweth, 2. Corinth. 5. 19. saying, That God was in Christ reconciling the world to him selfe, not imputing to them their sinnes.

Now, whereas it might seeme, that in treating of the efficient cause of Iustification, we should speake not onely of God him­selfe, but also of his grace: yet because the question touching his grace, doeth also fitly belong to the formall cause, therefore wee referre it vnto that place.


NOw followeth that we speake of the materiall cause. and in this pointe, out of the former thinges, it may be easilie gathered, that there be foure different opinions.

The first is, that the workes of the Law done by man, are the matter of our righteousnes.

The second is, that the onely act of mans heart in beleeving, is the matter of it.

The third is, that partly faith, and partly Christes obedience, is the matter of our righteousnes.

The fourth and last is, that onely Christ, in his obedience, is the whole matter of our righteousnes.

The vanitie of the first 3. opinions will more fully appeare, when we speake of the formal cause of iustification, & when we shall treat of Iustificatiō it selfe: as likewise when we shall cleere the truth of the fourth opinion: therefore we wil speak the more shortlie of them now.

Against all three, this ground generally serveth, to witt, that no man is iustified before God, by any worke inherent in him­selfe, or done by him selfe, whether it be of nature or of grace, or whether it be a worke of the Lawe, or of the Gospell. The rea­son is: If man be iustified in any sorte by workes, Iustification can not be by grace, according as sayeth the Apostle, Rom. 11. 6. If it be of grace, it is no more of workes, els were grace no more grace: and if it be of workes▪ it is no more grace, els were worke no more worke. Thus none of these three formost opinions can stande: excepte we will destroy the grace of God, and abolish it altogether frō the worke [Page 78] of Iustification: for grace and workes, (even though they bee of grace) can never stande together in the worke of our Iustifica­tion. Which also manifesteth, the grosse impietie of all these three opinions, in placing faith either in whole, or in parte, in our righteousnes, as it is our owne worke: seeing by no worke of his owne, can man possibly be iustified. For otherwise it can­not be, but Christ must have died in vaine.

Secondly, our righteousnes consisteth not in Gods acceptati­on of any thing that proceeds from vs to Godward: but in Gods imputation of that that comes from him to vsward by his gift. as is cleere, Rom. 5. 15. 16. 17. where our righteousnes is still called the gift of God: & we are saide to receyve righteousnes as a gift. Whereby it is most evident that no worke of the Law, nor faith, as it is the worke of our heart, can possibly be our righteousnes. For our act of beleeving, is an action passing from vs to God­ward: and being attributed (as it is by them) to mans free will, is no lesse the worke of man, then any other worke of the Law what soever. But our righteousnes is called in the Scriptures, the righteousnes of GOD, and not of man: because it goeth not from vs towardes him, but it commeth from him to vs.

Thirdly, it is manifest by the Scriptures, that no man is iust in him selfe, but in another. For among men there is none righteous, no not one, Psal. 14. But if that whereby hee is iusti­fied, & which is the matter of his righteousnes bee in him selfe, he must not onely bee iust, but iust in him selfe: which both doe playnely contradict the trueth of God: which plainlie denies, that there is any man righteous, and that any man is made righ­teous in him selfe: but whom soever God iustifieth, he iustifieth them in Christ, and maketh them the righteousnes of God in him, 2. Corinth. 5. 21.

Fourthly, the nature of Iustification consisting in the remis­sion of sinne: it can not possibly stande, in that, that is the di­rect contrarie. But all these three opinions maketh it stande in the contrarie, that is in Gods acceptation of obedience. For whether the Lorde iustifie vs, for doeing the workes of the [Page 79] Lawe, or for fulfilling the condition of the Gospell, required by God of vs vnto Iustification: it is alwayes for and by our obedi­ence that he iustifieth vs. so that Iustification, shall never consist in pardoning of sinne, and covering of iniquitie: but by the contrarie, in the acceptation of obedience. Which saying is so impious, that nothing can be devised more contrarie to the grace of God, and mans salvation.

These groundes serve generally to shewe the wickednes of all these three opinions. Nowe we come to speake somwhat concerning the first alone. against which these groundes con­teyned in scripture, shall sufficiētly serve: of which divers make against the rest also.

First, that which excludes not mans gloriation, can not have place in his righteousnes: for God will have no flesh to glory in his sight, in any thing except in him alone: wherevppon it followeth, that no man can bee iustified by the workes of the Law. For as sayeth the Apostle Rom. chap. 3. vers. 27. gloriati­on is not excluded by the lawe of workes. For if Abraham was iu­stified by workes, hee hath wherein to glory, Rom. chap. 4. vers. 2. and the reason heere of is declared in the fourth verse, saying: That to him that worketh, the wages is not compted by favour, but by debt. Wherevpon it followeth, that if man bee iustified by workes, he hath wherein to glorie: because he is not iustified by grace, but by deservinge: and Gods iustifying of him, is not a worke of his favour, but a worke, which hee is indebted to doe. And this is the same very thing, which the Romish Church doeth meane by their merit ex condigno. whereby Gods free grace iniustificati­on is quite overthrowen.

Secondly, man can not be iustified, by that, which makes the death of Christ of none effect: but as sayeth the Apostle Gallat. chapter 2. verse 21. If righteousnes bee by the Lawe, then Christ hath died without a cause. Which place doeth evidently convince them all of errour, and proove them all to bee eni­mies to the crosse of Christ, and to his death, that make righte­ousnes to bee by any other thinge then by his death: for if Christ died without a cause, if righteousnes bee by the Lawe: [Page 80] he must have much more died in vaine, if it bee by any other thing. For righteousnes is not to be found in any other thing, but either in the Law of God, or Christ.

By this we may perceyve, that the opinion of those men, who place our righteousnes in faith properly taken, as it is the acte of our heart: without relation of it as an apprehending instrument vnto Christ: is much more pernitious, then the opinion of the Papistes. and that by cleere evidence of both their doctrines cō ­pared together. For the Papist placeth his righteousnes, in that which conteynes in it selfe perfect righteousnes in deed: so that if their other ground could holde (wherein also the other sorte doeth agree with them) that is, that it were in mans power to fulfill the Lawe, certaynlie they should be iustified by the works of the Law. For the doers of the Lawe shalbe iustified, Rom. 2. 13. And if there had bene a lawe given which could have given life, surely righteous­nes should haue bene by the Lawe, sayeth the same Apostle, Gal. 3. 21. But these other men, doe place their righteousnes, in that which they them selves confesse to be imperfect, and not to contayne in it selfe, perfect righteousnes. For when, faith is not relatively or instrumentally taken in respect of Christ apprehended by it: it can never contayne perfect righteousnes: and so the Lord can never iustifie vs by it: For the iudgement of God is iust, and ac­cording to trueth, Rom. 2. 2. and 5. verses. and the Lord shall iudge the world in righteousnes, Acts 17. 31. of which it followeth, that there is much more iniquitie, in these mens opinion, then in the Pa­pistes: because they wittingly lay a ground to them selves, tou­ching iustification: wherein it is impossible that Gods iudge­ment can be according to trueth: seeing they make him to iusti­fie them, by that, which in their owne confession, is never an­swerable to the iustice of God.

Thirdly, that can never iustifie a man, that causeth wrath, and makes both faith and the promise vaine, and of none effect. and therefore righteousnes can never be by the Law. For as sayeth the Apostle, Rom. 4. 15. The Law causeth wrath. And againe, Gal. 3. 10. VVhosoever are of the workes of the Lawe, are vnder the curse. and that this opinion doth make both faith and the promise of none [Page 81] effect, it is manifest by the Apostle, Rom. chap. 4. vers. 14. saying. For if they which are of the Lawe be heires, faith is made voide, and the pro­mise is made of none effect. And againe, Gall. chap. 3. vers. 18. For if the inheritance be by the Law, it is no more by promise. By this may evi­dently appeare, the grosse ignorance of the Papistes, who doe ioyne faith and the workes of the Law together, in the worke of our Iustification: which two can never more stande together, then grace and workes. For to be by faith, and to bee by grace, is all one thing, according to the saying of the Apostle. Rom. 4. 16. Therefore is it by faith, that it might be by grace.

Fourthly, that whereby cōmeth the knowledge of sinne, and which maketh transgression to abound, and which includeth all men vnder sinne, and which stoppeth all mouth, and maketh all the world subiect to the iudgement of God: can never serve to the Iustification of a man. Now that all these are the effects of the Law, it is manifest by these Testimonies of Scripture. Rom. chap. 7. vers. 7. I knew not sinne but by the Law. And againe, Rom. 5. 20. The Lawe entered in therevpon that the transgression might abound. And againe, Gall. 3. 22. But the Scripture hath included all vnder sinne. Whereby the word Scripture, is vnderstood the Law: as is cleer by the testimonie of the Apostle, Rom. chap. 3. vers. 19. Where he interpretes these Scriptures, by the which he had convinced all, both Iewes and Grecians, to be vnder sinne: saying, Wee knowe that whatsoever things the Law speaketh, it sayeth it to them, which are vnder the Law, that every mouth may be stopped, and all the world be made subiect to the iudgement of God. And that the strength of this reason may appeare to be vncontrolable: The 20. verse of that same 3. chap. sheweth it to be the argument, of Gods owne spirit: when as the Apostle concludes after this manner. Therefore by the workes of the Law, shall no flesh be iustified before him: for by the Law commeth the know­ledge of sinne.

Lastly, this opinion fighteth directly, not only against the testimonie of God himselfe, but also against the testimonie of the knowledge and cōscience of the chiefest saints of God. Touch­ing Gods testimonie, it is cleere throughout all the Scriptures: where he convinceth all men of sinne: saying, There is none righ­teous [Page 82] no not one, &c. Rom. 3. And the Apostle in the same chapter witnesses: that by the workes of the Lawe, shall no flesh bee iustified before him. And expresly in the 4. chap. he sayeth, that to him that worketh not, but beleeveth in him that iustifieth the vngodly, his faith is imputed vnto righteousnes. And David placeth the righteousnes of man in Gods imputing of righteousnes, without workes. Rom. 4. 6. And the Apostle Paul expresly concludeth. Gal. 5. 4. That they whosoever are iustified by the Lawe, are abolished from Christ, and are fallen from grace.

Now touching the knowledge and conscience, of the chiefe Saints of God: we have cleer testimonies from them. Esa. 64. 6. Wee have all bene as an vncleane thing, and all our righteousnes is as filthie clouts, &c. The like confession and plaine acknowledgment wee have in Daniel, chap. 9. in the prayer that he makes vnto God. But most clearly in the Apostles speach, touching himselfe, and Peter, and remanent Apostles, and all the faithfull amongst the Iewes, Gall. 2. 15. 16. where he sayeth, VVee, who are by nature Iewes, and not sinners of the Gentils, knowing that a man is not iustified by the works of the Law, but only by the faith of Iesus Christ: even we have beleeved in Ie­sus Christ, that wee might bee iustified by the faith of Christ, and not by the workes of the Lawe: For by the workes of the Lawe, noe flesh shall bee iusti­fied.

Therefore the same Apostle Paul, albeit hee was vnrebukea­ble, touching the righteousnes which is in the Lawe: yet not­withstanding, he accompted that righteousnes, to bee but losse vnto him, and did cast it from him as filtie dounge, that he might gaine Christ, and bee found in him: That is, (as himselfe inter­preteth) that he might be found, not having his owne righteous­nes, which is of the Law: but that which is through the faith of Christ: that is the righteousnes which is of God through faith. Phil. chap. 3.

Now to conclude this point, wee will shew, not only the va­nitie, but the impossibilitie of this opinion, by this one ground, which is cleere in Scripture.

First, it is evident that the next and immediate end, of our iustification is our peace and recōciliation with God. For being [Page 83] iustified, we have peace toward God, saith the Apostle, Rom. 5. 1 And therefore peace is said to bee made by the bloud of Christ. Collos. 1. 20. And the manner how God reconcileth, is saide to bee by iustifying, 2 Cor. 5. 19. For God was in Christ, reconciling the world to himselfe, by not imputing to them their sinnes: which is all one, as to say, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to him­selfe, by iustifying them.

Secondly, it is evident, that there is no reconciliation be­twixt God and vs, without a Mediator. Therefore the Law was not given, but by the hand of a Mediator. Gall. 3. 19. Neither is the covenant of the Gospell confirmed, without a Mediator.

And all confirmation of whatsoever covenant is by bloud: because without shedding of bloud, there is no purgation, nor iustification from sinne: and that by him who is Mediator. For then is the covenant of Peace, betwixt God and man confir­med, when he, who is the Mediator of the covenant, hath by the sprinckling of bloud, purged away all filthines, and obtayned full remission: as is cleere by the 9. to the Hebr. And therefore sayeth the Apostle in the same chapter verse 18. That even the first covenant, was not ordayned without bloud. And Moyses the Mediator of that covenant, when with that bloud, he had sprinckled all the people: he said, this is the bloud of the Testament, which God hath appoin­ted vnto you. Exo. 24. 8. Heb. 9. 20.

Nowe it is playne, that Iesus Christ, in his bloud, is our peace and reconciliation with God: For no bloud, save his bloud alone, can purge vs from our iniquities, and iustifie vs. And there is no Mediator betwixt God and vs, save hee alone. For as sayeth the Apostle, 1 Timoth. chap. 1. vers. 5. There is but one Me­diator betwixt God and Man, even Iesus Christ the Man. Whereby it is playne, that none can make a firme and stable covenant of peace, betwixt God and vs, but hee alone: neither can he make this covenant sure, by any other meane, except his death and blood shedd: because no other thing in heaven or earth, can purge vs, and obtaine remission of sinnes and iustifie vs. There­fore is it said, 1 Pet. chap. 3. vers. 18. That Christ once suffered for sinnes [Page 84] the iust for the vniust, that he might bring vs to God. Vpon which respect it is that by him we are said to have accesse to the Father. Ephes. 2. 18. and 3. 12.

Now vpon all these grounds, we have to gather, of what co­venant Christ is Mediator: that is, whether of the covenant of workes, or of the covenant of grace, or (which is all one thing) whether of the covenant of the Law, or of the Gospell. For God hath never made any other covenant of Peace with man, then these two. So that in one of these two must consist, both our Iu­stification and Peace with God: and of which soever of these covenants, hee is Mediator, and which of them soever hee hath confirmed by his death, in that only must consist our righteous­nes and peace.

But it is manifest by the Scriptures, that he is not Mediator of the old, but of the new Testam. as is cleere by the Apostle, Heb. 9. 15. where he sayeth, For this cause is hee also the Mediator of the newe Testament. And againe, Heb. 12. 24. and vnto Iesus the Mediator of the new Testament. And this is confirmed by the same Apostle, Heb. 7. from the nature of his Priest-hood. For as the Apostle there wit­nesseth in the 12. verse, where the Priest-hood is changed, of necessitie, the Law also must be changed. Therefore it must follow, that Christ, beeing a Priest, not after the order of Aaron (vnder the which the Law was given) but after the order of Melchisedech: that he cannot possiblie bee the Mediator of the old Testament, that is of the covenant of the Law: and therefore in that same chap. ver. 22. it is said, that Iesus is the Mediator of a better Testament then the Law.

Herevpon followeth this conclusion: that it is not only a vaine opinion, but also an impossible, that any flesh can ever be iustified by the workes of the Lawe. For no covenant whereof Christ is not the Mediator, and which hee hath never confirmed by his death, can ever possibly serve to our Iustification: but of the covenant of workes or of the law, Iesus is no wise Mediator, neither hath hee died and shed his bloud to confirme it. There­fore by the covenant of workes no flesh shall ever bee iustified and have accesse vnto God.


NOW for the second and third opinion, the discussing of them is coincident with the points following, and espe­cially in the next point: which concerneth the 4. opini­on: that is, that only Christ is the matter of our righteousnes. Whereof now we are to speake, which beeing sufficiently clee­red, is enough to overthrow all other opinions whatsoever.

Now to make it manifest, that in Christ alone is the matter of our righteousnes, wee are: first, to divide this point in two: and secondly to set downe the confirmations of both.

The two partes wherein this point is to be divided, be these: First, that nothing in heaven or in earth, in man or without man, is the matter of mans righteousnes before God, except only Christ.

The second is, touching that, wherein in particular Christ is our righteousnes.

Now for the confirmation of the first point, we have these six grounds shortly to be considered.

First, nothing can be our righteousnes, but that only which is made by God righteousnes vnto vs. For he is only righteous, and the only Author of all righteousnes. For as there is no man righ­teous, so there is no man that can make any thing, to be righte­ousnes, either to himselfe or to others. And therefore wee are to consider what it is, that God the Creator and ordayner of all the righteousnes of men, hath ordayned and made righteousnes to vs. Nowe in all the trueth of God, nothing is ever said to bee made of God vnto vs righteousnes, except Iesus Christ alone: Neither is there any thing whatsoever, that is called our righte­ousnes, whereby wee are iustified by God, except Christ alone, and his obedience. Wherevpon it must follow, that he only must be the matter of our righteousnes. Therefore is it said by the A­postle, 1 Cor. 1. 30. that hee is made of God vnto vs, Wisdome, Righteous­nes, Sanctification and Redemption. And in the Prophete Ierem. 23 6. This name is given him of God, as the name by the which the [Page 86] children of God, shall call him: while it is said, And this is the name whereby they shall call him: The Lord our righteousnes. And a­gaine, chapter 33. vers. 16. And hee that shall call her, is the Lord ou [...] righteousnes.

Secondly, that only must be our righteousnes, which only is all in all things, and only filleth all, in all things. For he that is vnto vs, all, in all things, must needes be our only righteousnes: and hee that filleth vs all, in all things, must needes fill vs like­wise in righteousnes. Now Christ only in the Scriptures of God, hath both these attributed vnto him. The first is shewen cleerly. Collos. 3. 11. And the second is cleerly shewen, Eph. 1. 23. There­fore is it, that the Apostle Peter, Act. chap. 4. vers. 12. sayeth: That there is not salvation in any other. For among men, there is given none other name vnder heaven, whereby we must be saved. And for this same cause doth the Apostle say, That we are made the righteousnes of God in him. 2 Corinth. chap. 5. vers. 21. As likewise, that in him wee are made perfect or complete. Col. chap. 2. vers. 10. Therefore also doeth the Apostle blesse God the Father, for blessing vs with all spiritu­all blessinges in Christ, Ephes. chap. 1. vers. 3. And if with all blessinges, then also vndoubtedly, with righteous in him: ex­cept wee will denie righteousnes to bee one of the spirituall blessinges of God. Therefore the Scripture, admitteth nothing to bee ioyned with him: neyther hath the Father ordayned any thing, to have parte or place with him, in the matter of our righteousnes. For it hath pleased the Father, that in him all fulnes should dwell: and that out of his fulnes wee should re­ceyve, what soever grace wee receyve from God. And this is a parte of that preheminence which Christ hath in all thinges: so that whosoever placeth the matter of his righteousnes in any thinge but Christ, denieth flatly, that hee hath preheminence in all things.

Thirdlie, nothing can bee the matter of our righteousnes. which is not the matter of our redemption. For as sayeth the Apostle Rom. chapt. 3. vers. 24. VVee are iustified freely by his grace, through the redemption that is in Christ IESVS: Therefore is it that [Page 87] in the Scriptures, Redemption is so often interpreted, to bee remission of sinnes: which is in effect righteousnes, as Ephes. chapt. 1. vers. 7. and Colos. chapt. 1. vers. 14. Thereby shewing vs, that our righteousnes, consisteth of that same, whereof con­sisteth our Redemption. And it is cleere and manifest through­out all the holy Scriptures, that we have Redemption in Christ alone. Therefore in the same places, cited before, the Redemp­tion whereby wee are iustified, is saide to be in Christ IESVS: and wee are saide to have Redemption in him. Wherevppon it must needes followe, that seeing our Redemption is in him alone, our righteousnes must also bee in him alone. For al­though in the holy Scriptures it bee saide, that wee are iustified by faith, yet it is never saide, that we are redeemed by faith: or that our Redemption is in faith. Whereby it is most evident, that when the spirit of God sayeth, that wee are iustified by faith, or that God doeth iustifie vs through faith, or that hee imputes faith vnto righteousnes: that these speeches, are never to bee vnderstood of faith, materially: as though faith properly taken were the matter of our righteousnes before God: except wee will say likewise, that faith is the matter of our redemption: which no man is so ignorant, as once to imagine. For nothing can bee the matter of our redemption, and so consequently of our righteousnes, which is not made of God sinne for vs, and a propitiation for sinne.

For it is saide expresly, that God made our Saviour Christ sinne for vs, that wee might bee made the righteousnes of God in him. 2 Corinth. chapter 5. verse 21. and Christ is said to have redeemed vs from the curse of the Lawe, by beeing made a curse and malediction for vs. Gallath. chapter 3. verse 13. All to shewe vs that nothing can bee the matter of our Righte­ousnes, and of our Redemption, which is not made both sinne and the curse due to sinners for vs.

Which two thinges were lively and openly shadowed in the Lawe.

The first Levit. chapt. 16. by the live Goat: where it is saide, [Page 88] And Aaron shall put both his handes vpon the head of the live-Goat, and con­fesse over him all the iniquities of the Children of Israel, and all their trespas­ses in all their sinnes, putting them vpon the head of the Goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a man appointed into the wildernes: so the Goat shall beare vpon him all their iniquities. And this the Prophet Esay expres­seth plainly, when he sayeth that the Lord laid vpon Christ the iniquities of vs all: and that he bare the sinne of many. chap. 53. As also Peter, when he sayeth, that Christ himselfe bare our iniquities in his owne body vpon the tree. 1 Pet. 2. 24. The second was shadowed vnto vs, in the ordinance of God concerning all offerings for sinne. In which, when the trespasser had laid his hande vpon their head, the Priest was commanded to kill them before the Lord, and to burne them with fire. Levit. 4. Which also the Pro­phet Esay expresseth, when he sayeth: that hee was wounded for our transgressions: he was broken for our iniquities: the chastisement of our peace was vpon him. chap. 53. As also Pet. when he sayeth, that hee suffered for sinnes, the iust for the vniust. Now there is no man so foolish, as to thinke that these things can bee attributed vnto faith: or yet to the workes of the Law: or to any thing whatsoever except vnto Iesus Christ alone. Therefore nothinge, save he alone, can possi­bly be the matter of our righteousnes: seeing, nothing, except he alone, was ever made of God for vs, either sinne, or a propitia­tion for sinne, by death.

Fourthly, nothing that is not the matter of our peace and re­conciliation with God, can possibly be the matter of our righte­ousnes. For nothing can procure peace vnto vs, but that only which iustifieth vs, and covereth our iniquities. For there is no peace for the wicked sayth the Lord: and it is our iniquities that seperates vs from God. Esay 57. 21. and 59. 2. Therefore the A­postle sayeth, Rom. 5. 1. that beeing iustified, we have peace toward God. For the cleanging of vs from sinne, (which is the cause of ha­tred) makes vs to be reconciled vnto God. Now the Lord Iesus only, in the Scriptures, is called our peace: and in him only, God reconciled the worlde vnto himselfe: and that by iustifying vs, and this peace & reconciliation, is said to be made, by the bloud of his crosse: because therein only, we have remission of sinnes: [Page 89] and therein onely is Christ ordayned a propitiation for sinne. Wherevpon it followeth, that seeing nothing is our peace but Christ onely: nothing can be our righteousnes but he only. For nothing but righteousnes, makes peace betwixt God and man.

Fiftlie, righteousnes and life, are ordayned to be brought into the world: as sinne and death were brought into the worlde: therefore is it that Adam (in respect of the effectes that come from him to all men) is saide to be the Type of Christ in the ef­fectes that flow from him to his members. For it is saide, that as by one man, sinne entred into the world: so by one man, righteousnes shalbe brought into the worlde. And as in Adam all die, so in Christ shall all be made alive. According to which ground it is also saide, That as we have borne the Image of the earthlie, so shall wee beare the Image of the heavenly. Where­vpon it followeth, that nothing in the world, except Christ, can be the matter of our Righteousnes: as none in the worlde, save onely Adam, is the Authour of sinne in vs, otherwise the trueth in Christ touching righteousnes, should never answer to the Type in Adam, concerning sinne. Therefore as sinne commeth from Adam alone vnto vs all, as he in whom wee have all sin­ned: so from Iesus Christ alone, commeth righteousnes to all, that are in him: as he, in whom they have all satisfied the iustice of God. In which comparison, (if we had eyes to marke it) faith never hath the place of our righteousnes, but answeres in our participation of righteousnes in Christ, to that, which is the ground of our being partakers in the sinne of Adam. For as wee were one with Adam, and in respect of origine and nature were in him, and so by being in him and one with him, did all in him and with him, transgresse the commandement of God: even so, in respect of faith, whereby onely we are vnited vnto Christ▪ and spiritually made one with him, and ingrafted in him: wee all in him, and with him, did satisfie the iustice of God, in his death, and suffering. Thus, our vnion with Christ, and meanes thereof, is alwayes to be distinguished, from our communion [Page 90] with him, in the participation of his righteousnes, as the fruit thereof. Like as our being in Adam, and one with him, is to be distinguished, from the fruit thereof: which is, communiō with him, in the participation of his transgression. For clearing of this pointe, we have to marke carefully, the wordes of the spi­rit of God vnto Daniel, chap. 9. vers, 24. In the which, an appein­ted tyme is set downe, for the finishing of wickednes, the sea­ling vp of sinnes, the reconciling of iniquitie, and bringing in of everlasting righteousnes in the worlde. Thereby shewing vs, that it is impossible, that faith can bee the materiall righte­ousnes of GOD, whereby we are iustified. For then, this ever­lasting righteousnes, should have beene in the worlde, before Christ came into the worlde: and so should not have beene brought in by him. For faith was in the worlde, from the dayes of Adam. Therefore sayeth the spirit of GOD, that by it, our Flders obtayned good report: and yet in that same place, the spirit witnesseth that they receyved not the promise, distin­guishing betwixt faith, and Christ apprehended by faith, as the matter of the promise, and so consequently, of righteous­nes. The one whereof, that is faith, they had receyved: the o­ther, that is the promise, they had not receyved: because Christ (in whom their blessednes was promised) was not exhibited in their dayes.

For, albeit by faith, they apprehended Christ crucified, to come, and the righteousnes, which hee was to bring vnto the worlde at his comming: yet notwithstanding, that righteous­nes, in the substance and matter of it, was never brought into the worlde, vnto the tyme, that Christ IESVS was brought into the worlde. Therefore doeth the Lord vse this phrase of speech: My salvation is at hande to come, and my righteousnes to bee revealed, Esay chapter 56. vers 1. According vnto which like­wise, the Apostle Paul speaketh, That GOD had purposed in the dispensation of the fulnes of tyme, to gather together all thinges in Christ, Eph. ch. 1. ve. 10. Which the same Apostle declareth more cleer­lie, Gallath. chap. 4. vers. 4. 5. saying: But when the fulne: of tyme [Page 91] was come, God sent foorth his Sonne, made of a VVoman, and made vn­der the Lawe, that hee might redeeme them which were vnder the Lawe, &c. So that the verie designing of a precise tyme, for the bringing in of our righteousnes into the worlde, declareth ma­nifestly, that that righteousnes, is to bee materially distingui­shed from faith, which was in the worlde in all ages, before ever it was manifested. For faith could bee in the worlde, and apprehende righteousnes, which was to bee brought into the worlde, long before it came: as well as nowe, long after that righteousnes is performed, it can lay holde vppon it vn­to iustification.

For, the faith of Gods Children, before the day of Christ, and the faith of Gods Children, nowe after the day of Christ: did ever, and yet doeth apprehende no righteousnes, but that, which in that day was brought into the worlde. For it is as easie to faith, to apprehende righteousnes to come, as it is to faith, to apprehende, by gone righteousnes. Like as our faith, yet apprehendeth many thinges to come. as specially our glorification, which is yet a thing no wise manifested: neither shall be manifested, vntill Christ appeare agayne in his se­cond comming in glorie. This same grounde serveth to prove, that the Lawe and workes thereof, was never the matter of our righteousnes: seeing the Lawe was given longe before Christs comming into the world.

Lastly, that which doeth not make manifest, God to be iust, and the Iustifier: can never possibly bee that righteousnes, whereby we are iustified. This ground is cleere by the Apostles wordes, Rom. chap. 3. where hee declareth the ende wherefore God doeth manifest his righteousnes, and to that ende setteth foorth Christ to bee a Propitiation by faith in his bloud: which is, that he may be iust, and the iustifier of him that is of the faith of IESVS. For the rightousnes of GOD, whereby hee iu­stifieth vs, beeing manifested, must of necessitie, not onely de­clare GOD to bee mercifull, but also iust. And therefore it is nor sufficient and enough, that grace doe shine in our iusti­fication, in respect of Gods grace and mercie towardes vs: [Page 92] but moreover, it is necessarie, that iustice doe shine in our iusti­fication in respect of GOD him selfe: so that albeit wee re­ceyve remission of sinnes, without any merit, or reason in our selves, but of Gods free grace toward vs in Christ: yet notwith­standing God in doeing so, must still be iust. For as sayth Abra­ham, Gen. 18. Shall not the Iudge of the worlde doe right? Now this iu­stice of God in iustifying, is perceyved by the fight of the righ­teousnes of God, whereby he iustifies. as is plaine by that speech of the Apostle in Rom. chap. 3. For to this ende doeth God show his righteousnes, that he may be iust. Now it is certayne, that if God should iustifie vs, eyther by the workes of the Lawe, or by faith, as it is a worke or habit in vs: GOD could never bee seene to be iust, in iustifying of vs, because there is no flesh that abides in every jot that is written in the Lawe of God. Neyther is there any that doeth it. And concerning faith, the very Saints them selves in the scriptures have acknowledged their faith to be imperfect. And they who now place faith for the matter of our righteousnes, doeth acknowledge that it is not answearable to the iustice of God: because it is not full and perfect righte­ousnes. but Iesus Christ whom God hath made righteousnes vn­to vs, in his death, being manifested vnto vs, in his satisfaction, doeth let vs see a full and perfect righteousnes, answerable to the iustice of God in all things: so that God is not vniust, in iu­stifying thereby. seeing in that iustification, hee iustifieth vs, by that which in it selfe is a righteousnes, as full and perfect, as his iustice doeth require, and the conscience of this, hath forced some of these men, who holde our righteousnes to consist in faith: to confesse, that the obedience of Christ must be imputed vnto vs, as well as our owne faith. so making a double action of God, in iustifying. one gracious, in respect of faith: another iust, in respect of Christes obedience.

Vpon this ground it followeth necessarily, that nothing can be our righteousnes, except Christ alone. seeing the Lord can­not be seene to be iust, in instifying vs, by any thing, except by him alone.


IT followeth now that we speake of the second point: which concerneth the matter of our righteousnes, that is, what is that thing, wherein Christ is made of God righteousnes vnto vs: and this in one word in the scripture, is saide to bee his obe­dience, Rom. chap. 5. vers. 19, Where it is said: For as by one mans disobedience, many were made sinners: so also by the obedience of one man, many shallbe made righteous: and this general is embraced of all, who acknowledge Christ to be our righteousnes: but yet in a three­folde different sense.

The first is, of those who by the obedience of Christ, vnder­stande the whole worke of his humiliation. in the which, they lay three groundes, wherein they place the matter of our righ­teousnes.

The first is, the worke of Christ in taking vpon him our Na­ture without sinne.

The second is, his active obedience in fulfilling the Lawe of God, during the whole course of his life.

The third is, his passive obedience in submitting him selfe to the death, and that of the crosse.

In the first of these actions, they place our iustification from originall sinne, and the inborne corruption of our nature.

In the second, they place our Iustification from all our actu­all sinnes, both of commission, and of omission.

In the third, they place our Iustification and absolution from the punishment due to our sinnes.

The second sense, wherein the obedience of Christ is taken, is when thereby his active and passive obediēce are only meant: without respect of the integritie of his nature: and this twofold obedience, they esteeme to be necessarie in our iustification, a­gainst the two evills wherevnto wee are subiect through the fall of Adam.

The first is the evill of sinne. From the which, they esteeme vs to bee iustified, by the imputation of Christes active obedi­ence [Page 94] in fulfilling the Law.

The second is the evill of punishment. From the which they esteeme vs to be iustified, by the imputation of Christes passive obedience in his death and sufferings.

The third sense, wherein the obedience of Christ is taken in our iustification: is when thereby the passive obediēce of Christ only in his death, is vnderstood, by the imputation whereof on­ly, as that wherein Christ only is made our righteousnes: wee are iustified from all sinne and punishment thereof.

These three opinions, agreeing all in the mayne pointe: (that is, that onely Christ in his obedience, is our righteousnes) may well (without any contention, strife or scisme) bee tollera­ted in the Church of God: if Christian modestie, humblenes of mind, & meeknes did in that measure possesse al, that they could support one another in love: and studie more to keepe the vnitie of the spirit, in the baunde of peace: then by controversies of disputations, to engender strife. Especially seeing none of these opinions, overthrowe the foundation: or yet contayneth in them, any impietie: or leadeth any man from the marke or matter of his righteousnes. seeing all three, exclude all things, except onely Christes obedience, from our righteousnes. More­over, if wee shall consider two thinges distinctlie: we shall ea­silie perceyve, that these three opinions, may easily be reconci­led, and made all to agree in one: and that none of them is con­trarie to the trueth of God.

The two things which are distinctly to bee considered, are these.

The first is that wherein standeth the righteousnes it selfe, which is imputed vnto vs.

The second is of these thinges, which are requisite in Christ, to the end that in the other, he may be righteousnes vnto vs.

For these two thinges are not to bee confounded: that is, that wherein Christ is made righteousnes: and that whereby he is made meete, to be our righteousnes, in that wherein hee is made righteousnes vnto vs. Like as the bloud of the Lambe, (shadowing Christes bloud) is to bee distinguished from these [Page 95] thinges in the Lambe, which made the Lambes bloud, to serve for a propitiation for sinne. For the properties of the beast which was to bee sacrifised for sinne: are to bee distingui­shed from the bloud of the beast, which onely was carried in to the most holy place, to make expiation of sinnes before the Lord.

This ground being considered, wee shall easilie perceyve, that although Christ, bee made righteousnes vnto vs, in one particular thinge: yet, before in that thinge, hee can bee our righteousnes: all his perfections, both in nature and action is required.

For cleering hereof yet more: we have to consider, that the matter of our righteousnes in it self, is not to be confunded, with the action of God in iustifying vs thereby. vnto the which, many things are required, that are no parte nor portion of the righ­teousnes it selfe. so that, if wee speake of the action of our iu­stification: all what soever is conteyned, in all these three o­pinions, and more also, in Christ, is required thereto. but if we speake of the matter of the righteousnes it selfe, whereby wee are iustified: wee are to consider of them, otherwise. There­fore it shall bee needfull, that wee consider these two points severally: that is first, what it is wherein particularly Christ is righteousnes vnto vs.

Secondly, What thinges they are, that are required in him, to the ende, that in the other, hee may bee righteousnes vn­to vs.

Touching the first, The question or doubt seemeth chieflie to arise vpon the worde Obedience: which in deede is often­tymes in the Scripture, referred to the whole worke of Christs humiliation: even from his conception, to his resurrection. So that all whatsoever hee did in the world, is accompted obedi­ence vnto the Father. Thus his very Incarnation, and ta­kinge vppon him our nature, and taking of it in the simi­litude of sinfull flesh, his becomming vnder the Lawe, his ta­king our sinnes and transgressions vpon him, his becomming a curse for vs, his becomming our high Priest, his offering of [Page 96] him selfe vnto the Father, his doctrine, his actions, his suffe­rings and resurrection, are all to be accompted obedience. For it was the Father that sent him into the worlde: and he came into the world, not to doe his owne will, but the will of the Fa­ther that sent him: therefore he witnesseth him selfe, that hee spake nothing, but according to the commandement which his Father had given him, Iohn chap. 12. vers. 49. the same hee wit­nesseth of his actions, Ioh, chep. 14. vers. 31. as also of his death and resurrection, Iohn chap. 10. ver. 18. and yet there is no man, that will say, that all the particulars of Christes sayings and do­inges, are parte and portion of the matter of our righteousnes: albeit every one of them be a parte of his obedience.

Therefore we must needes take the name of Christes obedi­ence, in a more strict sense: when we vnderstand by it, the mat­ter of our righteousnes. and this stricter sense, we are not to ga­ther, out of our owne conceyts and fantasies, but out of the ex­presse word of God.

The word, every where, when it speakes of our righteous­nes, not vnder the generall worde of Christes obedience, but particularly, by those workes of his obedience, wherein our righteousnes consisteth: doeth onely mention his sufferinge, death, or laying downe of his life, or his bloud, or his oblation, or offering of him selfe, or his being made sinne, or his bearinge the chastisement of our peace, and such like phrases. Which all signifie one thing: that is, his suffering in the flesh. For no where in the Scriptures of God, is our righteousnes, particularly attri­buted to any other action of Christ. Neither can it bee collected, to consist in any other action, except out of the generall worde of obedience. Neither is there any necessitie (if the matter bee well waighed) to adde any thing, to the sufferings of Christ, in the matter of our righteousnes. yea moreover, it would appeare by divers groundes of the trueth of God, that nothing can, or may be added therevnto, in the matter of our righteousnes.

Which groundes, we will shortiy touch, leaving them to eve­rie mans consideration: intending no wise to stirre vp any strife in the Church of God, for this matter. Neyther minding, vpon [Page 97] presumption of knowledge, to determine or give sentence, in a matter of such waight but only to communicate the light that God hath given me, with others, for their helpe, and no wayes for their hinderance.

The first ground, which we marke in Scriptures, is this: wee are not to esteeme Christ, to be our righteousnes, in any thing, but in that only, wherein God hath purposed, and according to his purpose ordayned, & according to his ordaynance, set forth, Christ to be our righteousnes and propitiation. Nowe the pur­pose of God, is cleerely sett downe by the Apostle, Col. chap, 1. ver. 19. 20. where it is saide: It pleased the Father, that in him should all fulnes dwell: and by him to reconcile all things vnto him selfe: making peace by the bloud of his crosse. The ordinance of God, conforme to his purpose, may be received, 1. Pet. 1. 18. 19. 20. where it is sayd, that we are redeemed or ransomed, by the precious blond of Christ, as of a Lambe vndefiled and without spot: ordayned before the foundation of the world was. His setting him foorth according to his purpose and ordinance, is declared Rom. chap. 3. ver. 25. where it is saide: whom God sett foorth before a propitiation, by faith, in his bloud: to shewe his righteousnes. All which places, are in all appearance, to be interpreted of the eternall purpose of God, concerning the matter of our righte­ousnes and peace: although our vulgar translations doe inter­prete that place of Peter, to be of Gods ordināce: and that place of the Rom. to bee, of the Lords setting foorth of Christ in the ceremonies of the Lawe. Yet all serveth to one purpose: that is, to declare that God hath purposed and ordayned Christ, in his bloud, to be our righteousnes: as all these three places doe expreslie witnes. And if we shal take the word [...] (which properly signifieth fore-purposed) in that signification wherein it is commonly rendered (that is to sett foorth) wee shall finde nothing in all the ceremonies and types of Gods Lawe, where­in Christ was set out or shadowed to be our propitiation and at­toneme [...] except only his death and bloud. For without shedding of bloud, ther [...] [...] no remission: and according to the Lawe almost all things were purged by blond, Hebr. chapt. 9. vers. 22. Therefore the Apostle attributeth our righteousnes, vnto his bloud onely, in [Page 98] many and divers places. as Rom. chapt. 5. vers. 9. Ephes. chapt. 1. vers. 7. Colos. chap. 1. vers. 14. &c. And this grounde is made sure, by the Apostles reasoning, Heb. 6. and 10. chapt. giving the reason, why those, who sinne against the holy Ghost, can ne­ver receyve grace, nor bee renewed by repentance. Which is, because there remayneth no more a sacrifice for sinne: seeing Christ can die no more, neither bee exposed any more to igno­minie and shame. Out of which speech, wee may most surely gather, that Christ is appointed our righteousnes and peace, in nothing, but in his death and bloud of his crosse. For if there were any other thing, whereby remission of sinnes might be ob­tayned, the Apostle would not have concluded impossibilitie of remission of that sinne, vpon that onely grounde, that Christ could be crucified no more.

This same is yet further confirmed, by those thinges where­in Adam as the Type and figure, is compare vnto Christ, in the matter of our righteousnes, Rom. chapt. 5. For not onely is one man, compared vnto one man, and the sinne and transgres­gression of one man, to the obedience of one man: but also, one transgression of one man, committed but once, to one obedi­ence, of one man, performed but once. In which respect it is sayde in the holy Scriptures of God, Hebr. chap. 9. vers. 14. That by one offeringe, hee hath consecrated vs for ever. And againe. vers. 10. VVee are sanctified by the offeringe of IESVS Crist once made. Even as Adam (albeit thereafter hee committed many trans­gressions, whereof none of his seede is guiltie) did never trans­gresse but once the cōmandement of the forbidden fruit. Which one disobedience, once committed, is the only sinne and trans­gression of Adam, that makes vs sinners in him: and this Type, is a cleere evidence, of Gods eternall purpose, touching our righteousnes in the obedience of Christ: as all Types what­soever appointed of God, are evidences of his minde, in that whereof they are appointed to be Types. Now this Type, doth shewe vs the minde of God: (as witnesseth the Apostle plainly) touching our righteousnes in foure pointes.

[Page 99] First, that our righteousnes should proceede from one man IESVS Christ: like as sinne entered into the world by one man Adam.

Secondly, that our righteousnes should consist, in the obedi­ence of that one man, like as our commune sinfulnes, doth con­sist in the disobedience of one man Adam.

Thirdly, that our righteousnes should consist, in one obedi­ence onely, of that one man Christ: like as our sinfulnes doeth consist, in one onely disobedience, of that one man Adam.

Fourthly, that our righteousnes should consist, in the onely one obedience, of that one man, once onely performed: like as our sinfulnes, did consist, in that onely one disobedience, of that one man Adam, once onely committed. Therefore sayeth the Apostle: As it is appointed vnto men, that they shall once die: so Christ was once offered to take away the sinnes of many, Heb. chapt. 9. vers. 27. 28.

Thus if God had given no other Type from the begin­ning: Adam alone is sufficient, to teach vs that GOD from the beginning, did neither purpose, nor ordayne, nor set forth Christ, to bee a propitiation vnto vs, in any thing, but in his death and bloud.

The second grounde in holy Scripture, which proves this assertion, to bee according to the minde of God: is the signes and seales of the righteousnes which is by faith. Which are, Baptisme, and the Lordes Supper. Which are called the signes and seales of the righteousnes which is by faith: because they doe first signifie and represent vnto vs, what is the righteousnes it selfe, whereby (being apprehended by faith) we are iustified. and secondly, because they seale and confirme vnto vs, that righteousnes is ours. so that they are appointed vnto vs of God, as cleere documents of his minde, wherein wee may see and perceyve most evidently, what is the matter and substance of our righteousnes before God.

Now in them, nothing but water and the washing thereby: and bread broken, and wine poured out with eating & drinking thereof, is set before vs, as either the signes or seales of our [Page 100] righteousnes. To teach vs, that our righteousnes consists in no­thing, but in Christs bloud shed, and sprinkled vpon vs, and in his body broken vpon the Crosse, and his bloud communica­ted vnto vs.

But it is most certayne, that if there had bene any other thing in his obedience: in which had consisted any part or portion of our righteousnes: he would likewise have left it, in the seales of the covenant, to bee remembred of vs, and vsed by vs, for our instruction and comfort. For nothing is to be esteemed, to bee any part or portion of our righteousnes in Christ: wherof Christ himselfe hath institute, neither signe nor seale.

This ground is confirmed further vnto vs, by divers senten­ces of the holy Ghost, touching Baptisme: which beeing answe­rable vnto circumcision, is most properly, both the signe and seale of the righteousnes which is by faith. In which sentences, Baptisme is made to have referēce to no part of Christs obediēce except vnto his death only. as is manifest Rom. chap. 6. vers. 3. Where it is said, knowe yee not that all wee which have bene baptised into Iesus Christ, have bene Baptised into his death. Therefore also, this same Apostle, 1 Cor. chap. 1. vers. 13. taketh his argument from no parte of Christs obedience, but his death only, and from Bap­tisme in the name of Christ, as the signe and seale of our righ­teousnes, in his death and suffering, to remove the schismes and divisions, that were amongst the Corinthians, saying: Was Paul crncified for you, or were ye Baptised in the name of Paul? For which cause also, the Apostle to the Eph. chap. 5. vers. 25. 26. 27. doth wholly attribute the worke of our iustification & purgation from sinne, vnto Christs giving himselfe vnto the death for vs: the vertue whereof, hee makes to bee applied vnto vs by the washing of water, through the word. And this point is most cleere, by the words of the Apostle Peter, who sheweth the veritie hereof, in the practise of God, towards his saints: both before the com­ming of Christ and now after. For hee affirmeth that Noach and these that were with him in the Arck, were saved by water: and that now, we are saved by Baptisme: as answering in analogie, to the waters of the floud. Thereby expresly teaching vs, that [Page 101] from the beginning, Christ was crucified and set forth in no­thing, but in his death and bloud, to be the matter our righ­teousnes, as by the Apostle Peter in the same place (interpreting the benefite that redounds vnto vs, by Baptisme: or rather defi­ning what Baptisme it self is, whereby we are saved) may easily be gathered: when he saith that this Baptisme, is uot a putting away of their filth of the flesh, but a confident demanding, which a good conscience ma­keth vnto God. 1 Epi. chap. 3. vers. 20. and 21. Which discription is nothing els in effect but iustification. Which the Apostle in ano­ther place calleth, the purging of our consciences from dead workes, Heb. chap. 9. vers. 14. and the sprinkling of our harts from an evill conscience, Heb. chap. 10. vers. 22. which by the Apostle Peter is discribed from the effect, which is our accesse with confidence vnto God, in calling vpon him as our Father, vpon the sense and frelling of the remission of all our sinnes in the bloud of Christ.

This same also is manifest touchinn the other seale of the co­venant: which is the Supper of the Lord: by the wordes of Christ himselfe, Luke chap. 22. vers. 19. 20. and of the Apostle, 1 Cor. chap. 11. vers. 24. 25. where expounding his owne minde, touching the bread and wine: he sayeth, that the bread was his body which was given, and as the Apostle sayeth, which was broken for them, and that the cup was the new Testament in his bloud, which was shed for them, For Iesus Christ flesh and his bloud, are vnto vs no righte­ousnes, vntill his body be broken, and his bloud shed vpon the crosse for vs. For neither did hee destroy the Devill, but by his death: nor set vs at libertie from our bondage, but by his death. Heb. chap. 2. vers. 14. 15. Neither did he put away our sinnes, but by the offering of himselfe. Heb. chap. 9. vers. 26. 28. And there­fore sayeth Christ himselfe, Ioh. chap. 12. vers. 24. except the wheat corne fall into the ground and die, it abydeth alone: but if it die, it bringeth forth many fruite.

Thus by the seales of the righteousnes of faith, and by the phrase of the spirit concerning them, and by the testimonie of Christ himselfe, touching his owne death, it would evidently appeare, that the matter of our righteousnes, consisteth in no parte of his obedience, proceeding his death: but consisteth [Page 102] wholly in the onely one oblation of him selfe vppon the crosse.

The third grounde in holy Scripture, confirminge this pointe: is builded vpon the testimonie of Christ him selfe, and the Apostles interpretation of his minde: sett downe, Hebr. chapt. 10. where first, out of the 40. Psalme, the speech of Christ is cited: wherein hee declareth, what is the will of the Fa­ther, touching the expiation of our sinnes in him. Which is by his obedience vnto the Father, in doeing his will. Which will of the Father, is expounded by the Apostle in the 10, verse, in these wordes: By the which will, we are sanctified: even by the offering of the body of Iesus Christ once.

Now the obedience of Christ, in the matter of our righte­ousnes, is not to bee esteemed of any larger extent, then is the will of GOD which hee did obey, and by which wee are san­ctified. Therefore seeing the will of GOD, in the matter of our righteousnes, is restrayned onely to the offeringe of Christ: Surely his obedience, (as it is saide to make vs righteous) must bee of no larger sense, except we will be wise above that which is written.

If the Lordes owne interpretation, of his owne minde tou­chinge his owne will, and obedience of his Sonne therevn­to, whereby wee are iustified, will not serve to satisfie mens mindes: it is in vaine to labour, by any other meanes, to give contentement to those, who cannot be content with that which God him selfe hath revealed touching this point. Whose minde, must needes be best knowne to him selfe: and in the which, we are to rest according as it is revealed.

And that this interpretation, set downe in this same place, is the vndoubted mynde of God him selfe: it may evidentlie appeare, by the cōstant course of his speech, set down throngh­out all the New Testament. In the which still all the partes of our Redemption, touching Iustification, Reconciliation, and Sanctification: are ever attributed vnto the bloud of Christ [...] vnto his death, and vnto his crosse and sacrifice of him selfe. [Page 103] And the killinge of hatred, the blotting out of the hand-wri­tinge which was against vs: the removinge of the partition wall, and abolishinge of all Principalities and Powers, and all our spirituall enimies: is still attributed vnto his crosse. And therefore, the whole worde of the Gospell, is called the worde or preachinge of the Crosse, first Corinth. chapt. 1. vers. 18.

And the speciall thinge which the Apostle respected, in preaching nothinge but Christ, and him crucified: and why Christ will not have the Gospell preached, in wisedome of wordes, is: that the Crosse of Christ, may not bee made of none effect, 1. Corinth. chap. 1. vers. 17. Which should make vs all, to take heed vnto our selves, in layinge downe any other grounde, except the death of Christ: or ioyning any other thing vnto the death of Christ, in the matter of our righteousnes: least wee make his death and crosse of none effect.

The fourth grounde which seemeth cleerlie to confirme this pointe, is, the argument which the Apostle vseth, Hebr. chapter 10. ver. 18. conteyned in these wordes: VVhere there is remission of sinnes, there is no more oblation for sinne. By which argument, hee both proveth, the ineffectuallnes of all the sacrifices of the Law: and the eternall vertue of the death of Christ, vnto the remis­sion of sinnes. By which argument of the Apostle, it seemeth necessarilie to followe, that in nothing which is in Christ him­selfe, before his death, consisteth the remission of our sinnes: and so consequentlie our righteousnes. For where remission of sinnes is, there is no more offeringe for sinne. Therefore if in Christes actuall obedience, or in his habituall righteousnes, there had beene remission of sinnes, originall and actuall: (as it beho­ved to bee, if they bee imputed to vs for righteousnes) surely the death of Christ is needlesse. For to what ende should Christ have bene delivered to death, for our sinnes, (as sayeth the Apostle Rom. chapt. 4. vers. 25) or to what ende, should hee haue beene offered, for the takinge away of sinne, (as hee is saide to bee, Hebr. chap. 9. vers. 26. 28.) if so be that all our [Page 104] iniquities, both originall and actuall, be pardoned in his pre­ceeding actuall obediende. Surely it seemeth that this opinion would have made Christ to die without a cause. For where it is aledged, that he was offred to remove the punishment of our sinne, it seemeth to conteyne a double contradiction to Gods truth. For first, it is manifest by the Scriptures, that he was offred not only to deliver vs from the curse and punishment, but also from sinne it selfe.

Secondly, it seemeth to impugne the iustice and righteous­nes of God: who never punisheth where guiltines is taken a­way. For death is the reward of sinne. Therefore where sinnes are removed, death can not bee inflicted. For where there is no sinne, there is no death. And therefore sayeth the spirit of God: that where remission of sinnes is, there is no more sacrifice for sinne. According to which saying: either Christs death and suf­fring vpon the crosse, is no sacrifice for sinne: or then there was no remission of sinne before: either in his habituall righteousnes, or actuall obedience, or any other thing whatsoever.

Thus the very offring of Christ for sinne, secludes all things preceeding whatsoever, from all vertue or efficacie of purging sinne, and removing of iniquitie. For as witnesseth the same A­postle, Heb. chap. 10. vers. 2. 3. Where there is a new remembrance, a­gaine of sinnes, they have never bene formerly taken away. An therefore, seeing in Christs death, there is a new remembrance of sinnes a­gaine: it cannot bee, that they were ever taken away, by any thing, preceeding his death. For otherwise, Christ should not have bene offred: Because that the offerers beeing once purged, have from that tyme forth, no more conscience of sinnes, Heb. chap. 10. vers. 2.

The first ground, which serveth to cleere this point, is set downe by 1. Ep. Ioh. chap. 1. vers. 7. where he sayth, that the bloud of Iesus Christ, purgeth vs from all sinne: which wordes importe playn­lie, that it is a needles and vnnesseccary thing, to adde any thing to the death of Christ, in the matter of our righteousnes. For if it alone, performe the whol worke of our iustification: it is an idle curiositie, and a fruitles contention, when men contend for any other thing, to bee ioyned in this worke, with it. But these [Page 105] wordes of the Apostle doe plainly manifest, that the bloud of Christ alone, accomplisheth our iustification. For whatsoever purgeth vs from all sinne, must needes accomplish our righte­ousnes, and fully iustifie vs, both from originall and actuall sinne. therefore it must needes holde, that in his bloud consi­steth the full matter of our righteousnes. For nothing, that con­tayneth not full and perfect righteousnes, can possibly cleanse vs from all sinne.

Moreover, by this sentence of Iohn, it would appeare that the opinion of those men, who put a difference, betwixt an inno­cent man and a iust man: hath no soliditie at all: nor any war­rant in Gods trueth: if we compare the saide sentence, with the wordes of David, Psalm. 32. repeated by the Apostle, Rom. 4. in the which, The man whose sinnes are pardoned, is pronounced to be blessed. By which wordes it is manifest, that vnto eternall blessednes, it is sufficient, to have remission of sinnes: which could not be true, if after remission of sinnes (which is alleadged to be by im­putatiō of Christes actuall obediēce, and fulfilling of the Lawe) men should yet be in dāger of punishment, vntill Christ did die for thē. For hovv can he be blessed that still is liable to punish­ment, & vnder the sentence of death. Therefore, either remission of sinnes, maketh not a man blessed, or then remission of sinnes must onely cōsist in the bloud of Christ. seeing, as saith the Apost. Heb. ch. 2. ver. 15. we are not delivered from the feare of death, but by the death of Christ only, by whose stripes onely wee are healed.

By the same reason it is evident, that by Christs actual obedi­ence, there can be no remission of sinnes: seeing in the cōfession of those, that are of that opinion, by that obedience, men are not exempt from punishment: and so cannot be said to be blessed.

Besides, this opinion doth flatly contradict the trueth. For the Scriptures placeth righteousnes in the remission of sinnes: and vnto life, it requireth no more but righteousnes. For the iust by faith shall live.

Moreeover, innocencie before God, cannot preceede righte­ousnes. For as the Lord holdeth not the wicked innocent, so by [Page 106] the contrarie, he holdeth him that is righteous, to be innocent therefore, betwixt a sinner and a iust man, there can be no mid, dell estate and condition of a man, before God. Except we will place a middest, betwixt righteousnes & sinne: and a middell condition, betwixt heaven and hell, in the world to come. For as heaven is for iust men, and hell for wicked men: the same iustice of God requireth, that there bee a middell condition, for such as are betwixt both: seeing they are neither in the state of the iust, nor of the wicked. Men doe not see, what a foundati­on this opinion layeth, for establishinge the Papistes Limbus Pa­trum, and vainely invented Purgatorie. Furthermore, this opi­nion seemeth to imply a contradiction in it selfe.

For first, it affirmeth, that the actuall obedience of Christ, is imputed vnto vs as righteousnes: and yet they holde that it doth not iustifie vs from punishment.

Secondly, they confesse that it maketh vs innocent, and yet denie that it maketh vs iust. Which are thinges impossible. For whatsoever is imputed as righteousnes, must iustifie vs, and whatsoever maketh vs innocent, must necessarily make vs iust. For nothing, but righteousnes, can make a man innocent be­fore God.

Therefore, seeing that sentence of Iohn, asscribeth the pur­ging of all sinne to the bloud of Christ: be it originall, or arctu­all, it is the safest way for vs, (being warranted by the H. Ghost) to accompt it, onely the matter of our righteousnes: and to be­ware, of adding any thing too it, Whereof we have not the like expresse warrant.

And to make this ground yet more sure: we are to cōsider the nature of the death and suffering of Christ. Which is manifest by the wordes of Christ him selfe, Math. cha. 20. ver. 28. Marke cha. 10. ver. 45. where he sayeth: The sonne of man is not come to bee served, but to serve, and to give his live a ransome for many: therefore was he cal­led Iesus, because he saved vs from our sinnes. And for the same cause, we are saide, in his bloud to have redemption, and by the bloud of his crosse to be reconciled vnto God. And for this same cause, the Lord is said to have set him foorth, a propitiation for [Page 107] sinne, in his bloud: and to have wounded him, for our transgres­sions: to have broken him for our iniquities: and to have made him, sinne and a curse for vs. All which phrases import three thinges. The I. is, that Christ did pay by his death, a price for vs, to set vs at libertie from sinne. The II. is, that by his death he reconciled vs vnto God, removing his wrath frō vs. The III. is, that God did execute vpon him, in his death, the iudgement due to vs, for our iniquities. therefore is hee saide, not to have spared his owne sonne. Vpon the which it followeth, that both the whole price of our Redemption, the whole matter of our peace, and the whoie satisfaction for our sinnes, consisteth in the death of Christ. and so consequently of our full righteousnes.

Now, as we have said before, the iudgemēt of God is alwayes according to truth, so that in wounding his sonne for our trans­gressions, he behoved to have chastised him, in proportion and measure, answerable to all our iniquities. So that this satisfacti­on, by his death, being layde in ballance, with the perfect obe­dience of the Law, required of vs: it behoved, in the iustice of God, to be of equal waight with it: and no lesse able, fully to an­swere, the iustice of God: then the full obedience of the Lawe. For the onely iust GOD, and Iudge of all the worlde, can not ordayne a punishment and satisfaction to his iustice for sinne, neither execute it, in greater or lesser measure or proportion of iustice, then the fault required.

Hereof it must follow: seeing Christes death & bloud, is the chastisement of our peace, & punishmēt inflicted of God, for the sinnes of his elect: it must contayne in it, as full iustice & righ­teousnes, as the full accomplishment: of the Lawe by vs, should have done. therefore saith Ioh. That the bloud of Iesus, purgeth vs from all iniquities. to teach vs, that his bloud being imputed vnto vs, as our righteousnes, by God: doth put vs in the same estate & case, (touching righteousnes vnto life, before God) wherin we should have bene, if we had performed the condition of the law. which is, do this, & thou shalt live: and therfore, it being equivalent in the iustice of God to that which was required of vs, vnto life: it is in vaine to adde anything vnto it, vnto perfect righteousnes.

This same is also cleere, by the Apostles speech, Rom. cha. 3. ver. 25. when he sheweth, that God did set foorth Christ, a pro­pitiation [Page 108] in his bloud: to shew his righteousnes: to this end, that he might be iust. For heere two thinges are to be observed, ser­ving to this purpose. The first is, that only in the bloud of Iesus, the righteousnes of God, whereby we are iustified, is to be seene. The second is, that by the sight thereof, God is knowne to bee iust, in sparing his elect, and iustifying them freely, by the re­demptiō that is in Christ. Wherevpon it must follow, that Christ in his death must have, in most full and perfect manner, answe­red the iustice of God: no lesse, then our full and perfect obedi­ence, should have done. otherwise, it could never have shewen the righteousnes of God: neither could he have bene manife­sted iust, in iustifying vs thereby.

For the Law of God, is fulfilled: and the righteousnes or iu­stice of God therein required, is accomplished two manner of wayes. that is, eyther by doeing all thinges commanded there­in: or els, by suffering such punishment, as in the iustice of God (for the transgression thereof) is in iust proportion answerable therevnto. so that, in eyther of these fully finished, the iustice of God, vnto eternall life, is answered.

The sixt ground, is builded vpon the lawe of the Priesthood, which was ordayned particularly of God, for this end, to make expiation of our sinnes, and bring vs vnto God. Which two be­nefites, were shadowed in two actions, of the Lev [...]ticall high Priest, in the day of expiation. The first was, in offering sacrifice for the peoples sinnes, and sprinkeling the bloud thereof, before the Lord. The second was, the carying of the names, of the Tribes of the Lord, into the Sanctuarie, ingraven in the two stones vpon his shoulders, and twelve vpon his brest: for a re­membrance continually before the Lord, Exod. 28.

Now the Law of this Priesthood is, that none performe this office, before the 30. yere of his age. as is manifest, Nomb 4. where all, that enter in the assemble, to doe the worke, in the taberna­cle of the congregation, are commanded to bee nombred, from 30. yeare olde and above vntill 50. according to which lawe, Christ him seife, who was the substance of all those shadowes, did not enter in that office, vntill hee began the thirtie yeare of [Page 109] his age. as is cleere, Luke chap. 3. vers. 21.

Heereof it must followe, that no action, performed by Christ before that time, can be accompted the action of expiation of sinne, or reconciliation of vs vnto God. therefore the Scripture attributeth our redemption, and reconciliation, and particular­lie our iustification, to no action preceeding: but to his death, thereafter following. and the action of bringing vs vnto God, is particularie asscribed by the Apostle Peter, vnto the death of Christ, 1. Epi. chap. 3. vers. 18. And the Apostle declareth, that our lib [...]rtie to enter into the most holy place, that is, to come vnto God, proceedeth from the bloud of Iesus, Hebr. chap. 10. ver. 19. which summarily seemeth to be expressed by the Apostle in that saying, Hebr. chap. 5. ver. 9. And being consecrate, he was made the Au­thour of eternall salavtion, &c. By which saying, it is manifest, that Christ is not the Authour of righteousnes, or life to vs but by his consecration: that is by his death. For therein did his consecra­tion consist. as is manifest, Hebr. chap. 2. vers. 10. and therefore is he said, Hebr. chap. 10. ver. 14. to have consecrate vs for ever by that one offering, wherein consisted his owne consecration. And for this same cause is it, that the Apostle, Hebr. chap. 9. 17. sayeth, That the Covenant, or Testament is coufirmed when men are dead, and that it is yet of no force as longe as he that made it is alive. Thereby e­vidently witnessing, that no blessing promised of God, in the covenant of grace, is made ours: but by the death of Christ. So that whatsoever went before his death, could no wise make the Covenant of God, of any force or effect vnto vs.

Thus, neither in respect of tyme, assigned of God vnto the Priestes, for entring into their office: neither in respect of the Priestlie actions, ordayned to bee accomplished by them for reconciliation of the people, and expiation of sinne: can any thing in Christ, before the 30. yeare of his age, bee accompted a Priestlie action of expiation: neither any action after, except onely the offering of him selfe, and enteringe with his owne bloud, into the heavens for vs all, whose names hee carried in that action, before the Lorde: & whom, by vertue of his bloud, he bringeth vnto God.

[Page 110] Thus have we shewed such things, as in the worde of God, doe seeme to exclude all things, from the matter of our righte­ousnes, except the blood and death of Christ alone: Of which opinion, it appeareth evidently, that Calvin was: if his minde bee wel marked, in his owne writings, in the third book of his institutions. Chap. 11. Secti. 4. 11. 21. 22. Where 4. things are ex­preslie set down by him, making all to this purpose.

The 1. is, That righteousnes, is simplie opposed vnto guilti­nes. The 2. is, That he affirmeth the manner of our reconcilia­tion, to be expressed in the words of the Apostle, when he saith, That Christ, who knew no sinne, was made sinne for vs. 2. Cor. 5. 21.

The 3. is, That in that place, he affirmeth reconciliation, to signifie nothing but iustification. The 4. is, Touching the place of David, Psal. 32. cited by the Apostle. Rom. 4. In the which he plainiy affirmeth, that neither David, nor the Apostle, doeth speake of one parte only of our iustification, but of the whole. And therfore addeth, that seeing the blessednes of a man (which hee taketh to signifie righteousnes) is said by the Prophet and Apostle, to consist in remission of sinnes: there is no reason why we should define it otherwise. By which sentence, hee plainly cuts away the ground of these men, whereon they build their evasion, When they are vrged out of that and such other places, to acknowledge, that full righteousnes, consists in remission of sinnes only. For to maintayne the imputation of Christs, actuall obedience, they alledge, that vnto eternal life, it is not sufficient, to have all iniquitie pardoned. That is, (as they interprete it) to be innocent: but that it is requisit, beside the remission of sinnes, to have righteousnes. which they accompt to come, by the im­putation of Christ actuall obedience. Therfore when these pla­ces are aledged, wherein blessednes and iustification is only at­tributed to the death of Christ, and only placed in remission of sinnes: they answere, that these places are synecdochically to be vnderstood. As though a parte of righteousnes, were put for the whole: in which, Calvin sheweth himselfe plainly to disagree from them: by affirming the direct contrary. Thus, they who seeme to be followers of Calvin in this point, are deceyved.


NOW it followeth, that we speake of these things, which are required in Christ, to the end, that in his bloud, hee may be righteousnes vnto vs. For, albeit without shed­ding of bloud, there be no remission of sinnes: yet many things are required, both in the bloud that is shed, and in the action of shedding it: before it can serve vnto the remission of sinnes.

First them, to speake of the bloud: it must needes bee better then the bloud of Goats, of Lambes, of Bullocks, or all the sa­crifices of the Law. For although, the similitude of heavenly things bee purified with the bloud of such sacrifices: yet hea­venly thinges them selves, must be purified, with greater and better sacrifices then these, Hebr. chap. 9. vers. 23. and that be­cause the bloud of those sacrifices, which were offered accor­ding to the Lawe, can never make holy, concerning the consci­ence, him that doeth the service.

To trie then what bloud it must bee. First, the bloud of a man, is better then the bloud of a beast. and that it must bee the bloud of a man, it is cleere by the holy scripture: For he which san­ctified. and they which are sanctissed, must be all of one, Heb. chap. 2. 11. And as by one man sinne entered into the worlde, so by one man, rigreousnes is brought in the world: therefore is it saide, that IESVS for a little space, was made lower then the Angels, that by the grace of God he might taste of death for vs all, Hebr. chap. 2. ver. 9. for, the iustice of God requireth, that sinne be puni­shed in that nature, that hath committed it.

But yet this is not sufficient, to make that bloud that is shed, righteousnes vnto vs. For the bloud of a sinner cā never recōcile a sinner vnto God and he that hath need, to offer sacrifice for his owne sin, cā never by his bloud, purge any other man frō sinne. therfore it is requisit, not only that it be the bloud of a man: but moreover, that it be the bloud of a iust mā: in whom there is no iniquitie. And this is declared plainly by the types of the law: in the which, no vncleane thing could be offred for sinne: nei­ther behoved there to bee spott or wrinckle, or blemish in the Lambe: as is cleerly seene in the commaundement of God, [Page 112] Levit. chap. 22. ver. 20. Yee shall not offer any thing that hath a blemish, for that shall not bee acceptable for you. According to which lawe, it is said of Christ, that he offered vp him selfe without fault vnto God, Heb, chap. 9. vers. 14. And the Apostle Peter sayeth, That Christ suffered once for sinne, the iust for the vniust, 1. Epist. chap. 3. ver. 18 And againe, That we are redeemed by the precious bloud of Iesus Christ, as of a Lambe vndefiled and without spot.

Neither is this yet sufficient, to make the bloud that is shed, to be righteousnes before God, but more is required in it, then that it be the bloud of a man, or yet of a iust man. For no man, that is nothing more but a man, can possibly redeeme his brother: or give his ransome to God: that he may live still for ever. So preci­ous is the redemption of their soules and the continuance for ever, sayeth the Prophet, Psalm. 49. For the bloud of no flesh, can be able to satis­fie the infinite iustice of God. For he that liveth not for ever, can never be the cause of eternall life vnto others. and he that is not eternall, can never bring in, eternall righteousnes. and no righ­teousnes, but that which is eternall, can possibly procure eter­nall life. For, all being infinit, that is, the iustice that wee have transgressed infinit: our guiltines in trasgressing infinite: the pu­nishment of our guiltines infinite: as being the iust recompence of the transgression of an infinit iustice: proceeding from the iust iudgement, of an infinit God: it is impossible, that a finit crea­ture, can performe it: seeing he should never be able to loose the sorrowes of death. Therefore it is required, that the bloude should be the bloud of him, who is eternall: to the end, that hee should not be holden of death eternally, Act. chap. 2. vers. 24. and that his bloud, might be of an infinite value, and that our righ­teousnes might be eternall, and make vs eternally righteous: therefore is it saide by the Apostle, that God hath purchased his Church with his owne bloud, Act. chap. 20. 28. thus, it is re­quired in the bloud, that iustifieth vs before God, that it bee not onely the bloud of a man, and of a iust man, but also that it bee the bloud of him who is God blessed for ever. and all these con­siderations are necessarilie requisit in the bloud vnto our iustifi­cation thereby.

[Page 113] And as in the bloud, so in the shedding of it, divers things are required in it, to the same end. Which that wee may the more cleerely perceyve, we are first to consider, that the shedding of bloud, must needes be by way of oblation and sacrifice. There­fore Christ is saide to have offered vp him selfe, a sacrifice, of a sweet smelling favour vnto God, Ephe. chap. 5. vers. 2. and also he is said to have bin made manifest once, to put awy sinnes, by the sacrificing of him selfe, Heb. chapt. 9. vers. 26. and therefore also saith the Apostle, that Christ our Passeover, is sacrificed for vs, 1. Cor. chap. 5. ver. 7.

Now, the things requisite in the offering of this sacrifice, are partlie to be considered, in the nature of the sacrifice it selfe, and partly in those thinges which are necessarilie required, for the offering of a sacrifice.

Touching the sacrifice it selfe, besides that it must bee by bloud: because without shedding of bloud, there is no remissi­on. it must needes be but one: and of such nature, as never nee­deth to be repeated. For the sacrifices that are oft repeated, can ne­ver sanctifie the commers therevnto. And therefore it is said, That we are sanctified by the offering of the body of Iesus Christ once, Heb. chap. 10. ver. 10. And againe, in that same Chap. verse 12. it is said: But hee ha­ving offered by one sacrifice for sinne, sitteth for ever at the right hand of God, Of which it is manifest, that this sacrifice alone, without anie other thing ioyned therewith, and without anie iterating of it, (contrarie to the blasphemous doctrine of the papistes) must needs make vs eternally righteous. according to which it is said by the Apostle: That Christ is entered into heaven, not that hee should of­fer him selfe often: because then it behooved him to die often. But as it is ap­pointed that men once die, and thereafter commeth the iudgement, even so Christ also being once offered, to take away the sinnes of many, hee shall ap­peare the second tyme without sinne &c▪ And this point is most cleer­lie set downe, Heb. cha. 10. ver. 14. where it is said: For by one offe­ring, he hath consecrated for evermore, those which are sanctified. Where­vpon it must followe, seeing by one offering hee hath obtayned vs eternal remission (according to the promise of God in his co­venant: and their finnes and their iniquities I will never remēber anie more) [Page 114] that there remayneth no more sacrifices for sinne. For according to the saying of the Apostle, VVhere remission of sinnes is, there is no more sacrifice for sinne, Heb. chap. 10. vers. 18.

The thinges that are required for the offering of a propitia­torie sacrifice for sinne, are especially three. The first is a Priest. For none but a consecrate Priest, appointed by God and not by man, might ever offer sacrifice for sinne vnto God.

The second is the Altar, vpon which it must bee offered.

The third is the Tabernacle or Sanctuarie, wherein it must be offered.

The thinges to be considered in the Priest: concerne partly the nature of the Priesthood it selfe: and partly the actions to be performed by the Priest.

Touching the nature of the Priesthood: The first thing to be considered, is that no man can take this office to him selfe: but he who is called of God, Heb. cap. 5. ver. 4. 5. The second thing to be considered, is, that it must not bee according to the order of Aaron, but according to the order of Melchisedeck. For there is no perfection by the Levitical Priesthood, Hebr. chap. 7. ver. 11. and this, that he must bee according to the order of Melchisedeck, comprehendeth vnder it these particular pointes. First, that he is not made a Priest by the Lawe, but according to the power of endlesse life. For as we have saide, if his Priesthood had bene after the Lawe, it could never have made vs perfect. For the Lawe made nothing perfect, Hebr. chap. 7. ver. 19. And of this ground, followeth other two consequences. The first is, that seeing hee is made a Priest, after the power of endlesse life, none save hee alone, can ever enioye this Priesthood. For, as sayeth the Apo­stle: Amongest the Leviticall Priestes, many were made Priestes: because ther were not suffered to endure, by reason of death: but Christ, because hee endureth for ever, hath a Priesthood which can not passe from him to an o­ther, Hebr chap. 7. ver. 23. 24. The seconde consequence, is, as saveth the Apostle, Hebr. chap. 7. ver. 25. That hee is able perfectly to save those that come to God by him: seeing hee ever liveth to make intercession for them.

The third thing to bee considered in the nature of the Priest [Page 115] is, as sayeth the same Apostle, That he bee without sinne: be­cause such a High Priest, it became vs to have, as is holy, harmeles, vn­defyled, and seperate from sinners, Hebr. chapt. 7. 26. Which also was expreslie commanded in the Lawe, Levit. chap. 21. where it is saide: VVho soever of the seede of Aaron, hath any blemish, hee shall not come neare to offer the sacrifices of the Lorde: neither shall he presse to offer the bread of his God: neither shall he goe in vnto the vayle, nor come neare the Altar: least he pollute my Sanctuarie.

The fourth thing to be marked in the Priest, is, that hee must not be vpon the earth. For if hee were vpon the earth, hee were not a Priest, Heb chap. 8. vers 4.

Therefore is it saide of him: After that hee had offered one sacri­fice for sinne, he sitteth for ever at the right hande of God, Hebr. chapt. 10. ver. 13. as also, That the heavens must conteyne him vnto the tyme that all things be restored, Act. chap. 3. ver. 21.

The fift thing to be considered in the Priest, is, that he behoo­ved to be subiect to infirmities. that having experience of them, he might be a mercifull and faithfull high Priest, Hebr. chap. 2. ver. 17. and chap. 4. ver. 15.

Nowe wee come to the actions to bee performed by the Priestes. Which likewise are of two sortes. The firste sorte are those, which are performed in offering of the sacrifice. The se­conde sorte is, those which are to be performed, after the obla­tion.

In the Sacrifice especially is to bee considered. First, the Priestes puttinge all our iniquities and sinues vpon the head of the offeringe: that hee may beare them all. Accordinge to which it is saide of Christ, That hee bare the sinne of many, Esay 53. 12. And the Apostle Peter sayeth: That he him selfe did beare our sinnes in his body, vpon the tree. For he was made sinne for vs. The second action consisteth in killing of the offering before the Lord. according to which, it is saide of Christ, That hee offered vp him selfe by the eternall spirit vnto God. Hebr. 9. 14. And he is saide to put away sinne by the sacrifice of him selfe, Hebr. 9. 26. And Christ him selfe saieth, I lay downe my life, that I might take it againe, [Page 116] no man taketh it from me, but I lay it downe of my selfe, Iohn chapt. 10. vers. 17. 18. According to which also Esay saith, That he p [...]wred out his soule vnto death. Chap. 53. ver. 12.

The third action is, the offering of the sacrifice it selfe, by fire vnto the Lord. And al these actions are accōplished in the death of Christ. in the which principally consisteth the matter of our righteousnes. for therein was hee made both sinne and a curse for vs.

The actions following, are especially three. which all serve to our iustification by his death and bloud: although they be no parte nor portion of the righteousnes it selfe. The first is, his ri­sing from the dead. The second is, his sitting at the right hande of God in heaven. The third is, his making intercession for vs. Therefore the Apostle, in the 8. chap. to the Rom. ver. 34. setteth downe these foure actions of Christ, as the things whereby wee are saved from all condempnation. when he sayth: VVho shall con­demne, it is Christ that hath died, or rather, who is risen againe: who also is at the right hande of God: and who also maketh intercession for vs. Which saying is carefully to bee marked of vs, for many waightie rea­sons. First, it sheweth vs that as the worke of God in iustifying vs, doth save vs from all accusation: so the groundes whereby we are saved from being condemned, of God, (that is by which we are iustified and absolved) are these foure actions of Christ: whereof his death is first. Secondly, it cleareth that point which we have in hande: to wit, that many things serve to our iustifi­cation, which are no parte of our righteousnes. For his resurre­ction, his ascending into heaven, and sitting at the right hande of God, and his interceding for vs: are all necessarily required to our iustification: and yet none of them is any parte of the matter of that righteousnes, which is imputed vnto vs. For his rysinge from the dead, is not our righteousnes, and yet except he had risen, we could not have bin iustified by his death. accor­ding to the saying of the Apostle, 1. Cor. chap. 15. ver. 17. If Christ be not raysed, your faith is vaine, ye are yet in your sinnes. For so longe as Christ was holden of death, vnder the guiltines of our sinnes, we could never be absolved from sinne & death, in the sight of [Page 117] God. because, our satisfaction and redemption (although they were in doeing) were not fully performed, vntill Christ having vtterly abolished sinne, was raysed from the dead. but his suffe­ring beeing finished, and hee having loosed the sorrowes of death, our redemption and satisfaction for our sinnes, were ful­lie accomplished: and so our righteousnes, full and compleate in Gods sight. By the imputation whereof, GOD then, might iustly iustifie vs. Therefore is it said by the Apostle, Rom. chap. 4. 25. that he was delivered to death for our transgressions, and is risen a­gaine for our iustification: Shewing vs, that as the matter of our righteousnes consisteth in Christes death, (because he was deli­vered therevnto, for our sinnes) so the iustification of vs by his death, dependeth vpon his resurrection. because therein, his death was ended: and so the satisfaction for our sinnes, and our righteousnes was fully and perfectly finished.

Likewise, his entring into heaven, and sitting at the right hande of God: is no parte of the matter of our righteousnes: and yet it is a necessarie action of his Priestlie office, required vnto our iustification by that, which is our righteousnes. For the high Priest once a yeare in the day of expiation, entered into the most holy place, with the bloud of the expiatorie sacrifice: to make an attonement for the children of Israel. The true sanctu­arie, resembled by the most holy place, is heaven: into which the bloud of our sacrifice, must be brought by Iesus Christ our high Priest: there to make our attonement. Therefore is it said, That Christ being come a High Priest of good thinges to come: entered once by his owne bloud in the most holy place, and obtayned eternall redemption, Hebr. chap. 9. ver. 11. 12. and therefore also is it saide, That if hee were on the earth, he were not a Priest, Heb. chap. 8. vers. 4. For which cause, in that same place, the Apostle esteemeth this, to bee the chieff and principall point, of all that had bene spoken of his Priesthood: videlicet, that we have such a high Priest, that sitteth at the right hande of the throne of the maiestie in heaven, &c.

Thus howsoever the sacrifice of Christ in his death, or his bloud: be the matter of our righteousnes, and that Christ in his bloud, be ordayned a propitiation for vs: yet, to the iustifying vs [Page 118] by that bloud, this action of our High Priest, even the entring with the bloud into heaven, is necessarily required.

Even so also concerning his intercession. albeit it bee not the matter of our righteousnes: yet it serveth to our iustificati­on by his blood. For all his intercession, is by vertue thereof: that God by it, and for it, may pardon all our iniquities, and iu­stifie vs. For this action, is the end of the three former: that is, of his death, resurrection, and ascending into heaven. For he died, that by his death and sufferinge, havinge satisfied the iustice of God, for all our iniquities, he might have a sufficient ground and matter whereby to make intercession.

And he rose again. thereby putting an end to his owne death and suffering: that the satisfaction being finished, & the ransome fully payed: it might be answerable to the iustice of God: and be sufficient for our iustification. And he ascended vp to heaven, as vnto the true Sanctuarie: that he might bring into the presence of God, the bloud of our sacrifice: and there, (as the minister of the Sanctuarie, by his death, as the ransome of our iniquities, now full and perfect by his resurrection, and brought in by him, as our high Priest into heaven, and presented vnto God) might make intercession for vs. And as saith the Apostle, obtayne eternall redemption for vs, Heb. 9. 12. Therefore is it saide of him, in that same Chap. ver. 24. that Christ is not entered into the holy places made with handes, which are similitudes of the true holy places: but vnto heaven it selfe, to appeare now in the sight of God for vs. And to this same effect Iohn the 1. Epi, cap. 2. ver. 1. it is said, If any man sinne, wee have an Advocate with the Father Iesus Christ the iust, and he him selfe is the propitia­tion of our sinnes.

And so to conclude this point Christs being a Priest: & many actions done by him, as our high Priest: are no part of the matter of our righteousnes. and yet it is requisit, that he both be a Priest, & performe those actions, to our iustification: even as the Priests vnder the Lawe, were no parte of the attonement. For hee that makes the attonement, and the actions done by him, in making the attonement, are to be distinguished from the bloud, in the which only standeth the attonement it selfe.

[Page 119] Now we come to speake of the Altar. which likewise is neces­sarily required, for offering of our sacrifice, and yet is no parte of our righteousnes, but serveth to the qualification of the sacri­fice, to be righetousnes vnto vs. And as Christ is the Priest, and also the offering: so also, he alone is the Altar. Which we shall easilie perceyve, if we marke these two groundes. First, what is the nature of our Priest, and of the sacrifice that hee doeth offer, and of the Sanctuarie and Tabernacle wherein hee must exer­cise his Priesthood: and of the things which by this sacrifice are purged. Secondly, if we consider the vse of the Altar, wherevn­to it serveth in sacrificing.

Touching the first, all are heavenly. The P [...]iest, the Lord from heaven. the sacrifice, heavenly: the sanctuarie, heaven it self: the the tabernacle, his body not pight by man but by God: and the things that are to be purged, all heavenly, Heb. 9. 11. 23. 24, Of which it must follow, that the Altar also must be heavēly. For a heavenly sacrifice, offered by a heavenly Priest, in a heavenly ta­bernacle, for the purging of heavenly thinges, can not possibly bee offered, but vpon a heavenly Altar.

This is manifest by the second point, which is touching the vse of the Altar, & that is to sanctifie the offring: as is manifest by the words of Christ, Mat. 23 19. of which it followeth: according to Christs reasoning in that place: that the Altar must bee greater then the offering. For that which sanctifieth, must be greater thē that which is sanctified by it. Of which it is manifest: that no Altar of earth, of wood, of stone, or any earthly thing, cā possibly serve in this Priesthood, to sanctifie Christ, who is the offering. But as he him selfe is not of this building: so likewise the Altar that sanctifieth him, must not be of this building, therefore saith he him self: For their sakes doe I sanctifie my self: that they also may be san­ctified, Io 17. 19. to shew vs, that as he is the Priest, the sacrifice, & tabernacle: so he only is the Altar. For he is the body of all the shadowes in the law. therfore, as he is said to have offred, by the eternal spirit, as the Priest him self, as the sacrifice vnto God: so is he to be vnderstood by that same eternal spirit, as by the Altar, to have sanctified him self, that is, that body: by the offering whereof once, we are sanctified for evermore.

[Page 120] And we are to holde this truth most carefully: both to eschue the foolish opinion of some, who esteeme the crosse to have bin the Altar, whereon Christ was offered. as also to keepe our sel­ves from falling into that blasphemous errour: to thinke, that there is any thing greater then the Sonne of God▪ least wee pol­lute our selves, with the abominable idolatrie of the Church of Rome. who make their wood and stone, greater then Christ, & make their earthlie Priestes, greater then both sacrifice and Al­tar. and give them Priestlie power, being in the earth, and be­ing of this building, and being loaden with sinne, in an earth­lie tabernacle, vpon an earthly and corruptible altar, to offer vp, and that oft and many times, this heavenly sacrifice: which is never to be repeated. As also, to give them power to sanctifie a stocke, or stone: and to give it power, to sanctifie Christ.

Now concerning the Sanctuarie, which is the thirde thing re­quisite, for offering the sacrifice: wee have somewhat spoken thereof alreadie, in his action of sitting at the right hande of God. Neither is it necessarie that we speake much more of it: onely we are to knowe, that this sacrifice, can not be offered els where, but in the true Tabernacle, that is the body of his flesh. Therefore doeth he call his body, the Temple, Iohn chap. 2. verse 19. neither could the bloud thereof, be carried in, by our high Priest, els-where, but in the true Sanctuarie, that is Heaven it selfe.

By all these preceeding thinges, we may perceyve, that there is a manifold consideration to be had of Christ, in the worke of our iustification. First, as he is our High Priest. in which point, we are to consider, both the Godhead, and his Manhoode, and the properties of his Manhood, qualifying him to bee a meete high Priest. Secondly, as hee is the Altar that sanctifieth the offering. Thirdly, as he is the Tabernacle in which the offering is to be made. And fourthly, as he is the offering and oblation itselfe. Now in all these, the obedience of Christ to the Father, doeth manifestly shine. as likewise in all the rest of his actions whatsoever. And all these, that we have spoken of, are necessa­rily required in the worke of our iustification, but are not all to [Page 121] bee included in the matter of our righteousnes. For as he is our Priest, Altar, and Tabernacle, he cannot properly be called our righteousnes, except it be efficientlie: but no wise materiallie. For he is our righteousnes materially only as hee is the sacrifice and offering.

Thus, if we shall distinguish Christ him selfe, in that thinge, wherein he is made our righteousnes: from him selfe in these things, wherein he is made beside, to serve vnto our iustificati­on, by that, wherein he is made our righteousnes. And second­ly, if we shal distinguish the matter of our righteousnes it selfe in Christ, from the action of God in iustifying by it: wee shall per­ceyve evidently, that the matter of our righteousnes, consisteth only in the death and bloud of Christ▪ and that all the rest of Christes obedience, doeth serve not as the materiall, but rather as the subordinate efficient causes of our iustification.

And so all the three former opinions, touching the obedience of Christ, may well agree in one: when the question is, concer­ning the action of God in iustifying: and not concerning the particular matter of the righteousnes, which God imputes vnto vs vnto iustification. For, there is no parte of Christes obedi­ence, which is not (as it is said in the schooles) causa sine qua non: that is, a cause without the which, wee cannot be iustified. For if he had not bene a man, and a iust man, and a Priest, and such a Priest as we have said: yea if hee had not risen from the dead, and ascended vnto heaven, and made intercession for vs: his death and bloud could never have iustified vs. And yet still his death and bloud is the only matter of our righteousnes: but so, as it is the bloud, of such a sacrifice, offred by such a Priest: vpon such an Altar: in such a Tabernacle▪ carried in by the same Priest, after resurrection from the dead, into the heavens. And as by vertue of the same bloud, the same Priest, sittinge at the right hande of God, maketh intercession for vs. Thus, the matter is not of such moment (being rightly waighed, and charitablie considered) that it needed ever to have bred, such bitter conten­tion amongst brethren in the Church of God.


HAving thus spoken of the materiall cause of our righte­ousnes. it followeth now that we speake of the formall cause. In the which three thinges are specially to be mar­ked, for clearing vnto vs, how and in what manner wee are made the righteousnes of God, by the death and bloud of Iesus Christ our Lord.

The first is, Gods giving vnto vs.

The second is, Gods imputation of that which is given vs.

The third is, the cause moving him both to give and impute. For God iustifieth vs by gift, by imputation, and by grace, Nei­ther can the true forme of our iustification bee knowne of vs a right, except we acknowledge all these three in it. For mā hath no saving grace, which he hath not receyved of God. according to the saying of the Apostle, 1. Cor. chap. 4. ver. 7. For who hath se­perate thee, or what hast thou that thou hast not receyved: and if thou hast receyved it, why gloriest thou, as if thou hadst not receyved it. And to the same purpose saith I am. 1. chap. 17. All good giving, and every perfect gifte is from above. Therefore also our righteousnes speciallie is called a gift, and a gift by grace, Rom. chapt. 5. ver. 15. 16. 17. as also Rom. chap. 6. vers▪ 23. but the gift of God is eternall life. Where the word gift (if that place be rightly vnderstood) doth signifie righ­teousnes given vs of God.

Secondly, howsoever many confounde, imputation and gi­ving, as one thinge: (as in some sense they may both bee taken for one) yet it is expedient for our sounder knowledge, that wee distinguish them. For howsoever nothing is imputed, which is not given: yet many things are given, which are never saide to be imputed. Yea moreover: in which imputation hath no place. Beside, the imputation of a thing (if we shall rightly consider it) doth alwayes presuppone the thing imputed to be in our posses­sion, either by nature, working, or gift. as by Gods grace wee shall heare hereafter.

And therefore, in the forme of our iustification, Gods giving [Page 123] of a thing vnto vs, is to be distinguished from his imputing of it. Specially if we marke one thing: which is, flat contrarie say­ings, and yet of equall force, vsed by the spirit of God, in the de­scription of iustification. For sometimes it is defined by imputa­tion of righteousnes, and sometimes by not imputation of sinne.

Thirdly, in the manner and forme of our iustification: grace is specially to be considered: because both the givinge, and im­putation of the thing given, is of meere grace. Therefore are wee saide to bee iustified freely by grace. so that the perfect forme of our iustification, consisteth in this: that is, in Gods gra­cious givinge, and gracious imputinge of thinge given, vnto vs: to bee our righteousnes. So that whosoever make our iu­stification, to consist, without giving of righteousnes. or with­out imputing the thinge given, or esteeme eyther the matter of our righteousnes, which is given vs, to be given otherwise then by grace: or to be imputed as righteousnes vnto vs, otherwise then by grace, doe destroy the true forme of the iustification of a sinner before God.

And because this is a pointe of speciall moment: and bringeth great light, in the matter of iustification: wee will speake seve­rally of these three pointes.

And first, touching the action of Gods giving.

Secondly, of the action of Gods imputation.

Thirdly, of his grace, as the only cause of both.

Touching the first: there be two thinges which are given vs of God vnto iustification. The I. is faith. The II. is Christ. & both these giftes of God, are necessarie vnto iustification. as we shall see by Gods grace hereafter, when we speake of iustificatiō it self. Therfore in this place wee will onely speake of faith, as it is the gift of God. in which we have these pointes to be marked.

First, what kinde of gift it is.

Secondly, to whom it is given.

Thirdly, what faith it selfe is.

And fourthly, to what ende and vse it is given.

First then. that it is a gift, and the gift of God, it is cleere in the Scriptures. according as wee have showen before, of all the [Page 124] saving graces of God. and therefore it is called by the Apostle, Heb. chap. 7. vers. 4. a heavenly gift. and in Ephe. chap. 2. ver. 8. it is expresly called the gifte of God. And the same Apostle, Phil. chap. 1. ver. 29. teacheth vs, that to beleeve in Christ, is a gift given vs. Therefore 1. Cor. chap. 12. It is uombred amongst the giftes of God, by his spirit.

So that in this there is no great contradiction, but the speci­all question is what kinde of gift it is. that is, whether it bee a naturall or a supernaturall gift. Depending either vpon the na­turall power which God hath created in man. or vpon the su­pernaturall power of God.

For clearing hereof. We are to consider that, which in the scriptures is spoken concerning faith.

First, touthing the ground and cause of our beleeving.

Secondly, touching the propertie, that is attributed vnto faith, and which still is in him, that beleeveth.

And thirdly, touching certaine effectes attributed vnto faith. Besides these things which heereafter will shewe them selves, when we treate both to whom faith is given, and what faith it selfe is, and what is the vse and end of it.

Concerning the ground and cause of our beleeving: if wee carefully marke the scriptures of God, it is placed especially in three thinges.

The first is, the will of God, and his eternall Decree, accor­ding to his will. as is cleere, by Math. chapt. 11. vers. 26. where Christ attributed vnto the good will and pleasure of the Father, that some did beleeve, and some did not. And Acts chap. 13. ver. 48. where it is expreslie said: That as many as were ordayned vnto eter­nall life, beeleved. And this teacheth vs two things: First, that faith is no worke depending vpon the will of man, nor any power in nature. Secondly, that it is of the nomber of those blessings, not which God did communicate in the first creation, but of those which were hid vp in the mysterie of Gods, will, touchinge the dispensation of life, in, and through Christ.

The second thinge, wherein the ground and cause of belee­ving, is placed in Gods free gift, accordinge to the sayinge of [Page 125] Christ him selfe, Ioh. chap. 6. vers. 37. and 65. Which gift of God, is there also declared to be two folde. The first, the giving of our persons vnto Christ, according to these wordes: All that the Fa­ther giveth me, shall come to mee. The second is, the giving vnto vs grace to beleeve. According to that other saying: No man can come vnto mee, except it be given him of my Father. For as saieth the Apostle, Rom. chap. 11. vers. 32. God hath shut vp all men vnder vnbeleefe, that he might shewe mercie on all. And againe, Gallat. chap. 3. vers. 22. The Scripture hath concluded all vnder sinne, that the promise by the faith of Iesus Christ, might be given to them that beleeve. And this ground is verified by the saying of Ioh. chap. 12. ver. 39. 40. where he giveth a rea­son, why the Iewes for all his miracles, not only beleeved not, but also why they could not beleeve in Christ. saying: Therefore could they not beleeve, because that Esay saieth, Hee hath blinded their eyes, &c.

The third thing wherein the ground and cause of our belee­ving is placed, is our spirituall birth. Therefore saith Iohn 1. Ep. chap. 5. 1. VVhosoever beleeveth that Iesus is the Christ, is borne of God. Therefore the same Iohn describing, who they are that doe be­leeve in the Gospell, Chap. 1. vers. 13. sayeth: which ar borne, not of bloud, nor of the will of flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. By al these three groundes, it is evident, that faith is no naturall, but a su­pernaturall gift. and therefore the praise of our beleeving, is ta­ken from vs, and given wholy vnto God. as is cleere in the wordes of Christ, to Peter, Math. chap. 16. ver. 17. Flesh and bloud hath not reveiled that vnto thee, but my Father which is in heaven.

Now we come to the propertie that is attributed to faith, and which through faith is in every one that beleeveth. and this pro­pertie is the power of God, according to the saying of the Apo­stle, Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 19. Where the Apostle prayeth, that they might knowe what was, the exceeding greatnes of the power of God, in them that beleeve. and therefore is it, that faith is cal­led, the faith of the effectuall working of God, Coll. chap. 2. ver. 12. and that for two reasons.

First, because no power, nor working of any power, can ever [Page 126] worke faith in our hearts, except the power of God onely: and therefore the Prophet Esay doeth put beleeving, and the having of the arme of the Lord revealed, for one thinge, Chapter 53. verse 1.

Secondly, because the power and the effectuall working of faith in vs, is nothing but the very power, and the workinge of the power, of God him selfe. Who, as saith Peter, by his power, through faith, keepeth vs, 1. Epist. chap. 1. ver. 5. and for this cause, it is not only, that faith is compted, for the chiefe piece of the armour of God, and of the might of his power, Ephes. chap. 6. but also that to have Christ livinge in vs, and to live by the faith of Christ, are put for one thinge, Gallat. chapt. 2. ver. 20. Thereby shewing vs, that the power of faith, is not any thinge but the power of GOD, and of Christ, dwelling by faith in vs. and that faith is the effectuall instrument, whereby Christ is powerfull in vs. Vpon which grounde it is, that the effectes of Christ him selfe, are often attributed vnto faith. as in these sayinges of Christ: Thy Faith hath made thee whole: Thy Faith hath saved thee. And when we are saide to bee saved by faith, to have our heartes purged by faith: to bee iustified by faith, &c. A cleere example of this wee have, Acts, chap. 3. ver 16. where the Apostle indifferentlie attributes to the power of Christ, and to faith, the healing of the Creeple man. Which place is care­fully to be marked, because it giveth a marveillous light in the vse of faith. For there it is saide: That through faith in his Name, his name had made the man sound. Which saying doth shew vs expres­lie, that it was not faith it selfe, as it was the worke of that man, but the name of Christ, in which his faith was, that did make him sound. so that the power of faith is nothing, but the power of Christ, embrased by faith. and that the worke of faith, is no­thing but the worke of Christ, dwelling in our heartes by faith. Which doeth iustifie their opinion, who affirme, that to be iusti­fied by faith, is alwayes to bee vnderstood, to bee iustified by Christ. For as by faith in his Name, his Name made the man sounde, even so by faith in his bloud, his bloud maketh vs righ­teous. [Page 127] Therefore sayeth the Apostle Rom. chap. 3. vers. 25. That God hath set Christ forth a propitiation by faith in his bloud. Where recon­ciling by faith, in his bloud, is to be vnderstoode, in the same sense, that making soūd by faith in his name is to be vnderstood. in the other place, by which it is evident, that faith is never rightly taken, in our iustification, when it is taken for the thing, wherein standeth our righteousnes, and not for the instrument, apprehending that thing, which is our righteousnes. Thus the power of God, working faith, and the power of God, accompa­nying faith, doeth evidently shewe, faith to bee a supernaturall gift, being wrought by a supernaturall power, and possessing vs with a supernaturall power of God him selfe.

This is cleerily verified, by the third pointe, touching these effectes that are attributed vnto faith, in the booke of God: when it is saide, to doe things that are above the strength of all created nature: and when Saintes are saide to have done by it, such thinges as are supernaturall. Of these first sorte are those sayings, where in the iustifying of vs, the saving of vs, & miraculous hea­ling of diseases, by nature incurable, are attributed vnto saith: as also the keeping of vs vnto salvation. Of the other sorte, are those sayinges wherein we are saide by faith to overcome the Divill, to quenche all his fierie dartes, 1. Pet. cha. 5. ver. 9. Ephe. chap. 6. vers 16. By faith we are saide to overcome the world, 1. Iohn chap. 51 ver. 4. 5. and of these effectes of faith, there is a large rehearsall made, Hebr. chap. 11. by which it is evident, that faith is a supernaturall gift: seeing it produceth such supernaturall ef­fectes. For nature never did yeeld or produce any thinge, no not in the integritie of it, whereby wee could bee able, in resi­sting to overcome the Divell, and the world, or to performe such great things, and endure such heavie torments, ioyfully, as by faith wee are made able to doe, and suffer. And this may well be verified, by the dolefull experience, of the fall, both of men and Angells, who by all the strength of nature, vncor­rupted, could not preserve them selves in their blessed estate, nor overcome their temptations. Which sheweth vs, that the power which accompanieth faith in the heart of the beleever. [Page 128] is more stronge and mightie, then any power, which God pla­ced by creation, in any nature whatsoever. Seeing it is able to save a man, even now in his corrupted estate, and ro preserve him, vnto salvation. Whereas all the power naturall of man & Angells, could not keepe them. Now being in safetie from fal­ling from their felicitie, as also, that thereby, a sinnefull fraile corrupted man, is able to overcome the Devil, whom man cre­ated in the image of God, yet perfect and without sinne, was not able to withstande. For this cause it is, that the Apostle doth so extoll, and magnifie, the exceeding greatnes of Gods power, which is in them that beleeve, Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 19. By all this, it is evident, that faith is no worke of nature, or the effect of anie power in nature, but a supernaturall gifte, flowinge from the supernaturall power of GOD. By the which GOD effectually worketh in vs, and by vs, supernaturall effectes, as beeing the supernaturall instrument, whereby his power is effectuall in vs, as it was in Christ, when he raysed him from the dead, and crowned him with glorie and with honour: and this gift of God cometh vnto vs, in ordinarie dispensation, by hearing of the word, Rom. chap. 10. For there be three ordi­narie meanes, by which God vseth to bestow faith vpon vs, and whereby his spirit is effectuall in vs to that end.

The first is the Gospell. therefore is the Gospell called the power of God, vnto salvation, Rom. chap. 1. ver. 16. as also, the gospell is said to be written to this end, that we might bileeve, Iohn chap. 20. ver. 31. and we are saide to bee called vnto the faith by the Gospell, 2. Thess. cap. 2. ver. 14. but the speciall parte of the Gospell, vnto faith, whereby we are called, is the promise. For this cause, Abraham is saide not to have doubted of the pro­mise: and we are saide to be children of the promise, Gal. cha. 4. ver. 28. Rom. chap. 9. ver. 8.

The second ordinarie meane, is the Sacramentes, which are the signes and seales, of the righteousnes which is by faith.

The third instrument and meane is the Ministers of the Go­spell, who therefore are called, the ministers, by whom we be­leeve.


NOW it followeth that wee speake of the second point, touching faith, that is, to whom it is given, of which point, some what may bee collected, out of these three grounds, and causes, of beleeving, set downe heretofore, there­fore wee wil be the shorter herein.

In handling this point, we have two things specially to bee marked.

The first is, what persons they are amongst men, in whom the Lord doth worke faith, that is, whether he worketh it in all men indifferently, or in some certaine nomber only.

The second is, in what part, power, or facultie, of man, faith is wrought.

Touching the first, The first ground or cause that wee laid downe, of beleeving, may alone sufficiently cleere this, seeing our beleeving depends vpon, the Lords ordayning vs to eter­nall life, of his good will and pleasure. It must follow, that God giveth faith to no more, then hee hath Predestinated, and that faith is not indifferently given to all, it is manifest by experien­ces in all ages, and by the testimonie of Gods trueth, Math. cha. 11. vers. 25. Where Christ giveth thankes vnto the Father, be­cause hee had denied faith vnto the wise, and men of vnder­standing, and had given it vnto babes. And againe, Math. chap. 13. vers. 11. it is expresly said by Christ, that it was given to his disciples to know the secretes of the Kingdome of heaven, but vnto the rest of the Iewes it was not given. Therefore the A­postle, 2 Thes. chap. 3. vers. 2. affirmeth plainly, that all men have not faith. Or rather (as the words seeme to importe) that faith belongs not to all men. And these testimonies preceeding doe prove, that this is true: not only in respect of the action of mans will, reiecting the meanes of knowledge and faith, offered by God, but in respect of the action of God, in denying the meanes, yea which is more, in blinding their eyes, that they shall not see. Esay. 6. and Ioh. 12. and Rom. 9. 18. Besides this it is mani­fest [Page 130] by the description of those to whom faith is given.

First, they are described to be the sheepe of Christ, Ioh. chap. 10. ver. 26. and therefore sayeth Christ to the Iewes that belee­ved not, but yee beleeve not for yee are not of my sheepe. Whereby it is manifest, that none (save they which are Christes sheepe) doe receyve faith: and that because Christ did lay downe his life, for none but for his sheepe, Iohn. chapt. 10. ver. 11. 15. For none can have faith in the bloud of Christ, for whom Christ never shed his bloud.

The second thing whereby they are described, is the Fathers giving of them to Christ, and this is the ground of the former. For none are Christes sheepe, but such as the Father gives him. and therefore he him selfe acknowledgeth, those who are his sheepe, to have bene given him by the Father, Iohn cha. 10. ver. 29. and 17. 6. &c. according to which ground, Christ speaketh Iohn chap. 6. vers. 35. 36. 37. shewing this to bee the cause why the Iewes beleeved not. to wit, because the Father had not gi­ven them vnto him, while he takes his argument, from the con­trarie effect, in this manner: All that the Father giveth me, commeth vnto mee. Vpon the which it must followe, that of the contrarie effect, there must bee a contrarie cause. that is, that who do not come vnto him, must not be given of God vnto him. For it is the will of the Father, that sendes Christ, that he save those on­ly whom he hath given him, Ioh. chap. 6. ver. 39. and 17. 2. For which cause Christ him selfe declareth, that he did manifest his Fathers Name, and give the words which his Father had given him, and did pray vnto the Father for none, but those that the Father had given him, out of the world.

The third thing whereby they are described, is, that they are the elect of God. therefore faith is called the faith of Gods elect, to shewe vs that Gods election limiteth faith, which is dispensed to no more but such, as God hath elected. as is manifest, Rom. chap. 11. ver. 5. where the Apostle sheweth the reason why, in the reiection of the Iewes, in their infidelitie, a remaynent of faith­full ones were reserved. saying: So also at this present time, there is a remnant according to the election of grace. and this is the ground of the [Page 131] former point: For as we are the sheepe of Christ, because wee are given him. so wee are given to Christ, because wee are ele­cted. Therefore wee may boldly conclude, that Gods Decree, according to his purpose, is not generall, or indefinite, but par­ticular, and definite, of a certayne number of persons.

For most sure and certayne it is, that the office of Christ, as Prince of our salvation, is of as large extent, in bringinge men to salvation, as is the Fathers will, in ordayninge them to sal­vation, through CHRIST IESVS. For hee came to doe the will of his Father. Seeing therefore, that Christ layeth downe his life for none, and giveth eternall life to none, and inter­ceedeth for none, but such as are his sheepe. And seeing hee accomptes none his sheepe, but such as his Father gives him: And seeinge the Father gives none vnto him, but such as hee hath elected in him: and seeinge hee elected none in him, but such as hee had predestinate, to bee adopted through him, Ephe. chapt. 1. ver. 4. 5. It must needes followe, that Gods Decree is of a definit number, and that the Redemption, and Intercession of Christ, are of no larger extent, then the number of those that beleeve. And that faith is of no larger extent, then Gods Decree, and his election following therevppon: neither by purpose, or intention in God, or possibilitie in man. So that it is playne, by the holy Scriptures, that none except those who are elected of God, doe ever receyve the gift of faith from God. For our election dependeth not vpon our faith, but faith vpon our election. Therefore faith and the fruites of it are testimonies of our election, as is cleere by the Apostle, reaso­ning, 1. Thes. chap. 1.

Touching the parte, power, or facultie, of Gods elect, wherein faith is wrought by GOD, and receyved of vs, the A­postle cleeres it to vs, Rom. chap. 10. ver. 10. sayinge: VVith the heart man beleeveth vnto righteousnes. Thus it is manifest, that the heart of man, is the parte wherein faith is wrought, & with the which man beleeveth. Of which it will followe, that their opinion must bee erronious, who doe make Gods workinge in vs, for the begetting and building of faith in our heartes, [Page 132] to be only in our vnderstanding, and not in our will, and affe­ction, except only by way of persuasion. Whereas notwithstan­ding in the iudgment of all men, the hart is chiefly taken for the will and affections, which yet shall appeare more evidently, when we shall see first that beleeving is an action of the whole heart. Secondly, when we shall see, that in the scriptures, by the heart is vnderstood, not any one power only, or facultie of the soule, but all the powers and faculties of it, even after the lar­gest manner, of the division thereof, which is, when it is divi­ded in the vnderstanding, will, affection, and memorie.

Touching the first, that faith is a worke of the whole heart, it is manifest by the words of Philip to the Eunuch, Acts 8. 37. say­ing: If thou beleevest with thy whole heart, thou maist be baptised.

The second also is manifest, that by the hearte is vnderstood, all the powers of the soule. And first the vnderstanding, Esa. cha. 6. and Math. chap. 13. where it is saide, That God had hardened their heartes, that they shoud not vnderstand with their hearts. And Salomon in the 1. of Kinges, chap. 3. ver. 9. asketh of God, an vnderstanding heart. And therefore the Apostle, the 2. Cor. chap. 3. ver. 15. attributeth the ignorance of the Iewes, to the vaile that is laide over their heartes.

Secondly, touching the will and power of election, it is also attributed to the heart, Acts chapt. 7. where it is saide, that the Fathers would not obey the Angell, but refused, and in their heartes turned backe againe to Egypt. And actes 11. Barnabas exhorted all, that with purpose of heart, they would continue in the Lord. And 1. Cor. chap. 7. it is said, He that standeth firme in his heart, that he hath no need, but hath power over his owne will, &c. And againe, 2. Cor. chap. 9. ver. 7. As every man hath fore-determined (or chosen) with his heart.

Thirdly, touching the affections, it is a thing out of contro­versie, that they belong to the heart. And the scripture witnes­seth the same, Math. chap. 6. ver. 21. where Christ sayeth: VVhere your treasure is, there wil your heart be also. And Rom. chap. 1. ver. 24. it is saide, that God did give vp the Gentils, in the lustes of their heatres, vnto vncleannes. And in the 14. and 16. chap. of Iohn, [Page 133] Feare, sorrowe, ioye, are attributed vnto the heart.

Fourthly, memorie, and retayning in minde, is attributed vn­to the heart. Luke chap. 1. ver. 66. All they that heard, did lay vp all these wordes in their heart. And Luke chap. 21. ver. 14. Christ sayeth to his Disciples, Lay it vp therefore in your heartes. And for this same cause God sayeth in his covenant, That he will write his lawe in our heartes. For this cause doeth Christ attribute vnto mans heart, the treasure of man. Math. chap. 12. A good man out of the good treasurie of his heart, bringeth foorth good things: And an evill man, out of the evill treasurie of his heart bringeth foorth evill thinges. Thus the power of retayning, and keeping in minde, & laying vp in store things both good, and evill, is attributed vnto the heart of man.

Of this we may perceyve, that seeing beleeving, is an action of the whole heart, that it must needes be wrought of God: and receyved by vs in all the se foresaide powers, of the soule: and that the action of our heart in beleeving, is not an action of the wil only, but of all the powers of the soule cōiunctly. For seeing faith is the roote of our regeneration, out of which springeth all good motion, and all the partes of the renewed man, in all the powers of the soule. It is most necessarilie requisite, that faith it selfe be placed in them all: that by it, all may be purified, and all may be filled with Christ: and all may live by the faith of the Sonne of God. For no more of the soule of man is renewed, but so farre of it, as is iudued with faith. Neyther is any more pos­sessed with Christ, then is possest with faith: nor can Christ live in any more of our soule, then that wich liveth by the faith of CHRIST.

By this it may appeare, how vngraciouslie they speake of Gods grace in the worke of faith, who make him effectually to renewe, no more of man but his vnderstanding: leavinge the action of consenting, and embracing by faith the things revei­led, to the will of man. as also how slenderly they speake of faith, who place it in nothing, but in the willes assentinge to the trueth of God.


NOw it followeth, that we speake of faith it selfe, what it is. In which point wee will first intreate, of the divers significations of Faith, in the word of God. And second­ly of the true signification and nature of it, in the wroke of iusti­fication.

Touching the first, Faith is taken in foure divers significati­ons in the scriptures of God, besides that signification which it hath in the worke of iustification.

The first signification is, when faith is taken for fidelitie and trueth, as Math. chap. 23. 32. Yee leave the waightier matter of the Law, as iudgement, mercie, and fidelitie. Likewise, Rom. chap. 3. ver. 3. Shall their vnbeliefe make the faith of God of none effect. and 1. Timoth. cha. 5. ver. 12. having damnation, because they have broken their first faith.

Secondly, faith doeth signifie the doctrine of the Gospell, be­cause it is begotten in vs, by the Gospell, for faith commeth by hearing, therefore faith is called the faith of the Gospell, as also because the Gospell, preacheth salvatiō, to be no otherwise but by faith. and therefore the Gospell is called the worde of faith. Rom. chap. 10. ver. 8. In this signification it is taken, Gall. chap. 3. Receyved ye the spirit by the workes of the Lawe, or by the hearing of saith. And againe, Galla chap. 1. ver. 23. He which in time past persecuted vs. nowe preacheth the faith, that he before destroyed. And Acts chap. 6. ver. 7. And a great companie of the Priests were obedient to the faith.

Thirdly, faith is taken for particular knowledge, Rom. 14. 22. Hast thou faith, have it with thy self, &c. That which in this place the Apostle calleth faith, in the same question, matter, and pur­pose, he calleth knowledge, 1. Cor. chap. 8.

Fourthly, faith is somtimes put for Christ himself in the gospel. because al that ever faith in the gospell apprehendeth, is Christ, who is the only true obiect of faith vnto salvation. In this sense it is takē Gal. 3. 23. before faith came, we were kept vnder the law, as vnder a garrison, shut vp vnto that faith, which afterward should be reveiled. which words being cōpared with the 24. & 25. verses folowing & with the 19. verse preceeding, it shalbe manifest, that by the name of [Page 135] faith, in that place, Christ the obiect of faith is vnderstood.

Thus much for these foure divers significations: wherein faith is taken in the word of God. Now we come to the special signi­ficatiō and nature of it, as we are said thereby to be iustified. And when it is said to be imputed vnto righteousnes. In which point there is greatest need of carefull attention, because vpon the mistaking hereof, ariseth principally, the mistaking of iustifica­tion it selfe. Specially in that sentence where it is saide, that Faith is imputed vnto righteousnes. Concerning which there is a two-folde controversie. The first is, whether faith in this place be ta­ken in the owne proper signification, or in a borrowed sense. The seconde controversie is, touching the proper signification, of faith what it is.

In the first controversie, these who take faith in a borrowed speech, doe expound that sentence Metonymically by faith vnder­standing Christ crucified, apprehended by faith, and so doe e­steeme that faith, relatively, or instrumentally taken, and not pro­perly, is imputed vnto vs for righteousnes. And this opinion a­greeth with the trueth of the matter it selfe. But there is no ne­cessitie, why faith in that place, should bee taken in a borrowed sense: if the right minde and meaning of the holy Ghost, in this phrase, be gravely and maturely considered, so that if they who take it properly, did not erre, eyther in the signification of it, or in the true sense of the imputation of it, their opinion might wel be allowed. For faith in this sentence, is in my opinion, to be ta­ken properly in that sense, whereby in it selfe it is distinguished, both from the worde, whereby it is begotten, and from the ob­iect of it, in the worde which is Christ. As also, from the naked knowledge of the worde, and Christ, therein reveyled: how so­ever it doeth comprehend knowledge.

For searching out therefore, the true significatiō of the word Faith, in this sentence, we will first set downe, the divers signi­fications wherein it is taken. Secondly, wee will speake of the true nature and signification of it in this place, where it is saide to be imputed vnto righteousnes.

Cōcerning the first, we are not to speak of that differēce which [Page 136] in the scriptures is warranted of historicall faith, miraculous faith, and iustifying faith, but onely of the different opinions of men, touching iustifying faith.

In one thing all men doe consent, and agree, that faith is an action of the heart, consisting in iudgement: but they differ in three sortes.

The first sorte make this iudgment of the harte, in beleeving, to be nothing but a naked opinion. which is a doubtfull incli­nation of an vncertayne minde, to the best part of the contradi­ction with feare of the contrarie parte, beeing destitute of the knowledge of the true cause. As for example, in this contradic­tion, Christes death shall save vs. and Christes death shall not save vs: they have an opinion of the best, that is, that Christes death, shall save them, but no certaine knowledge, because they are ignorant of the cause of that effect: and therfore, feare that they shall not bee saved, and in this opinion they place faith.

The seconde sorte, which are the wiser amongst the Pa­pistes, doe make faith to be an action of the heart, in iudging, neyther by way of opinion, nor yet by way of certayne know­ledge, but by a middle way of iudgement, betwixt opinion and knowledge. Which participates of both, and yet is neyther of them. For they will not have it, a doubtfull inclination of the minde, vnto the best parte, with feare of the worst, vpon igno­rance of the cause. Neither will they have it, a certayne inclina­tion of the minde, to the best, without all feare, of the worst, vpō certayne knowledge of the cause, and necessarie meanes. But will have it middle conceyte of the minde, neither altogither contingent, neither altogither necessarie.

And now in these dayes, there is a sorte of men, which agree with this second sorte, in substance, whatsoever deceitfull shew, their wordes doe make to the contrarie. Therefore as touching this point, wee make no severall order of them. For albeit in word they seeme to admit, in beleeving, knowledge of the thing beleeved: yea which is more, albeit they graunt applica­tion, yet seeing they make neither of the two, necessarie, stable, [Page 137] or constant, but variable, and subiect to change, affirming that the Saintes, may fall from saving grace, they must needes agree with the former, touching the sense and meaning of the word faith, as it is the action of our heartes in iudging and apprehen­ding of our salvation.

The third sorte are they, who esteeme faith to signifie, the assured confidence of the heart, vpon certayne knowledge of the best parte, without any feare of the worst. And this opinion onely agreeth with Gods truth. For nothing can be more con­trarie to the nature of faith, then an vncertayne opinion: seeing no demonstration, can ever make a surer conclusion then faith maketh in the heart of man, of all whatsoever it beleeveth. So that iustly we may say, that salvation beleeved, and embrased by faith, is more sure and stedfast and certayne vnto vs by faith, then ever it was in the beginning to Adam, or Angells, by pos­session. For he that beleeveth, shall never perish, and the gates of hell shall never prevaile against him. For hee that beleeveth, is perswaded that neither death, nor life, nor Angells, nor Principalities, nor powers, nor thinget present, nor thinges to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other ereature, shall be able to seperate him, from the love of GOD, which is in Christ Iesus his Lord. And for confirmation heereof, wee referre the Reader to that which we have spoken before, touch­ing the supernaturall effectes of faith, and to that which heere­after followeth, in the description of the true nature of faith, vn­to the which we nowe come, leaving to speake of the error con­cerning the imputation of faith, vntill we come to treate of im­putation it selfe.

Wee have heard alreadie, that faith is the supernaturall gift of God. And that the meanes whereby the holy Ghost worketh it, is the Word, the Sacraments, and the ministerie. and that the persons to whom he giveth it, are only his elect, whom he hath given to Christ, to be his sheepe. And lastly, that the whole heart of man, and the powers of his soule, are the subiect where­in it is wrought. So that nowe it resteth to know, what it is that God worketh in our soules, when he giveth vs faith. For in these things, that have already beene said, it differeth nothing from [Page 138] the rest of Gods saving graces. For they are all heavenly, spi­rituall, and supernaturall giftes of God, wrought in the whole heart of every one of Gods elect: eyther by the inward opera­tion of the holy Ghost, extraordinarily, or els in ordiraaie dis­pensation, by the effectuall revelation of the Gospell. There­fore seeing faith, hath these things common with all the rest, wee are nowe to trie the particular difference, whereby it is distinguished in substance, and nature, from all the rest of Gods blessings.

The consideration of the nature of faith in it selfe, is two­folde.

First, faith is to be considered, as it is the gift of God, cōming from him, and wrought by him, in our heartes.

Secondly, faith is to be considered, as our hearts (having it not wrought in them) worke by it againe, towards God, vnto iustification.

This twofold consideration of faith, is necessarie for the right knowledge, both of the nature & of the working of it. For faith passively taken, signifieth the effect of Gods working: framinge faith in our heartes: but actively taken, it signifieth the action of our hearts now beleeving, in laying holde vpon Iesus Christ, as he, who is made of God vnto vs, wisedome, sanctification, and redemption.

First then we will speake of it, as it is the worke of God in vs. And next, as our hearts worketh by it. And this we are care­fully to consider, for herevpon dependeth all our fellowship with God in Christ. and all participation of the promise, and in­heritance promised to the children of God. & all true reioycing, and gloriation, in God. and in this worke of faith, consisteth all the strength whereby we are made able, to stande against all powers of darknes, and sinne, and are vpholden to the ende.

In the scriptures of God we finde, that all blessings that come from Christ vnto vs, are attributed vnto faith: as also our beeing Christs, and the children of God in him, is likewise attributed vnto faith. For there be two speciall grounds in the which con­sists all our felicitie.

The first is our becomming Christes, that is when wee are made his.

[Page 139] The seconde is, the infallible consequence of the former, when all that Christ is made of God for vs, is made ours. So that his death, his resurrection, his ascention, his glorification, &c. are all made ours. And this followeth vpon the former, for as sayeth the Apostles, If yee bee Christes, then are yee Abrahams seede, and heyres by promise, Gallat. chapt. 3. ver. 29. according to which also the Apostle sayeth, All thinges are yours, and ye Christes, & Christ Gods, 1. Cor. chap. 3. ver. 21. 32. 23. Now faith is the meane and instrument, of both these points. For by faith wee are made Christs, and by faith Christ is to vs, wisdome, righteousnes, san­ctification, and redemption.

The first of these two is the fruite of faith, as God worketh it in our hearts, or rather the work of God, by working faith in our hearts. The second is the fruit of faith, nowe wrought in our hearts, or rather, the worke of our heartes by faith.

Thus faith is the mean, & effectual instrumēt of al our blessed­nes: both in our vnion with Christ the sonne of God, and also of our cōmunion with him, both in his death, life, and glory: and therefore we are said both to bee the sonnes of God by faith in Christ, and to be iustified by faith in him, and to live by faith in him, and to be saved by faith in him, so that faith is the superna­turall gift of God, given vs, for these supernaturall endes, that by it we may be in Christ, and Christ in vs, for by faith he dwelles in our hearts, and that in him, and by him, we may enioy righte­ousnes and life.

To speake then of the first, that is, of faith as God worketh it, it consisteth specially in foure things.

The first is, in Gods opening & illuminating of our vnderstan­dings, making our hearts in our vnderstanding power, not only to know the promise in Christ, & Christ to be the seed in whom blessednes is promised to all Nations, and in whom all the pro­mises of God are yea and amen: but also to iudge and esteeme these thinges reveyled of God, to be a most vndoubted and vnfallible trueth. so that by this first worke of the Father, the heart of Gods elect is made to see, & vndoubtedly to acknowledge, that there is no blessednes vnto man, but onely in Iesus Christ crucified. [Page 140] So that his eyes are open to see in him selfe, nothinge but iust cause of condemnation: from the which there is not any helpe, neither in him selfe, nor any creature, but in Iesus Christ alone. And therefore is made of God, to determine with him selfe, to knowe nothing vnto life and salvation, but Christ and him cru­cified: and this worke of the Father (which is the beginning of all grace) is expressed in the Scriptures, by Gods teachinge vs: according as Christ sayeth, Iohn chap. 6. ver. 45. Every one that hath heard of the Farher, and hath learned of him, cōmeth vnto me. Shew­ing vs thereby, that the first cause of our beleeving, or rather the first parte and portion of the worke of faith wrought in our heartes by God, consisteth in God teaching of vs: according to his promise made in his covenant, Esay chap. 54. ver. 13. And all thy children shalbe taught of the Lord. And Ierem. chap. 31. ver. 33. 34. I will put my lawe in their inward partes, and write it in their heartes, and they shall teach no more every man his neighbour, and everie man his brother, saying, knowe the Lord: For they shall all knowe mee from the least of them, vnto the greatest of them, sayeth the Lord.

For it is true which Christ speaketh, Math. chap. 11. ver. 27. No man knoweth the Sonne, but the Father: neyther knoweth any man the Father, but the Sonne: and he to whom the Sonne will reveyle him. So that the knowledge of God, is a secrete belonging to God alone, which no flesh is everable to attayne vnto, by any power of his owne naturall light and vnderstanding: therefore saieth the A­postle, that this is the wisedome of God hid in a mysterie, which none of the Princes of this worlde have ever knowne, 1. Cor. 2. For as he saith in that same chapter, The naturall man, perceyveth not the thinges of the Spirit of God. For they are foolishnes vnto him: neyther can hee know them, because they are spiritually discerned. And this he con­firmeth by a strong argument, in that same chapter, vers. 11. say­ing: For what man knoweth, the thinges of a man, saue the spirit of a man which is in him: even so the thinges of God, knoweth no man, but the spirit of God. For which cause also, in that same place, he attributeth the cause of all our knowledge, vnto God reveyling vnto vs by his spirit, the thinges that are given vs of God: according to which Christ saieth vnto Peter, when hee did confesse him to bee the [Page 141] Christ the Sonne of the living God, that flesh and bloud had not revei­led that vnto him, but his Father which was in heaven, Math. cha. 16. ver. 17. thereby witnessing plainly, that no naturall light, nor infor­mation of mans owne minde, can possibly make a man to know Iesus, to be the Christ, and sonne of the living God: but that this knowledge commeth vnto our heartes, by the supernatural gift, and revelation of God by his spirit: according to which the Apostle saith, 1. Cor. chap. 1. ver. 18. That the preaching of the crosse, is to them that perish, foolishnes: but vnto vs that are saved, it is the power of God. For God hath cast away the vnderstanding of the prudent, and hath made the wisedome of this worlde foolishnes. For by that wisedome the world doeth not know God, therefore sayth the Apostle in that same place: VVee preach Christ crucified, vnto the Iewes even a stūbling blocke: and vnto the Graecians foolishnes: but vnto them which are called, both of the Iewes, & Graecians, we preach Christ the power of God, and the wisedome of God. Thus it is playne, that this wise­dome and light of the heart, whereby we know Christ crucifi­ed, to be our onely Saviour and Sonne of God, is a gift superna­turally given vs by God, when he calleth vs, and therefore saith Christ: That it is not given to every man to know the secretes of heaven, Math. chap. 13. vers. 11. shewing vs thereby, that the power to knowe these things, is givē vs of God. Which is yet more cleere by the speech of Christ, touching them to whom this gift is not given: when he sayeth, that seeing, they doe not see, and hearing, they heare not, neither vnderstande. And this worke of God in the scrip­tures, is signified, by opening of the eyes of our vnderstan­ding: Ephes. chapt. 1. ver. 18. and sometymes, by opening of the heart: Actes. chapt. 16. ver. 14. And in this firste worke of God, by his grace, consisteth the chiefe foundation of our strength: as is showen by Ioh. 1. Epi. chap. 5. vers. 5. saying: VVho is it that overcommeth the worlde: but hee that beleeveth that Iesus is the sonne of God. As likewise this is the seale of out Adoption, as witnesseth the same Apostle, 1. Epi. chap. 5. saying: Every one that beleeveth that Iesus is the Christ: is borne of God. And thirdly, on this dependeth our ereruall life: as witnesseth Christ him selfe, Iohn chap. 17. ver. 3. This is eternall life, that they knowe thee the onely true God: and whom thou [Page 142] hast sent Iesus Christ. and therefore, whosoever is ignorant of this point (and so much more they that impugne it) shal never inhe­rit eternall life: according to Christs owne testimonie, Ioh. ca. 8. ver. 24. Therefore I said vnto you, that ye shall die in your sinnes: for except yee beleeve that I am hee, yee shall die in your sinnes.

To conclude this point then, the first action of God in man, and so the first gift bestowed vpon the heart of man vnto life, is the power and facultie, of conceyving, and knowing, God in Christ the Saviour, as he is reveyled in the worde: accordinge to the saying of Iohn, Epi. 5. 20. But we knowe, that that sonne of God, is come, and hath given vs a minde to knowe him that is true: and wee are in him that is true, that is, in that his Sonne Iesus Christ, this same is that very true God, and that eternall life.

The second worke of God wherein our faith consisteth, is in giving a wil to come to Christ, and to enioy him, & to obey him according to the saying of the Prophet, Psalm. 110. 3. Thy people shall come willingly, at the time of the assemblinge of thine armie in holy beautie.

For as the vnderstanding power of man, is darkened, & al his wisdome, is but foolishnes: so his will, is rebellious against Gods will, in all thinges. so that as he cannot naturally perceyve, nor know, the thinges of God: so can he not naturally will, nor de­sire, the thinges of God. and this oftentymes is signified in scri­pture, by the hardnes of mans heart that cannot repent: and by his stiff-neckednes, and by resisting of the holy Ghost, according to the words of God by the Prophet Esay, ca. 65. ver. 2. & 3. I have spred my hands out all the day, to a rebellious and gaine-saying people, &c. And this worke of God is expressed in scripture, by the phrase of Gods drawing vs, Ion. 6. 44. No man can come vnto me, except the Fa­ther that hath sent me, drawe him. as likewise is signified by the ope­ning of the eare: as Esay cha. 50. ver. 5. The Lord GOD hath opened myne eare, and I was not rebellious, neyther turned I backe. This also is signified by the Lord, Ier. 32. when he promiseth, that he would put his feare in their heartes, that they should not departe from him: and most cleerly, Eze. cap. 36. 26. 27. A newe heart also will I [Page 143] give you, and a new spirit will I put within you: and I will take away the stonie heart out of your body, and will give you a heart of flesh, and I will put my spi­rit within you, and cause you to walke in my Statutes. For this cause it is, that Christ calleth them blessed, who honger and thirst for righ­teousnes: For it is most certaine, that the earnest desire of the heart, to enioye Christ and his righteousnes, &c. is an vndoub­ted token of Gods saving grace, and of his effectuall calling, in the which he bestowes this, as a supernaturall gift, vppon the e­lect, as the seconde effect, of his working power, whereby hee changeth our willes, which are of them selves rebellious, and maketh them willing to come vnto Christ, and to obey his voyce. Therefore is it saide, That God is the worker, both of the will, and of the deed, of his good pleasure in vs, Phil. cap. 2. 13. so this is the second parte of that supernatural gift of faith, when as our will maketh choise of that which is the will of God, and wee submit our willes to his will in all thinges, which is most contrarie to the nature of fleshe. For as sayth the Apostle, Rom. chap. 8. ver. 7. The wisedome of the fleshe, is not subiect to the Law of God, neither can be. Therefore doeth the Prophet David say: That the man is blessed, whom the Lord choses, and causes to come, Psalm. 65. 4. It is for this same cause, that David prayeth so often: that God would incline his heart to his statutes.

The thirde parte of Gods workinge in givinge Faith vnto vs, is the sanctification of our affections, to make vs to love Christ above all thinges, and that by the powring of his love in our heartes by his holy Spirit: For as hee inclineth our myndes to mynde heavenly thinges, by insinuatinge his mynd towardes vs in Christ Iesus into our myndes, & as by the sense, and feelinge, and proofe of his good will towarde vs in all thinges, hee drawes out willes vnto his will: So by the sense of his love, in his giving his deare Sonne to the death for vs, while wee were his enimies, hee enflames our heartes with the love of him againe, so that with our affection, wee are set vppon Christ more then all thinges, and are content to lose all things, that we may gaine him.

Therefore saith Christ, Math. cha. 10. ver. 37. He that loveth father, [Page 144] or mother, better then mee: is not worthie of me, &c. And Luke chap. 14. ver. 26. If any man come vnto mee, and hate not his Father, and Mother, & VVife, and Children, and Brethren and Sisters, yea and his owne life also: he can not be my Disciple. Wherein it appeareth most plainly, that faith is a gift supernaturall: seeing it bringeth a supernaturall love into the heart, which overcommeth all the love and affection, which can be in nature: especally when it overcommeth the love of man to him selfe, and his owne life.

Fourthly, the Lord by working faith, doeth imprinte his knowledge, and his will, and love to vs, in our memories, wor­king such a stedfast impression in our hearts, of his mercie and grace, towards vs in Christ, as can never be defaced: therefore the wicked in the booke of God are noted by this name, they that forget God. whereas the childrē of God have him alwayes before theit eyes. Thus the Lord when he worketh faith in our hearts, he worketh it in all the powers of our soule, filling the whole heart with such supernaturall vertue, and power, in all the fa­culties thereof, whereby the heart, which of it selfe naturally could never be able to knowe, or to desire, or to love, or to keepe any heavenly thing belonging vnto life and godlines: is made able both to knowe, and to will, and to love, and with the will, and affection, to apprehende, and to keepe constantly the Lord Iesus, and all blessings in him vnto eternall life.

And all these pointes are wrought by God, in the heart of e­verie one of his elect, particularly, as in them selves so also con­cerning them selves, so that their knowledge, and assurance of the trueth of the things reveyled, touching Christ, and redemp­tion in him, is not a generall notion, & perswasion of the heart, that God hath given his sonne to be a Redeemer to mankinde, and that he hath performed redemption in his death: for such a faith not onely the reprobate, but Sathan him selfe, hath, but it is a particular sight, and assurance of every mans owne heart, con­cerning him selfe, that God hath elected him, & for him in par­ticular hath given Christ, to bee a Redeemer, and hath made him particularly vnto him wisedome, righteousnes, sanctifica­tion, and redemption.

[Page 145] For it is not my faith-concerning the minde of God vnto o­thers, nor yet of the minde of God conceyved generally toward all his elect, but the particular knowledge, and assurance, of his minde concerning my selfe, that doeth saue mee: For the iust shall live by his owne faith, Habac. chapt. 2. ver. 4. But this will appeare more cleerely in the next point: while we consider Faith, being newe wrought in our hearts, howe we are saide with our heart to beleeve.

In this point we have to consider: First, that it is the man him selfe who beleeveth: Secondly, that it is his heart whereby he beleeveth: And thirdly, beleeving is the action which man performeth with his heart.

As for the first, man is said to beleeue, because that this super­naturall gift is given him of God, and that in his heart it is effe­ctuall in him in all the points forespoken: for by Gods enlight­ning of him, he sees, and by his teaching, he vnderstandes, and by the Lords enclining of his will, he willeth, and by the Lords sanctifying of his affection, he loveth, and by the Lords imprin­ting, and writing, in his minde, and sealing by his spirit, what­soever he reveyleth vnto him, he both possesseth, retayneth, and keepeth, Christ and all the blessings promised in him: so that faith actively considered, is nothing but the motion of mans hearte, which is wrought in him by the spirit of God: and ther­fore in substance, nothing els but the very action of GOD in man: but considered in a divers manner, that is, passively, as it is wrought by God in him, and actively, as he by this working of God, in all the powers of his soule, apprehendeth, and recey­veth grace from God: so that the action of man in beleeving with the heart, is nothing but his knowing, & acknowledging of things, by Gods making him know, and acknowledge them, and his willing them, by Gods making him to will them, and his loving, by Gods making him to love them, and his appre­hending and retayning them, by Gods making of him to appre­hende and reteyne them, GOD imprinting, writing, and sea­ling them in mans heart: This worke therefore of man, is like­wise attributed vnto God vnder these two phrases. First, when [Page 146] it is saide, that he giveth vs to come vnto the sonne, Iohn chap. 6. ver. 65. Secondly, the Fathers giving vs vnto the sonne, Iohn. chap. 6. ver. 37. and 17. 6.

Thus the motion of man with his heart being moved of God, is called mans beleeving with the heart, evē as a wheele which of it selfe cānot move, yet being moved by an other, doth move, whose motion therefore though it be but one, yet is said to bee the motion of two, that is of the maner, and of the thing moved: and therefore is both actively, and passively to be considered: in the one sense God is said to bring vs vnto Christ: in the other sense we are saide to come vnto Christ. and this is carefnlly to be marked, least with a great many we erre, in esteeming faith to be mans owne proper worke, flowing from the natural pow­er of his owne will, and so mistake the saying of the Prophet, the iust shall live by his owne faith: as alfo Christes forme of speach, when he sayeth, thy faith hath saved thee, for faith is called ours, and our owne, not in respect that we are the Authors, the cause, or workers of it: but because we possesse it, and are the speciall subiectes of it, in the which it is wrought by God, as also be­cause it concerneth onr selves in particular, and what wee be­leeve, wee beleeve it particularly touching our selves, so that faith is called our owne faith in the Scriptures of God, to de­clare the perticular nature of savinge faith in two particular thinges: The firste is, that it is not the faith that GOD workes in another mans hearte, but the faith which hee worketh in myne owne hearte, that saveth me.

Secondly, it is not the faith which I have in myne owne hearte, concerning others, but the faith that I have concerning my selfe in particular, that saveth me. So that this worde vsed by the Spirit of God, saying: thy faith hath saved thee, and the iust by his owne faith shall live, is set downe, not to designe the cause, but the subiect, of savinge faith: and that in two re­spectes, that is, both in respect of him in whom it is wrought, and also in respect of him concerning whom it is wrought: so that my faith that saveth mee, must bee wrought by GOD in my owne hearte: and what hee maketh mee beleeve, hee [Page 147] must make mee beleeve it concerninge my selfe in particn­lar.

If the Papistes did rightly vnderstande this, they would see that every particnlar Christian, hath a particular warrant, by particular revelation from God, of the certaintie of his owne salvation: For when hee saide, to beleeue with the heart: the same beleeving, includes in it a particular knowledge, by the particular revelation of God in his heart cōcerning him selfe in particular, that hee is chosen and elected of God, that Christ is given for him, that in him hee is redeemed, that in him hee hath remission of his sinnes, that through him, hee shalbe glori­fied.

Secondly, they should likewise knowe, and with them such as in the Church of God, follow their opinion: that when it is saide, that man with the heart beleeveth, the heart is not to bee esteemed the cause of beleeving, as though naturally of it selfe it could beleeve, but as a wheele moved by another, doth move: so our heartes action of beleeving, is nothing but the action of God moving our heartes.


NOW it followeth that we speake of the vse, and ende, wherefore this supernatural gift is given vnto man: this shortlie we may reduce vnto foure points.

The first is, faith is given for knowledge.

Secondly, faith is given for possession of the things knowen.

Thirdly, faith is given for keeping, and constant retayning, the things possessed, and that during this life.

Fourthly, faith is given for practise.

Wee saye, that it is given for these vses, during the time of this life: because, that in the life to come, both knowledge, possession, and keeping, are performed in vs by another meane, that is by sight: For in this worlde wee walke by faith, and therefore doe neither knowe, possesse, nor keepe but by faith: [Page 148] but in the world to come, we shall walke by sight, for we shall see him as he is: and therefore we shall both knowe, posses, and keepe by sight.

Now concerning the first vse and end of faith which is know­ledge, we are to remember the saying of the Apostle 1. Corinth. chap. 2. ver 9. the things which God hath prepared for his elect, are such which the eyes of man hath not seene, and which the eare hath not heard, & which hath not entred in the hart of man. Whereby the Apostle will declare vnto vs, that the thinges which God hath orday­ned for our glory, are such, as the heart of man can never possi­bly of it selfe conceyve: therefore as sayeth the Apostle Iohn▪ God must needes give vs a minde to knowe them, before wee ever can perceyve them, and this minde that God giveth is a beleeving heart: For the heart of man, is able by faith to know thinges, to will, & affect thinges, to enioye, and possesse things, and to keepe and retayne them, which of it selfe by all the pow­er of reason, will. &c. it never could, nor possibly can, bee able, to knowe, possesse, &c. Thus we saye by faith, that the worlde was made by the word of God: and that thinges that are seene▪ were made of thinges which did not appeare, Hebr. chapt. 11. which all the Philosophers, and Princes of the world, by all the light of nature, could never vnderstand. For the things of God, are not naturally, but spiritually, discerned: therefore the natu­rall man, can not perceyve them. In the same sense, Abraham is saide to have seene the day of Christ, and to have reioyced: and by the vertue of our faith it is, that we knowe IESVS to be that Christ, and the sonne of God: and by faith we knowe, that we are elected of God: and by faith we knowe, that in Christ alone consisteth our adoption, our righteousnes, fanctification, and redemption: so that wee knowe, that it is impossible to any man, to be the sonne of God, or iust, or holy, or free from death, but in, and by Christ onely: thus take me away faith from the heart, it is impossible to all the wisedome of the wisest hearte, ever to vnderstande these thinges, and to know them for vn­doubted verities: therefore it is (as wee haue marked before) that Christ sayeth to Peter: Flesh and bloud hath not reveyled that vn­to [Page 149] thee: but my Father that is in heaven, Math. chap. 16. For this cause Christ sayth vnto the Iewes: Except yee beleeve that I am bee: yee shall die in yonr sinn [...]. Shewing vs by that speech, that there is no way to knowe Christ to be the sonne of God, but by beleevinge onely.

Nowe this knowledge that commeth by faith, is not to bee taken in that sense, wherein sometymes the worde knowledge is put: which is when it signrfieth the naked, and bare vnder­standing of thinges that are reveyled: but it is taken for an in­fallible science, when as the heart knoweth God, and knoweth him vndoubtedly to be God: and when as it knoweth Christ▪ and knoweth him vndoubtedly to bee the sonne of God: and when it knoweth Gods trueth, and knoweth it vndoubtedly to be the trueth of God: therefore saieth Iohn the Baptist, Hee that receyveth his testimonie, hath sealed that God is true, Iohn chap. 3. ver. 33 And againe, Iohn 1. Epi. chap. 5. ver. 10. Hee that heleeveth not God, hath made him a liar, because he beleeved not the record that God wit­nessed of his soune.

Neither is this all which is meant by the knowledge of faith, but a third thing is yet to be added for the full vnderstandinge thereof: For besides the sight, and knowledge, of the thinges which are reveiled by God, and also besides the knowledge of the vndoubted veritie, and trueth of them, it is required, that wee knowe them to bee reveyled by God vnto vs, and knowe the vndoubted trueth, and veritie, of them toward vs in our par­ticular person, that is, that whatsoever God reveyle to vs, he re­veyleth it vnto vs as a thing which he hath appointed for vs: and when he giveth vs the sight, and knowledge of the vn­doubted veritie of the things reveyled: he maketh vs assuredlie to knowe, that they shalbe truely & verily accomplished in our persons, conforme to that ground which we have laide downe before concerning faith: that is, that what we beleeve, we must beleeve it concerning our selves in particular: according as it is said of Abraham, that he beleeved God that he should bee the Father of many Nation [...]s: And as Iob speaketh of him selfe, chap. 19. verses 25. 26. 27. I am sure that my Redeemer liveth: and I [Page 150] shall see God in my flesh, whom I my selfe shall see, and my eyes shall beholde, and none other for mee. According to which certaintie, the Apostle Paul speaketh also of him selfe, Rom. chap. 8. and for this maner of knowledge which commeth by faith, the Fathers doe call faith, the eye whereby we see the invisible things of God, as also the ingravē forme of the sonnes of God: and for this same cause it is called by the Apostle Heb. chap. 11. the evidence of things which are not seene. where by the word evidence, is vnderstoode, that faith doeth not onely shew them, but by evident demonstration con­firme the vndoubted veritie of them, and that to vs in particu­lar: so that it letteth me not only see life eternall in Christ, and this eternall life to belong to all that are in Chtist, but particu­larly it letteth me see my selfe in Christ, and this life to belonge to me in him: and that so certainlie, as nothing in heaven nor earth, can bee more certaine: and thus much for the first vse of faith.

The seconde ende wherefore faith is given is possession: and this confirmeth evidently and plainely the former ground touching knowledge, that it is so to be vnderstood, as we have spoken: For the knowledge of faith is never without posses­sion, according to thar saying of Christ, Ioh. cha. 14. ver. 17. spea­king of the spirit, whow the world can not receyve, because it seeth him not, neyther knoweth him: but yee knowe him, for hee dwelleth with you, and shalbee in you. According to which ground it is, that Ioh. sayth: Hee that beleeveth in that sonne of GOD, hath the witnes in him self, 1. Epist. chap. 5. ver. 10. Thus faith maketh vs to know nothing, but that which it also maketh vs to possesse: therefore doeth the Apostle pray to God for the Ephesians, that Christ might dwell in their hearts by faith, chap. 3. vers. 27.

For as the heart of man, can never know Christ by it owne light, but by the supernaturall light of faith: so it can never ap­prehend Christ, nor any blessing in Christ, by any natural pow­er that is in the will & affection thereof. Therefore God giveth to his elect the supernaturall gift of faith in their hearts, that his elect, whose heartes could never by any naturall strength, ever attaine to the possession of Christ, nor ever desire to have him, [Page 151] nor yet embrace him with vnfayned love, as their only treasure, righteousnes, and life, might chose him, and count all things but dunge to gaine him, forsaking them selves and their owne righ­teousnes, and to love him, and embrace him, with such affectiō, that they prefer him to all things, evē to their owne life: so that man by faith is not only made to know his redeemer: but also to possesse him, and all blessings in him. And for this cause is it, that in the scriptures we are saide, to be the children of God by faith in Christ: to be iustified by faith in him: to bee saved by faith in him: and as saith the Apostle Peter, beleeving in him, we carrie about with vs the end of our faith, the salvation of our soules, 1. Epist. 1. 9. And for this working of faith, it is called by the Apo­stle the subsisting of things hoped for. Hebr. 11. 1. because it gi­veth a certaine being, and subsisting, vnto things that are yet in­visible, and are yet only expected, and hoped for: and maketh thē to subsist in our hearts: therfore saith Christ, he that beleeveth, is alreadie translated from death to life: and hath everlasting life, Ioh. 5. 24.

Thus we see, that faith being taken away, the heart of man should never be able to possesse, nor apprehend Christ, nor righ­teousnes, or any other spirituall blessing in him.

Therefore, because it is the effectuall instrument of Gods su­pernaturall power in our heartes, whereby we apprehende and possesse Christ, and all blessings in him: The Fathers doe call it the hand of a Christian, as also the mouth of a Christian, and likewise the bound of a Christian: because by faith, as by a hand, we lay holde on him, and by faith, as by a mouth, wee receyve him into our heartes, and by faith, as by a bande that never can be broken, wee are so vnited to him, and hee, with all the bene­fites that are in him, vnto vs: that we never can possibly bee se­perated from him, nor he or his blessinges from vs: for this cause is it, that Augustine sayth, Beleeue onely, and thou hast eaten him.

And for cleering of this grounde, it is that these phrases of speech are vsed, to wit, that Christ is the ende of the lawe vnto righteousnes, to all that beleeve: that the promise is given to them, that faithfully beleeve: That the Gospell is the po­wer of GOD vnto salvation, to everie one that beleeveth, &c. [Page 152] all to teach vs, that neither the Gospell can helpe vs to salvati­on, neither is the promise made ours, nor Christes righteousnes belongeth vnto vs, except we beleeve: because there is no mean to make any thing conteyned in the Gospell (especially the pro­mise, or Christ him selfe) to be ours: but faith onely. And for this same cause, our righteousnes is saide to bee the righteousnes of God, which is by faith: and the righteousnes which is through the faith of Christ, Phil. chap. 3. ver. 9. And Christ is saide, to bee a reconciliation through faith in his bloud, Rom. chap. 3. ver. 25. All serving to teach vs, that faith is not our righteousnes it selfe: but only the meane by the which we attayne to that which is our righteousnes, that is Christ in his bloud: for in that sense is righteousnes faid to be through faith, and by faith.

Moreover, it is for this same cause, that faith is called in the Scriptures the faith of Christ, Rom. chap. 3. where righteousnes is saide to be, the righteousnes of God by the faith of Iesus. and that be­cause the whole matter, and substance, which by faith wee ey­ther knowe, or apprehende vnto righteousnes, is onely Christ:

Sometimes it is called the faith of his name, Acts cha. 3. ver. 16. as also the faith in his name, as Ioh. chap. 1. ver. 12. because all the vertue, strength, and power, whereby we beleeve to bee iu­stisied, is in Christ alone, and in the vertue of his death, and re­surrection: so that the vertue is not in faith it selfe, but in Iesus apprehended by faith.

Sometimes againe it is called the faith towardes Christ, Act. chap. 20. ver. 21. because faith setteth nothing before it as the obiect, but Christ alone: for the Gospell which is the worde of faith, propoundeth not any thing vnto vs, but onely Christ, as eyther promised, or given vnto vs of God, to bee the matter ey­ther of our righteousnes, sanctification, or redemption.

Sometimes againe it is called the faith in Christ, Gal. chap. 3. ver. 26. and that for two causes. First, because that wherein by faith our heartes are fastened, and in the which our heartes only setleth their full confidence of righteousnes, and remission of sinnes, is onely Christ, in whom onely, our faith is, and we also by faith: for thereby we are made to be in him, and hee in vs: [Page 153] and therfore in the scripturs to be in Christ, & to be in the faith, are put indifferently, Rom. cha. 8. vers. 10. compared with 2. Cor. cha. 13. ver. 3. 5. And for this same respect, the proper effe­ctes of Christ him selfe, are attributed vnto faith. The second Reason is, because faith neither suffereth vs to rest vpon it, nor on our selues, nor on anie other thing, nor yet in any thing that is in faith, or in our selves, or in any thing except Christ onely, and that which is in him, as the ground of our confidence, or as the matter of our righteousnes or blessednes: therefore are we saide in him to have redemption, in him to be made righ­teousnes, and in him to be circumcised. For whatsoever we are made by Faith, we are made it in Christ: and what soever faith maketh to be ours, it is also in Christ: therefore faith maketh not God our God, but in Christ: nor vs the children of God, but in Christ: nor righteous but in Christ, &c. For whatsoever faith layeth holde on, it findeth it in Christ: so that the hart of man, when it beleeveth vnto righteousnes, sendeth out faith, & fixeth it in Christ, thereby laying holde vpon him, and his obe­dience vnto righteousnes: bringing him, and his obedience, with all the vertue both of his death, and life, into our heartes to dwell in them.

Sometimes also it is called the faith by Christ: because hee is the Author, Fountayne, and occasion of it, not so much be­cause he with the Father, and holy Ghost, doeth worke it, as because hee alone is the meane, and occasion of it: For as the Father redeemeth vs by Christ, and by him maketh vs his sons, and righteousnes, &c. so also he maketh vs to beleeue by Christ so that take mee away Christ, all ground and foundation of sa­ving faith in God is taken away: for God hath layde the whole foundation of our beleefe in him alone. For which cause Pet. 1. Epist. chap. 1 ver. 21. sayeth: That by his meanes wee beleeve in G [...]d: and in that same place it is saide. That God hath raysed him from the dead, and given him glorie, that our faith and hope might bee in God. And to this same effect the same Apostle sayeth in the same chapter, ver. 3. That God hath begotten vs againe to a lively hope: by the resurrection of Iesus Christ from the dead.

[Page 154] Vpon which respect it is, that the Apostle Paul 1. Cor. chap. 15. ver. 17. sayeth expresly: If Christ bee not raysed, your faith is vayne. Vpon which we may easilie gather, that faith, is a vaine fooilsh faith, whereby a man is made to beleeve, or hope for any bles­sing from God, which maketh it not first to bee performed by God in Christ. For our faith of our vniō with God ariseth vpon the knowledge of Christ his assuming in vnitie of person, our nature vnto his: the faith of our being the sonnes of God, ari­seth vpon Christ the man our brother being the very sonne of GOD: our faith that God will make vs righteousnes, ariseth vpō this, that God hath made Christ sinne for vs: and so foorth of the rest, the hope of our resurrection, is builded vpon his re­surrection: the hope of our assention, vpon his assention: the hope of our glorification, vpon his glorification: so that the Lord worketh in our heartes, neither faith, nor hope in him, of any blessing whatsoever, whereof hee doeth not first reveyle vnto vs, a cleere ground, and evident foūdation in Iesus Christ the sonne.

And therefore it may appeare how detestable a doctrine that is (and execrable be the teachers of it) that affirmeth, that a man may be saved without the knowledge of Iesus Christ our Lord.

Thus by all these phrases concerning faith, the Lord would teach vs, that Christ is the matter, and hee is the ground, of all whatsoever wee beleeve: and that there is nothinge in Christ, which is not made ours by faith.

And for this same purpose in Scriptures it is sometimes cal­led the faith in the bloud of Christ, Rom. chap. 3. ver. 25. and that to teach vs, what is the particular thing in Christ, wherein God hath made him our righteousnes, and whereby the Lord would haue vs to beleeve remission of sinnes in him: for albeit Christ be vno vs, all, and that in all thinges, and doeth fill vs all in all thinges: yet (as wee haue marked before) there is no benefite which wee apprehende by faith in Christ, but it hath the owne particular ground and foundation wherevpon it is builded: and therefore as his faith is but vaine, who expects his resurrection in Christ, if he doe not know Christ to bee risen a­gaine: [Page 155] so his faith must be vaine, who beleeveth the remission of sinnes in Christ, and yet knoweth not that Christ did shed his bloud expressely for his iniquities. For as God begettes vs to the hope of life by the resurrection of Ieses from the dead: so he begetteth vs to the faith, and assurance of the remission of our sinnes, by making him sinne for vs, and woundinge him for our transgressions.

So to conclude this point, albeit all blessing bee in Christ, and he be made of God wisedome, righteousnes, sanctification, and redemptiō: yet all this shalbe in vaine to vs, except we be­leeve, because there is no meanes in the world, whereby to ob­taine & possesse Christ, or any blessing in him, except faith only:

For as concerning the Word, and Sacraments, they are not so much the meanes of our possessing Christ, as the meanes of our faith whereby we possesse Christ.

The third vse and end wherefore faith is given, is keeping, & preserving vs in the possession which it hath brought vnto vs: and that both because through faith wee are kept vnto salvati­on, as saieth Pet. 1. Epi. 1. 5. and also because by it, wee keepe Christ and all his blessings in our heart. For which cause the scriptures place our victorie over Satan, sinne and the world in our faith, Ioh. 1. Epi. ca. 5. ver. 4. 5. and the Apost. Paul placeth the chief strength of a Christlan in his faith, as that whereby we are made able to quench all the fierie dartes of the Divell, Eph. 6. 16. so that there is no enemie of our salvation so great, neither any temptation so vehement and fierie, which by faith wee are not made able to overcome. Thus faith wrought in our heartes by God, is of a stronger might, and power, then the Divel him­selfe, and all the powers and principalities of darknes, therfore Pet. 1. Ep. 5. willeth vs to resist the divel, by being stedfast in the faith, thereby to teach vs, that in a stedfast faith, there is strēgth to overcome him. The examples of the great power of God which is [...]n them that beleeve, set downe in Heb 11. doth su [...]i­ciētly cleer the truth hereof, who only by faith are said to have performed, & suffered so strange & wonderful things, as no po­wer that ever nature hath given vnto man, was able either to performe, or suffer. [Page 156] This also is manifest, if we marke, another pointe, which is, the Saintes recouering of them selves, when they have appeared, to have bene overthrowen by Sathan in sinne: who notwith­standing have by the strength of faith, onely recovered victorie over Sathan and sinne. So when as in our practise, and obedi­ence to God, we fall most fearfully: yet by faith we not onely overcome our owne guilthines, but also all the feare of Gods iust deserved wrath, for our guilthines: so that our verie sinnes cannot seperate our heartes that beleeve, from Christ, nor re­move the favour of God from vs. For whatsoever blessing wee have once obtayned by faith, by that same saith wee are made able to holde it fast to the ende: and the faithfull heart sayeth, as Iob chap, 27. ver. 6. I will keepe my righteousnes, and will not forsake it, and my heart shall never cast it away all my dayes. Vpon this ground it is, that the Apostle willeth Timothie, to fight the good fight of faith, 1. Tim. chap. 6. vers. 12. because indeed our faith hath the greatest labour, in our spiriruall bataile. For when all other grace fai­leth vs, yet faith must vpholde vs: otherwise we could not pos­sibly but perish: For what should have become of Pieter after his fearefull fall, if faith had not sustained him? This point is yet more cleere, if we marke the strength of faith in other two thinges.

The first is, if we shall consider the examples of the children of God, who have drawn from God manifold great blessinges by faith: as their vncurable diseases to bee cured: their dead to be raysed, &c. Of which a lively example wee have in Math. chap. 9. and Luke chap. 8. in the Woman that had an ishewe of bloud 12. yeares longe: and in the wordes of Christ vnto Iai­rus, Luke chap. 8. ver. 50. where he saith, Feare not, beleeve onely, and shee shalbe saved.

The other thing to be considered of vs, is, when God himself seemeth to set him selfe against his children, and they are com­pelled to wrestle with God, as with their owne enimie, yet by faith they overcome & say with Iob, 13. 15. Though hee slay me, yet will I trust in him. And this was liuely shadowed in the Lord his wrestling with Iacob, Gen. chap. 32. where it is saide, of the Lord, [Page 157] that when he sawe that he could not prevaile against Iacob, he touched the hollowe of his thigh, &c. therefore saieth the Pro­phet Hose, cap. 12. ver. 3. 4. By his strength, hee had power with God, and had power over the Angell, and prevayled. And this the Lord set­teth downe expresly, to shew vs that the power of God in him that beleeveth, is able so to strengthen him, that nothing is able to overthrow him.

To conclude this point, that which Angells by nature could not doe in heaven, and that which Adam could not doe in Pa­radise, a poore fraile wretch beleeving in the Lorde Iesus, is made able to doe, by the power of God, which dwelleth in his heart by faith: for the verie weaknes of God, is stronger then Men, and Angells, and it pleaseth the Lorde to magnifie his strength, in our weaknes, that the excellencie of this worke, may be knowen to be of him, and not of vs.

For this cause, as the Scripture calleth faith our victorie, and our shield, so the Fathers likewise cal it: and moreover the key whereby the treasures that are in Christ, are opened vnto vs, & the ladder by the which we climbe vp from earth to heauen.

Now the last vse, and end, wherefore Faith is given, is pra­ctise, that is, to make vs able to doe the will of the Lord, and obey his commandements: for man, whose imaginations are nothing but vanitie, and that continually, and is of no strength of him selfe to performe any good worke, neyther is, nor can be subiect to the lawe of God, having his minde continually sett on evill workes, & having no goodnes at all dwelling in him, is by this supernaturall gift of faith, made able to doe the will of the Lord from the hearte: for thereby not onely is his darke­ned vnderstanding illuminate, that he may know what is that good, acceptable, and perfect will of God: but also his rebelli­ous will subdued, to will and to doe, the will of the Lord, and his whole affections sanctified to love the lawe of God, and to delight in it more then in all treasures, and to esteeme it more precious, then gold. For by faith he is buried with Christ, and also hee is raysed vp with Christ by the faith of the effectuall working of God, who raysed Christ from the dead, Colos. chap. [Page 158] 2. ver. 13. For which cause also the Apostle Paul to the Ephe. ca. 2. shewing what is the exceeding power of God in thē that be­leeve, saieth: That we that were dead in sinnes, are through the grace of God by faith quickened, raysed, and made to sit together in heaven in Christ Jesus: therefore also saith Iohn 1. Epist. 5. That the commandements of God, are not greevous to him that is borne of God. And he addeth this reason takē from the former ground, which is, because by faith they overcome the world, and all thinges whatsoever within them, or without them, opposeth it selfe vnto their obedience.

For this cause, the obedience of the Saints is called the obe­dience of faith, Rom. cha. 1. ver. 5. and obedience to the Gospel, is called obedience to the faith, Acts cha. 6. ver. 7. And for the same reason, whatsoever is not of faith, is said to be sinne, Rom. cha. 14. 23. as also That without faith, it is impossible to please God. Heb. chap. 11. 6. which sentence sheweth cleerely the trueth of this point, that there can be no strength in mans nature, to performe any thing according to the will of God, of it selfe: but that all his strength and abilitie, to doe according to Gods minde, is from IESVS Christ dwelling in his hearte by faith. By whose helpe strengthening vs, we are able to doe all things, as saith the Apostle of him selfe, Phil. chap. 4. ver. 13. Vpon the same respect it is, that the Apostle in­terpretes his owne saying, That Christ liueth in him, in this speech, The life that I nowe live in the flesh, I liue it by the faith which is of the sonne of God, Galat. chap. 2. ver. 20. shewing vs that to haue Christ li­ving in vs, and to liue by the faith of Christ, is all one thing, al­beit in divers considerations: for our life is the life of Christ properlie, because indeed from him alone floweth al goodnes, and in him is the vertue of our well doing: but our life, is the life of faith not properlie, but because it is the meane, by the which onely Christ (who is our life) dwelleth in our heartes, and liveth in vs.

This thing it is, that maketh one and the selfe same action, externally performed (according to the cōmandement) by two diverse persons, to be acceptable obedience to God in the one, and abhominable wickednes and sinne in the other: according [Page 159] to the speech of the Apostle touching the sacrifices of Cain and Abel, because the one did offer in faith, the other not.

Now in respect of this fruit and efficacie of faith, the Fathers doe call faith, the seale of our election, conforme to that of Pe­ter, 2. Epi. chap. 1. who willeth vs by the vertue that is in our faith, to make our calling and election sure: as also they call it the soule of our soule, because as our soule quickeneth our bo­dies, so doth faith our soules: also they call it the root of a good life: by which all fruit is good, and without the which all fruit is rotten and corrupted.

Of all these things which we have spoken of faith, wee may easily perceive that faith is neither a parte, nor portiō of any na­turall power, or facultie in man: neither the effect, or work of a­nie power or facultie naturall in man, neither serving for any naturall vse, in any naturall thing vnto man: but that it is a gift supernaturall, given freely by God, and wrought supernatural­lie above al naturall power in our hearts, vnto a supernaturall end, that we might be able to obtaine, and to performe things which by nature it is impossible that we either cā obtain or do.

And this supernatural gift is placed in our harts by God, as the effectual instrument & mean of his power: whereby ro make vs able to be capable of heavenly and supernatural things, and to performe heauenly and supernaturall obedience to God.

Of which it is evident, that faith is the first blessing in order of all the blessings of God, & also that no other blessing is eyther possessed by vs, or preserued in vs, but by it alone: so that it is not so much any parte of the matter of our blessednes, as it is the mean & instrument of it: so that our righteousnes, life, and glo­rie, doth not consist in it, but rather subsisteth in vs by it.

Of these things we may collect what faith is, both as God wor­keth it in vs, & as our hearts worketh by it: as God worketh it in our harts, it is a supernatural gift, wrought by God of his free grace in al the powers of our soule, to be the effectual instrumēt of his power in vs, whereby our heartes are made able both to perceyve, & to embrace, and constantly to keepe Christ and all spirituall blessings in him, belonging to life & godlines of life, as also to be able to walke worthie of our heavenly calling.

[Page 160] As our heart worketh by it, faith is the very motion of all the powers of our hart, wrought by the former working of God in them, whereby our heartes now beleeving, lay holde vpon the promise, and vpon Christ crucified for vs, and vpon righte­ousnes, and life in him, and whereby all these are brought into our heartes, and wee possessed with them, and whereby the things possessed, are kept in our heartes, in the middest of all temptation, overcomming all our spirituall enemies, and whereby our hearts doe serve God so, as to please him.

And vpon this worke of faith, follow these effectes in our soules: First our heartes reioyce, bo [...] in the sight of the salva­tion, and in the hope of the glory of God, Psalm. 105. 4. 5. Rom. chap. 5. ver. 2. Secondly, our hearts are filled, with a confident boldnes towardes God, that wee dare drawe neare vnto him confidentlie, and call him Abba Father, Rom. chap. 8. ver, 15. Gal. chap. 5. ver. 6. Ephe. chap. 3. ver. 12. Heb. chapt. 4. ver. 16. and chap. 10. ver 16. Thirdly, our heartes are filled with the peace of God, and a good conscience, Rom. chapt. 5 ver. 1. Iohn chap. 14 ver. 1. so that, in patience we possesse our soules, way­ting for that blessed hope, and that appearing of the glorie of that mightie God, and of Iesus Christ our Saviour, and this is the first gift that God in iustifying giveth a ma [...].


NOW it followeth, that we speake of the seconde gift, whereby we are iustified: and that is Chri [...]t Iesus him­selfe. For God first giveth vs faith vnto righteousnes, and then by faith he giveth vs Christ as our righteousnes: therefore is Christ also called the gift of God, and that in two respectes.

First, in respect of Gods sending him into the worlde, to suf­fer the death of the crosse, and by his death to redeeme vs: in which respect, it is saide, That God so loved the world, that hee hath gi­ven his onely begotten sonne, &c. Iohn chap. 3. ver. 16.

Secondly, in respect of Gods particular giving of Christ now crucified vnto the beleeving heart: according to which the [Page 161] Apostle speaketh, Coll. chap. 2. ver. 6. As therefore yee have receyved Ghrist Iesus the Lorde, walke in him: and Rom. chap. 5. Our righteousnes is called the gift of God. For which cause also Christ is said to dwel in our heartes by faith: and of this gift it is that in this place we speake: for howsoever by the Fathers givinge Christ vnto the death, the full redemption of all Gods elect was wrought: Yet in our particular persons we enioye it not, vntill wee bee called of God: therefore Iustificatiō is placed after our calling, Rom. chap. 8. and this giving of Christ, is the cause why God firste giveth vs faith: because before we receyve faith, it is im­possible to vs to enioye Christ, because we have neyther hande, heart, nor will to receyve him: and in this gift, as wee have showen before, standeth the matter of our righteousnes, and the forme of our iustification consisteth in parte in the giving of it: and this is needfull to be marked of vs, for their cause that make our iustification to consist in Gods gracious acceptation of our faith, and not in his gracious giving of faith vnto vs, and Christ by faith. Touching this second gift, which is Christ in his death and bloud, I will speake no more, the things preceeding ser­ving sufficientlie to cleare it, and therefore we come to the next pointe, wherein we have said consisteth the forme of our iusti­fication.


THE second thinge wherein consisteth the forme of our iustification, is the Lords imputing of the thinges given vnto vs: that is both of faith, and Christes obedience: and for the observation of the imputation of both, wee are to marke these two phrases. First, where it is saide that faith is im­puted vnto righteousnes, Rom. cha. 4. ver. 5. 9. Secondly, where it is saide, that righteovsnes is imputed, Rom. chapt. 4. ver. 11. For the one importes plainely the imputation of faith: the o­her importes the imputation of righteousnes it selfe, which is by faith. For we have alreadie shewen, that our faith is neither our righteousnes, nor called in the Scriptures our righteousnes, [Page 162] howsoever our righteousnes be called the righteousnes of the faith of Iesus, or by the faith of Iesus: and it may be, that the not observing hereof, hath made some worthie and learned Di­vines, to denie al imputation of Christes obedience, & to main­taine nothing to be imputed vnto vs but faith only, & that not (vnto) righteousnes, but (as they interprete the worde [...] (for) that is in the place of righteousnes.

For cleering of this point of Imputation, we will first speake of the word imputation what it signifieth.

Secondly, what sorte of things are saide to be imputed in the Scriptures: whether thinges that are inherent in vs, or thinges not inherent, or both.

Thirdly, we will speake of these things, which are saide in scripture to be imputed to vs for our iustification.

Concerning the first, the word it selfe signifieth the sentence of our iudgement, or resolut opinion of his minde, and in this sense it is taken Rom. chap. 3. 28. as also Rom. 6. 11. Secondly, it is referred to the reasoning of the minde, and the disputing of the vnderstanding, as Marke chap. 11. ver. 31. Thirdly, it is re­ferred to a mans purposing, or imagining, or plotting any thing, as 1. Corint. chap. 13. ver. 5. Fourthly, it is referred to the estimation, or accompt of the minde touching any thing, as Acts chap. 19. ver. 27. in which sense also it may be taken Mark, 15. 28. Luke chap. 22. ver. 37. Fiftly, it is re [...]erred to the laying to a mans charge of any debt, or guiltines, as 2. Timoth. chap. 4. ver. 16. Lastly, it is taken in a borrowed sense, frō accompts and reckonings, for accompting vnto a man, or reputing vnto a man, and reckoning to a man any thing to bee his, or to be good payement and satisfaction from him in his accompts: and in this sense is it taken in the matter of our iustification, when as God eyther reckoneth that to be ours which is not ours, or when hee esteemeth and accompteth that sufficient, which hee giveth vs freely for our iustification before him.

But in this sense it appeareth, that there is a three folde dif­ference in mens taking of the meaninge of the worde imputa­tion.

[Page 163] The first is, when imputation is taken for naked accepta­tion of a thing although in it selfe insufficient, as sufficient, by God: and this maketh some men to define our iustification, to be nothing els, but a gracious acceptation of our imperfect faith by God, in place of perfect righteousnes: but to this wee have answered before, and certaine and sure it is, that God receyves no righteousnes from vs, but gives righteousnes vnto vs.

The second meaning is, when imputation is takē, not simply for a naked acceptation of a thing whether in it selfe perfect or imperfect: but for accompting that which is perfect righteous­nes in it selfe, and yet is not ours, to be ours.

The third sense is, when imputation is so taken, that it sig­nifieth, not only the accompting or reckoning to vs as ours the righteousnes which is imputed, but so reckoneth and reputeth it to vs as done by our selves.

The first importeth no more, but the Lordes accompting: and holding of a thing sufficient, which notwithstanding of it selfe is not sufficient, nor perfect righteousnes: which opinion can never be maintayned with Gods honour.

The seconde, importeth not onely an accompting, and hol­ding of a thing, which in it selfe is sufficient righteousnes, to bee full and perfect: but also an accomptinge of that perfect righteousnes vnto vs as ours, howsoever it bee onely Christes: so that this opinion taketh the word imputatiō so, as when God reckoneth to vs that to be our righteousnes, which in effect is not our righteousnes, but onely by his accompt and impu­tation.

The third importeth that same, that the second doeth, but in a more strict sense, to wit, that God by imputing of Christs obe­dience vnto vs, doeth not onely accompt it to be our righteous­nes, but also doth accompt it as performed and done by vs: and this sentence though it seeme hard, and to derogate something to the honour of God, and praise of his grace, yet one word be­ing taken in a charitable (which also is a true) sense, there shalbe no fault foūd in the speech. The word is (as) when it is saide that the Lord imputeth Christes obedience to vs, as if we had done [Page 164] it our selves: which word is not to be taken, as though it im­ported, that God did impute vnto vs. that wee had done this: but oely is set downe by similitude, to shewe the faithfulnes, and trueth of Gods imputation: to wit, that GOD imputeth Christes righteousnes, as truely to be ours, and as effectually to iustifie vs, as it should have done, if wee had in our owne per­sons, actually performed it. and in that sense this speech may well be approoved.

Moreover, it may be taken in good parte, even although we take it in the strictest sense spoken before: if wee consider that Iesus Christ did beare all our persons in his death, and there­fore he is saide in scriptures, to have died for vs: so that what he did bearing our persons even in the sight of God, and dying for vs even by the very appointement of God: that which hee did for vs, and in our name, may not impertinentlie be saide to bee imputed by God vnto vs, as done by vs▪

But for myne owne iudgement, I esteeme the first interpre­tation of the word (as) to bee most sounde, and agreeable to the trueth, and beeing so taken, there shalbe no difference in sub­stance, betwixt the second and third opinion, onely that which is not expressed in the second, but vnderstood in the word im­putation, touching the trueth and effectualnes of it, is by simili­tude expressed in the third: and in this sense it is to bee taken in the matter of our iustification, and it declareth the forme of our iustification, importing this much, that God iustifieth vs by ac­compting vnto vs Christes obedience, which is in it selfe per­fect righteousnes: in such sorte, as by this his imputation, it is ours as truely, and doeth as truely cleere vs before God, as if it were our owne in deede, and we our selves in deed had per­formed it.

Thus we have need to take heed of two extremities, where­into it is evident that many men doe fall, in this point: some taking imputation too slenderly, and others taking it too strict­lie, each being to other the cause of others stumbling.

Furthermore, wee shall vnderstande the more cleerlie the right meaning of the word imputation, if wee doe consider it in [Page 165] the two cōtrarie phrases, wherein it is vsed al to one sense in the Scriptures. For sometimes our iustification is described nega­tively, by not imputing of sinne: sometimes affirmatively, by imputing of righteousnes: For as the word imputation is taken in the negative phrase, it must also be taken in the affirmative: now in the negative, we may know how it is taken by the A­postle, 2. Cor. chap. 5. ver. 19. where it is saide: God was in Christ, reconciling the world to him selfe, not imputing to them their sinnes. As like­wise Psal. 32. and Rom. chap. 4. where it is saide: Blesied is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not sinne. In which places not imputing of sinne, signifieth the not reckoning vnto vs sinne nor iniquitie, and the not accompting of vs to be vnrighteous, and so the not laying guiltines to our charge, nor exacting punishment of vs for it: wherevpon it followeth, that imputation of righteous­nes, must signifie the reckoning of righteousnes vnto vs, and ac­compting of vs to be righteous, & pronouncing of vs guiltlesse, and decerning life vnto vs.

For clearer vnderstanding whereof, we are to knowe, that the word of imputation, hath alwayes reference to some other thing, fo that it commonly cometh in betwixt two things, the one the thing which is imputed, the other that wherevnto it is imputed, so that imputation hath relation vnto both: and to make this manifest, we shall consider these 3. phrases: The obedi­ence of Christ, is imputed vnto iustification, conforme to the saying of the Apostle, Rom. chap. 5. ver. 19. By the obedience of one man, many shalbe made righteous. The second phrase is, Faith is imputed vnto righ­teousnes. And the third is, Righteousnes is imputed vnto life. The equi­valent whereof we have Rom. chap. 4. ver. 11. and 5. 17. 18. In the first phrase, imputation commeth in betwixt Christes obedi­ence, as the thing which is imputed, & iustification, as the end wherevnto it is imputed, and it hath reference to both. In the second phrase, imputation cōmeth in betwixt faith as the thing which is imputed. and righteousnes as the end wherevnto it is imputed. In the last phrase, imputation commeth in betwixt righteousnes it selfe, as the thing imputed, and life, as the end wherevnto it is imputed.

[Page 166] Thus we see, that imputation in the matter of iustification, hath alwayes reference to two things: and thus much concer­ning the meaning of the word.

Now we are to consider, what thinges they are which are said to be imputed, cōcerning which, there are two extremities wherein men do commonly fall: the one holding, that nothing inherent in vs can possibly be imputed to vs: the other hold the contrarie, that nothing is imputed to vs, but that which is in­herent in vs.

That opinion which is betwixt both, seemeth to agree most with Gods truth: that is, that not only things inherent in vs, but things that are not inherent in vs, are imputed to vs: therefore imputation is vsed by the holy ghost, when hee speaketh of iu­stification by grace, and of iustification by works, as Rom. cha. 4. & likewise, when he speaketh of the accompting of vs sinners, because of our workes and corruption inherent: And when he speaketh of the accompting of vs righteous by grace, through the obedience of Christ, Rom. chap. 4. this same is cleare by o­ther examples of Scripture, as 2. Sam. chapt. 19. vers. 19. where She [...]ei sayeth to David, Let not my Lord impute wickednes vnto me: and Rom. chap. 2. ver. 26. where it is saide, His vncircumcision shalbe im­puted vnto circumcision. This same may bee confirmed vnto vs, Psalm. 32. and 2. Cor. chap. 5. and Rom. chapt. 9, ver. 8. and 2. Cor. chap. 12. ver. 6. Gal. chap. 3. ver. 6. and 2. Tim. chap. 4. 16.

And therfeore somtimes righteousnes is said to be imputed by debt, and sometimes by grace, Rom. cha. 4. 4. For vnderstanding whereof, we are not only to distinguish betwixt thinges as they are inherent, or not inherent in vs: but also as they are our owne or not our owne. For somethings inherent are so in vs, that they are our owne, because they consist in these thinges which are in our nature, and are the effectes and fruites of our naturall powers: somethings againe are so in vs, as they are no wayes our owne, being no parte nor portion of any naturall power or qualitie, nor flowing from any power or facultie in nature, but beside and above nature, cōming to vs from God, and wrought in vs by the power of his spirit: and therefore though they be in [Page 167] vs, cannot be said to be our owne, because they are no parte nor propertie of our nature, nor effectes produced by nature, such as is faith: for although we be saide to beleeve with the hearte, yet neither is faith it selfe any naturall power or facultie in the hearte, nor produced by any naturall power or facultie of the hearte: neither doe wee beleeve with the heart naturally and by our owne strength, as though wee might make our heartes to beleeve, or that faith or beleevinge were our owne worke: but faith (as wee have showen before) is an instrument super­naturall, and wrought, not by our heartes, but in our heartes, by the supernaturail power of God: by the which, as by a su­pernaturall meane given vs of God, we beleeve with our harts, and so lay hold vpon supernatural things, and performe super­naturall workes.

According to this diverse consideration of thinges in vs, or proceeding from any power that is in vs: so is there a distincti­on of imputation in the scriptures. One is said to be by debt, an­other is saide to be by grace.

Imputation by debt is, When the thing imputed, is a naturall thing, consisting either in the disposition and properties natu­rall, which are in vs: or then the fruites and effectes flowing from our owne naturall powers. And in this sense is it, that the scripture saith, That to him that worketh, the wages is not imputed by grace, but by debt, Rom. chap. 4. ver. 4.

Imputation by grace (touching things in vs) is whē the thing imputed, is not natural, but a supernaturall thing: being neither parte nor portion of our nature, nor of any power of facultie in nature: nor wrought by any power in vs: but supernaturally placed in vs, by God: and given vs above and beside all that is by nature in vs. & in this sense faith is said to be imputed to vs.

For as a man can with his body, or a member of his body, vse an instrument: (such as a sword, a knife, an axe, or a sawe, which are no parte or power, nor facultie of his body or hande) to per­forme things, which he could not otherwise doe, by his body or by his hande.

Even so the soule, & heart of a mā, can vse a spiritual instrumēt, [Page 168] (such as is faith) albeit it be no parte, power, or facultie of the hearte, to performe such things, as by it selfe it could never pos­sibly have performed. and therefore such a supernaturall instru­ment whereby our heartes worketh, not being any parte nor power of vs, nor any thing wrought in vs by our selves, nor ac­quired, nor purchased by vs: but given vs by God, and placed in our heartes by him, can not properly be said to bee ours, not­withstanding that it be in vs, neither can the worke which it doth, be properly saide to be our worke, except by Gods graci­ous imputation onely.

For this cause it is, that in the Scriptures, that which is by faith, is saide to be by grace, Rom. chap. 4. ver. 16. as likewise, that the righteousnes of faith, is not our owne righteousnes, but the righteousnes of God, Phill. chap. 3. ver. 9. Rom. chap. 3. ver. 21. 22. and that not onely in respect of the righteousnes it selfe which is given vs of God: but also in respect of the meane and instrument whereby we receyve it, which also is given vs of GOD.

Nowe we come to speake of the thirde pointe, that is, con­cerning the thinges, which are said to be imputed to vs, in the worke of our iustification: and these be two, according to the two giftes that God giveth vs, to this ende that wee may bee righteous.

The first is faith, which is the supernaturall instrument gi­ven vs of God, to apprehend our righteousnes.

The second is the righteousnes it selfe apprehended by faith, that is Christ crucified, or his bloud shed for vs: For although the Lord hath given vs faith, and Christ Iesus his sonne: yet al­beit we have them, we have them not as our owne, but by the imputation of God. So that Gods gift, maketh possession: but his imputation maketh our right in proprietie, in the thing pos­sessed.

We say, that both faith, and Christes obedience is imputed: because the scriptures hath these two phrases.

First, that faith is imputed vnto righreousnes: and also, that righteousnes is imputed. Which two phrases, are not to be con­founded: [Page 169] but for the cleere vnderstanding of our iustification, are still to be distinguished.

To make this manifest, we are first to consider that vnto our iustification, we must first have righteousnes, for God iustifieth no man, that hath not righteousnes: For to iustifie the wicked, and condemne the righteous, are both abhomination vnto the Lord, Prov. chap. 17. ver. 15. Esai. chap. 5. ver. 23. therefore, be­fore God iustifie vs, wee must have righteousnes in our posses­sion.

Secondly, there is but one of two righteousnes that man can posses: that is, eyther his owne righteousnes, or the righteous­nes of God: for no third righteousnes is set downe in the booke of God, whereby a man can bee iustified: so that one of these two we must have, before God iustifie vs. Both these pointes are cleere, in that one saying of the Apostle, Phil. chapt. 3. ver. 9. Not having myne owne righteousnes which is of the Law: but that which is through the faith of Christ, even the righteousnes which is through GOD by faith. Which sentence sheweth, first, that wee must have righte­ousnes: and secondly, that there is but one of two to bee had, that is, eyther our owne, or Gods.

Thirdly, this place sheweth vs where these righteousnes are: Our owne righteousnes is conteyned in the Law: the righte­ousnes of God, is conteyned in Christ.

Lastly, not only this place, but divers others of the scriptures sheweth vs, that as the righteousnes conteyned in the Lawe, is obteyned by our owne doing of the workes of the Law, and that by our owne strength: so the righteousnes of God, which is conteyned in Christ, is obtayned by beleeving, and therefore in the scriptures, iustification is saide eyther to be by workes, or by faith: for as working is the way, and meane, to attayne to the righteousnes of the Lawe: so faith is the meane and instru­ment whereby we attayne to the righteousnes of Christ.

And therefore, as the righteousnes of the Law is called our owne, because the meane whereby wee possesse it (that is our working) is our owne: so likewise, the righteousnes of Christ, is said not to be our owne, because the meane and instrument [Page 170] whereby we obtayne it (which is faith) is not our owne.

For both these righteousnesses have their owne proper sub­iectes wherein they subsist, before wee possesse them: that is, the Law and Christ. For mans righteousnes is conteyned in Lawe, and Gods righteousnes is conteyned in Christ: and therefore mans righteousnes is called the righteousnes of the Law: & Gods righteousnes is called the righteousnes of Christ: as also whē man is iustified by his owne righteousnes, he is said to bee iustified by the law: and when he is iustified by the righ­teousnes of God, he is said to be iustified by Christ.

And because man by working the thinges conteyned in the lawe, attayneth to the righteousnes of the law: therefore is hee said to be iustified by the workes of the lawe: even so, because by beleeving he attayneth to the righteousnes of Christ: there­fore is he saide to bee iustified by faith. Thus he that worketh, and he that beleeveth, is opposed, Rom. chap. 4. ver. 5. in respect of the opposit meanes whereby they attayne to righteousnes: the one of the law by working, the other of Christ by beleving.

Wherevpon the last point followeth, that is, that the righte­ousnes of the Lawe is called mans owne righteousnes, because he attaynes to it by that which is his owne, that is, by his owne naturall power, doeing of him selfe, and by the strength that is in him selfe naturally, without any helpe of any supernaturall power, or meane given him to assist him to doe the things con­tayned in the lawe. And the righteousnes of Christ is saide by the Apostle, not to be mans owne, but Gods: because it is not in the power of man, by all that hee is according to nature, ever to attayne to the possession of it: but by that meane & instrument supernaturall, which is given him of God, to the end he may at­tayne to the possession of the righteousnes of God.

Thus we see, that the meane whereby we possesse the righte­ousnes, is faith onely: and because faith is not our owne, there­fore the righteousnes that we posses by it, cannot be ours, vntill both be made ours: and this is only done, and performed, by the Lords gracious imputation of both, that is, faith, and the righ­teousnes of Christ possessed by faith.

[Page 171] But first, & especially, faith must be imputed to vs as our own, to the intent, that the righteousnes, that by it we possesse, might be our owne. For as a man hath right, to that which hee posses­seth as his owne, in equitie and iustice, if by his owne meanes he hath obtayned possession: but hath no right in equitie and iustice to it, although he have it in his possession, if by another mans substance given him to be imployed, hee doe acquire the possession: even so, if we could attayne to the possession of righ­teousnes by our owne meanes, then should that righteousnes in equitie and iustice be our owne: and therefore the Scripture ad­mitteth debt in accompting wages to him that worketh, Rom. chap. 4. ver. 4. but because wee doe not attayne to the possession of righteousnes, by our owne meanes, but by the meanes of GOD, which hee hath given vs to vse, that is by faith, therefore this righteousnes in equitie and iustice, is not our owne, vntill the Lord doe impute it vnto vs, and accompt it our owne.

So by imputinge faith vnto vs as our owne the righteous­nesse which wee possesse by faith is made our owne, so that faith beeing reckonned and accompted ours, the righteous­nes of GOD which wee possesse by faith in Christ, is also rec­konned and accompted ours: and this is the cause why the holy Scripture doeth offtner describe the manner, and forme of our iustification, vnder the phrase of the imputation of faith, then vnder the phrase of the imputation of the righteousnes, because the right that is made vs vnto faith in Christ, maketh vs to have right vnto Christ him selfe, as our righteousnes and all blessings in him which by faith we possesse.

Secondly, it is for this cause, that in the description of the forme of our iustification, that the spirite of God vseth this phrase, to wit, That to him that beleeveth: his faith is imputed vnto righ­teousnes. Which word (vnto) beeing commonly rendered (for) doeth much darken the true sense of the wordes, and maketh many to fall into dangerous errour, thinking, that the verie acte of beleevinge, is imputed for righteousnes, that is, as they take it, in the verie same place, and as the verie matter, [Page 172] of our righteousnes, whereas the Greeke worde [...] in this sentence, doeth declare the ende wherevnto faith is imputed, that is, that the obedience of Christ, apprehended by faith, may bee righteousnes vnto the apprehender. For faith, and belee­ving, ever imployeth the possession of Christ, and his obedi­ence in our heartes, and the imputation of faith vnto righte­ousnes, is the thing that makes Christ possessed by faith, to bee our righteousnes.

I say to be our righteousnes, for Christes obedience is righ­teousnes in it selfe: so that it is neyther our faith, nor Gods im­putation of our faith, that maketh his obedience to bee righte­ousnes: but imputation of faith to vs, as ours, maketh the obe­dience of Christ possessed by faith (beeing righteousnes in it selfe) to be our righteousnes: for as wee have saide before, the making that, whereby we obtayne possession to bee ours, ma­keth the thing possessed also to be ours: so that imputation of faith, maketh Christes obedience to be that vnto vs, which it is in it selfe, though it were never imputed vnto vs.

And that this phrase is so to be vnderstoode, it may cleerely bee perceyved by that sentence of the Apostle, Rom. chapt. 10. ver. 10. VVith the heart man beleeveth vnto righteousnes: and with the mouth hee confesseth vnto salvation. In which sentence, the greeke worde which is rendered (vnto) can not be rendered (for) with­out darking, and also perverting, the true sense and meaning of that place: for we are saide to beleeve with the heart, vnto righ­teousnes, in that same sense, and meaning, wherein wee are saide to confesse with the mouth vnto salvation.

But we cannot bee saide properlie (at least cleerely, with­out ambiguitie) to confesse for salvation: because neyther is our confession the efficient cause of our salvation, neyther yet the matter or substance of our salvation, neither can it bee put in place of our salvation: but we confesse to this ende, that wee might attayne to salvation. knowing, that hee that confesseth not Iesus before men, shall not be saved. For he that is ashamed of him before men: he wilbe ashamed of him before his heavenly Father, Luke chap. 9. ver. 26. And hee who shall denie him before men: him shall hee de­nie [Page 173] before his Father which is in heaven. And whosoever shall confesse him be­fore men: him shall he also confesse before his Father that is in heaven, Math. chap. 10. Luke chap. 12. Therefore knowing, that without con­fession there is no salvation, seeing confession is the way, and meane, whereby we attayne vnto the possession of salvation, we doe confesse to this ende that we may attayne to salvation. And therefore in the same sense, wee must bee saide to beleeve with the heart vnto righteousnes, that is because there is no meane to attaine vnto righteousnes, except wee beleeve. (For Christ is righteousnes vnto everie one that beleeveth, Rom. chap. 10. ver. 4. therefore we beleeve to this ende, that wee may enioye righte­ousnes: according to the saying of the Apostle, Gal. chap. 2. ver. 16. VVee also have beleeved in Christ: that wee may bee iustified by the faith of Christ. In which place, that faith is vnderstood onely instru­mentally, and not materially, it is playne by the next verse fol­lowing, where it is saide, If then while wee seeke to bee made righte­ous by Christ, &c. Which wordes shewe plainly, that Christ is the matter of our righteousnes.

Nowe there is no reason why faith should be said to bee im­puted vnto righteousnes, in any other sense, as concerninge the worde (vnto) then wee were saide to beleeve vnto righteousnes: but in all reason without contradiction, the Greeke worde which we render vnto, must in both these phrases bee taken in one and the same sense: that is, that as we beleeve with the hearte, to this end that we might by faith (as the onely apt and meete in­strument, and onely convenient and effectuall meane whereby to apprehende and possesse) attayne to the possession of the righteousnes of God in Christ: even so the Lord our God im­puteth faith to vs as our owne, to this end, that the righteous­nes which we possesse by it, may make vs righteous before him, or be righteousnes vnto vs in his sight.

Thus this sentence rightly vnderstoode, giveth no advan­vantage, eyther to the Papistes to prove that by workes we are iustified, or yet vnto others, who doe make the very act of our beleeving to be our righteousnes: but rather doeth evidently convince both these opinions of manifest etror.

[Page 174] The first, because faith is no worke of ours, neither yet is the matter, but the meane only of our righteousnes.

The second, for the same foresaid reason, for it is not the act of beleeving, but the thing purchased, and possessed by the act of beleeving, which is our righteousnes before God: And thus much concerning imputation.


NOW we come to the third pointe, touching the forme and manner of our iustification, which consisteth in the grace of God: for we have said before, that God iustifieth by gift, by imputation, and by grace: therefore giving, and im­puting, doth not simply make the full forme of our iustification: but it is further required, that both gift, and imputation, bee by grace. Therefore are we said to be iustified freely by his grace, Rom. chap. 3. ver. 24. Tit. chap. 3. ver. 7.

Now we are first to consider, what is meant by the name of grace: and secondly, to consider how we are iustified by grace.

Touching the name of grace, (leaving that generall signifi­cation of grace, whereby it is extended to all Creatures in re­spect of the goodnes of God, in some measure vnto all) we will only treate of these two significations of grace, where it is taken in the worke of our salvation.

The first signification of grace, is when it signifieth the free fa­vour, love, and good will of God, in God him self, and his good will towards man, which from himselfe, and of him selfe, with­out any respect of any thing without him selfe, moveth him to make man gracious, and acceptable to him selfe: in which sense it is taken Tit. chap. 2. ver. 11.▪ For that grace of God that bringeth sal­vation to all men, hath appeared. And Rom. cha. 3. ver. 24. Being iustified freely by his grace. And Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 6. To the praise of the glory of his grace, &c. And chap. 2. ver. 5. By whose grace ye are saved.

Secondly, the name of grace is taken for the benefits and gifts which God of his grace doth bestowe vpō vs in Christ: in which sense it is takē 1. Pet. cha. 4. ver. 10. Let every man as he hath receyved [Page 175] the gift, minister the same one to another, as good disposers of the manifolde graces of God. In which sense, our righteousnes is called grace, Rom. chap. 5. ve. 17. much more shall they which receyve that aboundance of grace, and of that gift of that righteousnes, &c. and not onely righte­ousnes, but all the remaynant blessinges which wee receyve from God in Christ: and therfore they are all called [...], that is gratious gifts, or giftes of grace, Rom. chapt. 12. ver. 6. 1. Cor. chap. 12. ver. 4. And as grace is taken in this sense, Christ him selfe, and his death, and mediation, &c. may iustly be ac­compted grace. Therefore is hee also him selfe called the gift of God: moreover, faith, love, hope, peace, ioye, patience, per­severance, life and salvation, are all comprehended vnder the name of grace, as it is taken in this sense. In which sense, the foolish Papistes doe call it gratia gratum faciens: that is, the grace that maketh vs acceptable or gratious. whereas it is cleer by scrip­ture, that it is grace taken in the first sense (whereof it evidently appeareth that the papists are vtterly ignorant) whereby we are made acceptable vnto God, as Eph. cha. 1. ver. 6. To the praise of the glorie of his grace, by the which he hath made vs freely accepted in his beloved. And this is the grace, which onely should bee called the first grace, because it goeth before all other grace taken in the se­conde sense, yea before the gracious Decree, or Predestinati­on of God, eyther of vs to adoption, or of Christ to bee our Redeemer, as wee have showen before: But the ignorant Pa­pist, calleth the very gift of GOD, whereby a mans hearte is drawen backe from evill, and stirred vp to goodnes, the first grace. Which opinion, were not amisse in respect of the grace that is dispensed to vs, if hee did acknowledge the parti­cular love of God, and his grace remayninge, and resident in him selfe towarde his elect, to goe before it, as the cause: but the reason of his stumblinge is this, the foolishe opinion of the vniversalitie of grace: when as they esteeme Gods grace generally to bee extendede alike to all, and have no light nor iudgement to discerne betwixt the generall and vni­versall grace of God to all. Whereby hee maketh his Sunne to arise vpon the evill, and the good, and sendeth raine vpon the iust and vniust, [Page 176] Math. chap. 5. ver. 45. and that speciall grace and love of God which moveth him to love Iacob when he hated Esau, & of the same lumpe whereof he maketh all mankind, to make certaine vessells vnto honour, while as the rest are prepared for disho­nour.

This being shortly spoken of the signification of grace: wee have next to consider, in what sense wee are said to be iustified by grace.

First we are to marke, that we are not said to be iustified by grace in the second sense, wherein grace is taken: howsoever the thing whereby we are iustified be a grace, for in this phrase grace is not referred to any of the thinges that are given vs, and imputed to vs vnto righteousnes: but vnto the manner, and forme of Gods giving them, and imputing them. And that we may knowe this more cleerlie, we are to vnderstand that grace taken in the first signification, hath a three-folde place in the worke of our iustification.

First, it hath place in the efficient cause: in which sense it is taken, 2. Tim. cha. 9. VVho hath saved vs, and hath called vs with a holy calling, not according to our workes, but according to his purpose and grace. For the grace of God, is the cause moving God, to predestinate, call, iustifie, and glorifie: and of this wee have spoken of at length before in the cause of Gods Decree.

Secondly, the grace of God hath place in the formall cause: in which sense we are said to be iustified by grace.

Thirdly, it hath place in the finall cause: in which sense it is taken Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 6. 12. where he is saide to doe all to vs, Vnto the praise of the glory of his grace.

When it is referred to the manner of Gods iustifying vs, it is opposed specially to two thinges: First, the word grace seclu­deth all price given by vs to God for iustifying vs.

Secondly, it secludeth all merit of ours from the worke of our iustificatiō: so that it importeth as much, as that in our iu­stification whatsoever God doeth, he doeth it freely of his love, and gratious favour: Man neyther any wayes deservinge it by his worthines, nor paying any thing to God for it, and that this [Page 177] is the meaning of the worde, it is most evident by this other word [...], which is indifferently put for grace, the one be­ing sometimes interpreted by the other, as Rom. chap. 3. ver. 24. Being iustified freely by his grace: where the word which is rendered freely, is dorean, which word secludeth both price and merit.

Concerning price, it is cleere Math. chap. 10. ver. 8. Yee have receyved freely, give freely. And 2. Thess. chap. 3. ver. 8. Neither tooke we bread of any man freely.

Concerning merite, it is likewise manifest, that this word secludeth it, by Ioh. chap. 15. ver. 25. They hated me freely, that is, without cause, or deserving: so that this word maketh iustification to be a worke of God freely done.

And this we marke, that we may know it secludeth not the merit of Christ, although that merit be imputed to vs by grace: and by this consideration, we shall learne to reconcile two say­ings of scripture, that seeme to be repugnant.

The first is, Esay chap. 52. ver. 3. Yee shalbe redeemed without mo­nie. The other is, 1. Cor. chap. 6. ver. 20. For yee are bought for a price: The one seemeth to make our redemption free without price: the other seemeth to say the contrarie.

Yet both are true, for in respect of man him selfe, hee hath paide no price at all to God for his redemption: but as concer­ning Christ, he hath given a deare price, even his life, & bloud, for our redemption.

So the word Grace, secludeth not the merit of Christ, nor the price that he hath payed for vs, nor ought els ordayned of God by his grace, as causes and meanes subordinate to his grace for our iustification: but onely secludeth whatsoever thinge is in man, or can proceed from man, who hath nothing of him selfe whereby to deserve righteousnes, neither hath any thing to give to God to obtayne righteousnes: For who hath given to God first: that he should recompence him, Rom. chap. 11. vers. 35.

And this third pointe of the forme of our iustification, is ne­cessarie to be added to the other two.

First, for the right knowledge both of Gods giving, and im­puting of faith, and Christ to our iustification.

[Page 178] Secondly, for preserving vs from the errours of those, who mistake the true meaning of the word grace in our iustification.

Concerning the first, there is a distinctiō of the giftes of God, and also of the imputation of God.

Touching the giftes, they be eyther such as are natuall given by God indifferently to al, & are belōging to our natural life: or thē, they are gifts supernatural, belonging to a supernatural life.

The first sorte the Lord giveth by naturall meanes: as by procreation, by naturall generation, and by his generall pro­vidence extended over all.

But the second, he giveth not but by speciall grace, and by a speciall providence, and particular love in the Lord IESVS: there being no ground nor cause in them, to whom hee giveth them, why they should have thē, nor any meanes in their power to procure them.

Thus faith, and Christ by faith, are given vs of God, not for any worthines in vs, nor for any thing given to God by vs: but the Lord giveth vs both faith, and Christ, vnto iustification, freely of his meere grace.

Secondly, touching imputation, there is an imputation by debt, and an imputation by grace: therefore that it may bee knowne, that neither faith, nor Christes merite, is imputed to vs by debt: the scripture plainly sheweth, that this imputatiō is by grace. that is, first, that faith which is now givē vs: & secondly, that Christ who is givē vs by faith, is ours, not by any right that we have vnto thē by iustice: & that accompting of them ours, is not by debt, but of meere mercy & grace, so that our whole iusti­ficatiō in al that is either given vs, or imputed vnto vs, to iustifie vs, both in the giving, & in the imputing, is of Gods free grace.

The secōd vse of the knowledge hereof, is, to preserve vs from their errors, who take the name of grace in our iustification, for the gifts of grace inherent in vs: be it faith, or sanctification, or the fruites of our righteousnes. And secondly, from their error, who take the name of grace, for a gratious acceptatiō of our im­perfect faith: whereas grace in iustification is relative to the gi­ving & imputing of faith: not to the accepting of it. For in re­spect of faith given by grace, and imputed by grace: wee are said [Page 179] to be iustified by grace, & not in respect of Gods accepting of it at our handes by grace. And thus much concerning the forme of our iustification.


IT olloweth that we now speake of the obiect of iustification, that is, the man whom the Lord doeth iustifie: who is two maner of wayes to be confidered.

First as he is in him selfe by nature.

Secondly, what he is by grace, before he be iustified.

As concerning him selfe, wee have two places of scriptures, which doe manifestly instruct vs what man is in him self, when God iustifieth him. The first is, Rom. 4. 5. where God is said to iu­stifie the vngodly: the other, Rom. 5. 10. where God is said, to have iu­stified vs, while we were enemies. and this sheweth the vanitie of the Papists, who wil have a man formalie iust before he be iustified.

Touching that which he is by grace, it is in many parts of the scripture evidently declared, that he must beleeve, before he be iustified, that is, must have faith wrought in his heart, in that sorte that he may be iustified: for like as Acts 14. it is saide, that Paul perceyving that the creeple mā had faith to be made whole, he did heale him: even so the Lord first giveth vs faith to bee made iust, and then iustifieth vs. For we are to consider, that although faith bee the instrument of Gods power, to make vs able to apprehende Christ, and all his blessings in him: yet in the worke of iustifica­tion, it is particularly to be restrayned, both as it is wrought by God in our heartes, and as our heartes worketh by it: vnto the particular benefite of righteousnes in Christ: like as in all the rest of the benefites, faith is alwayes to be particularly restrayned, to every one of them in the particular apprehension of them.

Moreover we see the truth of this same, in the order set downe by the Apostle, Rom. 8. when he sayth, whom he hath called: them he also hath iustified. whereby it is evident, that God iustifieth not a man, vntill first he hath obtayned, that degree of grace which God bestoweth vpō a man whē he calleth him: of which it fol­loweth, that he must have Christ reveyled vnto him, & he must likewise be come to Christ, & must have embrased him by faith, [Page 180] and that not only as the sonne of God (for in that point of faith consisteth his adoption) but also as the propitiation for sinne in his bloud, which is the ground of Gods iustifying him. For as God first openeth our eyes to see Christ to bee the sonne of God, and by making vs to beleeve that: maketh vs partakers of ado­ption: so secondly, by opening our eyes to see him to be orday­ned by God a propitiation for sinne in his bloud, and by making vs to beleeve that: he layeth the foundation of our iustification in our heartes, which is finished and accomplished by his gra­tious and free imputation. For vnto the iustification of a sinner by the obedience of Christ in his death, not onely faith, but also the imputation of faith, (and that by grace) must preceed, be­fore that Christ or his obedience can bee our righteousnes: not that there is any defect, or insufficiencie in Christes obedience: but because neither faith, hee, nor his obedience, is iustly ours, vntill that by the free imputation, and accompt of GOD, they be made ours.

This we are carefully to consider, that wee doe not con­found the sufficiencie of Christes obedience, & our right there­vnto, as many perverslie doe in these dayes: for the sufficien­cie which is in Christ, and his obedience vnto righteousnes, is restrayned according to Gods gratious giving, and imputinge faith, and his obedience by faith, and his imputation, gift, and grace, are restrayned to his calling: for the promise of God, is restrayned to his calling, as is cleere, Acts chap. 2. vers. 29. and all vertue in Christ vnto salvation, is likewise restrayned vnto his calling: as is cleere, 1. Cor. chap. 1. ver. 24. and his callinge, is restrayned to his Decree, and his Decree, is restrayned to his purpose: of which it appeareth evidently, that all sufficiencie of Christes merit, how great and infinite soever, is no larger in right, and efficacie, then his calling, and so consequently then his Decree, and purpose: For Gods promise, is no larger, then his calling, and his calling, no larger then his Decree, and his Decree no larger then his purpose.

Heerevpon it followeth, that Gods purpose is no larger, then his applying by [...]ustifying, and glorifying: seeing his iustifica­tion [Page 181] is as large, as his calling, and his calling as large, as his De­cree, and his Decree as large, as his purpose.

This is yet more evident by his promise, which wee have shewen to bee of no larger extent, then his calling: of which it must followe, that his purpose can bee of no larger extent then his applying: because his calling, and applying must bee of e­quall extent, and his purpose of equall extent with his calling.

Of all these thinges, it is manifest, that the subiect of Gods iustification, is the man indued with faith: and this is to bee marked, against those who esteeme the beleeving man, in the foreknowledge of God to be the subiect of Gods Decree.


THE next pointe that we have to speake of, is touchinge the finall cause of iustification, in the which wee purpose to be short, seeing it is not a matter controverted: but yet it serveth to cleare the trueth of that going before, concerninge the ordet of Gods benefites. It is receyved vniversallie of all, that the finall cause of righteousnes, is life: for there is no way to attayne vnto life, but by righteousnes: and for this cause iu­stification is called, The iustification of life, Rom. chap. 5. vets. 18. and for the same cause it is saide, That they who receyve that aboun­dance of grace, and of the gift of that righteovsnes, shall reigne in life, Rom. chap. 5. ver. 17. therefore is salvation called the end of our faith, Pet. 1. Epist. cha. 1. ver. 9. Carrying about with you, the end of your faith, even the salvation of your soules. And this is according to the plaine speech of God, Ezek. chap. 18. If a man be iust, he shall surely live saith the Lord: but the soule that sinneth, shall die. And againe in the same chapter, ver. 20. The righteousnes of the righteous shalbe vpon him: and the wickednes of the wicked, shalbe vpon him selfe. And againe, In his righte­ousnes that he hath done, he shall live.

By these testimonies it is plaine, that the end of righteous­nes is life: according to the saying of the Prophet Haba. The iust shaell live by faith, in the 2. chapter, ver. 4. and therefore eternal life is called the hope of righteousnes, Gall. chapt. 5. ver. 5. For wee [Page 182] through the spirit, waite for the hope of righteousnes through faith.

And in this same sense is the saying of the Apostle to bee ta­ken, Rom. chap. 8. ver. 23. VVee doe sigh in our selves, wayting for our a­doption, even the redemption of our bodyes. as may easilie bee percey­ved by the wordes following, wherein hee giveth the reason of this our waytinge, when hee sayeth, for by hope wee are saved, &c. where our Adoption is put for our salvation, or glorificati­on, or redemption, in that sense wherein redemption is taken, 1. Corinth. chap. 1. ver. 30. and this is needfull to bee marked, to let vs see how diversly Adoption is taken in the holy scriptures of God.

And that wee may see the trueth of that which wee have saide before concerning the difference betwixt beeing a sonne by faith, and by prerogative: for as sayeth Iohn 1. Epist. chap. 3. ver. 2. we are now the sonnes of God: but it is not made manifest yet what wee shall bee. where he plainly distinguisheth, betwixt beeing a sonne, and being a glorified sonne: for by faith wee are the sonnes of God, Gall. chap. 3. ver, 26. and yet by faith wee are not the glori­fied sonnes of God: but yet still wayte for our Adoption, that is our glorification.

And this diverse sense of Adoption, is evidently cleered by the diverse sense of redemption, wherein it is taken in the Rom. chap. 8, ver. 23. and Heb. chap. 9. ver. 15. For Rom. chap. 8. it is taken in one sense with Adoption, that is, for the glorification of our bodyes: But in the 9. chap. to the Heb. it is taken for iu­stification: which place also confirmeth, eternall life to bee the end of our iustification, whyle it is sayde, that Christ is the Media­tor of the New Testament for this cause, that through death, which was for the redemption of the transgressions that were in the former testament, they which were called might receyve the promise of eternall inheritance. And this same is made manifest by the Apostles order set downe Rom. chap. 8. where hee sayeth, whom he iustifieth, them also hee glo­rifieth. For as calling is the fruite of predestination: and iustifi­cation, the fruit of calling, so glorification is the fruite of iusti­fication.


THus we are brought to the conclusion of the maine point touching iustification what it is, which in the scriptures is described shortly and succinctly. somtimes by the not im­putatiō of sinne, somtimes by the remission of sinne, somtime by the covering and hiding of sinne, somtime by the imputation of righteousnes, sometime by the imputation of faith vnto righte­ousnes, sometime by the making of a man righteous by the o­bedience of Christ, sometime by the making of Christ sinne for vs, and vs the righteousnes of God in him, and somtime by hea­ling of vs by Christ his stripes: and all these are to one effect, & the iustified man is sometimes shortly described in one worde the iust by faith, sometime in relatiō to the action of God, more amply, he that hath received the aboundance of grace, & of the gift of that righteousnes, which is by one man Iesus Christ: som­time he whose sinnes are remitted, to whom sinne is not impu­ted, and whose sins are covered, &c. out of which and the consi­deration of the points preceeding, wee may gather a more full and cleare definition of the action of iustificatiō in this maner.

Iustification is that seconde gratious action of the free dispensation of GOD in Christ, towarde those whom accor­dinge to his foreknowledge, and purpose, hee had predesti­nated, to bee Adopted through Christ, whom nowe hee hath adopted through him, havinge effectuallie called them to the fellowship of Christ by faith, by the which action he ma­keth them, who in them selves are sinners, to bee righteous in Christ crucified, that is, whom albeit he knew no sinne, hee had made sinne for them: and that by the free imputation of Christs obedience, and satisfaction, vnto them, as their owne righte­ousnes, even as they them selves had performed it: and by the imputation of faith which he hath given vnto them, as their owne, to this end, that the righteousnes of God which they pos­sesse no wayes but by faith, might be their owne righteous­nesse, and so they might have remission of sinnes in his [Page 184] bloud of Christ, whom God had not onely ordayned, but also made a propitiation for them in his bloud.

In this definition we cal iustification, first, the action of God, because it is he only which iustifieth.

Secondly, wee call it the action of his dispensation: to di­stinguish it from the action of Predestination, or of Gods Decree in it selfe.

Thirdly, wee call it the second action of his dispensation: to distinguish it from the first action, which is our calling precee­ding it.

Fourthly, wee call it a gratious and free action: because it is dispensed for no merit or deserving of those which receyve it, neither for any thing given by them to God before, whereof it should be the recompence, but is given freely of his grace.

Fiftly, Wee call it the worke of God in Christ, to distinguish it from the Decree of God, which is a worke of God in him self, and to shewe iustification to be a worke of externall dispensati­on, which wholy is performed by God in Christ, in whom all the blessings of grace are comprehended: as our filiation, or iu­stification, and glorification, in whom, and through whom only, God maketh vs his sonnes righteous and glorious, he, be­ing made of God vnto vs wisedome, righteousnes, sanctificati­on, and redemption. And these five pointes are to bee conside­red in the nature of this action.

The next thing that is to be considered, is the subiect that is iustified. And this we make not simply to be a man foreknowne and fore-purposed, neither yet a man simply predestinate, but moreover a man effectually called, and made one with Christ by faith, and in that vnitie the sonne of God. For a man simply and nakedly foreknowne, is the onely obiect of Gods Decree and Predestination. For those whom hee foreknew, hee pre­destinate, sayeth the spirit of God. And a man predestinate, is the only obiect of Gods calling according to his purpose: For whō hee had predestinate, them also hee called, sayeth the spirit of God. And the man now called effectually to the faith of Iesus as the sonne of God, and promised seed, in the which all the nati­ons [Page 185] of the world should be blessed, is the onely obiect of Gods iustification, like as a iustified man is the onely obiect of Gods glorification: Thus to goe backward againe, the Lord in glo­rifying a man, hath before him especially his righteousnes, for none but the iust shall live: next, in iustifying a man, hee hath particularly before his eyes his vnion with Christ by faith, with­out the which not any man shal be iustified of God. And in gi­ving this blessing, to bee one with Christ by faith, and so in that vnitie, the sonne of God; in which cōsisteth the calling of God: Hee onely hath before his eyes the man predestinate, to be A­dopted through Christ, that is, the man whom hee hath orday­ned to call, that is, to Adopt, and to make his sonne by faith in Christ. And in predestinating a man to this blessinge, hee had not any thing before his eyes, but his owne foreknowledge of the person of that man, his purpose, or the good pleasure of his will, which are all one in substance, and different onely in re­spect: The will of God, which limiteth all the actions of his power (seeing hee doeth all thinges accordinge to the coun­sell of his owne will) being the highest and the first cause of all thinges created and done by GOD in the world, of the which no cause possiblie can bee given, and therefore it is in some respect the cause of Gods purpose, or counsaile, which therefore is called the counsaile of his will, although his will and his counsaill in effect bee both one: For his will is his purpose, and his purpose is his will in all thinges, and especi­allie in the whole worke of his grace towardes the vesselles of mercie, vnto the which, his purpose is especiallie restrayned of­tentimes in the booke of God: which purpose is nothing, save a setting of such persons before him from all eternitie, as hee him selfe willeth or pleaseth: which may cleerlie be percey­ved, by the holy bread set vpon the Table in the Sanctuarie, be­ing twalfe in number, representinge the twalfe Tribes of Isra­ell, that is, the whole elect of God, which are called the shew bread in the vulgar translation, the worde beeing the same which is called the purpose of God, as is cleere by Christ his owne wordes, Math. chap. 12. ver. 4. Luke chap. 6. ver. 4. that is [Page 186] the bread, of the purpose of God, or of the setting before the face of God. And therefore the action of the Priest in settinge those bread vpon the table before the Lord, is called by the A­postle Heb. chap. 9. ver. 2. Prothesis ton arton, that is, the setting be­fore or the presenting of bread: to shewe vs, that by that worde which is commonly called the purpose of God, which was sha­dowed in that type of the Lawe, is to bee vnderstood, the eter­nall action of God, in settinge before himselfe, as in the sight of his owne eyes, the persons of such as hee willed. And in the same sense the same word is referred vnto Christ, Rom. chapt. 3. ver. 25. whether it be referred to Gods eternall purpose, touch­ing the humane nature of Iesus Christ, in setting it particularly before him, as that which should be the onely expiation of the sinnes of his elect in the bloud thereof, or whether it be referred to the action of God in ordayning the ceremonies of the Lawe, As the sacrifices, and especiallie the propitiatorie or mercie seate▪ as the types of Christ: and setting them before his eyes, or rather Christ in them, as the onely propitiation for sinne, of which action of God in settinge the persons whom hee willed, before his face, followeth the foreknowledge, which in effect is no­thing but the purpose of God, & is not to be referred to any thing but the persons foreknowen, and is onely distinguished in re­spect from the purpose for the clearer vnderstandinge. As the settinge of a thinge before our eyes, maketh vs to have the knowledge of it: so the Lorde, his setting of our persons, who [...] hee willed to bee his, before his eyes, includeth the knowledge of our particular persons from all eternitie, before eyther the worlde or wee were created, whose estate and con­dition both in faith, righteousnesse, and life, are consequences of this particular purpose and notice of GOD touching our persons, and of the Decree which the Lorde maketh con­cerning vs, of whose persons it pleased him, and it was his good will and pleasure, to take such notice before wee were. For those persons whom it pleased him to knowe, before the worlde was, them he predestinated, and decreed to bee adop­ted through Christ, that is, to beleeve, and by faith to bee made [Page 187] one with the sonne of God: so that the foreknowledge of God, as it is distinguished in order from predestination, and made the distinction of the obiect of predestination, can never pro­perly bee referred to any spirituall gift, or grace, eyther de­creed for the children of God, or in tyme given vnto them: but onely vnto their persōs (which onely are properly saide to bee foreknowne, when as foreknowledge is distinguished as a se­verall action in God him selfe, from Gods Decree, as the effect of his foreknowledge) seeing the gift of faith, and Adoption by faith, are the blessings decreed to them that are foreknowne.

This distinct consideration of man, as the obiect of Gods gratious working, eyther in decreeing blessednesse through Christ, or dispensinge it in Christ, or in his purpose or fore­knowledge concerning both Decree and Dispensation, serveth much to cleere our iudgements in that question, so much now controverted in the Church of GOD, touching man, as hee is the obiect of Gods predestination: for it appeareth by the order of the Apostles setting downe both the Decree and Dispensati­on of God, that in every distinct degree of his grace, there is a distinct consideration to bee had of man, as hee is the obiect of Gods favour: so that in his Decree man onely in his essence, as being purposed of God, and foreknowne of him, is sett by the Lord before his eyes, in ordayning him to Adoptiō through Christ: but in his adopting, and calling, hee hath not simplie, and nakedlie, the beeing, and subsisting of a man before his eyes, but also his owne Decree concerning that man, that is he setteth him before him selfe, as a man ordayned by him selfe to bee made his sonne through Christ. And in his iustifying of a man, hee respecteth him not simplie in respect of his beeing, and subsistinge, neyther yet as ordayned of him to Adoption: but rather as a man nowe effectuallie called to that estate, and condition, that is, to bee the sonne of God in Christ. And lastly, in glorifying of a man, GOD setteth before him a man not onely as foreknowne in his beeing, neyther onely as or­dayned to Adoption, nor as called vnto that blessinge by him: but also as now iustified by the Redemption that is in [Page 188] Christ Iesus, freely imputed vnto him by grace. And this much is to be considered in the obiect, that is in the man whom God iustifieth: in whom also this other thing is to be marked, that he is in him selfe a sinner: for God is the God that iustifieth the vn­godly, Rom. chapt. 4. neither is the faith which is given him contrarie vnto this: For as sayeth the Apostle in the same place: To him that worketh not, but beleeveth in God who iustifieth the vngodly, his faith is compted for righteousnes.

And therefore as sinne is opposit to righteousnes, and righte­ousnes to sinne: so in the vessels of mercie, the consideration of their sinnes, and them as sinners before God, is properly to bee placed in the worke of iustification as the first blessing, that be­longeth vnto them that are made now the seed of Abraham, and so the children of God.

Now in the worke of iustification it selfe, we say that he ma­keth thē righteous: by the which we vnderstand not any chang of their nature, but of their condition and estate in Gods sight onely, being in themselves, and in their owne nature, the same that they were before, that is, sinners. For the benefit of iustifi­cation, is not onely to bee distinguished from the worke of our calling going before it, in the which not onely the estate and condition, but also the very inward disposition of our heartes, and qualitie of our mindes, are changed from darknes to light, from hatred to love, and from infidelitie to fidelitie, &c. But al­so from the benefit of sanctification, comprehended vnder glo­rification, following after our iustification, in the which sancti­fication, not so properly the estate and condition of our per­sons, as the qualitie and constitution of our nature, is chan­ged.

Secondly we say, that God maketh vs righteous in Christ: because the righteousnes whereby wee are iustified, is neyther ours, nor in vs, but in Christ alone, by whose onely obedience many are made righteous.

Thirdly, we say, that it is in Christ crucified, and made sinne for vs, that we are made righteous: and that for two respectes.

First, because Christ is made righteousnes by God, not to anie [Page 189] but to those for whom first God made him sinne, in delivering him to the death for them: in which action, he is specially made our righteousnes. For God had ordayned him to bee a propitia­tion in his bloud.

Secondly, because that the thing wherein faith doeth appre­hend Christ as righteousnes, is specially his death, & suffering, which the beleeving heart doth apprehend, as done and per­formed for it in particular.

Thirdly, the way how he maketh vs righteous: we say, that it is by imputation both of Christes obedience vnto vs (as our owne obedience or righteousnes indeed before GOD) and of faith, to this end that it might be ours, seeing wee possesse it no otherwise, but by faith.

Lastly, wee say, that by this imputation, wee have remission of sinnes: because the death of Christ imputed vnto vs, which was the punishment of our iniquities, is a full and perfect satis­faction of the iustice of God for our iniquities.

Thus we have so plainlie, and sensibly as wee could, opened vp that parte of the great mysterie of godlines, touching the iustification of a sinner: following not any thing but the simple trueth set downe in Gods worde, according to the measure of light, which it hath pleaseth the Lord to impart vnto me: whom we heartily beseech to blesse all our labours, to the glorie of his Name, and comfort of his Saintes, Amen.


Faultes escaped,

1.2.25.thse four.these four.
8.24.19.we only.we may.
12.38.3.Ephe. chap. 1. ver. 15.1. Ep. 4. 15.
15.49.16.the mediate fruite we call.the immediate fruite we call.
19.65.19.for then.or then.
23.86.20.with righteous in him.with righteousnes in him.
24.97.14.may be receiued.may be perceiued
 99.29.that righteousnes is ours,that that righteousnes is ours.
 101.1.Christ was crucified.Christ was signified.
  7.their filth.the filth.
  23.Christ flesh.Christs flesh.
  31.many fruite.much fruite.
  23.an therefore.and therefore.
  29.the first ground.the fift ground.
25.113.22.offered by one.offered vp one.
26.123.12.of thing given.of the thing given.
 124.36.beleeving, is placed in Gods free gift.beleeving, is placed, is Gods free gift.
 127.17.vof those first sort ar those sayings, wherin.of the first fort ar those sayings wherein.
 128.28. [...]to fafth, whereby w [...]e are called.whereby we are called vnto faith,
28.136.28.will have it midle conceyte.will have it a midle conceyte.
  15not wrought.now wrought.
 140.12.in God teaching.in Gods teaching.
 145.7.newe wrought.now wrought.
 146.8,of the maner.of the mover.
 147.6.when he faide.when he is saide:
29.150.22.whow the wordle.whom the wordle.
 151.25.the bound of a Christian.the band of a Christian.
31. 35that faithfully beleeve.that beleeve.
 162.16.of his minde.of the minde.
 169.17.which is through God.which is of God.
 170.5.contayned in law.contayned in the law.
 171.15.imputation of the righteousnes.imputation of righteousnes.
  36.in the verie same placein the verie place.
 172.5.imployeth the possession.implyeth the possession.
32.174.21.where it is taken.wherein it is taken.
 176.22.and of this we have spoken of at lenth.and of this we haue spoken at length.

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