¶ A briefe Chronicle, where in are described shortlye the Originall, and the successiue estate of the Ro­maine weale publique, the alteratyon and chaunge of sondrye Offices in the same: the order and successyon of the Kinges, Con­suls and Emperoures therof, together wyth sondry gestes & actes of many famous Prin­ces and valiaunt Captaines, from the first foundatyon of the City of Rome, vnto the. M. C. and .xix. yeare there of consequently: ryght plesant and profitable to be red, marked and folowed of all men.

Collected and gathered first by Eutropius, and Englished by Nicolas Ha­vvard, studiente of Thauies In.

Anno. 1564.

Fais ton deuoyr,
Selon ton pouuoyr.

TO THE RIGHTE worshipful and excellent yong Gentle man, mayster Henry Compton Esquier, his faythful and dailye Orator Nicholas Hawarde, wisheth longe helth, with encrese and affluence of all worshyp.

ALthough of long tyme sithe, (ryghte worshipfull,) I had in my hart professed a greate zeale and reuerens towardes you, whiche from time to time, day by day. I sought me­nes to signifye to your good ma­stership, yet there neuer wanted som occasion which might wthold me from yt mi said intēt & purpose. [Page] For why, waying mine own case and condition of fortune, and cō ­sidering your worthye estate and degree of worship, I did alwaies with my self yet hitherto, disalow my former attempted enterpryse. But on the other side, setting be­fore mine eyes, and beholding the exceding great gentlenes, whych from your very youthe ye haue a­boundauntly towards all men in all places declared, (whiche you as inheritaunce claime from your auncetors,) and also the no small fauoure and zeale which you con­tinually haue professed towardes learning, where in I my selfe am able not a litle to testify how you haue profyted. For omitting here, your diligent studye employed at Oxford, whyche is to diuers not vnknowen, I my selfe doo well remember that longe tyme before that, ye had attayned the Laten [Page] tounge, (and that well nyghe in your verye childhoode:) whyche thinges being so, I was embold­ned,) presuming vpō your passing great fauour) now at laste wyth certaine confidence to declare to your goodnesse my pore harte to you long time since wholy addic­ted: vpon which snre affiaunce so reposed in your worshyp, I haue here presented vnto you this smal treatise. Vppon the fynishinge wherof, I haue employed for the most part suche vacant time as I had, (not defraudinge my other studies,) bering in memorye ther­ample and saying of Plinie, who thoughte all that his time to be lost, whyche hee bestowed not at booke. Nothinge doubtynge but your lenity, being suche as it is, ye wil gratefullye with fauoure ac­cept the same, and so enboulden [Page] my bashfulnesse in this behalf, as did Octauius Augustus to one, who whē he had finished a boke, (like as I this,) which he would haue deliuered to Augustus, and was come in presence before him, with trembling hand, he did both profer and withdraw yt hys boke again, which thing Augustus ap­perceiuing, accepted the gift, and reprehending ye bashful and timo­rousnesse of the geuer, said: what thinckest thou, yt thou doest nowe erhibite a mite to an Elephante? Such clemency and familiaritye was there in y mighty Emperor. The like of which, also promiseth this your worships countenance: which hath now exiled, and clean put to flight, the cloudy mistes of my former bashfulnesse: So that now wythout feare or drawinge backe, I haue heare preferred to your worship these my symple trauailes, [Page] which I chose amonge o­thers to employ vpō this author, as chefe for sondry causes. Thone is, for the substaunce and matter, which he writeth of, whiche as it is of time and cōtinuans antique, so is it of all men far before other histories to be embraced & desired to be knowen. An other cause is, for ye where diuers Historiogra­phers aswell Grekes as Latines haue vttred to their posteritye in wryting therploits & feats atche­ued by the Romaines, as well in peace, as in warre, yet among thē al, are there few which in so good order haue placed the same: and as for breuitye and compendious­nesse, I am assured noone there are, but of force muste graunte hym the pryce. And all be it that as Tullye sayeth, and as expery­ence teacheth vs, dyuers there are endued wyth very excellente [Page] wittes by nature, whyche wittes are aided by preceptes and perfy­ted by experience, which experiēs is alone the maistres of al things, who instructeth and teacheth vs how to demene and gouern both our selues and our doings by iudging thynges present, and calling to memory thynges whyche are past: yet amonge all those whych are indued with suche pregnante wittes by nature, eche one hathe not attained suche perfectyon in learning, that they of them selues are able inough to attain fully to the knowledge and vnderstan­dinge of the gestes and factes of dyuers moste victorious nations & peoples: the examples of whom may aminate and encourage o­thers to endeuour and laboure to purchase and attaine suche lyke fame and praise, as those others haue done, so muche as nothynge [Page] canne more. The knowledge of which examples, had to diuers e­uen to thys daye lien hidde, bene vnknown, and vnattained vnto, had not that theyr default in lear­ning, bene aided by some others, able to further thē in this behalfe. Which imperfection of many, di­uers here to fore vnderstandyng, (to whome the talent of lernynge hath ben more aboūdantly graū ­ted,) endeuoringe them selues, to remedy & supply yt want & defalt in others, haue to theyr great cō ­mendation and praise immortall, by their industry and paines ta­king in translating diuers Histo­ries and Chronicles, (as in theyr myndes best seemed to them) out of sondry languages into this out mother tounge, made perfect and healed that maime, which other­wyse the want of knowledge of [Page] the same Historyes for wante of learninge, had bred to dyuers of thys our country. By whiche ex­ample of theirs, I was the more hardye to attempte thys enter­pryse, as one ryghte gladde if by oughte that lyeth in me, (whyche easelye I confesse, and graunte how slender it is,) any one myght take eyther furtheraunce or plea­sure. Which my simple trauayles I haue presumed to exhibyte to your worship, not for any the cau­ses afore sayde, (knowinge that you are in suche studies, as ye are also in all other good scyences ve­rye exactlye seene and parfecte,) but onelye to signifye, and as ar­gumente to testifye the good wyl whyche to my power my poore harte vnto your worshyppe, as of duetye doothe owe: whyche then at lengthe shall be fullye satisfyed, [Page] and adiudged it selfe verye hap­pye, when it shall seeme to haue doone anye thynge whyche maye appeare acceptable to your good mastershyppe.

And all thoughe it maye be graunted that experyence of thin­ges maye bee attayned wythout learnynge, yet is experyence pur­chased by learnynge, to be prefer­red before that other so muche as quietnesse is more to be regarded then trouble.

For as Phillip de Comines a Frenche wryter affyrmeth: a manne shall see more experyence in three monethes, by readynge of bookes, then twentye menne shall in Processe of tyme, the one of theym lyuynge after the o­ther: Where by a manne shall allso vnderstande the vsage and [Page] and fashions of sondrye realmes and countries, aswell in peace as in time of warre, the ordinaunces and lawes of sondry nations, the wayes and meanes by whyche they haue enlarged their kynge­doms, and the causes of the decay of the same, and howe those rui­nous Empires haue bene agayne restored, and haue recouered their former estates. All which things like as they are plentifullye, so are they chefly contained in ye description of good histories, whiche hi­storyes of Cicero are most worthelye called the wytnesse bearers of time, the lyghtes of veritye, the li­ues of memorye, the regentes of life, and the ambassadors of anti­quity: by whiche we maye learne how to bear all manner fortune, as well aduerse as prosperous, whyche shall administer vnto vs the very true and certain expery­ence [Page] of thinges, so that wee maye certainly know howe to attayne and purchase praise and fame im­mortall: whiche with greate en­crease and long contynuaunce of the same, God of hys infinite goodnesse, graunt to your worship for euer. From Thauies Inne the xxii. day of Iune.

Your faythful and daily Orator Nicholas Haward.

¶ To the Reader.

COnsidering wyth my selfe (gentl [...] reader) wyth how infinite payne and labo [...] diuers here tofore me [...] of most excellent wits and of passyng knowledge haue compyle [...] theyr bookes, & wyth what heede and cyrcumspectnesse they haue examined and perfited theyr sayde trauayles and wyth what fear and warinesse they haue publyshed the same, (nor that wythoute good cause why.) For there by they exponed themselues, theyr name and fame to no smal daun­gers and hasardes. Namelye to the vewe iudgement, and report of all men. For which causes (me semes) I haue taken vpon mee a [...] thys present a hard enterprise: A burden ouer heauy for these slender shoulders to sustayne, who haue at length shewed my selfe so hardy as to publishe abrode thys small booke to the skanning and trying of so many touch stones. Amonge whome like as those other moost fa­mous men haue doubted to credit theyr wry­trnges (dreading how they might eskape the close carpinge of diuers slaunderous and p [...]r­uers detractors:) so I who now haue wayed the safe ankers) of closenesse, and hoysted vp the sayles of fearfulnesse, to receiue the blastes of rumours and reports, haue launched forth thys symple ship to take his waye amyd the sapde gulfes, where as nothing elsse is to be looked for, but captayne perdition, wythoute [Page] the singuler lenitye of the beneuolente Rea­ders doo supplye the Pylottes steade to safe conducte hym alonge those daungers, and de­fende hym from those violente and surgynge waues whych shall s [...]ke to ouerwhelm him: who shoulde well haue contented my selfe to haue gratified only that excellent yong (gen­tleman my singuler good master, master Cōpton (whome I here name for hys worthines sake) wythoute hazardynge my selfe by far­ther daungers, to seeke suche aduentutes as myght betide.

Neuerthelesse, sith it hath pleased hym to wyll me to attempte thys enterpryse (whose request to againe saye, or commaundement to wythstand in no case I might,) I haue the boldlyer, vnder the banner of his Protectyon aduenturxed to endaunger theese firste fruites of my trauayles. Where in I doo as yet ad­iudge my selfe to stande in farre more safetye and lesse daunger, then those others doo, of whome I made mertyon before: for that if in theyr doinges any errour might haue hap­pely bene espised, it could hardelye haue beene wyncked at, eyther for theyr singuler know­ledge and learnynge where in they did excell, or for theyr tipenesse of iudgemente, whyche well nigh passed all mennes credite.

But as for me, if oughte there bee dopre­hended in thys small treatyse, worthy repre­hension (as one submittynge my selfe to the iudgemente of others,) yet I desire of thee gentle Reader, graunte of fauourable skan­nynge: whyche I truste easelye wythout re­pinynge, I shall at thy handes obtayne: For [Page] that what so euer hathe chaunced to escape me, maye bee adscribed to my imperfectnesse, (whome I yelde to thy iudgement) or impu­ted to youthe, and so the easlyer be remytted, or at leaste dissymuled. Neyther thyncke I that I coulde be so incircumspecte in sit pla­cynge of wordes, ne so exacte a translatoure, that I coulde (thoughe mooste I couetie it) please and satisfye of eache one hys fantalye: Suffiseth it me therefore, if amonge suche a companye, some: amonge so many, shall seeme all together not to reiect these my simple tra­uayles.

And to the end I may indue the frendlye Reader to conceyue the better opynyon of thys small booke, I shall shewe to thee what profitte and commoditye is annexed to the same, and howe muche doothe auayle the rea­dynge of good hystoryes. And then haue I to speake to the obloquy of certayn persones, whyche seeme greatly to disalowe the trans­latynge of Historiographers, and other good authoures, foorthe of diuers languages into hys owne mother tounge: where by they de­tracte and depriue the trauaylers in those af­fayres of theyr prayse whych moste worthely oughte to ensue theyr sayde laboures.

And as touchynge the first poynt, which is to expresse the profitte and commodytye whyche doo ensue the reuoluynge and often perusyng of hystoryes, and to declare of what force and effecte they are to quycken and en­courage others to atcheue the lyke, the saying of worthye Themistocles seemeth to proue suffycyently: who in hys first youthful yeres [Page] gaue hym selfe wholye to followe luste and sensualitye, regardynge nothing but ryotous­nesse and satisfying hys fantasy, but so soone as Melciades obtained oportunity, and wan throughe hys prowesse and manhode greate victoryes of Themistocles, who alwaye be­fore had bene drowned in folly (and wanton­nesse) conferrynge the life of Milciades with that of hys, dyd in shorte space so aultare himselfe, as if he had neuer bene anye suche kynde of persone. Where at diuers muche meruay­lyng, demaunded of hym the cause of that hys so sodayne chaunge. To whome Themisto­cles aunsweared that the victoryes and con­questes of Melciades would not permit hym anye longer to sleepe or slumber.

Of suche force and efficacy, and the exam­ples of others, that of one who to fore was a member skante worthye to lyue in a common welth, the example of that other made a valy­aunt and mooste victoryous conqueroure. Whyche thynges beinge so. who dothe dou [...]e howe requisite and necessarye historyes are: in whyche are contayned suche noumber of notable examples, of men more famous farre then was Melciades. Whyche histories like as they are to be had in estimation, and greatly to be regarded for the worthinesse of them, whose actes they recount, so are they highlye to be hadde in pryce, for that by mean of them onlye those gestes of suche menne are so ryfe in memory, that in manner they doo yet lyue, and seme presentlye to put them in practyse. For why, hath not Virgill that deuyne Po­et by his worthye verses geuen Troye suche [Page] perpetuitye, that it doothe as yet seeme to burne, wyth an inextinguible fire: whych elsse doubtlesse had peryshed together with the fa­dynge of that consnmynge flame.

Who shoulde nowe haue bene able to recite the worthye prowesse of famous Achilles, if Homere hadde not crowned the same wyth eternitye? And that whych is more, (that I maye saye wyth mightye Alexander,) what hadde it auayled that worthy Achilles? what hadde it auauntaged dyuers other valyaunte menne to haue aduentured theym selues to suche daungers, to haue attempted so hearde enierpryses, Finallye to haue declared theym selues alwayes inuincible, if suche theyr vic­toryes, that theyr manhoode, those theyr ex­cellen [...]e vertues shoulde haue beene wyth theym ouer whelmed in the earthe, and peari­shed in that small coffen? Whyche doubtlesse hadde hapned, if the worthynesse of wryters hadde not chalenged and deliuered them from that lamentable destiny. Where hadde the re­nowne, the fame and glory of the Romaines. the Grecians, the Macedonians, the Persi­ans and dyuers other victoryous Natyons beene nowe become? They hadde certesse ben quite worne oute by antiquity, decaied by de­scent of ages, and geuen place to tyme, if the fame of them so deceassed, had not ben shrow­ded in the pardurable seereclothes of famous wryters, (as Lyuius, Plutarche, Curtius wyth others whome I here passe ouer,) and theyr sayde factes farsed wyth the pure poul­ders of the wrytinges, and monumentes of [Page] such men as those wer moste soueraign pre­seruatiues agaynste suche putrefactyons.

And thus muche as touchynge the commodi­ous and well nyghe requisite knowledge of Historyes. Nowe resteth it to speke a worde or two to satisfye the mislikynge of certayne personnes, wyth suche as haue trauayled in translatinge dyuers authoures foorthe of o­ther languages into thys our mother tonnge. For the aucthorisinge and defence whereof, (me seemes) the woordes of the famous O­ratoure Apollonius doothe auayle not a lyt­tle. Who commyng by chaunce into the schole where Tullye was, beynge but a chylde as yer, and apperceiuing his for wardnesse in ler­nynge, and hys naturall inclinatyon to the same, sayde: Truelye Cicero I commende thee, and bewail grestly the chaunce and case of the Grecians. For why, ful wel that wor­thy Orator apperceiued that Tully should in processe of time bereft ye Gretians of theyr ex­acinesse in all sciences (where in they myghte worthely at those daies claim singularitye to thē selues) and communicate the same with y Romains and others. Which thyng though Culli did not as an interpretor of any, yet did he it so, that he semed as an erpositor to mani. For looke what absolutenesse or perfection anye of the Grecians, the Hebricians or any other straunge nations hadde throughe their laboure and trauayle attayned vnto in leat­nynge, and lefte wrytten in theyr languages, for the prolytte and behoufe of theyr country menne, whyche was neyther commodious or profytable to bee knowen. All that hathe [Page] he by hys industry left most eloquentlye pub­lished in the Laten tounge, a language more rife and familiare then those from whence he desumed them. And lyke as manye had failed of that knowledge whych they nowe haue as­pyred vnto, had not Tully txoden forth vnto them suche easy pathes, tyghte had there bene no fewe among vs in thys our region, which had not as yet attayned vnto any vnderstan­dyng of so many histories, and wyth them sō ­drye other thynges worthye to be knoweu, had not the diligence of Translators, & theyr paynes imployed in that behalf, remoued and cleared the thycke mistes of theyr ignorans, where by it may appeare that suche as busye them selues for the furtheraunce and commo­dity of others, are not only worthy to be void of reprehensyon vndepryued of theyr wel de­serued prayse, but are also to bee encouraged to perseuer in those theyr well doinges. And where as some theyr be whyche obtecte that throughe these translatyons, the affectynge and desyre of the attaynynge of the Greeke, Latyne, Italian and other tounges dooth de­cay, and is the lesse soughte after, who seeth not howe friuolous and vaine that theyr say­ing is. For as it is very absonant that anye one who hath the perfect vse of corn & grain, and tasted the plesauntnesse there of, woulde refuse the same to be fed wyth Acornes, so is it no lesse dissonant to say, that anye man ha­uing ones tasted the pleasaunte puritye of the Greke and Latine tounges, woulde (for sa­king the same,) fal to the barbarousnesse (in respect) of thys oure Englyshe tounge. But [Page] lyke as Ce [...]es hathe not so indifferently delt wyth all men, to instruct and shewe them the vse of corne, for whyche some muste of force content them selues to be fed wyth Acornes. So for that eche man hathe not attayned the knowledge of those languages, in whych not­wythstandinge many thinges are worthy to be knowen, some must neades contente themselues to wade only in the troubled streames of Translators: for that they are not able to attayne to the well spryng it selfe: with tran­slations if they had any manner waye soun­ded to the decay or hinderaunce of learnynge or knowledge. Doubtlesse in those so manye so famous menne, whyche haue sustayned so greate paynes in that behalfe greate folly and ouersight might haue bene imputed that they wold haue busied them selues so many yeres about so harmfull studies. But so muche are the mindes of men nowe depraued with ma­lyce, and puffed vp wyth pride, that they can not only broke the wel meanyng mindes of a­ny, but narowly examine and try the errours of others. Being sure in the meane time that they them selues wyll attempt no such enter­prise: (warely preuentyng what men myght fortune to report by them,) worthy to be re­sembled to Esopes dogge. Who lying in the Oxes racke, would not onlye not eat the haye hym self, neyet wold permyt the Oxe, who [...]ould gladlye haue fed. Whose ouer hedeful [...]eades I passe ouer wythout regarde, desy­ringe thee gentle Reader, (for whose cause I haue sustained these laboures, and endaunge­red my name) to conceiue of thys my rude [Page] enterpryse accordingly. Exhortynge thee also earn estly, daily to reunlue and peruse the nomber of good histories whych eyther are all re­dye, or shall here after happen to be publyshed for thy behoufe. Wyshinge thou mayste lyke as Themistocles,) pexceyue there by suche fru [...]e and profit, that thou mayste be anima­ted by readinge those worthye actes and exployees of others, to purchase and gayne lyke praise and fame to them, whome those theyr factes commend to thee.

☞ Farewell

¶ The first booke of the Breuiary of EVTROPLVS.

THe Romain Em­pire, which was at the fyrst beginnīg Romulushis birth and pa­rentage. Rhea Siluia mother to Romulus. therof, of all other the smalest, and in proces of time dyd become the moste Virgins ve­stals wet thei whiche miny­stred to Vesta daughter to Saturn, who se order was to keepe themselues virgis vntil. 30. yere of age, and thē they wer licē ­sed to marye. The foundation of Rome laid, the. 729. yere beforethe birth of christ and the. 3101. yere after the creatiō of the world, & con­tinued in that state aboute a 1300. yeares. ample, and surmounted in circuit all other Empires, that any man could euer remember, was founded by Ro­mulus. Who (as it was supposed) was the sonne of a birgin Vestale, be gotten by Mars, & borne at one birthe with his brother Remus. This Ro­mulus when he had oflong time ac­customed amonge the shepherdes to pray and spoyle abrode. At last being of the age of .xviii. yeres, he layed the syte of a small citye, in the hyl Palla­tinus, the eleuenth day of May, in the xxxiii. yere after that the plaies called D­limpici [Page] were firste begon. And after the destruction of the city of Troy: according to the sust computation of al wryters, the. CCC. lxxxx. & fourth yeare. When he hadde builte this Citye, whiche after to hys owne name he called Rome, he wroughte Rome named these feates wellnigh as they fol­low. Fyrst he gathered together into his city a great nōber of such as wer Rome inhabited. borderers ther about to furnishe this citi. Amōg whō he chose anC. of such as wer moste anctent of yeres, after whose aduise he minded to order hys affaires: whome he for that thei wer so aged, called Senators. Then for yt bothe he and his people were as yet Senatoures in Rome. The cause whye playes wer fyrst in­uented in Rome. destitute of wiues, vppon a tyme he did inuent certaine plais and shewes within the Citye, requestinge suche as were inhabitauntes neare aboute Rome, to come and see those playes. At which time the Romains by force berefte them their daughters & mai­dens. [Page 1] Wher vppon, warre was pro­claimed againste the Romaynes for that rape: in which battail, Romulus War against the Romains subdued the Ceninenses, the Anten­nates, the Crustumyes, the Fide­nates, the Veientines and the Sabi­nes: which people enuironed the city of Rome. Within a while after, ther arose sodenly a great tempest, in whiche Romulus vanished in a tē pest forthe of Caprea me­dow, wher he toke the vew of hys souldy oures. Romulus being abrode, vanished away so that he was not after seene: Where vppon when hee coulde not be founde, his people supposing that he was raught vp to the skies, cano­nised him in the .xxxvii. yeare of hys raign. Romulus ca­nonysed. After ye, the senators bare rule by ye space of .v. dais, during which ti­me of their raign, was accomplished Interregn [...], the time be­twene ye deth of one kynge, and the treate on of another. Numa Pompilius the .ii. kynge a Sa­bine borne. one whole yere. Thē was Numa Pō pilius created kinge: who during the hole time of his raign, waged no ba­tel, & yet was he no lesse profitable to the city of Rome thē Romulus was. For whye he establishedde Lawes, [Page] and framed to good order the conditi­ons No warrs in Rome, which chaunced vnt two tymes more in Rome, one after the first Cartha­giniā battail, ones in Augustus Cesares time. The yere de­uided into xii monethes. Numa, hys raigne. of the people of Rome, which for that they had ben so long accustomed to battailes, wer now iudged as rob­bers and rude people. This Numa deuided the yere into .xii. monethes, be­ing before but a confused noumber of daies, and a thinge not able to be ac­compted. And innumerable rites and ceremonies, and temples founded he besides at Rome. And deceased by sickenes in the. 43. yere of his raign. After him, Tullus Hostilius beinge Tullus Ho­stilius the third king. Martiall pollicy renued. made kinge, did againe put in vre the feates of armes, and renued battails: which during the raign of Numa had bene laid aside. He conquered the Al­banes, whiche were distant .xii. miles from the city of Rome. He also subdu­ed the Veientines and Fidenates, of Alba longa destroyed in thys kynges raygne. Rome enlar­ged. which thone were .vi. miles, thother were .xviii. miles distant from Rome. He enlarged the city annexing therto the hil Celius, & being strycken wyth [Page 3] lightning, both he and his house was Tullus hys raigne. burned, when he hadde raigned .xxxii. yeres. After him Ancus Martius go­uerned the citye of Rome. Who was Ancus Mar­tius, the .iiii. kinge, he was before the Incarnatyon of Christe. 642. yeres, he ma­de the brydge ouer the riuer of Tyber, whych ran by Rome, & built a gail or prisō in Rome for the runishyng of offenders. sonne to Numa Pōpilius his daugh­ter. He waged battail against the La­tines. He enlarged tbe city, by taking into it the hils Auentinus and Iani­culus. He built a city fast vpon the sea shore at Dstia, whiche was .vi. miles distaunt from the citye of Rome. And being visited with sicknesse, he deceased in the .xxiiii. yeare of his raigne. Then Priscus Tarquinius, obtained the Empire, he doubled the noumber Priscus Tarquinius the v. kynge. of the Senatoures. He built the place of playee in Rome called Circus: and The number of the Sena­tors doubled. instituted also diuers games there, which as yet to this day do remaine. He subdued the Sabines. And beref­ting Circus built. them of a great portion of theyr lande, annexed it to the territorye of the Romaines. He was the first that entred the Citye of Rome with anye Priscus Tarniquinius triuinphed fyrst at Rome. [Page] triumph. He builded the walles of ye city, and sinkes also to auoid ye filthe and ordure of the City. He began the Capitoll, and when he had raygned xxxviii. yeres, he was slayne by the The capytoll [...] slayn. sonnes of king Ancus whome he succeaded in the kingdome. After hym, Seruius Tullius was kinge, whose mother was a noble woman borne: Seruiꝰ Tullius the .vi. kyng. but yet was she a captiue and a hād­maide. He subdued the Sabines, and annexed to the citye, these three hils, Quirinalis, Viminalis and Es­quilinus. He entrenched rounde the Romewalles entrenched. wals of the City. He was ye first that inuented mustring of men, which before his time was not known throu­ghe the whole worlde. In his raigne Mustryng [...]. the names of all the inbabitantes in Rome wer takē, and ther wer found [...]. in the City of Rome .lxxx. and .iiii. M. citizens able men with those whiche inhabited about ye city. He was slain in the .xlv. yere of his raign, through Seruiꝰ Tul­lius slayne. [Page 3] the wickednes of his son in law Tarquinius who was son to ye last kinge before him (whō this Seruius Tul­lius succeded) and the naughtines of his own daughter, whō he had espoused to the saide Tarquinius. Lucius Lucius Tarquinius, Superbus ye vii. kyng. Tarquinius, Superbus was the .vii. & the last king that raigned at Rome He ouercam the Volscians in battel, whiche are situate not far distant frō Rome (as mē go frō thence towards Campania, He subdued the Citye of Gabios, & Suessa Pometia. He made peace with the Thuscians, and built Iupiter, his temple built. Iupiter his temple in the capitol. Af­terward, as he was laying siege to ye city of Arde, whiche was .x. miles di­stant frō the city of Rome, he was deposed. Lucius Tar­quinius deposed. For whē his son Sextus Tar­quinius had forst & poluted the noble woman, & therwithal the moste cha­stest Adultery the cause of the fyrst alteratyon of the state of the weale publique in Rome. Lucretia wife to Collatinus, & she had of this iniury complained to her husband, & other her frendes, in ye presens of them all, she slue her self. [Page] Where vpon they kindled the hartes of the people againste Tarquinius, & deposed him from his kingdome: and The seuerity of the Romaines in puny­shing adulte­rye. sone after, the whole army whiche at that time laid siege to the city of Ar­de together with ye king, forsoke him. Where vpon when the king retour­ned, and would haue entred the city, Lucius Tarquinius hys raygne. ye gates wer shut against him. Thus when he hadde raigned .xxv. yeres, he fled with his wife and children. In this wise raigned .vii. kinges ouer the city of Rome, by the space of. CCxliii The time that kynges gouerned Rome. yeres: at which time Rome extended not to aboue .xv. miles, where it was largest. From this time began there to be created in the place of one kyng ii. consuls for this consideration, that Two consuls created in Rome. Consuls or­dained in rome ye 3450. yere after the creatiō of the world. The raign of the consuls. although the one of them were dispo­sed to naughtinesse, yet the other ha­uing the like authority, might bridle the affection of his companyon. And it was decreed that they shoulde not rule aboue one yere, least the continuaunce [Page 4] of theyr bearinge rule shoulde make thē waxe hauty, wheras other­wise The order of the cōsuls cō einued after it was fyrst instituted vntil Iulius Cesares raigne, which wxas by the space of 464. yeres they wold demene them selues more curteously, knowinge that after theyr ycare expired and determined, they shoulde become priuate persons againe. In the first yere after the ex­pulsing of the kings forth of the city, Lucius Iunius Brutus, who hadde most of others procured the banishing Lucius Iu­nius Brutus and Tarqui­nius Collati­nus fyrst con­suls. of Tarquinius, and with him Tar­quinius Collatinus, who was husbād to Lucretia, wer chosen cōsuls. How be it Collatinus was forth wyth de­priued of his Consulship. For why it was agreed that none should remain in the Citye, that bare the name of Tarquinius. wherevpon Collatinus Tarquinius Collatinus depryned of hys consul­ship. taking with him all hys substaunce, departed forth of the City, and in hys roume Valerius Publicola was cre­ated consull. Neuerthelesse kinge Valerius Publicola cōsull. The fyrst battaile that any Romain euer waged agaīst Rome. Tarquinius who a lyttle before was banisheda ssembling togethera great [Page] army to aid him to recouer his king­dome, waged batail with the Citizēs of Rome. In the very first front of ye batail, Brutus the consul and Aruus Tarquinius his sonne slue one ano­ther. Brutus and Aruus slayn. How be it the Romains obtay­ned the victory in that battaile: & the Romain matrones bewailed ye deth of Brutus by the space of one whole Brutꝰ death bewayled. yere, as the defender of their chasti­ties. After the death of Brutus, Valerius Publicola chose Spurius Lucretius Tricipitinus, who was father Spurius, Lucretius, Tricipitinus consul. Lucretius dyed. Horatius, Puluillus consull. Fiue consuls in the i. yere. to Lucretia to be consul, who died by sicknes: & Horatius Puluillus was created consull in his roume. Thus wer .v. consuls created in ye first yere. Of whome, Tarquinius Collatinus loste the citye for his name. Brutus was slain in battail, Spurius Lucre­tius sickned and died. Then in the second yere after, Tarquinsus agayne War agayne attempted by Tarquinius agaynst the Romaynes. made warre vppon the Romaines, to the ende he mighte recouer hys [Page 4] kingdome, whome Porsenna kynge [...]f Thuscia then aided, and wel nigh he hadde taken Rome. Howe be it at this time, was he also ouercome. In the iii. yere after the kings wer bani­shed forth of the City, when Tarqui­nius apperceiued that he should nei­ther be receiued again of the Romai­nes, nor yet that Porsenna wold suc­cour him anye longer, he departed to Thusculus a city not far distāt from Rome, & ther by the space of .xiiii. ye­res Tarquinius lyued as a priuate man at Thusculus. he liued with his wife, as a pri­vate man. In the. 4. yeare after yt the kings wer banished ye city, the Sabi­nes The Sabins warred on the romaines again warred vpō the Romains: at which time, they wer also ouercōe & the Romaines triumphed ouer thē. In the .v. yere Lucius Valerius, who was felow in office with Brutus, & thother. 4. consuls, deceased in suche extreme pouerty, yt mony was fain to A collectyon of monye for the burial of Valerius the consull. bee gathered amonge the people, to bear the expenses of his funeras.

[Page] Whose death the Romain matrones did by the space of a yere, bewaile, as they did the deathe of Brutus before. In the .ix. yere after the banishyng of the kinges, when Tarquinius hys sonne in law had assembled together Preparatyon for warre a­gaynste the Romaines by tarquini­us his son in lawe. The offyce of dictatura fyrst institu­ted. Titus Lar­gius dictator a great army, to the end he might re­uenge the reproche whiche his father in law sustained at the Romains handes, There was a newe office created in Rome, called Dictatura in authority, excelling farre the office of the consuls. That same yere was there also ordained in Rome an other Offycer called Magister Equitum: who was deputed to be attendant vpon the dic­tator. To this office of Dictator was Spurius Cassius. fyrst magister Equitum. first deputed at Rome Titus Largi­us. And Spurius Cassius supplyed first the offyce of magister Equitum. In the .xvi. yeare did the commons of Rome make a commotion, pretēding A commotiō at Rome by the commōs. the cause to be, for that the senatours and Consuls woulde haue oppressed [Page 9] them: At which time, they created ii. whome they called Tribuni Plebis, Tribuni Plebis created: whiche were after, abroga­ted by Sylla, and restored agayn by Pō peius. and assigned them to be peculier deci­sers and determiners of their causes only: by whose meanes they might be in safety, and defended against the cō ­suls. In the yere folowing the Volsti­ans renued battaile againste the Ro­maines, The Volsti­anes renued war agaynste the Romains they were subdued: and loste moreouer theyr first city called Corio­li. In the .xiii. yere after that the kyn­ges were banished, Quintus Martius Rome inua­ded by Quin­tius Martius a Romayne. a famous capitain of the Romaynes, who wan Coriolis a citye of the Vol­scians, vppon displeasure conceyued, went to the Volscians, and toke part with them, who also aided him agaīst the Romaines. By meane wherof, he putte the Romaines oft times to the worste. He camped wythin .v. miles of the city of Rome. And regardinge no­thing the Legates, which the Romai­nes sent to hym to entreate for peace, he determyned to haue inuaded hys [Page] owne country, had not hys own mo­ther Veturia, and his wife Volum­nia come forth of the citye to intreate him: throughe whose request myxte with teares, he was ouercome, and so withdrewe his armye. In that yere that Cesus Fabius, and Titus Virginius were consuls, three hun­dreth noble men of the house & stocke of the Fabianes, toke vppon them a­lone Battayle ta­ken in hand a gaynst ye Ve­ientines, by ye house of the Fabianes a­lone. to wage battail against the Ve­ientines, offerynge the senatoures and the people of Rome, that they thē selfs wold fight the field. Whervpō, al these noble mē according they had before decreed, went forth to ye battel ward, of which eche of thē was well worthy to haue ben a captē for theyr singuler prowesse: and wer all slayn there: so that of that so great a family The stocke of the Fabi­ans neare cleane extyn­guyshed. & line, there was left none a liue but one, who for that he was but a child, was not then able to go to warfare. After these things, ther was another [Page 9] muster taken within the city, & the citizens amounted to ye nombre of a C. The seconde muster at Rome. & .xix. M. able menne. The yere folowing, when tharmy of the Romaines was beseged in ye hil Algidus, which The romain army beseged was wel nigh .xii. miles distant from ye city of Rome. Lucius Quintus Cin Lucius Quī tus Cincina­tus being Dictator, called straight from the plough handle. cinnatus was made dictator, who being seised of a close or field which cō ­teined so much groūd as one yoke of oxen was able to ear in .iiii. dais: cal­led in latin. Quatuor vgera: (whiche contained .ix. C .lx. fote in length & in In how sinal citimatyon ample posses­syons wer in Rome. bredth. CCCC. & .viii. score fote,) til­led that ground with his owne han­des. And beynge sent for to succor the Romains, they found him busily occupied in plowing: he then wiping onlye the swet from his browes, and (as the manner was) castinge vppon him the garment (whiche was assig­ned for the Dictator to weare) called Toga pretexta: tooke his iourney forthewith agaynste hys ennemyes: Toga pretexta. [Page] and putting them to flight, deliuered the army of the Romaines besieged. In the yeare after the foundatyon of the citye of Rome thre hundreth and one, the office of the consulles ceased The offyce of Consuls ceassed. for a time. And in the place of the .ii. Consulles, there were chosen tenne which should beare chefe authoritye in the citye, and they were called Decemuiri. But when in the first yeare Decemuiri fyrst institu­ted. after their creation they had well de­meaned them sclues, in the seconde yere of their bearing rule, one of thē Durynge the raygne of the Decemuirs certayne of that order, wer sent into Grece, to see the vsages of the moost fa­mous cityes there, who v­syng there in the aduise of the most lear­ned in those partes wrate certain lawes whych were called the .xii. tables, and The Decem­uirs depriued of their authority, they raigned. 3. yeares. named Appius Claudius wold haue forst & defloured a maid, which was doughter to one Virginius: whyche Virginius at that time soulded for honest wages in the hill Algidus a­gainste the Latines. But when Vir­ginius vnderstode the pretens of the Decemuirs, he chose rather to slaye daughter as he did, then he should be polluted by the Decemuir: and returning backe to his souldioures, he be­gan [Page 9] a commotion: for which fact the Decemuirs were depriued of theyr authority, and they them selues con­dempned. In the. CCC. and .xv. yere after Rome was builte, the Fidena­tss rebelled against the Romaines: wheme the Veientines assisted. To­lumnius The Fidena­tes rebelled. was at that time kynge of the Veientines, bothe which Cityes were situate nigh to Rome: For Fi­dene was but .vii. miles and Veien­tes .xviii. miles distante from Rome. The Volscianes in like maner toke Parre with those other people. How be it they sustained the ouerthrow by Marcus E­milius Dictator. Lucius Q. Cincinatus magister E­quitum. Tolumnius slayne. The Citye of the Fidenats taken and o­uerthrowen. Furius Ca­millus Dictator. Marcus Aemilius then Dictator, & Lucius Quintus Cincinatus, Magi­ster Equitum. In that battayle they lost their king. The city of the Fide­naies was won and quite destroyed. Twenty yeres after that, the Veien­tines rebelled agayne: and ther was sent against them, Furius Camillus the Dictator: who at the first, discom­fited [Page] them in battayle: and eftsones when he hadde besieged the Citye a good space, he wanne it: whiche was The city of the Veiētins taken. the mooste auncient and the rychest through all Italy. After that, he wan also Falisci, a Citye no lesse notable thē that other was. But the peoples Falisci won. hartes were kindled agaynste hym, through the procurement of certain persons whiche surmised that he had Camillus banyshed. not well and indifferentlye deuided the spoyle: Vppon whiche cause, hee was condempned and banished the City. Immediatly herevppon, the Rome inua­ded by the frenchmen, in the. 360. yere after the citye was built, a­bout. 350. ye­res before the byrth of christ Frenchmen inuaded Rome and pursued the Romaynes vnto the floude Allia, whiche was xi. miles dystante from the citye of Rome, whan they had thus discomfited and vāquyshed the Romaynes, they wan the citye it self: of which no part was able to be Rome taken. defended against them but the Capi­toll only: whiche when they had also of longe tyme besieged, so that the [Page 10] Romaynes whyche were included, began now to fayle of vyttayles, Camillus who liued as a banished mā, in a city neare adioynyng, set vppon the Frenchmen, and wyth muche a doo put them to flyght. Whervppon Rome resku­ed by Camil­lus, and the frēchmen put to flyght. the Frenchmen whiche layde syege to the capytoll, brake vp their siege, receyuyng gold of the Romaines for the same intent. But Camillus styll pursued, and made such slaughter of them, that he recouered not only the golde whyche they had receyued, but suche anncientes also and ensignes of warre, as they hadde gotten. And thus returnyng to Rome agayne, he entred into the citye with his thyrde Camillus called the second Romulus. triumphe, and was called the second Romulus: as thoughe he allso had ben a founder of that hys countrey.

¶ The seconde boke of the breuiary of Eutropius.

IN the three hundreth thre skore and v. yeare after the buyldynge of the citye of Rome, and in the firste yeare after Offyces changed agayne in Rome. that it was so taken by the Frenchemen, the offices were agayne alte­red, and in steade of the two consuls, two were created, whych wer called Tribuni Militum: of no lesse autho­ritye Tribuni militum created. then the Consuls were. From this time, began the welth of Rome to increase. For that same yere, Ca­millus wan the city of the Volsciās. The city of ye Volscianes wonne by Camillus. which by the space of .lxx. yeares had waged battayle with the Romains: he wan also the cities of the Equies and Sutrines, and discomfited all theyr armies: and got thre triumphs together. Tytus Quintius Cincina­tus pursuinge at that time allso the [Page 11] Prenestines whych came to the very gates of Rome to wage battaile, and ouercame them at the floud Allia, and annexed to the Empyre of the Romaines those cities whiche were vnder the dominion of the Prenesti­nes. Than gaue he the assault to the citye Preneste it selfe: whiche was Great prow­esse of Cinci­natus. yelded vp to him: All whiche feates hee did within .xx. dayes space: and a triumphe was graunted vnto hym. How be it the dignity of the Tribu­nes The offyce of Tribunes ce­sed. did not longe indure: for after a while, it semed good to the Romai­nes to create no mo of that order. And so by the space of three yeares, thei stode in dout whether thei shuld make any great offices agayn or no. Neuerthelesse the Tribunes at last, The Tribu­nes recouered agayn theyr dygnytye. by common consente obtayned a­gaine theyr former dignity, and that they shoulde also haue the authority of the Consuls besides, and continu­ed so by the space of three yeres. [Page] Then were there consulles created againe. In the yere that Lucius Ge­nutius, and Quintus Seruilius wer Consuls cre­ated agayne. consuls, Camillus died, vnto whom most honor was attributed nexte af­ter Camilius de­ceased. Romulus, of anye that euer was in Rome. About this time Quintius the Dictator was sent forth agaynst the Frenchmen which were aryued in Italy, and had camped on the far­ther The frenche men againe a riued and camped in Italy. side of the floud Auienes, wher Titus Manlius the worthiest of all the Senators, slue one of the French men, which prouoked him to fyghte hande to hande. And when he hadde slayne hym, he pluckte of a chayn of gould which his enemy ware about his necke, and put it about his own: whereof bothe he and hys posteritye were called Torquati, for a perpetu­all memory of that fact. The residue The original or the name of Corquati. of the Frenchmen wer put to flight: and eftsoones ouercome by Caius Sulpitius the Dictator. Wythin a [Page 12] whyle after, the Thuscianes were The Thuscians discomfi­ted by Mari­us. subdued by Caius Marius: and .vii. thousand of them were led prisoners in one triumphe. There was againe a muster had in Rome, and whē the Latines whome the Romaynes had The thyrde muster at Rome. before subdued, refused to assiste thē with any power of mē against theyr enemies, they wer enforced to chose among them selues yong souldiours onlye, and suche as before that time had neuer bene at warre, to the nomber often legions. So muche preuai­led the Romaines in Warlike feats and cheualry, although their wealth and substaunce was as yet but verye sclender. Thys armye went forth a­gaynst the Frenchmen, and Lucius Furius was appoynted generall therof: At that time, one of the french campe chalenged into the fielde hym whom the Romaines accompted the moost valyaunt among them al. Vp­on whyche bragges Marcus Valeri­us [Page] being at that time Tribunus Mi­litume profered himselfe to fight the combate: and as he marched forward Mar. Valer. did battayle wyth a french man. into the field ready armed, a Crowe lyghted vppon his ryghte arme, and sate there stil. Afterwarde when hys aduersarye and hee came to handy grypes, the same Crowe smote the Frenchman vpon the eyes with hys winges and tallaunts in such sorte, that he coulde not see forthrighte, by meane wherof he was slain hy Va­lerius. And the Crow gaue him not only the victory, but his name also, that he was after called Coruinus. The originall of the name of Coruinus. M. Va. Cor. Consul. And for this fact he was created con­sull, duringe the space of .xxiii. yeres. Then the Latines who beefore had refused to ayde the Romaines wyth anye souldioures, made request that one of the Consuls myght be chosen amonge them, and the other among the Romaines, whiche demaunde of theyrs was denyed, and battayle by [Page 13] the Romaynes prepared against thē, wherin they were ouercome, and vppon theyr ouerthrow the Romaines Battayle a­gaynst the Latines. triumphed. The pictures of the con­sulles were set vppe at the barres: (whyche was the place where the Orators pleaded mennes causes) for The Images of the Cōsuls erected. this victory atchieued. Now the Ro­maines waxed mighty: they warred wyth the Samnites well nyghe an C. and .xxx. miles distant from Rome whiche are situate in the mid waye betwene Picennm, Campania, and Apulia. Lucius Papirius Cursor went to that battail being fyrst cre­ated Dictator, & retournyng through cause of busynesse from thence to Rome, gaue charge (at his departure to Quintus Fabius Maximus, who at that time was Magister Equitū, that during his absence, he shuld not fyght with his ennemies. How be it he vppon occasyon geuen, with mer­ueylous dexterity of fortune foughte [Page] with the Samnites, and vanquished them. For whyche facte the Dictator Lucius Papirius after hys retourne gaue sentence of deathe vppon hym, for that he had foughte contrarye to Quintus Fabi. Max. ad­iudged to deathe. hys commaundemente. But yet hee was deliuered through the paslynge great fauour of the souldiers, which they pretended toward hym. Aboute which matter there was such dissen­tion bred by Papirius, that hee was nighe slaine himselfe there in. After this, the Samnits ouercam the Ro­maines The Romai­nes vanquy­shed by the Samnites. The yoke y they called Iugst was made wt ii. speares, stucke in the earth. and the third on their poynts like a galowes: vn­der which for reproch van­quished men were led. to theyr great reproche, and caused them to crepe vnder the yoke at whiche time Titus Veturius and Spurius, Postumius were consuls. Howe be it the Senators and people of Rome forthe with infringed that league, which a litel before they wer constrained to make with the Sam­nites. Then Lucius Papirius hadde the vpper hande ouer the Samnites, and sent .vii. thousand of them vnder [Page 14] the yoke: and Papirius tryumphed ouer them. At that time Appius Claudius being Censor conueyed into the The Sānites discomiyted. city, the streame which is nowe cal­led Claudia water, and made ye high way which is yet called Appia way. The Samni­tes renewed battayle. Not long after the Samnites renu­ed battaile, and ouercame Quintus Fabius Maximus, and slewe .iii. M. of hys men. Afterward whan his fa­ther Fabius Maximus was sente to Quin. Fab. Max. vanquished. aide him, he did not only subdue the Samnites againe, but wan also dy­uers of theyr townes. Then were Publius Cornelius Rufinus, and Marcus Curius Dentatus created Consuls: and were bothe sent forthe Publi. Cor. Ruf. and M. Cur. Dent. Consuls. against the Samnites, and in an ex­ceding greate battayle they vanqui­shed theym: and thus ended they the battaile, which the Samnites hadde continued against the Romaines, by the space of .xlix. yeares: which nati­on far aboue all the residue through [Page] out all Italy, did moste diminish the force of the Romains. Within a few yeres after, the armies of the french men ioyned wyth the Thuscianes, and Samnites againste the Romai­nes: but as they marched towardes Rome, Cnaine Cornelius Dolabel­la encountringe wyth them, slewe them: At that time warre was pro­claymed Warre pro­claimed agaīst the Taren­tines. agaynste the Tarentines whiche inhabited the farthest partes of Italye, for that they had iniuryed the Legates of the Romaines. The Tarentines desired Pyrrhus kynge of Epirus to assyste theym agaynste the Romaines, who forth wyth came to Italye.

Thys Pyrrhus was descended of the line of Achilles. Thys was the fyrste battaile that the Romaynes The fyrst battayle that the romaynes waged wyth for­rayn enemye. waged with anye foraine ennemye. To this battaile was Publius Va­lerius Leuinus sente: who when he had apprehended the espyes of Pir­rhus, [Page 15] he willed that they shoulde be led through the camp, and that al the armye shoulde be shewed to them, and so be dismiste, to the ende they might recount to Pirrhus howe the The stoutnes of the romay­nes. Romaines did demeane them selues in all poyntes. Soone after the ar­mies ioyned battayle, and Pyrrhus was at the poynte to haue fled, had not hys Elephantes bene, throughe Pyrrhus o­uercame the romaynes, by meanes of his Elephantes. whose meanes he gotte the victory: of whome the Romaynes (for that they hadde not earste sene, suche be­stes) were dismayed and stoode in feare.

Howe be it the nyghte fynished their skyrmishe for that time. Leui­nus the Consull fledde that nyghte: Leunius the Consul fled. and Pirrhus tooke prisonners about [...] thousande and eyghte hundreth Romaines, whome he entreated ve­ [...]ye honourablye, and suche as were [...]aine in the battayle, hee buryed, [Page] whome when he sawe they were all wounded in the fore partes, and af­ter they were dead, keping stil theyr Pyrrhus hys princely behauyour. grim lokes, whiche while they liued they yet hadde, as one agaste at the syght, lifting vppe his handes to the skyes, he sayde: were it my chaunce Worthy com­mendation of the Romains. (quod he) to haue suche souldioures as these were, I could easely wythin shorte whyle conquere all the whole world. After this, Pyrrhus associated vnto him the Samnites, the Luca­nes and the Brutians, and marched so forward toward Rome despoiling all as he went with fier and sworde. He prayed through all Campania, & came to Preneste whiche was distāt but .xviii. miles from Rome, then re­tired hee backe againe to Campania for dreede of the Consuls, who came wyth a great army againste hym. The Romaynes then sente their le­gates to Pirrhus to entreate aboute the ransomynge of their prisoners, [Page 16] whome he receiued honourably, and sent to Rome suche prisoners as he had, wythout receiuinge anye raun­some for them. And amonge the re­sidewe of the Romaine Legates, Pyrrhus was so muche affectyoned towardes one Fabricius, that wher as he vnderstode the sayd Fabricius to be but a very pore man, he profe­red to geue him the fourths parte of his kingdome, if that he woulde for­sake Howe dear the Romains estemed theyr country. Rome, and come to hym. But Fabricius refused that hys offer, Where vppon Pyrrhus not a lyttle meruailinge at the Romaines, sente the chiefest of all his bande, one cal­led Cyneas on embassade to Rome, Pyrrhus prayed peace. to intreat for peace, vpon indifferent conditions, so that Pyrrhus myghte styl detayne that part of Italye whi­che he had subdued by battail, which profer of peace misliked the Romai­nes: and woorde was sente backe to Pyrrhus from the Senate, that vn­lesse [Page] he would depart forth of Italy, he could in no wyse haue peace with the Romaynes. Then the Romains The stout answer of the romaynes. commaunded that all those whyche Pyrrhus had taken prisoners, shuld be reputed as infamed persones, for that they would be taken prisoners The seuerity of the Ro­maynes. when they might haue defended thē selues by force of armes: And more ouer, that they should not agayne be restored to theyr former estate, vntyl suche tyme as they broughte wyth them the like spoiles of theyr enne­mies. With this answer retourned Worthy prai­se of enemyes mouthes. the Legate of Pirrhus: of whome when Pyrrhus demaūded what ma­ner of place Rome was, he answea­red that he had there sene a countrey of kinges: affirming that in manner euery one there, was suche a one, as Pirrhus alone was counted to be at Epirus, and through all Grece. Thē there were sent forth agaynste Pyr­rhus, Publius Sulpitius and Deci­us: [Page 17] who wer then Consuls. In a skirmish Pub. Sul. and Decius Consuls sent against Pyr­rhus. which he made againste them, Pyrrhus was wounded, his Ele­phantes slaine, and of his armye hee lost twentye thousande. There were slaine of the Romaines onlye v. M. Thus was Pyrrhus discomfitedde. Pyrrhus put to fiyght. The yere after, Fabricius was sent forthe againste Pyrrhus: This was he, whome before amonge the other Fabricius sēt agaynst Pyrrhus. Legates of the Romaynes, Pyrrhus could by no meanes allure to forsake Rome and come to him, vppon pro­mise to depart with the fourth parte of his kingdome vnto him. When he and king Pyrrhus had pitched theyr tentes neare the one to the other, Pyrrhus his Phisition cam by night to Fabricius, offring that he woulde destroy Pirrhus with poyson, if Fa­bricius would geue him any thynge for his laboure: whome Fabritius The Romai­nes hated treson. apprehended, and caused to be bound and caried to Pyrrhus, and to be de­declared [Page] vnto hym what thyngs hys Phisition hadde conspired againste hym. Where at the kynge all agaste sayde. Vndoubtedly this is that Fa­bricius (quod he), who wyth more difficulty can be made to forsake ho­nesty, then the Sunne can be stopte to run hys course. And so the kynge departed into Sicilie. Fabritius af­ter Pyrthus went into Sicilie. Fabritius triumphed. that he had subdued the Samni­tes and the Lucanes trpumphed. Af­terward, Marcus Curius Dentatus and Cornelius Lentulus being then Consuls, were sent forthe agaynste Pirrhus, Curius foughte the bat­tayle wyth hym. He slewe hys army, hee draue hym to Tarentum, and Pyrrhus dis­comfyted. sackt hys tentes. He slewe that daye of hys ennemyes three and twentye thousande. Curius Dentatus try­umphed in hys Consulship: he brou­ght Elephantes fyrst brought to Rome. foure Elephants to Rome: whi­che were the fyrste that euer were there. Not longe after, Pirrhus de­parted [Page 18] from Tarentum, and at Ar­gos Pyrthꝰ slain a citye of Grece he was slayne. When Caius Fabritius Luscinus, and Caius Claudius Cinna were consulles, whyche was in the yeare after the foundatyon of the citye of Rome, four hundreth thre skore and one, ambassadonres were sent forthe Legats forth of Alexandria sēt to Rome. of Alexandria by Ptolomeus too Rome, to ioyne frendshyp and amy­ty wyth the Romaynes: which thing they obtayned. Whilest that Quin­tus Gulo, and Caius Fabius Pic­tor were consuls, the Picentines stirred vp war agaynste the Romaynes, Pub. Sem. & Ap. Clau. Consuls. but they were ouercome by Publius Sempronius and Appius Claudius, (which wer next cōsuls) & triumphed ouer them. About this tyme, the Ro­mains The cityes Ariminum & Benenentū built by the Romaynes. Mar. Attili. Regu. & Lu-Iuni. Libo Consuls. built the cities Ariminum in Fraunce, and Beneuentum in Samnio: when Marcus Atti. Regu. & Lu. Iu. Libe wer consuls, war was pro­cilamed against the Salē. in Apulia: [Page] The Brundusians wer vanquished, The Brun­dusians & the city taken. and their City wonne: and triumph was had ouer them againe.

In the. CCCC .lxxviii. yeare after the buildinge of Rome, the name and renoume of the Romaynes be­came now famous, and yet had they neuer waged any battaile forthe of Italy. To the end therfore that they might vnderstande what power they were able to make, there was a mu­ster A m [...]er a­gain in Rome had, and the names of the Ro­maines were taken: who being nombred by the pols, amounted to .cc. xc .ii. M. 334. citizens, all he it sithe the first foundation of the citye, warres had at no tyme ceased: Thē was the The fyrst battayle whyche the romaines waged agaīst the Carthaginiens was in the 480. yere after the buyl dynge of the citye, & lasted xx [...]. yeares wythoute in­termissyon. first battayle attempted agaynst the people of Affricke: Appius Claudius and Quintus Fuluius beinge then Consuls: battail was fought against theym in Sicille: where as Appius Claudius triumphed ouer them, and ouer Hieron king of Sicilie.

[Page 19] In the yere folowing Martus Valerius, Appi. Clau. & Quin. Ful. Consulles. Mar. Vale. and Octacil. Consuls. and Octacillus beynge then Consuls, the Romains wrought ve­ry great enterpryses. For whye, the Taurominatanes, and the Catanen­ses, and besides them, fiftye other ci­tyes, were receiued vnder obediens.

In the third yere after, preparati­on for warre was made against Hie­ron in Sicilie. But he, together with Wax preten­ded agaynste Hieron. the reside we of hys Nobilitye, made peace with the Romaines, and gaue vnto them in consideration thereof, CC. talentes of siluer. The Affrica­nes were ouercom in Sicilie, which The seconde triumph ouer the Affricans was the secon̄de time that the Ro­maines triumphed ouer them.

In the fifthe yeare after that the Romaines firste waged battayle a­gainste the Afers, (Caius Duillius, and Cneus Cornelius Asina beyng Ca. Duil. & Cne. Cor. Asi. Consuls The fyrst battaile whyche the romaynes waged on the see. Consuls,) they fought vpon the sea: Against whiche battaile, they hadde prepared light shyppes, whych they [Page] called Foystes. The Consul Corne­lius was deceiued by a trayne. But Duillius fought the battail out, and ouercame the captain of the Cartha­giniens. He toke .xxxi. ships. He sonk The Cartha­giniens dys­comfyted. xviii. He toke .vii. M. men prisoners, and slewe .iii. M. There was neuer victorye more acceptable to the Ro­maines, then this was. For where before they had shewed them selues to be inuincible vpon the lande, they had now also experimēted that they wer of great force vpon the sea, whē Caius Aquilius Florus, and Lucius Scipio were, Consulls, Scipio wan Caius Aqui. Flo. & Lu. Sci. Cōsuls. Corsica and Sardinia won. Corsica, and Sardinia, and led wyth him from thence many thousand pri­soners, and triūphed. Lucius Mālius Volso, & Marcus Attilius Regulus, being Consuls, war was again trās­posed Luci. Man. Vol. & Mar. Atti. Regu. Consuls. into Africke against Hamilcar a captain of the Carthaginiēs: This battail was also fought vpon the sea The second battail on the sea. and Hamilcar was discomfyted. For [Page 20] when he had lost .lxiiii. ships, he reti­red backe. The Romains lost in that battail .xxii. ships: but whē they wer A great ouer throwe of the Carthagini. Clipea yelded to the Ro­maynes. ariued in Affrick, Clipea the chefest Citye in Affricke was yealded vp to them. The Consulles then marched forward toward Carthage: and whē they had despoiled manye Townes, Mālius returned to Rome, & brou­ght Manlius re­turned wyth victorye to Rome. with him .xxvii. M. prisoners. At­tilius Regulus remaininge still in Affricke, prepared his army to with­stand the force of the Affricanes: and Regulus re­mayned in Affricke. Regulus worthy actes. ioyning battail with iii. captaines of the Carthaginiens at ones, he obtai­ned the victorye. He slewe .xviii. M. of his enemies. He toke prisoners fyue thousand men, and eyghte Elephan­tes. He receiued vnder obeysaunce lxxiii. Cityes. The Carthaginiens when they were thus dyscom [...]ited, desired peace of the Romains, which Peace desi­red by the Carthagini. when Regulus wold not graūt, but vpon straight conditiōs, they desired ayde [Page] succoure of the Lacedemonians: to The Cartha­giniens desy­red ayd of the Lacedemoni­ans. whom ye Lacedemonians sent Xan­tippus with a band of menne, throu­ghe whose meanes, Regulus was ouercome, so that of all the armye of the Romaines, there eskaped but ii. M. only, xv. M. were taken prison­ners, A great ouer throwe of the Romaynes. and theyr captaine Regulus al so: xxx. M. were slaine. Regulus hymselfe was cast into prison. Thē were Regulus ta­ken and caste into pryson. Mar. Emili. Pau. & Ser. Ful. Cōsuls. Marcus Emilius Paulus, and Ser­uius Fuluius the nobler created Cō suls: bothe whyche passed ouer into Affricke wyth a nauy of .iii. C. sayle. Firste they ouercame the Afers in Battail renued by the Ro­mains agaīst the Cartha. The thyrde battayle on the sea. A great discō fyture of the Carthagini. battail vpon the sea: Emilius sonke a hundreth and foure shyppes of hys enemyes. He toke xxx. together with the men that fought in them. He slue and toke prisonners besides .xv. M. of his ennemies, and enriched his soul­dioures with a [...] exceadinge greate spoyle. And at that time, had all Af­fricke beene subdued, had not thers [Page 21] chaunced so great a dearth, that the souldioures coulde not anye longer remaine there: As the Consulles re­tourned A great derth in Affricke. home with theyr victorious nauy, they suffred shypwracke about the coaste of Sicilie. Whereas there a rose so great a tempest, that of .iiii. The Romai­nes [...] greatly by shipwrack C. lxxriiii. shippes, vnneth lxxx. could be saued. Whyche tempest was so terryble, that the lyke therof had not at anye time before beene hearde of, vpon the sea. Neuerthelesse the Ro­maynes forthwyth renued two hun­dreth The inuinci­ble and stoute courage of the Romaynes. newe shippes, (whose myndes were not a whit dismaied with those former mishappes.) Then were cre­ated Consuls, Cneus Seruilius Cepio, and Caius Sempronius Blesus Cne. Serui. Ce. and. Ca. Sem. Bie. Consuls. who with two hūdreth and .lx. ships, tooke their byage towardes Affricke where they wan certaine cityes. And as they retourned thence homeward The fourthe battail on the sea. (bringing a great spoyle with them) they suffred shipwracke, Whervpon [Page] they suffred shipwracke, wherevpon The romay­nes. sustained shipwracke agayne. the Romaynes finding them selues agreued with theese continuall and often damages which they sustained vpon the sea, the Senators thoughte good, to geue ouer that kinde of bat­taile, The romay­nes purposed to geue ouer battail on the sea. Luci. Ceci. Me. & Caius Furi. Pla. Consuls. and to kepe no mo but lx. ships onlye, to defend Italy wythall. Whē Lucius Cecilius Metellus, and Ca­ius Furius Placidus wer Consuls, Metellus ouercame in Sicilie, the captayn of the Carthaginiens whi­che came agaynst them with a hun­dreth and .xxx. Elephantes, and a great power of men besides. He slew The Cartha. dyscomfyted. xx. M. men, and got .xxvi. Elephants. The residue of his ennemies which wer skatred and dispersed amōg the Numidians, (whome he had to ayde him,) he got together & brought thē prisoners with great triūph to Rome and as they wente, the herd of Ele­phants, whiche were a. C. and .xxx. in nomber ouerlayde all the way. The [Page 22] The Carthaginiens after theese so great mischances, required Regulus a captayne of the Romaynes (whom The Cartha­sente regulus a romayne to [...]ntreate for peace. before they hadde taken prysonner,) that he would goo to Rome, and get peace for them of the Romains, and also exchaūge of prisoners. But Re­gulus when he was coe to Rome, and was broughte into the Senate, did in no poynt behaue himselfe as a Romaine, affirming that frō the day that he first fel into the hands of the Carthaginiens, he gaue ouer clene ye desire to be any longer a Romayne: in so much that he refused the cōpani of his owne wife at Rome: and per­swaded the Romaynes that peace shoulde by no meanes bee graunted to the Carthaginiens: alledgynge that their myndes were so quaylte wyth those so manye mischaunces, that they were quyte voyde of hope, that they should euer be able to re­couer againe their former estate.

[Page] And as for him, he was not worthye to be so muche esteamed (being now very aged) that for his cause, and the redeminge of a fewe others whyche A notable ex­ample of loue towarde hys countrye. were detained prisonners, at Car­thage, so many thousand of their en­nemies should be restored. Whyche request of his, at last the Romaynes assented vnto. In so muche that they woulde not geue eare to the petyty­on of anye whiche came from Car­thage, to entreat them for peace. Re­gulus sone after, retourned to Car­thage: whome the Romaynes offe­red to detaine stil at Rome. But hee denied that hee woulde remayne in that city, in which he could not now haue the name of an honest Citezen, sith that he had so long bene among the Carthaginiens. Whome (after his retourne to Carthage,) the Car­thaginiens with most cruel tormēts Regulus put to death. put to death. When Publius Clau­dius Pulcher, and Caius Iunius [Page 23] were consuls, Claudius in an euyll Pub. Clau. Pulcher, and Ca. Iunius Consuls. Theromains dyscomfyted. tyme, wyth no lesse euill successe, loughte a vattayle: and was ouer­come by the Carthaginiens. For set­tynge forthe with two hundreth and twenty sayle, he fled with .xxx. shyps only, lxxxx. wer taken together with the men whiche fought in them: and the residue were sonke. There were besides, xx. thousand of the romaines taken prisoners. In lyke manner al­so The romaye nauy perished by shipwrack the other Consull loste his nauye by shipwracke: howe be it he saued hys armye, for that the shore was neare. At what time Caius Luctaci­us Catulus, and Aulius Posthumi­us Ca. Luctatiꝰ Catu. &. aul. Posthu. albi. Consuls. Albinus were consulles, (whiche was in the .xxiii. yere after that bat­taile was fyrste waged with the car­thaginiens,) battail was committed to the guiding and orderinge of Ca­talus agaynste the Africanes: who toke his viage into Sicilie, with thre hundreth sayle: agaynste whome the [Page] Afers had prepared .cccc. sayle ready furnished. This Catulus was some what sickly when he toke shypping. For why, he was wounded in a bat­tail a litle before. The battayle was fought ouer agaynst Lylibeū a citye of Sicilie, with passyng greate vali­antnesse of the Romains. They toke lxxiii. of the Carthaginiens shippes: They sanke a .c. and. xxv, they tooke The great o­uerthrowe of the Carthaginians. xxxii. M. men prisoners: & slue .xiii. M an infinite deale of golde and siluer broughte they to Rome: and of the Romayne nauye, only .xii. ships mis­caried, whyche wer sonke. This bat­taile was done the .vi. of the Ides of Marche. The Carthaginiens forthe with desired peace, and it was graū ­ted Peace graunted to the Carthaginiens. to them. Suche prisonners as the Carthaginiens had taken of the ro­maynes wer restored. And they desi­red that they might raunsome suche prisoners as the romaynes had takē of theirs. The Senate therfore com­maunded [Page 24] that suche of the carthagi­niens, as were prisonners in the cō ­mon holdes, should be deliuered and sent home without any raunsome: & such of them as priuate persons had taken prisoners, shoulde be dismyste also: and that their raunsome should bee answered (to those whiche tooke them) forth of the common tresorye, The greate largesse of the romaynes. rather then the carthaginiens shuld be charged therwith. After this, wer Q. Luctatius, & Aulus Manlius crea­ted consuls. They waged battaile a­gainst Falisci: which had bene some Q. luctatiꝰ & Aulus Man. Consuls. time a welthye city of Italye. Thys city they wan, within .vi. dayes after Falisci besie­ged and won. they layde the assaulte therto. They flew there .xv. M. men: to the residue they graunted peace, but they depriued them of the one moitye of theyr landes.

¶ The thyrde booke of the breuiary of Eutropius.

WHen the battayle a­gaynste the Carthaginiens was thus determined, which hadde continued by the space of .xxii. ye­res, the Romaynes (who were nowe become famouse,) sente Legates to Ptolomeus kynge of Egypt, proferynge to ayde hym, Ayd profered by the Ro­maynes to Ptolomeus. for that Antiochus kynge of Syria, warred agaynste hym: hee thanked the Romaines for theyr gentlenesse: howe be it hee receyued no ayde of them, for that the battayle was all ready finyshed. About the same time Hiero the mighty and puissant kyng of Sicilie, came to Rome, to beholde Corne geuen among the romaynes by Hiero. the Enterludes there, and distribu­ted among the people of Rome, two hundreth thousand bushels of wheat [Page 25] Lucius Cornelius Lentulus, & Ful­uius Lu. Corne. Len. & Ful. Flac. Con. Flaccus being Consuls (during whose raigne Hiero came to Rome) battayle was waged against the Li­gurians wythin Italy: and tryumph Battaile a­gaynst the Ligurians. was had ouer them. At that time all so, the Carthaginiens attempted to renue battail: and perswaded in like War renued by the Car­thaginiens. manner the Sardinians to rebell, who should haue bene subiect to the Romaines, for as muche as peace was concluded betwene them & the Romayns vpon the same condition. Neuerthelesse they sente theyr Am­bassadoures to Rome, and confyr­med Peace graunted to the Carthaginiens. Ci. Mau. Tor. and Ca. Atti. Balbus Consuls. A triumph o­uer the Sar. the peace againe. When Titus Manlius Torquatus, and Caius At­tilius Balbus were Consulles, the Romaynes triumphed ouer the Sar­dinians. Then the Romaynes con­cluded peace wyth all natyons, so ye now they had no maner batel in hād: which thinge neuer happened vnto them syth the firste buildinge of the [Page] citye of come, but at one time onlye: (whiche was) duringe the raygne of Numa Pompilius. When Lucius Posthumius Albinus, and Fuluius Cneus Centumalus were consulles Lu. Posthu. Albi. & Ful. Cueꝰ. Cen. Consuls. they waged battayl agaynste the Il­lyrians: and when they had takē ma­nye cityes there, the kynges yelded them selues. And that was the fyrste tryumphe that the romaynes euer The first tri­umphe ouer y Illyrians. had ouer the Illyrians. Durynge the tyme that Emilius was Consull, great armies of the Frenchmen wer Emilius consull. Italy inua­ded by the Frenchmen. come ouer the Alpes. Howe be it, all Italy stoode together in the defence of the romaynes. For as Fabius the Historician dooth report, (who was hymself present at that battai,) there were eyght hundreth thousand men in a redinesse for to haue fought that battayle. Neuerthelesse the Consull hym selfe ended that battail wyth greate dexteritye of fortune. He slew in that battayle forty thousande en­nemies: [Page 26] and there was a tryumphe decreed vnto Emilius. A fewe yeres after, a battayl was fought against Emiliꝰ try­umphed. the Frenchmen wythin Italye, and it was doone by Marcus Claudius Marcellus, and Cneus Cornelius Scipio, beynge then consulles. At Battayle a­gaynste the Frenchmen. Mar. Clau. Mar. & Cne. Corne. Sci. Consuls. that same tyme, Marcellus hauynge wyth hym but a very smal troupe of horsemen, slewe the kynge of the Frenchmen (called Viridomarus,) wyth hys own hands. After he, and Viridomarꝰ kynge of the Frenchmen slain by Marcellus. Millayn conquered. his fellowe consull, slewe greate ar­myes of the Frenchmen. He conque [...]rd Millaine. He broughte an excea­ [...]yng great spoyle with him home to Rome, and in his triumph he fastned [...]he spoyles whyche he had gotten of Marcellꝰ tryumphed. the Frenche kinge, to a longe staues [...]nde, and so bare it vppon hys owne [...]houlders. In the time that Mar­ [...]us Minutius, and Publius Corne­ [...]ius Mar. Min. & Pub. Corne. Consuls. War with y Istrians. were Consulles, warre was [...]aged sore agaynste the Istryans, [Page] for that they had robbed and despoy­led the shyppes of the Romaynes, which serued them with grayn. And they were quyte subdued. The selfe same yeare, the Carthaginiens wa­ged The second battayl of the Carthagi. a­gainst the Romains, in the 560. yeare af­ter the citye was buylt, whych duted by the space of .xvi. yeres. Saguntum assaulted by Annibal. theyr second battayl against the Romaynes, by Anniball their capy­taine, who attempted to assault Sa­guntum a city of Spayn, whych was in league and frendship whyche the Romaines. This Annibal was then of the age of .xx. yeres, and had in his army a hundreth and fifty thousand horsemen, and twenty thousand fotemen. The Romaines sent ambassa­doures to him, to wyll him to cease from battayle. But hee woulde not speake with the Legates: whervpon the Romaynes sent likewise to Car­thage, Howe lothe the Romains were to vse force. desiring that commaundemēt might be geuen to Anniball, that he shoulde no more warre vppon suche people as were frends and in league with the Romaynes. But they has [Page 27] shreud answeres geuen them by the Carthaginiens. In the mean season the Saguntines were famishedde, whome Anniball (after he had gotte The Sagun­tines famishe by Annibal. the conquest ouer theym) afflyeted wyth extreme punishments. Vppon this, Publius Cornelius Scipio, wēt into Spayne wyth an army, and Ti­berius Two armies sent forthe by the romains. Sēpronius into Sicilie with an other, warre was proclaymed a­gaynst the Carthaginiens. Anniball (leauinge his brother Asoruball in Spayne,) hymselfe passed ouer Py­reneus, makinge his waye ouer the Alpes: at which place as yet, no way laye. It was reported that he had in Annibal pas­sed the alpes. hys army whiche he broughte wyth him into Italy, lxxx. M. footemenne, xx. M. horsemenne, and, xxxvii. Ele­phantes. In this space, diuers Ligu­rianes and Frenchmen had assocya­ted them selues with Annibal. Sem­pronius Gracchus assone as he vn­derstode that Annibal was come in­to [Page] Italy, he conueyed his army ouer Ariminus forth of Sicilie. Pub. Cor. Scipio first encountred with Anni­bal: his Scipio discō fyted by An­niball. men wer put to flight, & himself returned wounded to his tentes. Sēpronius Gracchus in like maner fought with him at the riner Trebia Semproniꝰ Gracchꝰ dys­comfyted by Anniball. and was discomfited. Whervpon di­uers in Italy for fear yelded thē sel­ues to Annibal. And as he departed thence to Thuscia, he met with Fla­minius the Consull whom he slewe. Flaminiꝰ the Consul slayn by Annibal. There wer at that time .xxv. M. Ro­maines slain. The residue fled. After these things, Q. Fab. Max. was sent by the Romaynes agaynst Annibal. He by tracting the time and dalying brake the violence and force of Anni­bal: and efcsones finding oportunity, set vpon him and gaue him the ouer throw. In the .ccccc. and. xleyere after that the city of Rome was built, Lu­cius Anniball su­stayned the o­uerthrowe by Q. Fa. max. Emilius, and Publius Teren­tius Varro, were sent against Anni­ball, [Page 28] and succeaded Fabius, whyche Fabius aduertised bothe the Con­sulles that they could not otherwise Lu. Emiliꝰ and Publi. Terē. Varro Consuls. ouercome Anniball (who was a hot and a hastye warryoure,) but onlye by deferrynge and prolongynge the battayle. Howe be it, Varro verye rashlye: contrary to the mynde of the other Consull ioyned the battayle, and foughte at the Towne called Canne in Apulia: Wheras both the Consulles were ouercome by Anni­ball. There were slayne in that bat­tayle Bothe the Consuls ouer come by Anniball. three hundreth Africanes: and a great parte of Anniball hys armye was wounded. But no battayle that The greatest discomfyture that euer the Romains en­dured by the Carthagini. the Romaynes euer hadbe wyth the Carthaginiens, endamaged them so muche as this.

For whye, there wer slain in that battaile, Emilius Paulus then con­sull, and twentye other of the or­der of Consulles and Pretoures: [Page] of the Senators ther wer taken and slayne .xxx. noble men, to the nomber of three hundreth: soldioures to the noumber of .xl. M. and .iii. M. and fiue hundreth gentlemen besides. For al whych great mischaunce, there was not yet anye one among the Romai­nes whiche made anye mentyon of The greate stoutnesse of the romayns. peace makinge with the Carthagi­niens. The bondmen in Rome were made free, and appoynted for souldi­oures: The bondmē in Rome manumist. whyche thynge neuer hapned erste there. After that battaile, many cities in Italye whiche before were vnder the obeysaunce of the Romai­nes, fell from them to Anniball.

Then Annibal profered the Romay­nes that they shoulde redeame suche Annibal pro­fered the Ro­maynes to redeme theyr prysoners. The greate stoutnesse of the romayns. souldioures of theyrs, as he had ta­ken prysonners. To whome the Ro­maynes and the Senators aunswe­red that those wer not to be accomp­ted as necessary citizens, which whē they were armed, woulde bee taken [Page 29] prysonners: vppon whych aunswer, Anniball slew them all wyth sondry punishments, and sent home to Car­thage three bushels full of rynges, which he pluckte of from the handes A passynge great mur­ther of the romaynes. of the Gentlemen and Senatoures, and souldioures of the Romaynes. Asdrubal also hys brother whom he lefte behynde him in Spaine wyth a greate armye (to the ende he myghte brynge all that country in subiection to the Africanes,) sustained an ouer­throwe by the two Scipios whyche were captaines of the Romaines, he Asdrubal o­uercom by the ii. Scipioes. lost in that battaile .xxxv. M. men, of whyche the Romaynes toke prison­ners, x. M. and slewe .xx. M. But the Carthaginiens to strengthen hym agayn, sente him out of hand .xii. M. footemen, and. iiii M. horsemen, and xx. Elephants. In the .iiii. yere after that Anniball inuaded Italye, Mar­cus Claudius Marcellus then Con­sul Mar. Clau. Marcel. Consul. fought against him with passyng [Page] good fortune at Nola a city of Cāpa­nia. Annibal had by this time gotten many cities ther frō the Romains in Apulia, Calabria, & among the Bru­tians. At that time, Phillip kynge of Macedonie by his Legates (whome he sent to Anniball) profered that he Phillyp pro­fered to ayde Anniball a­gainst the Romaynes. wold aid him against the Romains: Vpon condition that after he had o­uercome the Romains, he mighte in like manner haue assistence of An­niball against the Grecians. But the Romaines by chaunce apprehended the Legates of king Phillip, and vn­derstode by them the whole matter. Where vppon, they willed Marcus Valerius Leuinus to go into Mace­donie: and Titus Manlius Torqua­tus then being Proconsul, into Sar­dinia: for that Prouince also through the alluring of Anniball, was fallen from the Romains. And thus at one Battail wa­ged in four seueral places by the Ro­maynes. time, fought the Romaines in foure seuerall places rogether. In Italy a­gainst [Page 30] Annibal. In Spaine agaynste his brother Asdrubal. In Macebonie against Phillip. In Sardinia against the Sardinians, and an other Asdru­ball a Carthaginien. This Asdrubal was taken by Titus Manlius the Proconsull, who was sent into Sar­dinia against him: he also slew there xii. M. of his ennemyes, and tooke a M. and D prysonners. Thus was Sardinia subdued by the Romains, and Manlius as a conqueror brought Sardinia sub dued by the romaynes. Asdruball and those other prisoners with him to Rome. In this whyle, Philip was also ouercome by Leui­nus in Macedonie. And Asdrubal the Phyllip ouer come. secōd brother to Annibal, and Mago his third brother wer by the ii Scipi­ocs Asdrubal and mago ouer­come. ouercome in Spain. In the tenth yere after yt Anniball inuaded Italy, at what time. Pub. Sul. & Cne. Ful. wer consuls, Annibal aproched with in. 4. miles of the city of Rome: & his Pub. Sul. & Cne. Fulu [...]ꝰ Consuls. horsmē wer come to the very gates. [Page] But forthwith for dread of the Con­suls whiche came against hym wyth a great hoste, he retired back to Cā ­pania. Soone after, hys brother As­druball flewe hothe the Scipioes in Spayne: whyche by the space of ma­ny The .ii. Sci­pio [...] slayn by Asdruball in Spayne. yeares hadde bene conqueroures there. Neuerthelesse, their army re­mayned whole. For why, they were rather beguiled by traine, then van­quished by manhode. At this tyme, a great parte of Sicilie was recouered by Marcellus the Consull: whyche countrey the Afers began as than to possesse: and from Siracusa the most famous Citye therof, he broughte an exceadinge greate spoyle to Rome. Leuinus made league and ioyned frendship wyth Philippus Macedo­nie: Frendshyp ioyned wyth Phillip by Leuinus. and with diuers other cityes in Grece besides: & with Attalus kinge of Asia. And by the way as he wente marching toward Sicilie, he discomfyted and tooke prisoner Annones a [Page 31] captain of the Carthaginiens, at the Annones ta­ken prisoner. city Agrigentum, together wyth the city it selfe: and sent him to Rome a­monge those other prisoners. There were yelded vp vnto him .xl. cityes. He conquered .xxvi. other cytyes. Thus when all Sicilie was recoue­red, and Macedonie in such sort sha­ken and quailde, hee retourned to Rome wyth greate renowme. After­warde Anniball assaultinge Cneus Cneus Ful­uius slayn by Annibal. Fuluius at vnwares beinge then in Italye, slue him and viii. M. men be­sydes. In the meane space, Publius Pub. Corne. Scipio sente into Spayne. Cornelius Scipio sonne of Publius Scipio, was sent into Spayn: where (after that the two Scipioes were slayne,) no captaine of the Romains was lefte. He waged battaile there, beinge but of the age of .xxiiii. yeres. One who of all the Romaynes that were eyther in his dayes or anye Great com­mendation of Scipio. tyme sith, might worthely be adiud­ged the chiefest.

[Page] He wan Carthage in Spayn, where the Affricanes hadde all theyr golde and Siluer, and furniture for warre Carthage in Spayn won. remayninge. Furthermore he sente to Rome, the mooste noble hostages which he had receiued of the Spani­ardes. He toke also prisonner, Mago Annibal his brother, and sent him to mago sent prisoner to rome Rome with the residew. There was great myrth demeaned at Rome af­ter theese newes. Scipio restored to theyr parentes, theyr sonnes whom he had receiued for pledges before. Where vppon, in manner all the Spanyardes wyth one assente tooke part with Scipio againste Anniball. After these thynges, he subdued and put to flight Asdruball Anniball hys brother, and got ther a great spoyle. Asdrubal dis­comfited. In this meane space, Quintus Fa­bius Maximus the Consull, (beynge as then in Italye) recouered Taren­tum, in whiche wer then remaining Tarentum recouered. greate armies of Annibal: and there [Page 32] he slewe also Carthalon captayne to Anniball. He sold .xxv. thousand pri­soners, and deuided the spoyl among Carthalō slayne. his souldioures, and the mony which he receiued for the men whyche hee solde, he brought to the common tre­sor of the Romaines. Then many ci­ties of the Romaines whiche earste had yelded them selues to Anniball, did againe submitte them selues to Fabius Maximus. The yere follow­ing, Scipio wroughte notable feates Scipio, hys good successe in his affairs in Spain: there he (what through the ayde of his brother Lucius Scipio, & what throughe hys owne valiaunt­nesse,) recouered .lxx. cities. Howbeit they had euil successe in that battaile which they fought in Italy. For why Claudius Marcellus being then con­sull) Clau. mar. consul slayne. was slayne there by Anniball. In the third yere after yt, Scipio wēt again into Spain, and atcheued worthy things there. He vanquished the kynge of Spayne in a great battail, The kyng of Spayne dys­comfyted. [Page] and afterwarde concluded frendshyp wyth him, wythoute requyryng any pledges of him after hee was subdu­ed, wheras all others vsed after they had vanquysht anye, to take pledges of them whome they hadde so ouer­come. Then Anniball fearynge that he should not be able anye longer to detayne Spain against Scipio, or to wythstande hys force, sente for hys Asdrubal sent for forthe of Spayne. brother Asdruball withall his army from thence. And as Asdruball wold haue passed that same way as Anni­ball did forthe of Spayne into Italy warde, he fell into the embushmētes whyche of set purpose were layd for hym by Appius Claudius Nero, and Asdruball slayne. Marcus Liuius Salinator: at which place manfully fightinge and defen­dyng hym selfe, hee was slayne: and hys great army whyche he had wyth hym, was al together taken eyther or slaine: and a greate quantitye of treasure was brought to Rome. [Page 33] after those thynges, Anniball began cleane to despaire of the successe of the battail: and courage accrewed & grew to the Romains. Whervppon they sent for Publius Coruelius Scipio Scipio sent for forthe of Spayne. forthe of Spaine: who came to Rome wyth greate glorye. When Quintus Cecilius and Lucius Valerius were consuls, all those cityes a­monge Q. Cecilius and L. Vale­riꝰ Consuls. the Brutians, whiche before fell from the Romaines to Annibal, yelded them selues again to the Ro­maines. In the .xiiii. yeare after that Annibal had inuaded Italye, Scipio who had luckely atcheued things in Scipio crea­ted Consul. Spayne: was created consull, and sēt into Affricke. This Scipio was ad­iudged to be inspired with some de­uine spirite. In so much that menne thought he had conference with the celestiall powers. He foughte in A­fricke against Annon a captayne of the Carthaginiens and slew hys ar­my. In the second battayl he toke his [Page] tentes, and .iiii. M. and .v. C. soldiers, and slew .xi. M. He tooke Siphar. the king of Numidie prisoner, who had ioyned himselfe in ayde wyth the A­fers: and inuaded his tentes & sackte Syphar king of Numidie take prysoner. them: and sent Siphar together with the mooste noble men of Numidie to Rome and an infinite spoyl: whiche thynge so sone as it was vnderstode, all Italy wel nygh forsoke Annibal, whome the Carthaginiens wylled to retourne and succoure Affrycke, Annibal wil­led to retourn home into A­frycke. whyche as then Scipio despoyled. Thus in the .xvii. yere all Italy was deliuered from the terrour of Anni­ball. The Legates of the Carthagi­niens desired peace of Scipio: and by him they were sente to Rome to the Peace desi­red by the Carthagini­ens. Senate. Truce was made with thē duringe the space of .xl. daies: vntyll suche tyme as they might repayre to Rome, and retourne from thence a­gayne. In consideratyon where of, they gaue the Romains .xxx. thousād [Page 34] poundes. And when they hadde ex­poned their cause to the Senate▪ an­swer was made to them, that accor­dinge to the aduise of Scipio, peace should be graunted them, referryng the matter wholly to Scipio: by whō it was graunted vpon these condity­ons. That they shoulde geue the Ro­mains fiue C. thousand pounds of sil­uer: and that they should moreouer, The conditi­ons of peace with the Carthaginiens. rastore to the Romaynes suche pry­soners as they had taken of theyrs, and suche as were fled from the Ro­maines to them.

While these things wer in talk, Annibal as he retourned into Africk, infringed the league, for he and hys armye wroughte diuers thynges by The lege broken by Anni­ball. the way as they wente, contrarye to the peace concluded vppon, and as ennemyes. The Legates of the Car­thaginyens were apprehended by the Romaynes: as they retourned from Rome.

[Page] But they were by the commaunde­ment of Scipio straightway dismiste againe. Not long after, Annibal himselfe being sore wearyed with those contynuall battailes, desired peace: Annibal desi­red peace. whiche when it came to bee treated of, it was graunted vppon the same conditions as it was before: and to the precedent conditions of payment of .v. M. poundes of siluer, was an­nexed the penaltye of paymente of a C. M. poundes besides, for that newe breche of league by him committed. The conditions displeased the Car­thaginiens. Wher vpon they willed Annibal to fighte it out. Warre was waged againste the Carthaginiens, The condity­ons of the peacemisliked the Carthagi­niens. by Scipio, and Masinissa kynge of the Numidians, who hadde ioyned frendship with the Romaines. Anni­bal sent three espies to the tentes of Scipio: whiche when they were ap­prchended by the Romaines, Scipio commaunded they should be ledde a­bout [Page 35] through the tentes, and that all hys army should be shewed them. Then that they shuld be feasted, and so dismist, to the end they mighte re­count to Anniball, what they hadde seene amonge the romaynes. In the meane time, preparaunce of battaile was made by the captaines on cche partye, suche as vnneth anye man coulde euer remember the lyke. At whyche time bothe those expert men of warre and valiaunte captains led forthe theyr armies into the fielde. Scipio retourned conqueror: and at that time hadde he well nyghe taken Anniball gretly discōlyted. Anniball him selfe also: who at the first eskaped and fled wyth a greate company of horsmen: but being pur­sued, they were all slaine, sauing .xv. Annibal su­staind a great ouer throw. only. And at the last, he fled but with iiii. alone. There was founde in the tentes of Anniball, xx. M. poundes of siluer, and of golde eyghte hundreth Peace graueted to the Carthaginiens. thousand: of other stuffe great store. [Page] After that skirmishe, peace was con­cluded with the Carthaginiens: Sci­pio retourned to Rome, and wyth Scipio tri [...] ­phed and was called Affri­canus. The second battayl wyth the Carthaginiēs finished. greate glorye triumphed: and from that tyme was he called Africanus. Thus was the seconde battail with the Carthagidiens finished in the .xix. yere after the first commencement therof. ¶ (⸫) ⁋

¶ The fourth booke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

WHen the battaile a­gainst the Cartha­giniens was finy­shed, there ensued battaile in Macedo­nie agaynst Phillip who was kig ther. In the .ccccc. and .li. yere after ye buil­dinge of the Citye Titus Quintius Flaminius was sent againste kyng Titus Quintius Flaminius sent agaīst Phillip. Phillip, and hadde good successe. He graunted peace to Phillip vpō these conditions: That he shuld not make war vpon any of those cities whyche were by ye Romains receiued vnder Peace graunted to Phillip protection: y he should moreouer re­store al such Romains as he had takē prisoners, & such as had fled also frō thē to him: & that he should kepe but l. ships only: the residue of his fleete he shuld deliuer vp to the Romains. [Page] Furthermore, that he shoulde yerely by the space of .x. yeres, pay to the ro­maynes .iiii. M. pounds of siluer, and deliuer him his sonne Demetrius for a pledge, for performance of these couenauntes. Titus Quintius wa­ged battel also agaynste the Lacede­monians, and vanquished their cap­taine Battayle a­gaynst the Lacedemonians. Nabides: who submitted hymselfe to Quintius vpon what condi­tyons he would. And as he returned Nabides yel­ded himselfe. thence homeward with great glory, there were led before hys charyotte, the worthy hostages whyche he had gotten, (that is to wete) Demetrius sonne to king Phillip, and Armenes Nabides hys sonne: After that the Macedonian battayle was finyshed, there ensued warre in Siria against Warre in Syria. kynge Antiochus: During the tyme that Publius Cornelius Scipio and Marcus Attilius Glabrio wer Con­suls. Pub. Corne. Scipio, and M. Attilius Glabrio Consuls. Annibal toke part wyth Antio­chus, forsakynge hys owne countrye [Page 37] for feare leaste that hys renuynge of battaile mighte seme to haue bene a breche of the league before made be­twene hys country men and the Ro­maynes. Marcus Attilius Glabria had good successe in Achaia: He in­uaded and tooke the tentes of kynge Antiochus by nyght▪ and put hym to flyght: and for that Phillip ayded the romaynes against Antiochus, he de­liuered vnto him his sonne Deme­trius. Demetrius restored to his farther kyng Phillyp. when Lucius Cornelius Sci­pio and Caius Lelius were consuls, Scipio who was also surnamed A­fricanus was sente vnto his brother Lucius Cornelius Scipio, then con­sull, to aide him against Antiochus: Anniball who was wyth Antiochus on hys syde, was dyscomfited in bat­tel vpon the sea. Afterwarde, Antio­chus Annibal dis­comfyted in battayl on the sea. hymselfe was put to flyghte in a very greate battaile, by Cornelius Scipio the Consul at Sipilus Mag­nesia a City of Asia. Eumenes king Antiochus put to flyght. [Page] Attalꝰ his brother, who builded Eu­menia in Phrigia, aided ye Romains in ye battail. There wer slain in that battaile on king Antiochus his side, l. M. footemen, and .iiii. M horsmen. Then king Antiochus desired peace, whych the Senate graunted hym vpon Antiochus desired peace. the same conditions as they dyd tofore, (thoughe he was nowe ouer­come:) which was that he shoulde a­uoid forth of Europe and Asia, & me­dle no farther but wythin ye precinet of Taurus: Moreouer ye he shoulde geue to the Romains .x. M. talentes, and .xxx. pledges for thassurans of his promesse. And finally that he should deliuer Anniball to them, who had bene the only procurer of ye battaile. Then the Senate gaue to Eumenesal The libe­rality of the Romaynes. those cities of Asia which Antiochꝰ had lost in battel: and diuers other cities wer also graūted to ye Rhodians for yt they had assisted the Romains against Antiochꝰ. Scipio thē returned [Page 28] to Rome, and with great glory triū ­phed: and obtained also a surname like as his brother had before: which Scipio triumphed, & was called Asiati­cus. was, to be called Asi [...]a [...]ꝰ for the sub­duīg of Asia, like as his brother was called Africanꝰ for that he conquered Affrick. When S. Posthumiꝰ Albinꝰ and Q. Martiꝰ Philippꝰ wer Cōsuls, Marcꝰ Fuluius triumphed ouer the S. Posthu­mius Albinꝰ, and Q Martius Philip­pus Consuls [...]etolians. Assone as Antiochꝰ was ouercome, (Annibal fearing least he should be deliuered to the Romains) fled to Prusias kinge of Bythinia: at Anniball fled to Prusias kyng of Bi­thinia. whose hands he was required again by T Quintus Flaminiꝰ. Whervp­on, when he saw ther was no reme­dy, but that he shoulde come into the handes of the Romaines: he dranke Annibal poy­sonned hymselfe. poysone, and so died: and lyeth bury­ed at Lybissa, whiche is in the bor­ [...]ers of the Nicomedienses. Sone af­ter Phillip died also: who had bothe [...]varred agaynst the Romaynes, and Phillip dyed. assysted them also against Antiochꝰ: [Page] Thē his sonne Perseus rebelles in Macedonie: where he had assembled a greate army readye appoynted and furnished for warre: whome Cotis Warre renu­ed in Macedony by Perseꝰ kyng there. king of Illiria, aided against the Ro­maines. But the Romaines had to assyst them, Eumenes king of Asia: Atlarates kinge of Cappadocia: An­tiochus kynge of Syria, Ptolomeus king of Egipte: and Masinisla kynge of Numidia. But Prusias kynge of Bithinia, although he had espoused the sister of Perseꝰ, yet he demeaned himself indifferently betwene bothe partes, helping neither of thē bothe. Publius Licinius who was then Consul, was deputed captayn on the P Licinius the Consull vanquyshed. Romains side, and was vanquished by the kinge, in a great battaile. Yet would not the Romaines graunt the kinge peace when he desired it, (all though they them selues had sustained the ouerthrowe at his handes,) but vppon condition that he woulde [Page 39] submit him selfe, and all his, to the Senate and the people of Rome. Sone after, Lucius Emilius Paulꝰ the Consull was sent againste him, L. Emilius Paulus Consull. and Caius Anitius the Pretor was sente into Illyria againste Gentius. But Gentius was easely ouercome in one battail: and shortly after, yel­ded himselfe. His mother, his wyfe, hys two sonnes and his brother, wer taken prisonners by the Romaynes. And thus wythin the space of .xxx. dayes, was that battayle ended. For the Romaines knew that they shuld haue the vpper hande ouer Gentius or euer that they had ioyned battayle wyth him. Paulus Emilius the Cō ­sul, fought with Perseus the fourthe Perseus o­uercome. day of Septēber and ouercame him. There were then slaine on Perseus his side .xx. M. fotemen. But ye whole troupe of horse men remained safe with the king. The Romains lost in that battaile a hundreth souldiours. [Page] All the cityes of Macedonie whyche the kynge possessed, submytted themselues to the Romaines. The kynge when he vnderstode, ye his frends had forsaken him, yelded himself to Paulus Perseus yel­ded hymself to the Ro­maynes. Emilius, by whō he was entre­ted honorably, & not as a vanquished man. For when the king wold haue prostrate himself at Paulꝰ his feete, he did not onli refuse that he shuld so Notable cle­mency of E­milius. submit himselfe, but placed him in a chaire fast besides him. He graunted ye Macedonians and the Illyrians, yt they should from thence forwarde befre. And that they should be charged with the payment but of thone moi­ty of those tributes and impositions whyche they were before assessed to paye to theyr kinges: To the ende it mighte appeare, that the Romaines The Romai­nes contented myndes wyth smal lucre. warred more for equity (& iustice, thē for auarice and desire of luere: which words, Paulꝰ pronounced a great assemble of people: and at that time he [Page 40] desired thambassadors of sondry na­tions which were with him to an ex­ceding sumptuous feast: affirming yt it appertained to a man to shew himself not only victorious in battayle, but that it was also sitting for him to be neat and expert in feastynge and entertaining of straūgers. Sone af­ter, he receiued againe vnder obey­saunce .lxx. cityes of Epirus, whyche before had rebelled. He distributed ye spoyle among the souldiours. Then returned he again to Rome, in a ship of king Perseus, whiche was repor­ted to be of a meruelous greatnesse, so y as the report went, it had .xvi. rowes of ores. He triūphed royally, ca­ried in a golden chariote with his .ii. sonnes standyng on eche side of him. Ther werled before his chariot, the kings .ii. sons & Perseꝰ himself being Emilius tri­umphed. of thage of .xlv. yeres. Ther folowed lying in y triūph Caiꝰ Anitius, who then also triūphed ouer y Illirians.

[Page] Gentius and his brother, and hys sonnes, were led before his charyot. There came to Rome kynges for the of sondrye countries to beholde thys sight. Amonge whome wer Attalus In what ad­miratyon the Romaines were had of straungers. and Eumenes kinges of Asia, and Prusias king of Bithinia, who were receiued and entreted by ye Romains very honorably: and through the permissyon and sufferaunce of the Se­nate, the giftes and presents whiche they brought with them, were set vp in the Capitoll. And Prusias cōmit­ted his sonne Nicomedes to the go­uernment and ordering of the Sena­tors. In the yeare folowing, Lucius Manlius fought a battaile in Spain, wyth good successe. And after hym, Marcellus the Consull hadde good chaunce there also. Then was the thirde battaile taken in hand against the Carthaginiens, in the yere after The thyrde battail agaīst the Carthaginiens. the building of Rome, sixe hundreth and one: at which time, Lucius Manlius [Page 41] Censorinus, and Marcus Man­lius were Consuls: whiche in the .li. yere after that the second battaile a­gainst them was finished. The Con­suls toke then their viage to inuade Carthage. Asdruball a captain of the Carthaginiens was sente forthe a­gainst them, and Famea an other of theyr captaines had the conductynge of the horsmen: At that time, Scipio who was neue we to Scipio Africa­nus, was by the Romaynes deputed generall of the army. Hym did al the army bothe reuerence and feare. For why, he was a captaine passing redy Notable cō ­mendation of Scipio. in battail, and therwithal very cyr­cumspect. Through whose pollicyes the Consuls atcheued many thinges very fortunately. And there was no­thing that ether Asdrubal or Famea so much sought to auoid, as they did to fight against that wing of the Ro­maine Misinissa de­ceased. armye where Scipio was. A­boute this time, died Misinissa, who [Page] was in league wyth the Romaynes, after that he had liued .lxxxxvii. yeres and lefte behinde him .xliiii. sonnes. Amonge whome, he appoynted Sci­pio, to distribute his kingdōe. No we when as the name and renowne of Scipio waxed famous, he was crea­ted Consul, being as yet but a yong man: and was sent forthe to assaulte Carthage. He wan it and pluckte it Carthage as­saulted by Scipio. downe to the ground. Suche spoyles as he founde there, (whych the Car­thaginiens before time had gottē at the subuersion of diuers Cities,) to­gether wyth the monuments of son­dry townes of Sicilie, he restored a­gain to those cityes, from whence ye said spoils wer taken: Amōg which, euery city knew such things as som­time had ben their owne. Thus was Carthage ouerthrown in the .vii. C. yere after that it was first built. Sci­pio Scipio meri­ted to be cal­led Africanus the yonger. merited to haue the name which hys graundfather before him wan, [Page 42] (whych was, for his valiantnes and prowesse to be called Affricanus the yonger.) In this mean space, one v­surping falsly vpon him the name of Phillip, attēpted war against ye. Ro­mains in Macedonic: & gaue Publiꝰ Iuuencius pretor of Rome, the ouer­throw, who was sent against hym: & Iuuencius discomfyted. made such slaughter of his men, that skāt he let one eskape a liue of al hys army. After him, Q. Ceciliꝰ Metellꝰ was deputed captain, & sent forth a­gainst this fals named Phillip. Who when he had slain .xxv. M. of his mē, recouered Macedonie, and toke pry­sonner the sayde Phillippe. At this tyme warre was also proclaymed a­gaynste Corinthus, the worthiest ci­tye of all Grece, for thal they had in­iuried Corinthus ouer throwne. the Legates of the Romains. Mummius the Consull wan it, and pluckte it downe to the ground. And so were ther thre notable triumphes Thre tryum­phes at ones at Rome. had together at one tyme at Rome. [Page] The one by Scipio, forth of Affrick: before whose chariot Asoruball was led. An other, by Metellus forthe of Macedonie, before whose charyotte Andriscus was led, whiche was that false named and counterfaited Phil­lip. The third triumph was by Mū ­mius ouer the Corinthiaus: before whome were caried the brasen en­signes, and painted tables, and other the ornaments of that moste famous city. There was yet againe another, who falfly named himselfe Perseus in Macedonie: affirminge that hee was sonne to that other Perseus of whome we spake before: whē he had assembled an armye of bondmen, to the nomber of .xvii. M. men of armes he was conquered by Tremillus the Perseus con­quered by Tremillus. Questor. At the same time, Metellꝰ atcheued notable enterprises in Bis­kay awong the Spanyardes. Quin­tus Pompeius succeaded him there. And not long after, Quintus Cepio [Page 43] was also sent forth againste one Vi­riatus, which waged battail in Por­tugale againste the Romaines. But Battaile in Portugale by one Viriatus Viriatus his men, dreadinge ye force of the Romaines, slewe Viriatus: which was he that had stirred vp the Spaniards to warre against the Ro­maines, by the space of xiiii. yeares. This Viriatus was first a shepherd, sone after, he became a Captayne a­monge robbers and theues: And at ye laste, he stirred vp suche nations to warre againste the Romaines, that he became to be called Protector of Spaine againste the Romaines.

Then they who slewe this Vi­riatus, The Romai­nes detested treason. demaunded of Cepio the Cō ­sull, what reward they shoulde haue for their fact. Who answered that it neuer pleased the Romains, to haue any captaine slaine by his own soul­dioures. Q. Pompeiꝰ the Consul ouercome Then was Quintus Pom­peius, who was also Consul, discom­fited by the citezens of Numantia: [Page] whiche was the worthiest Citye of Spain: and made with thē a reproch­ful peace. After him Caius Hostilius I reprochfull league. Mancinus the Consull, made againe with the Numantines, an infamous Caius Hosti­liꝰ Mancinꝰ the Consull dyscomfyted. league. But the Senate & people of Rome, cōmaunded forthwith that y peace shuld be infringed, & that Man­cinus should be deliuered to his ene­mies, to thend they might wreke the iniury of the breche of peace on hym who was ye autor of making ye same. After this so great infamye, that the people of Rome wer twise discōfited by the Numantines, Publius Scipio P. Scipio Consul. (who was also named Affricanus,) was created Consul the second time: and was sent to Numātia: He by ex­ercising and wel trading vp the Ro­maine Souldioures rather then by punishinge them, refourmed theym very wel, who through the guidinge of euill captaines were now become slouthfull and cowardly. Sone after [Page 44] be gotte manye cityes in Spayne: of which, some he wan in battayl: some were yelded vp to hym. At lengthe, after that he had of long time besye­ged Numantia, he famished it, and so wan it. The residue of that prouince, he receiued vnder protection. At that time, Attalus king of Asia brother to kynge Eumenes died, and made the people of Rome his heire: And so by Testament was Asia annexed to the Empire of the Romaines. Not long after, Decimus Iunius Brutus, tri­umphed with greate glorye ouer the Calesianes and the Portugals: and Publius Scipio Africanus had hys seconde triumphe whiche was ouer the Numantines in the .xiiii. yere af­ter that he had firste triumphed ouer Affricke. In this meane space, Ari­stonicus sonne to Eumenes whome Warre in A­sia by Aristo­nicus. he begat vpon his concubine stirred vp warre in Asia. That Eumenes was brother to kyng Attalus.

[Page] There was sene against this Aristo­nicus, Publius Lucinius Crassus, who was aided of sondrye kinges. For whye, Nicomedes kinge of By­thinia, Mithridates king of Pontus, (betwene whome and the Romains was waged afterwardes most sharp and cruel warre), Ariarathes kynge of Cappadocia, and Pilemenes king of Paphlagonia assisted the Romai­nes. Howe be it, Crassus was ouer­come and slaine in that bataile, hys head was stricken of and brought to Crassꝰ slayn. Aristonicus: and his body was buri­ed at Smirne. Afterward Perpemia Consull of Rome, (who succeaded Crassus) hearinge of the successe of the battaile, hasted towardes Asia: he vanquished Aristonicus in battail Aristonicus vanquyshed. and enforced him to flee to the citye Stratonice: where famishinge hym he caused him to yelde. This Aristo­nicus was thratled in prisone by the commaundement of the Senate, for [Page 45] that Perpenna coulde not tryumphe Perpenna the Consul dyed. ouer him, because he died at Troye, by the waye as he retourned home­wardes. Lucius Cecilius Metellus, and Titus Quintius Flaminius be­ing L. Cecilius Metellus & T. Quintius Flaminius Consuls. Carthage reedefyed. Consuls, Carthage was by the commaundement of the Senate ree­dified in Africke: (which doth yet to this daye remaine) in the .xxii. yeare after that it was ouerthrowen by Scipio. Thither wente dyuers Citi­zens of Rome to dwell, In the .vi. C. and .xxvii. yere after the buyldinge of the city of Rome, Caius Cassius Lō ­ginus, and Sextus Domitius Cal­uinus, were created Consuls. They waged battayle agaynst the French­men, Battayle a­gaynste the Frenchmen. which inhabited on the farther side of the Alpes: and agaynste the mooste noble city of the Auernians: and against Bituitus kynge there. They slew an infinite multitude of A greate slaughter by the Romai­ne of frenche men. frenchmen, fast by ye riuer of Roane. There was broughte to Rome a [Page] great tresor of the very chains only, which wer gottē at the despoiling of ye frenchmen. Bituitꝰ yelded himself to Domitiꝰ, and was by him brought vnto Rome: & with great glory both the Consuls triūphed. When Marcꝰ M. Portius Cato, and Q. Mar [...]ius Consul. Portiꝰ Cato, & Quintꝰ Martiꝰ Rexwer Consuls, which was in the .vi. c. and .xxxiii. yere after the building of the city of Rome, Narbona in Fraū ­ce, Narbona in­habited. was inhabited and stored wyth people. Afterwarde when Luciꝰ Me­tellus and Quintus Mutius Sceuo­la L. Metellus and Q. Mu­tius Sceuola Consuls. were Consuls, they triumphed o­uer a great part of Slauonia, which is now called Dalinatia. In the vi .c. and .xxxv. yere after the buildynge of the citye of Rome, Caius Cato then Caius Cato Consul. Consul, warred against the Scordis­cians, wyth great reproche to hym. When Caius Cecilius Metellꝰ, and The two Metelli try­umphed. Ca. Cecilius Metellus. & Cne. Carbe Censuls. Cneus Carbo wer Consuls, the two brothers Metelli triumphed both in one day. The one ouer Thracia, and [Page 46] the other ouer Sardinia. About that tyme, newes came to Rome, that the Danes and people of Norway were The Danes aryued in I­taly. ariued in Italye. When Publiꝰ Sci­pio Nasica and Lucius Calphurnius Bestia were Consuls, warre was P. Scipio Nasica, & L. Calphurnius Bestia Con­suls. waged agaynste Iugurthe kynge of the Numidians, for that he had slain Adherbal and Hiempsal, Micipsa his sonnes, and brothers to Iugurthe, whyche were eache of them kynges and frendes to the Romains. There W [...] agaynst Iugurth. was sent agaynst him, Calphurnius Bestia the Consull: who beinge cor­rupted wyth money which the kyng gaue hym, concluded a dysworship­full peace wyth him: whiche was by the Senate forthe wyth infrynged a­gayne. In the yeare folowyng, Spu­rius Albinus Posthumius was also sent agaynste Iuxsgurth: who foughte likewyse agaynste the Numidians with greate dishonoure, committing the battaile to his brothers guiding. [Page] Then thirdlye there was deputed to goo against him, Quintus Cecilius Metellus the Consul, who reformed Q. Cecilius Metellus Consuil. the armye with greate sobrietye and wisdom: vsing no manner of rigour or cruelty to any man: but by lenitye reduced them to the valiant courage of the Romayns. He discomfited Iu­gurth in sondrye battailes: He slewe and tooke all his Elephantes: and when he was now at the very poynt Iugurth dis­comfyted. to haue finished hys battayls, Caius Marius succeded him, and ouercame bothe Iugurthe, and also Bocchus kyng of Mauritania, who assisted Iugurth. Iugurth and Bocchus vanquyshed. He wan sondry towns in Nu­midia, and so finished hee those bat­tayles: Then Iugurth was taken by Lucius Sylla lieuetenaunt general of the army: a man of greate prow­esse and stoute courage, to whome Bocchus delyuered Iugurth: whose Iugurth ta­ken. part before he had taken agaynst the Romaynes. At this tyme theese try­umphes [Page 47] were had at Rome. One, by Marcus Iunius who vanquished the Danes in Fraunce. An other, by Mi­nutius Rufus, who ouercame the Scordiscians and Triballiās in Ma­cedonie. And an other by Seruilius Fiue tryum­phs at Rome together. Cepio, who subdued the Portugales in Spayn: and two other triumphes whyche were gotten ouer Iugurth. The one by Metellus, and the other by Marius. But Iugurthe with hys two sonnes was led prysoner before the charyot of Marius fettred in Iugurth thratled in pryson. chains: and within a while after, he was by the cō ­maundement of ye Consuls thrat­led in pry­son. ¶ (⸫) ⁋

¶ The fyfthe booke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

IN ye meane while that battaile was waged in Numi­dia agaynste Iu­gurth the Romain Consuls Marcus M. Manliꝰ and Q. Ce­pio Consuls. Manlius and Quintus Cepio were ouercome by the Danes, the Almai­nes, the Swysers, and Ambroues: whiche (were people of Germanye, and Fraunce.) They had thys ouer­throw fast besides the riuer of Roan: where was made so greate slaugh­ter of them, that there eskaped skant one away a liue. And well nigh they had loste at that time, theyr tentes A great ouer throw of the Romaynes. and the most parte of theyr armye. Here vppon, so greate feare inuaded the Romaines, as vnneathe they su­stained the like whilest Anniball li­ued, [Page 48] and the Carthaginian battayle yet endured: (doubtynge not a lyt­tle, leaste the Frenche men shoulde agayne haue gotten the Citye of Rome).

Where vppon, Marius after that Marius as­sined to fight battaile with the Danes. he hadde gotte the victorye ouer Iu­gurthe, was created Consull the se­conde tyme, and appoynted to goo forthe to battayl agaynst the Danes and Almaynes: And for that this battayle with the dayes contynued still, he was made Consul the thirde and fourthe time also. But in the fourthe yeare of his Consulshyppe, Quintus Luctatius Catulus was deputed to be his collegue. Where vppon, he ioyned battayle wyth the Danes: and in two battayles he slewe two hundreth thousande of The Danes greatiye dis­com [...]yeed. hys ennemyes. He tooke foure skore thousande prysonners: and their cap­tayne Theutobodus wyth them pri­sonners.

[Page] For whyche facte, he was in hys ab­sence, made Consul the fifth time. In this while, the Danes and Almains of whome there remayned as yet great store in those parties, wer pas­sed ouer into Italy: with whom Ca­ius Marius, and Quintus Catulus encountred agayne: but the matter fell forthe more luckely on Catulus his side. For in that battayle whyche Marius and Catulus fought ioyntly together, there were slayne of theyr aduersaries, (what in fighte, & what as they fled,) to the noumber of a C. and .xl. M. men. And there wer taken prisonners lx. M. besides. And of the Romayne souldioures, were slain of eyther army, no mo but .ccc. men on­ly. There were won in that battayle from the Danes .xxxiii. auncients: of The battayle wyth the Dance and Almaynes fi­nyshed. Bothe the Consuls try­umphed. whiche Marius hys hoste wan two, and Catulus hys armye .xxxi. Thus was that battayle finished, and a tri­umphe graunted too eyther of the [Page 49] Consuls. When Sextus Iulius Ce­sar and Lutius Martius Philippus were Consuls, in the .vi. C .l. and lr. S. Inlius Cesar, and L. Martiꝰ Phi­lippus Con­suls. yere after that the citye was built, & that now all other battayles were almost fully ended, the Picentines, the Scithians, and the Pelignians be­gan a greuous battaile in Italy: who A greuous battayl in I­taly. when of longe time they had beene subiect, and vnder the obeysaunce of the Romaynes, they began nowe to clayme equall and like libertye with the Romaynes them selues. Thys was a very daungerous battayle. In it Publius Rutilius the Consull slain. Cepio a worthy yong man and P. Rutilius, and Portiꝰ Cato Cōsuls and Cepioslayne. Portius Cato the other consul were slayne also: Captaines agaynste the Romaines on the Picentines and Seythians side, wer Titus Vietius, Hierus Asinius, Titus Herennius, and Aulus Cluentius. And Caius Marius on the behalf of the Romai­nes, Marius vi. times Consul a rowe. sought against them with exce­ding [Page] prosperous fortune. Mariꝰ had now bene .vi. times Consull. There was sent with him also Cneꝰ Pōpeiꝰ But especially among other, L. Cor­neliꝰ Sylla wrought at ye time nota­ble feats: Among which his famous gests, this is one worthy to be had in mory: yt he discomfited in suche sort ye army of Cluentiꝰ which was very populous, yt of his own men, he lost not one. This war continued by ye space of. 4. yeres, not without great dama­ge and losse to either party. At last, it was finished in the. 5. yeare after it was first cōmenced, by L. Coruelius L. Coruelius Sylla Con­sul. Sylla then Consul: who in the same battail, worthelye behaued hymselfe sondrye wayes, when as yet he was but pretor. In the .vi. C. and .xlii. yere after the buildinge of the city, began The fyrst ci­uil battayl at Rome. the first ciuil battaile in Rome: And that same yere also, began ye battaile against Mithridates. Thoccasion of Battayle a­gaynst Mi­thridates. the ciuil battaile proceded of Caius [Page 49] Mariꝰ who had ben .vi. times Cōsul. Marius causer of ye fyrste ciuil warre at Rome vppon indignation takē, that Silla was preferred to fight yt batail against Mithridates For when Silla (who was now Cō ­sul,) was sent forth to war agaynste Mithridates, (who had alredy gotten Asia & Achaia,) & stayed his army for a while in Cāpania, Mariꝰ (to thend the memory of ye battel which before Silla and he waged ioyntly in Italy, myght be extinguished and decaye,) made iaboure to the Senate that he might himself alone haue ye ordering and disposinge of that battaile so at­tempted against Mithridates. Wher vppon Sylla conceyuing displesure, retourned againe backe to the Citye withall his army, and foughte there against Marius and Sulpitius. Hym selfe firste entred the citye of Rome, Sulpitius slayn, & Marcus put to flyghte. and slewe there Sulpitius: and forst Marius to fle thence. And so whē he had appointed Cneus Octauius and Lucius Cornelius Cinna to be Con­suls Cne. Octauius. & L. Cornelius Cinna Consuls. for the yeare following, he toke his iourney towarde Asia.

[Page] For Mithridates kynge of Pontus, had gotten nowe bothe Armenia the lesse, and al the sea called Ponticum in compasse, and Bosphorus also. This Mithridates would firste haue driuen Nicomedes forth of Bithinia, The prefence of Mithrida­tes battayle. who was frende to the Romaines: And vpon that, gaue the Romayns to vnderstand that he woulde make warre vpon the sayd Nicomedes, for that he had sondrye wayes endoma­ged The assured frendshyp of the Romains him. To whōe the Senate made answer, that if it wer so that he war­red against Nicomedes, he should also feele the force of the Romaynes. Whervpon Mithridates beinge mo­ued with anger, forthwith inuaded all Cappadocia, and expulsed from thense, king Ariobarsanes, who was friend to the Romaines. Sone after, be set vppon Bythinia and Paphla­gonia, and exiled thence Pilemenes and Nicomedes who were kynges there, and likewise frends to the Ro­maines. [Page 51] From thence he went to E­phesus, and sent letters throughe all Asia, that where so euer any citezens of Rome might be found, they shuld be all slaine forthe of hande. In the mean space Athenes a city of Achaia Athens yel­ded [...]o mithri­dates. was yelded vp to Mithridates by one Ariston an Athenien. For Mi­thridates had all readye sent Arche­laus hys captain with a. C. and .xx. M horsmen and foremen to ouer runne and bringe all Greee in subiectyon. Sylla be sieged Archelaꝰ at Pireneꝰ, not far from Athens, and wanne the citye. Afterwarde, he ioyned battayle with Archelaus: in whyche he discō ­fited him in suche sorte, that of hys C. and .xx. M. men, skant .x. were lefte Great discomfyture of my­thridates. a liue with Archelaus: and of Sylla his armye, were slaine but .xiiii. per­sons onlye. When Mithridates had vnderstāding of thys chaunce of bat­taile, forth of hand, he sent to Arche­laus .lxx. M. well appoynted menne, [Page] whome he chose as chefest throughe out all Asia. Against whō, Silla fou­ght again. And in the first battayl he slewe .xx. M. of his enemies, and Dio­genes also. Archelaus his sonne. In Diogenes Archelaus hys sonne slayne. the seconde battayle, all the whole force and power of Mithridates was quyte discomfited. Archelaus himself was constrayned to flye, and to hyde hymselfe naked in the fennes and Archelaus narrowly es­kaped. maryshes by the space of thre dayes, when Mithridates hearde theese ty­dynges, he began to treat wyth Syl­la for peace. In this while also Sylla had partlye subdued in battayle, and Mithridates desired peace. partlye receiued againe vnder obey­saunce, the Dardanians, the Scor­discians, the Sclauonians, and the Moesians. But when the Legates were come from Mithridates to him whyche desired peace, Sylla answe­red that he would not graunte peace in anye wyse, vnlesse the kyng wold departe thence to hys owne country, [Page 51] and yelde vppe suche Prouinces as he nowe deteyned there. Neuerthe­lesse, Peace concluded betweene Mithridates and the Ro­maynes. at lengthe bothe the partyes them selues came to talk, and peace was concluded betwene theym. For Silla feared leaste that if he shoulde retourne to represse the ciuil warres at Rome, he shoulde also stande in ieoperdye of inuasion, at hys backe by Mithridates.

For durynge thys whyle that Silla warred vppon Mithridates in Asia and Achaia, Marius (whome Silla hadde before constrayned to flee the citye,) and Cinna one of the Consuls, renued battaile in Italye, and entrynge into the city of Rome, they slewe the mooste noble menne Marrius his great crueity. of the Senate and Consuls: and ma­nye they banished. They despoyled Silla hys house, and draue hys wyfe and hys sonnes, to flye foorthe of the Citye.

[Page] All the residue of the Senate, lea­uing the city of their own acord, fled to Sylla into Grece: and besoughte him, that he woulde without farther delaye succoure his countrye. Sylla Sylla retourned to pa [...]ifye things in Italy, du [...]ynge whyche tyme marius dyed. therfore forthwith transposed his ar­my from thence into Italy: minding to wage a ciuil battaile against Nor­bane and Scipio the Consulles. He foughte the first battaile with Nor­bane Narbane and Scipio Con­suls. not farre from Capua, where he slew vii. thousand of Norban hys army: and toke vi. M. prisonners: and lost of his owne men, to the nomber of a. C. and .xxiiii. souldyours. From thence, he turned his armye agaynst Scipio: and or euer they cam to han­dye gripes, all Scipio his armye yel­ded them selues to Sylla without a­ny bloudshed. Then were the Con­suls chaunged at Rome: and Marius Marius, and Papiriꝰ Carbo Consuis. sonne to that other Mariꝰ, (who was causer of this ciuil warre) and Papi­rius Carbo were made Cousuls. [Page 53] Sylla foughte againste Marius the yonger, and slewe .xv. M. of his men, and lost .cccc. of his own. Sone after, he entred the city: and p [...]rsuing yōg Marius vnto Preneste, besieged him there, and slewe him. He had agayne Marius the yonger slayn. an other battaile with Lamponius & Carinates, which were captains on Marius his side, at Collina gate. There were by reporte assembled in that battaile againste Silla .lxxx. M. of whiche .xii. M. yelded them selues to Silla. The residue what in fight, what in their tents, and as they fled, were all slaine, through the insacya­ble hastinesse of the conquerors. In like manner Cnous Carbo the other Consul fled from Ariminus into Si­cilie: Cne. Carbo Consul. where he was slaine by Pom­peius: whiche Pompeius beynge as then but of the age of .xx. yeres, Syl­la (for that he apperceiued hys prow­esse Cneus Car­bo the Con­sul flayn. and fiers courage,) deputed to be lieuetenaunte ouer his garryson, to [Page] the ende he should be had in estima­tyon next after hymself. Thus when Carbo was slayn, Pompeius appea­sed Siliice paci­fyed. Sicilie, and departing frō thense towardes Affricke, he slewe Domiti­us a captayne of Marius hys syde, and Hiarbas kynge of Mauritanie who ayded Domitius. After theese thynges, Sylla triumphed ouer Mi­thridates Sylla triumphed ouer Mithridates wyth great glorye. Cneus Pompeius also (whych was neuererst graunted to anye Romayn,) be­ynge but .xxiiii. yeres of age, trium­phed ouer Affricke. Thus were fi­nyshed two moste deadly battayles: the Italyan battayl: (whiche was also called the war betwene confede­rates and allyes,) and the ciuyl war. Both which, endured by the space of x. yeres, whiche battayles consumed aboue an. C. and .l. M. souldyoures, xxiiii. Consuls .vii. Pretors, xl. Edi­les, and wel nyghe. CCC. Senators besides.

¶ The syxthe booke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

WHen Marcus Emi­lius Lepidus, and Quintus Catulus were Consuls, and Sylla had now ap­peased and sette in order the weal publique, battayles grew agayn a fresh. One in Spaine: An other in Pam­philia and Cilicia. The third in Ma­cedonie: The fourthe in Sclauonia. For whye Sertorius, who toke part Four battel in sondry pla­ces at one tyme agaynst the romayns. wyth Marius, fearynge what should become of hym, for that hee sawe what hadde betyded to others of the same factyon, styrred vp the Spani­ardes to battayle agaynste the Ro­maynes.

[Page] Quintus Cecilius Metellus, sonne of that Metellus which subdued king Iugurth, and Domitius the Pretor were sent forthe captaines agaynste him. Domitius was slayne by Hyr­tuleius captain of Sertoriꝰ his host. Domitius slayne. Metellus fought with Sertoriꝰ hymself with greate vncertaintye of for­tune. But at lengthe when the Se­nate Pompeius sente to ayde Metellus a­gainst Sertorius. sawe rhat Metellus was ouer­matched in battayle by Sertorius, they sent Cneus Pompeius also into Spaine: and so Sertorius fought a­gainste bothe those captaines of hys aduersaries with greate varietye of fortune. But at laste, in the eyghte yere after that the battaile was firste begon, Sertorius was slayne by hys Sertorius slaine by his owne souldy­oures. own souldioures, and so that battail was finished by Cneus Pompeius, (who was as yet but a yong mā) and Quintus Metellus Pius. And well nigh all Spaine submitted them sel­ues to the Romaines at that tyme. [Page 55] Appius Claudius after that his Cō ­sulship was expired, was sente into Macedonie. He fustained but easye battailes againste diuers whiche in­habiied Thracia: and there fallynge sicke, dyed. There was sente to suc­cede Appius Clau­dius dyed. him, Cncus Scriboniꝰ Eurio, so soone as he had likewise finyshed his Consulship. He subdued the Dar danianc, and passed forwarde tyll be came to the riuer Danubius, and merited a triumphe: and within .iii. yeres he finished his battailes. Then was Publius Seruilius sente into Cilicia and Pamphylia. This Ser­uilius (taking him for a Consul) was a passyng stout and valiant man. He subdued Cilicia. He assaulted & wan the worthiest cities of Licia: among which, these were some, Phalilides, Olimpus, and Coritū. And wythin a while after, he gaue the assaulte to Isauros an other citye, and enforced it to yeld, and within .iii. yeres space, [Page] He finyshed those battayle▪ He was the fyrste Romayne that made anye viage to Taurus. When he retour­ned P. Seruiliꝰ the fyrste Romain whyche made any vi­age to Taurꝰ thence, he tryumphed, and meri­ted the name to be called Isauricus. Aboute the same tyme, was Caius Cosconius also sente into Illiria, in Seruiliꝰ tryumphed, and was called I sanricus. the Consuls steade. He broughte in subiectyon a greate part of Sclauo­nia. He wanne Salone, and when he hadde finyshed thys battayle, he re­tourned to Rome after that he had beene absent thence, by the space of two yeares. At the same tyme, the Consull Marcus Emilius Lepidus, M. Emilius Lepidus Consul. who was collegue to Catulus, wold haue commenced a ciuyl war. Howe Ciuyl warre pretended a­gayn. be it that vproure was appeased a­gayne wythin one sommers space. Thus were .iiii. sondrye tryumphes had at Rome together at one tyme. The one by Metellus ouer Spayne, Four trium­phes at Rome together. the other by Pompeius, (& that was hys seconde triumphe) ouer Spayne [Page 55] also. The thyrd by Curio, ouer Macedonie. The fourthe and last, by Ser­uilius ouer the Isaurians. In the sixe hundreth three skore and sixtene yere after the building of the city of Rome, Lucius Licinius Lucullus, L. Licinius Lucullꝰ, and M. Aureliꝰ Cotta Con­suls. and Marcus Aurelius Cotta beyng Consuls, Nicomedes king of Bithi­nia died: and appoynted by his testa­ment Romaines to be hys heyres. About this time Mithridates (infrin­ging the league before made,) wold haue again inuaded Asia & Bithinia, War renued by Mithri­dates. but the Consuls wer forthwith sent against him, & of long time they experimēted vncertain fortune in battell. Mithridates ouercam Cotta in fight Chalcedon, & forced him ye city, wher Cotta the Cō sul dyscomfy­ted. he besieged hym. But when Mithri­dates remoued hys power frō thence towardes Cizicus, (thinkynge that if he hadde ones gotten Cizicus hee myght easly inuade al Asia,) Lucullꝰ thother Consul encoūtred with him. [Page] And whilest that Mithridates stayed to lay siege to Cizicus, Lucullus had enuironed him behinde: and so kee­pynge him from comminge by vyt­tails, vanquished him in sondry skir­mishes. At that time he eskaped and fled to Bizantiū: (which is now cal­led Constantinople,) his captaynes Mithridates discomlyted. were discomfited in battail vpon the sea. Thus in one winter and a som­mer space, Lucullus slew on the kin­ges side, wel nyghe an. C. M. meu. In the. Dc .lxxviii. yeare after y buil­dinge of the citye of Rome, Marcus Licinius Lucullus, who was cosyn germayne to that Lucullus whyche warred agaynste Mithridates, was deputed to haue the gouernment of Macedonie. At thys time sodainly in Italye a freshe battayle was begon. For why .lxxiiii. of those which were accustomed to play at wepons, (cal­led Battayle a fresh in Italy Gladiatores) brake forthe of the scholes at Capua, and made to them [Page 49] selues, Spartachus, Chrisus & De­nomannus. And as they roued throughe Italy, they commenced battayle there no lesse daungerous then was that other whyche before Anniball waged there. For when they had dis­comfited diuers Romain captaines, and the two Cōsuls also, they assem­bled an army well nigh of lx. M men wel appoynted. How be it, they wer ouercome in Apulia, by Marcus Li­cinius Crassus the Proconsull. And so after sondrye calamities sustained in Italye, this battayle was fiuyshed in the thirde yeare after that it was first begon. In the yere after that the city was built .vi. C .lxxxi. there were but only two great battayles waged within the Romain Empire, (that is Two battels only waged against the Romains throu­gh the world. to say) the battail against Mithrida­tes, and the battaile against the Ma­cedians, both which battails the two Lucullies, (which is to wit) Lucius Lucullus, & Marcus Lucullꝰ fought. [Page] For Lucius Lucullus after he had fi­nished the battail at Cizicꝰ, in which he ouercame Mithridates: and after the other battaile vppon the Sea, in whiche he vanquished the captaines of Mithridates, he pursued Mithri­dates hymselfe. And when he hadde recouered Paphlagonia and Bithi­nia, he inuaded Mithridates owne kingdome. He wan there Sinopes and Anisus, two of the mooste noble cityes of Pontus.

In the second battaile whych was waged at the citye Cabira, Mithri­dates hadde prouided .xxx. M. menne, Thyrty M. vanquyshed by .v. M. Romaynes. whome he did chuse and picke forthe throughe all hys kingdome, whyche when they were vanquished by v. M. of the Romaynes, Mithridates fled Mithridates fled. and hys tentes were sackt. The lesse Armenia likewise, whiche he hadde Armenia re­couered. gotten, was recouered agayne from hym. But Mithridates after he was thus fled, was receiued by Tigranes [Page 65] kynge of Armenia, who raygned at those dayes in great renowne. This Tigranes oft times had subdued the Persians. He wanne Mesopotamia, Mithridates succoured by kyng Tigra­nes. Siria, and a piece of Phenicia.

Sone after, Lucullꝰ required him to deliuer his ennemy, whom he had put to slyght. Whiche request when he withstode and denyed the deliue­rye of Mithridates, Lucullus forthe­with inuaded kynge Tigranes hys realme, and wanne there Tigra no­certa the chiefest citye of Armenia, and hauinge but .xviii. M. souldiours to ayde him, he gaue king Tigranes a passinge great ouerthrow, which Tigranes came againste hym wyth vi. M. men on barbed horsses, and an huddreth thousande Archers, besides other menne of armes. He slewe the A great ouerthrow of kīg Tigranes. greater parte of the Armenians, and remouynge from thence to Nisibis, looke that Citye also, and the kinges brother in it.

[Page] But they whome Lucullus had left behinde in Pontus with parte of hys armye, to the ende that they shoulde keepe vnder to the behoufe of the Romaynes suche people as he hadde all ready subdued there (demeanyng them selues very rechlesly, and with great cruelty) gaue oportunity to Mithridates Battayle re­nued by Mi­thridates. to inuade Poneus againe: and so battayle was renued there a freshe. Ther was one sent to succede Lucullusrwho after that he had won Nisibis, made preparatyon for hys viage againste the Persians. The o­ther Lucullus who had the gouern­mente of Macedonie, was the fyrste Romain that waged battail against the Bessians: whome he ouercame in a greate battaile vpon the hyll E­mus. Lucullus the fyrst Romain that waged battel against the Bessians Vscudama won. He wā also Vscudama: a town which the Bessians did inhabite the selfe same daye, that he gaue the as­sault to it. He toke in like maner the city Cabiles, and marched stil forthe [Page 51] til he came to the riuer Danubius. After that he inuaded diuers cityes Cabiles take Both the Lucullies triumphed. whiche were siiuate vppon the Sea coast of Pontus. There he destroyed Appollonia, and wan Calatis, Par­tenopolis, Tomos, Histrus, and all Buzia. And when those battails wer Battayle in Creete. finished, he retourned to Rome wher either of them triumphed. But yet ye Lucullus who had waged battail a­gainst Mithridates, triumphed wyth greater glorye, for that he retourned conqueror of such ample kingdoms. After the battayle was finyshed in Macedonie, the battayle agaynst Mi­thridates as yet endured: which bat­tail Mithridates renued, assembling together all the power and force of men he coulde make after that Lu­cullus was nowe departed backe. A­bout this time began there also bat­tayle in Creete, Cecilius Metellus was sente thyther, who after that he had fought great battailes ther, with [Page] in the space of .iii. yeares he wan the whol prouince, and for this fact was called Creticus. He triumphed ouer Crete won by Metellus, and he called Creticus. that Ilande. At this time also, Libia was by the bequest of Appio kynge there of, annexed to the Empire of ye Libia anexed to the Ro­main empyre by Appio. Romaines. In which prouince, these were the noblest Cities, Beronice, Ptoloneais, and Cyrene. Whyle these thynges were in hand, Pirates began to anoy the passengers throu­ghe those parties by sea. So that the Romaines who hadde subdued well nyghe all the whole worlde, wanted now nothing, sauing that they hadde not now safe course and recourse by the seas, where vppon that vyage a­gainst Battayle a­gainst the pi­rates committed to Cneus Pompeius. those pirates, was commytted to Cneue Pompeius, who wythin a few monethes space, finished it with great celerity, and no lesse derteritye of fortune.

Not long after, the same Pompei­us was also designed to go agaynste [Page 67] Mithridates, and Tigranes whyche viage when he had taken in hand, he ouercame Mithridates in battayl by Mithridates ouercome in battayle by nyghte. night in Armenia the lesse, & sackte his tentes. He slewe there .xl. M. of the kinges army, and lost of his own hoste, but .xx. menne, and two of his captaines. After this euyll successe, Mithridates fled being accompanied Mithridates fled. but wyth his wyfe & ii, other to wait vpon them, and eftsones in a tumult whyche fell amonge his souldioures through the procurement of his sōne Pharnaces, he was forsed to deathe, whiche he executed on him selfe by Mithridates poysoned himself. drinckinge of poyson. This ende had Mithridates: he died at [...]osphorus, a manne verye polliticke, and wittye wyth all. He raaigued .lx. yeres, he ly­ued three score and twelue yeres. He Mithridates hysage and tyme of hys raygne. warred agaynste the Romaynes by the space of forty yeres. Then Pom­peius adressed hys battaile agaynste Tigranes, who yelded hym selfe. Tigranes pursued. [Page] And so sone as he was entred within Pompeius hys tentes, whyche were pitched .xvi. myles dystante from Ar­taxata, he fell prostrate at Pompeius hys fete, and deliuered vp his crown into the handes of Pompeius: but Tigranes submytted hymselfe. Pompeius reposed it again vpon his head, and entreated hym verye wor­thely. Neuertheles, he depriued him of a portion of his kingdome, and as­sessed hym to pay a great summe of The worthi­nesse of Pompeius. mony besides. There was taken frō him Siria, Phenices, and Sophenes and he was assessed to paye .vi. M. ta­lents of siluer, for that he warred a­gaynst the Romains without cause. Not lōg after, Pompeius also made warre vpon the Albanes, and ouer­came War against the Albanes. Orodes king of th Albanes ouercome. Orodes kinge of the Albanes, in three sondry battails. But at last, beinge requested by letters and pre­sents, he bothe pardoned hym, and graunted hym peace. He ouercame Arthaces kyng of Ibe­ria vāquished in lyke manner Arthaces kynge of [Page 53] Iberia in fight, and at last, receyued him vnder allegeaunce. He gaue Ar­menia the lesse, to Deiotarus kynge Armenia ge­uen to Deio­tarus. of Galacia, for that he had aided hym in battaile againste Mithridates. He restored Paphlagonia to Attalꝰ, and Attalus and Pilemenes restored to theyr kyng­domes. Pilemenes. He deputed Aristarchus kyng ouer Colchos. Sone after, he o­uercame the Iturians and Arabiās. And when he cam into Siria, he en­fraunchised Seleucia, a citye situate Seleucia en­franchysed. A peece of neare to Antioche, for that they dyd not ayd, ne succour king Tigranes. He redeliuered to the Antiochians, their pledges whyche they gaue to hym. He gaue the Daphuenses a per cell of lande, for the enlargemente of theyr groues or copyes, for that hee was delighted with the pleasaunte site of that place, and the greate plentye of waters whych abounded ground geuen to the Daph­uenses. there.) From thence, he passed forthe takynge his waye towardes Iudea. And in the thyrde moneth after hys [Page] arriuinge there, he wan Ierusalem the chiefe citye of that countrey. He slew there .xii. M. Iewes, the residue he receyued vnder allegeaunce.

These things being thus finished, he wente into Asia, and so ended he the war, which had long continued. whē M. Cullius C i. and Caiꝰ Antonius Consuls. This Cicero was lireally descended frō the kinges of the Volsci [...], whyche were leng before ye city of Rome. a mā of singuler wy [...] & cle­mency, and of a passing z [...]l [...] te his coūtry he was called of the Father of his coūtry for yt he hadso studie [...]sly preserued it. He flouryshed a­bout xi. yeres before the Incarnatyon of Christ. Marcus Tullius the Orator, & Caiꝰ Antonius wer Consuls, in the .vi. C. lxxxix yere after the city was builte, Lucius Sergius Catiline, a mā des­cended of a noble stock, but yet of an euill disposityon, conspired wyth dy­uers other noble menne of like rash­nesse and naughtinesse as he was, Catiline was expulsed forthe of the city, by Cicero. His confederates wer apprehended and thratled in prison. Afterwarde Catiline himselfe was ouercome in battaile, and slayne by Antonius the other Consul.

In the six hundreth and ninetenth yeare after the buildinge of Rome. When Decius Iunius Sillanus, [Page 69] and Lucius Murena were Cansuls, Metellus triumphed ouer Crete, and Pompeius tryumphed for the bat­taile D. Iunius Sillanꝰ. and L. Murena Consuls. which he had ouer the Pirates on the sea, and for that other battaile whyche he waged wyth Mithrida­tes. The pompe and pride of no try­umphe, was euer lyke to that of Metellꝰ and Pompeius trfumphed. Pompeius. There were led before hys charyot, the sonne of Mithrida­tes, and the sonne of kynge. Tigra­nes, and Aristobulus kynge of the Iewes. Ther was caryed moreouer before hym greate store of wine: and an infinite deale of golde and siluer besides. At thys time, the Romaines waged no greate battayles through all the whole worlde.

In the sixe hund, eth nineteth, and thirde yeare after the buildynge of Ca. Iulius Cesar, and L. Bibulus tryumphed. the Citye, Caius Iulius▪ Cesar, who afterwarde became Emperour, was created Consull, and Lucius Bibu­lus with hym.

[Page] Fraunce was committed to hys go­uermēt, and the coast of Illiria (now called Sclauonia,) together wyth .x. legions of souldioures Fyrst he sub­dued the Heluetians whych are also called the Sequanes or Burgoniās. Then he passed forth stil conquering and subduing as he went, with gre­uous battayles, vntyll he came to the Englyshe Ocean sea. And with in the space of .ix. yeres, he broughte wel nyghe all Fraunce in subierty­on, so muche as is situate betweene the Alpes, the riuer of Roan, the floud of Rheyn and the Occean sea, whiche in circuit extendeth to .ccccc. miles. Sone after, he warred vppon the Britaynes whyche before his a­ryuing Brytain whiche is nowe called Eng­land, inuaded by Iulius Ccsar. The Britai­nes tributa­ryes to the Romaynes. there, had neuer anye cogni­saunce, nor at anye tyme harde spea­kynge of the Romaines. When he had subdued them, he made them tri­butary to the Romaynes, and tooke hostages of them. But he did exacte [Page 55] of Fraunce vnder name of Tribute, cccc. Sestercios. Then he assaild the Germaines, which inhabited on the farther side of the riuer of Roan, and vanquished them in most sharp bat­tayles. But amonge all these so ma­ny successes and chaunces of fortune he fought thrise vnluckelye. Ones a­gaynste the Auernians in Fraunce, Thre vnluc­ky vattailes of Iulius Cesar. at whyche battaile he was presente hymself, and twise in Germany whē he was absent. For his two Legates Titurius and Aruneulus wer slaine ther by a train. About the same time▪ in the .cccccc. xcvii. yere after the city was builte, Marcus Licinius Crassꝰ fellowe in offyce with Cneus Pom­peius the great, in the seconde yeare after that he was made Consul, was sent on a viage againste the Parthi­ans; and ioyning battaile with them in an euill houre at Carras, he was M. Licinius Caslus slam. ouercome by Surena captayne to kynge Drodes: and at laste, he was [Page] slayne and hys Sonne also, a valy­aunte and a worthye yonge man to­wardes. The residue of hys armye, was preserued by Caius Cassius Aciuii dissen­tion sprong in Rome, after which ensued a most sharpe ciuill war be­twene Pom­peius and Iulius Cesare, where vppon grew thalte­ration of the weale publy­que of Rome, and an vtter decay in manner of ye same, the occasyon of the battayl was butlight For Cesar after he was returned forthe of Fraūce, requested to bee made Cōsul, for so it stode hym in hand, for that certē had conspired soone after to haueprocured his bannysh­ment through whose inueg­lyng Pompei us chaunged hys former mynd, and re­uoked hys former promesse made to Ce­sar, and added besides cer [...]en threatnynges to Cesar wardes, vpō which the grudge grew. Thys battail began in the. 3914. yere after the creatyō of the world, and in the 706. yere after the citye was builte, & in the 47. be­fore the byrth of Christe, it lasted v. ye­res in al, then was Rome fyrstea mo­narche. lieuetenaunte of the hooste, who throughe hys singuler and passynge greate manhoode reduced to suche good passe those matters so farre endaungered, (whyche were nowe well nyghe paste cure and hoope of recouerye,) that conueyinge his ar­mye ouer Euphrates. He vanquy­shedee the Persians in diuers skyr­myshes.

When these thynges were thus finished, there ensued an horryble and lamentable battaile: By meane whereof, (besides dyuers other cala­mityes whyche chaunced in the Ro­main weale publique) the condition & wonted estate of that famous Em­pire was aultered. For when Cesar returned conqueror forth of Fraūce he required to be created Consull a­gayne. [Page 71] Whyche thyng when it was by diuers of the Romaines wythout contradictyon graunted vnto hym, Marcellus (who was then Consul,) Bibulus, Pompeius, and Cato, dyd openlye wythstande it, and sente commaundemente to Cesar that he shoulde dismisse hys army, and come home to the citye. Vppon whyche aunswere Cesare conceyuinge dys­pleasure from Ariminus (where he had hys armye assembled) towardes Rome to inuade it.

Where hppon the Consull, the Senate, and all the Nobilytye of Rome together with Pompeiꝰ, fled forth of the citye, and passed ouer in­to Greece, and made preparaunce for warre agaynste Cesar, at E­pirus Macedonie and Achaia, and those Pompeius to be theyr Cap­tayne. When Cesar was entred the vacaunte and forsaken Cytye, [Page] forthwith he made himself Dictator. From thence, he went into Spayn. There he discomfited the most strōg Iuli. Cesar made himself Dictator. and valiaunte armies of Pompeius, and thre of hys capitaynes, (that is to witte,) Lucius Afranius, Marcus Pompeiꝰ his captaynes discomfyted. Petreius, and Marcus Varro. Re­turninge from thence, he passed ouer into Grece, and pitched his field, and foughte againste Pompeius. In the Pompeius & Cesar fought firste battaile he had the ouerthrow, & was put to flyght. How be it he es­kaped, Iuliꝰ Cesar discomsyted. for that (the night approching so nere,) Pompeius would not pur­sue him. Where vppon, Cesar whan he was thus eskaped, said: that ney­ther Pompeius wist how to cōquere him, and that that was the only day in which he myght haue had the vp­per hand ouer hym. After that, they bothe met again at Paleopharsalus in Thessalye: whereas eche of them ledde forthe to fighte, theyr passynge great armies, Pompeius had in hys [Page 65] band, xl▪ M. fotemen in the forefront, vii. M. in the left winge, and .ccccc. in the ryght wing.

He hadde succour besides, forthe of all the Casto parties: and moreo­uer innumerable Senators and pre­tors, and others of the Consuls, and almost all the nobilitye of Rome on his side, and suche as ere that tyme had bene conquerors of verye stoute nations. Cesar had in his armye not full oute .xxx. M. footem on, and a. M. horsmen. The force and strengthe of the Romains was neuer before that day assembled either in greater number, or vnder more worthy captains, so that nowe they coulde eastye haue subdued all the whole world, if they should haue fought against the Bar­barians. The battaile was handled with greate prowesse and manhode on both parties. And at length Pompeius was discomfited, and his tents Pompeius discomfited. were sackic. Himself fled to Alexan­dria: [Page] where he thought he shoulde haue gotten ayde of the kynge of E­gypte, vnto whome he was by the Pompeius [...] to Alexā ­dria. Senate, somtyme appoynted to be a tutoure and gouernour duryng the time of his minority. But the yonge kinge hauinge more regarde to the An example of great vn­kyndnes and ingratytude. time presente, then respecte or consi­deratyon to the passed frendshyppe whyche he had founde at Pompeius hys handes, slewe Pompeius. And when he had cutte of hys heade, he pluckte of his ringe from hys hande, and sente them together to Cesar. whyche whan Cesar sawe, he braste forthe on weepinge to beholde the heade of so worthy a manne, whyche also was his sonne in lawe.

Not longe after, Cesar came to Alexandria, where Ptolomeus also conspyred agaynste him: vpon which occasyon, Cesar made warre on the kyng, who when he was ouercome, [Page 66] drowned hym selfe in the ryuer of Ptolomeus drowned himselfe. Nilus: in whyche place, bothe hys bodye was founde afterwarde, and hys coate of plate also, whych was gilded and verye ryche.

When Cesar hadde on thys sorte obtayned Alexandria, he gaue that kyngdome to Cleopatra, syster to Alexandria geuen by Ce­sar to Cleopatra. Ptolomeus, whome he after vsed as hys peramoure, As Cesar retourned from thence, he ouercame Pharna­ces sonne of Mithridates the greate, Pharnaces discomfited & pursued to death. who hadde succoured Pompeius at Thessalie, and eftsones rebelled himselfe in Pontus, and had wonne son­drye prouinces from the Romaines, and pursued hym to deathe. Retour­nyng Cesar made hymself Con­sul the thyrde tyme. from thence to Rome, he made hym selfe Consull the thyrde tyme, and Marcus Emilius Lepidus with hym, who was Magister Equitum in the yere before, when Cesar was Dictator.

From thence, he went into Affrick, [Page] where as a greate noumber of the nobility, together wyth Iuba kynge of Mauritania renued battail against Warre in A­frick by Iu­ba kynge of mauritania against Cesar. him. The Romaine captains in that battaile, were Publius Cornelius Scipio, (who was descended from the moste aunciente stocke of Scipio Africanus, whiche Scipio was also father in law to Pompeius ye great:) Marcus Petreius, Quintus Varus, Marcus Porcius Cato, and Lucius Cornelius Faustus (sonne to Sylla, which was sometime Dictator.) Ce­sar disposed his battailes in order a­gainste theese capitaynes, and after sondrye skirmishes, he obtained the victory. Cato, Petreius, Scipio, and Iuba, slewe theym selues. Faustus who was sonne to Silla, who some­time was Dictator, and sonne in law to Pompeius, was slaine by Cesar. The yeare after, Cesar retourned to Cesar crea­ted hymself Consul the 4. tyme. Rome, and created hymself Consull the fourth time, and went forthwith [Page 67] into Spaine, where as Cneus and Sextus, sonnes to Pompeius, renu­ed battayle wyth great force. There Warre in Spayne a­gaynst Cesar. wer many skirmishes betwene thē. The last battaile was fought at the city Munda, in whiche Cesar was so nygh ouercome, that his men fledde Cesar driuen to a neare strayte. from him: for whyche cause he deter­myned to slea hym selfe, rather then (after that he hadde gotten suche re­nowne and fame in Martial feates), he would now fal into the handes of yong men and be vanquished by thē, when he had liued .lvi. yeares wyth great honor. Neuerthelesse when he had recouered his men again, he ob­tained the victori against them. The elder sonne of Pompeius, was there slaine. The yonger sonne fled, and so eskaped.

Afterwards, whē as now ciuil wars The cyuyll warre agaist Pompeius & hys adherēts finyshed by Iuliꝰ Cesar. wer clean appeased, Cesar returned to Rome where he began to demean himself very disorderly and againste [Page] the vsage of the Romaine libertye. Where vppon, when he bestowed the digniries and Offices in Rome vpon suche persones as pleased hymselfe, whyche offyces were accusto­med to haue beene graunted by the aduyse and consent of the commons of Rome, and moreouer woulde not vse any familiaritye or salutatyon to the Senate, when they came to him, Cefar his disorderly demenor in Rome. and did sondrye other actes besydes, whyche were vsed in the tyme of ty­ranny by the kynges, at what tyme they bare rule and authoritye as yet in the citye of Rome, by meanes of whiche factes he began very muche to growe in hatred of the commons A greate con­spiracy a­gaynste hym. and Senate, there conspired agaynst him .xl. or moe, Senators and gentlemen of Rome. Among whome, these were the chiefest: the two Bruti, (whyche were descended from the stocke of that Brutus, who was the firste Consull that was created at [Page 68] Rome, and hadde procured then the banishing of the kings from thence, Caius Cassius, and Seruilius Cas­ca. And when Cesar on a daye, wyth the rest of the Senate, were at theyr Sessyon in the councell house, the Cesar slayne by the senate. Senate rose againste him there, and slewe him, and smote him in with thre and twenty deadly woundes. ¶ (⸫) ⁋

¶ The seuenth boke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

WHē Cesar was slayne, whyche was in the .vii. C. and .ix. yeare after the buil­ding of Rome, Tiuyl war [...]s renewed in Rome by Antonius. ciuil wars wer againe renewed. For whye, the Se­nate toke part wyth them which had slayne Cesar. But Antonius the Consull who fauoured Cesar, ende­nored (what in him lay), to oppresse them by ciuil battail. Where vppon when the weale publique was thus greatly disquieted, Antoniꝰ wrought at that time diuers hainous actes: for the whyche, he was by the whole Senate counted as an open ennemy Battayle a­gaynst Anto­nius. of the common welth. Where vpon [Page 69] there were sent to pursue him, Pan­sa and Hircius the two Cōsuls, and Octauianus a yonge man of the age Pansa and Hircius Consuls. of .xviii. yeres, neuew to Cesar, whō Cesar had adopted, and by hys laste will designed to be his heire, and to beare hys name. This was that Ce­sar who was afterwarde called Au­gustus, and became ruler ouer al the whole world. when these three capy­taines were gone forthe against An­tonius, they gaue him thouerthrow. Antonius dyscomfyted. How be it it chaunced so, that both ye Consuls died, assone as they had ob­tained this victory, so that all the .iii. armies were then attendaunte vpon The two Cō suls dyed. Cesar alone. when Antonius was thus discomfited, and had loste hys army, he fled to Lepidus who hadde bene Magister Equitum before vn­der Cesar, and at that presente, had Antonius sue coured by Lepidus. great bandes of men redy assembled: if whome he was receiued. Sone af­ter, throughe the procuremente and [Page] earnest sute of Lepidus, Cesar made Legue made with Antonius. league with Antonius. Then Cesar retourned to Rome wyth al his host, makinge semblaunce as though he woulde haue reuenged the deathe of hys father whyche adopted him, and Cesar compelled the Ro­mains to cre­ate hym Cō ­sull, when he was but .xx. yeres of age, aboute the 710. yere af­ter the citye was built. of fine force caused the Romaynes to create hym Consull, beinge as yet but of the age of .xx. yeares. Then by the aduise and counsailes of Antoni­us and Lepidus, he banyshed diuers of the Senate, and beganne to de­tayne the weale publique, by force of armes. By theyr means, was Ci­cero The ontcagi­ousnesse of Cesar, throughe euil counsell. the Orator slayne, and dyuers other noble men.

In this meane while, Brutus and Cassius whyche were two of them that slewe Cesar, prepared a greate battaile, hauynge assembled ma­nye armies through Macedonie and the Easte partes. There went forth agaynste them Cesar, Octanianus, [Page 70] Augustus, and Marcus Antonius. Battail pre­tēded against Cesar, by Brutus and Cassius. But Lepidus was lefte behynde to defende Italye. They ioyned battail wyth Brutus and Cassius at Phi­lippos a city of Macedonie.

In the firste battayle Cesar and Antonius were discomfited. How be Cesar and Antonius discomfyted. Cassiꝰ slayn. it Cassius captaine of the nobilitye was then slaine.

In the seconde battayle, Brutus was slayne also, and an infynyte noumber of the Nobylytye, whyche Brutꝰ slain. toke parte with him against Cesar. Then did Cesar and Antonius de­parte the Romayn Empire betwene The Romain Empire deuided betwene Cesar and Antonius. them on thys sorte. That Augustus shoulde possesse Spayne, Fraunce, and Italye. Antonius shoulde haue Asia, Pontus, and the Easte partes. At this tyme, Lucius Antonius A ciuyl war by Lucius Antonius. who was brother to that Antoni­us whyche tooke parte with Cesar [Page] against Brutus and Cassius began a ciuill warre wythin Italy. He was ouercom at Perowse a city of Thus­cia, and was taken, but was not slaine. In the mean space, by Sextus Pompeius, who was sonne to Cne­us Pompeius the greate, there was another greate battaile attempted in Another battayle by Sex­tus Pompeiꝰ Peace concluded. Sicilie: at whiche battaile, all those were assembled, whiche as yet were left a liue, of them that aided Brutus and Cassius. The battel was fought by Cesar Augustus Octauiꝰ against Sextus Pompeiꝰ. And at last, peace The Persi­ans vanquy­shed. was concluded betwene them. At y same time, Marcꝰ Agrippa had good successe in his affairs in Guyon whi­che is that parte of Fraunce, that is now called Aquitain. Lucius Venti­dius Bassus ouercame the Persians whiche inuaded Siria, in three son­dry battailes. He slewe Pacorꝰ kyng The fyrst tryumphe ouer the Persians Orodes his sonne, the very same dai that Surena captain to Orodes, slew [Page 71] Crassus. He was the first which me­rited a moste condigne tryumphe at Rome ouer the Parthians. In thys meane space, Pompeius infrynged the peace, and was discomfited in ba­tel Pompeiꝰ in­frynged the peace, & was slayne. on the sea, and as he woulde haue fled from thence to Asia warde, he was slaine. Antonius to whom Asia, and the East partes wer allotted, be­inge deuorced from the fister of Au­gustus Cesar, espoused Cleopatra M. Antoniꝰ espoused Cleopatra. Quene of Egipt. He warred on the Persians, and ouercame them in the firste battailes. And as he retourned homewardes, there fell great skarsi­ty and penury of victuals among his The Persi­ans oyscom­fyced by An­tonius. souldioures. But when the Persiās pursued hym harde as he retourned, he got the victory ouer them at that tyme also. This Antonius began a greate ciuill warre through the pro­curement A cyuyl war by M. Anto­nius. and egging for ward of his wife Cleopatra, affectyng to attayne the gouernment of the city of Rome, [Page] that ther by, he might satisfy the in­cessant requests of his wife. He was vanquished by Augustus in battaile vpon the sea at Actiu in, which town is situate in Epirus. From thence, Antonius vā quyshed by Augustus. he fledde into Egypte: and there be­inge exempte from all hope of good chaunce, and despairing that hys af­faires should euer take good successe agayne, (so that all men nowe tooke part with Cesar) he slewe hymselfe. Antoniꝰ and Cleopatra slewe themselues. Cleopatra also his wife, procured to be striken of an Adder, by meane of whose poyson she died. Then was Egypt also annexed to the Romaine Empire, by Octauian Augustus, Egipt adioy­ned to the Romain empyre. and Cneus Cornelius Gallus, was appoynted lieuetenaunte there, who was the firste of the Romaines whi­che decided or determyned matters Cneus Gal­lus lieuete­naunte ouer Egypt. in Egypte.

Thus when warres were pacifi­ed throughe the whole world, Octa­nian Augustus retourned to Rome [Page 72] in the twelfthe yeare after that hee was firste created Consul, and from that tyme he gouerned the Romaine Empire him selfe alone, by the space of foure and forty yeres. For duryng the other twelue yeres before, he ad­ministred it ioyntlye together wyth Antonius and Lepidus. So from the The tyme of Augustꝰ hys raigne. first commencement of his Empire vnto the end there of, wer .lvi. yeres. He deceased in the foure skore and syxe yeare of hys age, by syckenesse Augustꝰ hys age. at Atella a towne of Campania, and lyeth buryed at Rome, in Campo-Martio. Augustus Cesar died in the ii. yere of the 198. Dlim [...] ▪ whyche was in the. 767. yere after the city was built, and in the yeare of our Lord god the .xv. Augustus canonysed. Augustus hys worthye demenor. A man who in mooste thyn­ges, and that righte worthely, was deemed as a God, For lightlye there was none eyther more fortunate in battayles then hee was, or in tyme yf peace whiche ruled more discret [...] ­lye. Ourynge those .xliiii. yeares in whyche he raygned alone, hee lyued verye ciuillye, behauynge hym selfe very liberally towardes all [...], [Page] and to his frendes excedinge trustye and assured, whome he aduaunced to so greate honoures, that almoste he made them equall wyth his owne e­state. The Romayne Empyre at no syme before his raign, did more flo­rishe. For besides the suppressing of the ciuill warres in whiche hee al­wayes was inuincyble, he annexed also to the Romain Empyre, Egipt, Biskay and Dalmatia which is par­cel of Sclauonia, (whiche countrey was by the Romaynes before hys raygne ofttymes ouer run, but by him it was fully conquered,) & Hun­gary, The Romain Empyre gretlye enlarged by Octauian Augustus. Guyō, Illiria, Rhetia, the Vā ­dales, and the Thalassians whyche inhabited among th Alpes, together wyth all those cityes whyche were situate alonge the sea costes of Pon­tus. Amonge whiche, these were the chiefest, Bosphorus and Ponticape­os. He vanquished the Danes in bat­taile, and slewe greate armyes of the [Page 73] Germains, and draue them ouer the floude Albis, whiche is in Barbarie farre beyonde the riuer of Rheyne. He foughte this battaile by Drusus, who was his wiues sōne by he [...] first husbande, like as he did that other battaile against the Hungarians, by Tiberius an other of hys wyues sonnes. After this battel, he brought forth of Germany .cccc. M prisoners, and placed them in Fraunce, a longe Fraūce repl [...] shed with in­habitantes by Octanian. vpon ye bankes of the riuer of Rhein. He recouered Armenia from yt Par­thians, and the Persians gaue hym hostages, whiche they neuer did to a­nye Pledges ta­ken of the Persians. before him. They restored more ouer such ensignes to the Romains, as they had got from them, at what tyme they vanquished Crassus. The Scithians and Indians, who before had not hearde speakinge of the Ro­maines, The Corin­thians & In­dians sent le­gates to Au­gustus. Galacia ma­de a prou [...]. sent both Legates and pre­sentes to Augustus. In his raygne, Galacia was also made a prouynce, [Page] whiche was a kingdome before, and Marcus Lollius gouerned it in the stead of the Pretor. Besides this, he was so well beloued of the Barbari­ans, that suche kinges as had ioyned frendshippe with the Romaines, (to the end they might augment the ho­nor of Augustus) builte diuers cityes which they called after his name, Cesaree. As king Iuba did in Maurita­nia, Towns built and named after the name of Cesar. and in Palestina (which is now a famous and faire citye.) Moreouer many kinges lefte their owne kyng­domes and came to Rome, to the end they might attende and do theyr ser­uice to Cesar, and in suche lyke ap­parell as the Romains vsed to wear, (that is to say in gownes) they folo­wed his chariot, or horse as he rode. After his death he was called a God. He lefte a mooste fortunate common 3. Claudius Tiberius, sonne to Liuia Au­gustus hys wyfe, by her welth to Tiberius his successor who was his wiues sonne by her former husband, and became after that, to be [Page 74] sonne in lawe to Augustus by adop­tion, and the espousing his daughter. fyrst husband began his Empyre in the. 3976. yere after the creatiō of the worlde. in the 768. yeare after the buyl­ding of Rome and in the ye­re of our Lord God .xvi. Tiberius gouerned the Empyre by greate cowardise, greuous crueltye, vnmeasurable auarice, and filthye luste. Hee waged battayle no where hym selfe, but warred alwayes by hys Prouostes and substitutes. Dy­uers kinges whome he hadde procu­red throughe greate flattery to come to hym, he woulde neuer permitte to departe againe. Amonge which, Ar­chelaus kynge of Cappadocia was one, whose kyngdome he did also re­duce into the forme of a Prouince: and the chiefest citye therof, he com­maunded shoulde bee called by his name, whyche at this daye is called Cesarea, where as before it was cal­led Mazaca.

In the .xxiii. yere of his raigne, hee deceased in Campania with ye great Tiberlꝰ hys raigne. reioysing of all the Romaines, when he had liued .lxxx. and .iii. yeres. Tiberius de­ceased.

[Page] After him succeaded Caius Cesar, 4. Caligula the 4. Emp [...]ror, sonne to Ger­manicus, be­gan his Em­pire. 3999. yere after the beg [...]nnyng of the world, in the. 701. yere af [...]er Rome was b [...]il [...]e, in the yeare of our Lord. 39. who was surnamed Caligula, ne­uew to Drusus and Tiberius, Au­gustus his wiues sonnes, a verye naughty and cruel man, whose facts were so hainous, that if they had ben conferred with the doinges of Tibe­rius, they mighte make those of Ti­herius, to seeme tollerable. He war­red againste the Germaines, and in­uaded Sweuia. But he atcheued ther no manly act. He had carnall copula­tion The dishono [...]bl [...] raign of Caligula. wyth hys owne systers, and hys owne daughter whome he begatte vpon the one of his sisters, he had in likewise carnall company wyth all. When he had thus vsed greate aua­rice, fleshly lust, and horrible cruelty towardes all men, he was slaine in his palaice in the .xxxix. yeare of hys Caligula [...]layne. Caligula hys [...]. age, when he had raigned, iii. yeares x. monethes and .viii. daies.

After him succeded Claudius, vn­cle by the fathers side to Caligula, [Page 75] and sonne to Drusus: (vnto whyche Claudius, there was a mooste hono­rable 5. Claudius [...]he v. Emper [...]r of Rome. son to Drusus, whyche was brother to [...] berius, began his Empire, in the. 4003. yere after the creatiō of the worlde, in the 795. yeare af­ter the b [...]yl­ding of Rome and in the ye­re of out Lord 41. he rai [...] 13. yeres and ix. monethes, he was poysoned, in the. 11. yere of his raigne. tomb created at Mense in Ger­many), whose neuewe also Caligula was. He raigned ouer Media, and did many things there very quietly. And yet some thinges did hee verye cruelly, and withoute discretyon. He made warre vppon the Britaynes: whyche countrey sith the time of Iu­lius Cesar, none of the Romaynes had euer had any thing to do withal. And when they were ouercome by Cneus Sentius, and Aulus Plantiꝰ, two famous and worthy men, he had a great triumph ouer them at Rome. Furthermore, he annexed also to the Empire of the Romaines, certain I­landes situate in the Occean sea be­yond Britaine, called Orcades, and Warre vpon the Britain [...], now called Englande. surnamed his sonne [...]ritannicus. He behaued himself very curteously towardes diuers of his frendes, in so muche that when Plautius, (a nota­ble [Page] man), who in his viage which he made into [...]ritain, atchieued diuers notable actes, & should triumphe for the same, the Emperor himselfe ac­companied him, and (the vse beynge such that with his triumph he should goo vp into the Capitoll,) Claudius gaue him the preheininence, & went The term of Claudiꝰ hys [...]a [...]gne. on his lefte hande. This Claudius liued. lxuii. yeres, and after his death was canonised. Claudius canonysed.

After him, succeaded Nero, who 6. Nero who was sonne in law to Clau­dius, who a­dopted him to be his succes­sor in the Empyre. be­gan his raign in the. 40 [...]7. yere after the creatiō of the worlde, the 809. yere af­ter Rome was builte, & the 5. yere after Christ, he had carnal co­puia [...]ton with his own mo­ther, and eft­sones [...]ewe her, and hys wife, and dy­uers other wor thy mer. He was a great persecutor of christian religien, & put diuers Sainctes to deth. did verye muche resemble his vncle Caligula. He did greatlye dysgrace and diminishe the Romaine welthe and substaunce: A man geuen to vn­wonted ryot, straunge lust, and great expenses and charges, so that after the manner of Caius Caligula, hee bayned hym selfe wyth hot and cold Oyntmentes. He fyshed wyth gol­den ne [...]tes, the ropes of which, wher with they were drawen foorth of the [Page 76] water, were of Pnrple silke. He slew a greate noumber of the Senate. He became ennemy to all good menne: and at laste, did habondone hymselfe whollye ouer to so great disworship, that hee woulde daunce and singe o­ [...]penly in the apparaile of common mynstrelles, and suche as are accu­stomed to play in enterludes. He cō ­mitted diuers mu [...]thers vppon hys owne kinsfolkes.

And when he had slaine hys owne brother, his wife, and his mother, he set the citye of Rome on fire, that he Rome set on fyre by Nero and burned 6. dais space. mighte thereby (as by demonstraty­on) see after what fashion Troy bur­ued, when it was taken and sette on fire by the Gretians. In feates of armes he durste doo nothinge at all. The cowar­dise of Nero. He hadde almoste loste Britain. For duringe hys raigne, there were ta­ken Brittaine nighe loste. there and destroyed quite, two notable townes.

[Page] The Parthians did berefte hym of Armenia, and broughte the Romain armies vnder subiectyon. How be it, there were two Prouinces created during his raigne, Pontus Polemo­niacus, Two prouinces created. by the assent of kinge Pole­mon, and Alpes Cotie, king Cotius being now deceassed. For those hys actes, waxed he to be abhorred of the citizens of Rome, and cleane forsa­ken of all menne, and of the Senate was adiudged as an ennemy of that weale publique. Where vppon they sought him, to haue beene reuenged on him, whose punishment was ap­poynted on this manner. That hee Punishment deuised by the Romaines for Nero. should firste be drawen naked throu­ghe the citye, then hauynge a forke thruste into his heade, he shoulde so hange, and be whipped tyll he were deade: after that, he shuld be thrown down hedlong from the rock.) which whiche when he vnderstode,) he fled forthe of his palaice, and in a farme [Page 77] er graunge of one, who had beene sometime his bondman and was by him lately enfranceised, he slew himselfe. Thys farme was situate be­twene Nero slew [...] hym selfe. the two wayes Salaria and Numentana, (whiche wer .iiii. miles distant from Rome. He founded the bathes at Rome, which duryng hys Bathes in Rome. raigne, were called Neroniane, and nowe are called Alexandrine. He de­ceased in the .xxxi. yeare of hys age, Nero his age and raygne. when he had raigned .xiiii. yeres, and with him, almost all the progeny of Augustus was put out of memory.

Afterward, Sergius Galba succe­ded 7. Sergius Galba the. 7. Emperour. in the Empire. A Senator of an­cient noblenesse, who was chosen Emperoure by the Spanyardes and Frenchmen, when he was .lxxiii. ye­ [...]es of age, and eftsones was gladlye [...]eceiued of the whole armye. For whilest he was yet but a priuate mā, [...]e demeaned his life worthely both [...]n Martiall actes, and also in ciuyll pollicy. [Page] He had beene ofte Proconsul, exerci­sing the offyce of Consul, for others. At sondry times had he beene a cap­tayne in mooste perillous battayles. Hys Empire was but of very shorte continuaunce, proceding of meruai­lous good beginninges, sauing that he seemed somewhat ouermuche ge­uen to seueritye. He was slayne tho­roughe the treason of Otho, in the Galba slayn. seuenthe monthe of his raigne. Hys throate was cut in the market place at Rome, and lieth buried in his gar­dain [...]s whyche are situate along the waye called Aurelia, not farre dy­stante from the citye of Rome.

When Otho had thus slayne Gal­ba, he inuaded the Empyre, and de­tained [...]. Otho the. 8. Emperour. it hym selfe. Hys stocke was more noble by his mothers side, then by his fathers, and yet was it by nei­ther of them bothe, very base. When he was yet a priuate manne, hee be­haued [Page 78] hym selfe verye gentlye and tractablye.

In his Empire he could not shew anye greate experimente of hys do­ynges, for that at the same time that he slew Galba, Vitellius was made Emperoure by tharmyes of the Ger­maynes, (who attempted battayle a­gaynst hym. And Otho was discom­fited in a very lighte skirmish at Be­briacus, (notwythstandinge that hee had with hym a great band of men,) where hee slewe hym selfe, whome when hys Souldyoures requested, that hee woulde not so lyghtlye des­payre Otho slewe hym selfe. of the successe of the battayle, he aunswered that he was not wōr­thye, ne so muche to bee esteamed, that for hys cause anye ciuyl battayl should be waged, and there wyth al, smote himself in with his dagger in the .xxxviii. yere of his age, when hee The raigne of Ottho. had raigned foure skore and fiftene dayes.

[Page] Then Vitellius obtained the Em­pire, 9. Vitellius the ix. Emperor. descended of a familye whyche was become worshipful through ad­uauncementes and promotions, ra­ther then by noblenesse of birth. For his father whiche came neither of a­ny notable line, was created Cousul thrise a rowe. This Viteliius raig­ned with greate disworship, beynge merueileusly noted for his great cruelty, The disord [...]rly ra [...]gne of Vitellius. but especiallye for his excessyue glotony, and vnmeasurable eatyng. In whiche he did so exceede, that (as report wente,) he feasted .iiii. or v ti­mes in one day. But amonge all the Vitellius his excessiue glo­tony. residue of his bākets, this one is had in memory, whiche hys brother Vi­tellius prepared for him: in whyche, besides other charges and expenses, (as it was sayde,) there were set be­fore An example of vnineasurable gluttony. him at one time, two thousande fishes, and vii. thousand birds. Thys Vitellius affecting very much to re­semble Nero his doinges, dyd so ex­preslye [Page 79] shewe this his sayde purpose and intente, that he laboured (what in him laye,) to honour the exequies and funeralles of Nero, who at that time, lay but very meanely buryed. He was slayne by the captaynes of Vitellius slayne. Vespasian. But firste he slewe Sabi­nus, Vespasian hys brother, whom he burned in the Capitoll, whyche he se [...]te on fire. When Vitellius was thus slaine, he was wyth greate reproche and ignominie drawen na­ked openly along the city of Rome, The reproche ful death of Vitellius. with his bearde and hear of his head staring, and a naked sword set vnder his chin. And as he passed throughe the streates on this sorte, euerye one whiche met him, threwe dong in his face and bosome. Thys doone hys throte was cut, and he throwne into the ryuer of Tiber, that he myghte want the worship of burial, whyche In what estimation burial was amonge the Romains. is graunted to euerye man, yea euen to the simplest. He was slayne in the [Page] lvii. yeare of his age, when he hadd [...] raigned .viii. monethes and one day. Vitelliꝰ hys age & raygne.

After him succeaded Vespasiane, who was created Emperour at Pa­lestina: 10. Vespasianus the tenthe Emperor be­gan his raign in the. 4032. yere after the creation of the worlde, in the 824. yere af­ter come was built, and in the. 71. yeare after th [...]ncar­natiō of christ A Princeen­dued wyth moste excellēt vertues, a maintainer of ci­uill order, and learnynge in Rome, so that he assignd certain standyng stipends to Phisitions & professors of other sciēces at Rome. one in verye dede base born, howe be it worthye to be compared with the best and chefest Emperors. A man who for hys priuate lyfe was worthye to be hadde in memorye. For in that tyme, hee was sente by Claudius into Germanye, and from thence into Brytaine, hee pytched fielde and foughte fyue tymes wyth hys ennemyes. Hee annexed to the Romaine Empyre two mightye na­tions, twentye townes, and the Ile of Wighte nighe adioyning to Bri­tayne. Hee behaued hymselfe in the Romaine Empire very moderately, but he was somewhat to muche desi­rous of monye. Neuerthclesse he got the same in suche sorte, that he wron ged no man for it.

[Page 80] And lyke as hee dyd wyth earnest meanes and diligence, studye to ga­ther it together, so dyd he verye cyr­cumspectlye distribute the same a­brode, espetiallye to suche as hadde great nede there of. So that vnnethe any man canne fynde eyther greater liberalitye, or more iustly employed of anye Prince that euer was before his tyme. He was verye pacyent and gentle: In so muche that he woulde not lightlye punyshe anye suche as The great le­nity of Ves­pasiane. were accused and openlye conuycted to haue conspired treason agaynste him, with anye greuouser penaltye, then by banishment only.

In the tyme of hys Empyre, Iu­dea and Ierusalem, the mooste fa­mouse and notable Cities of Pale­stina, were annexed to the Romaine Empire.

Moreouer he reduced Achasa, Li­cia, Rhodus, Bizantium, (whiche is nowe called Constantinople,) [Page] and Samos, whiche before wer free cities,) and likewise Trachea, Cili­cia, Thracia and Comagenes which were vnder the dominion of sondrye kinges, suche as were frendes to the Romaines, into the fourme of Pro­uinces. He would quickly forget dis­pleasures and grudges of minde. He woulde pacientlye suffer and heare the rebukes and tauntes of Philoso­phers, and of those whyche pleaded mennes causes tofore him. But hee was an earnest reformer of Martiall pollicy. He and hys sonne Titus tri­umphed Vespafian triumphed ouer Ierusalem with hys son Titus. ouer Ierusalem. Thus whē he was by these means beloued and well lyked of the Senate, and other the commons of Rome, and in fine of all men, he was stricken wyth a flixe, and so died at a Manor of hys owne, whiche was amonge the Sa­bines, Vespasian died of a flyxe. in the .lxix. yeare of his age, when he had raigned .ix. yeares and vii. daies, and was canonised. Vespasian his age, and tyme of [...]

[Page 81] He had with suche obseruation di [...] ­gentlye marked the naituityes and byrthes of his sonnes, that when son drye conspiratyes were pretended a­gainste him and were deseried, hee Credit to the casting of na­tiuities. woulde alwayes dissimule and neg­lect them: affirminge to the Senate, that either hys sonnes shuld succede him in hys Empire, or elsse no man. After his decease, Titus his sonne succeaded him: who was also called 11. Titus Vespas [...]an [...]e .xi. Emperour began his raign in the. 4041. yere after the creatiō of the worlde, the 833. yere af­ter Rome was ballte, [...] the [...]o▪ yereaf­ter Christ his incarnation. Titus Ves­pasian a good archer. Vespasianes a man worthy of great [...] admiration, for all kynde of vertues. In so muche that hee was called she loue and delices of mankynde. He was very eloquent, and an [...]tedyng stout warriour, and one of passynge [...] greate sobrietye. He pleabed causes himselfe in Latine. He made diuers Poeticall inuentions and tragedies in Greke. At the assaulting of Ieru­salem (where he so [...]loed vnder hys father,) he shot of .xii. arowes whych he bestowed in suche sorte, that with [Page] eche of them hee slewe a manne, of them whyche stoode on the walles, in the defence of the Citye. Hee vsed such lenity in hys Empire at Rome, The great lenity of Titus that he neuer punyshed any one man at all. Such as were conuict to haue conspired againste him, bee dismyste and pardoned in suche sort, that forth wyth he woulde agayne vse and ac­cept them in like familiaritye, as he did before. He was so easye to ve en­treated, and there wyth also liberal, The liberali­ty of Titus. that he neuer denied request to anye manne. For whiche cause when hys frends rebuked him, for that his lar­gesse and liberality: he made theym this goodly answer. From an Emperour An example of a ryghte princely hart. quod he, none oughte to departe sorowful, for not obtaining theyr re­questes. And for thys cause ones, as hee sate at Supper, and bethoughte him that hee hadde that daye geuen nothynge to anye manne, hee sayde: O my frendes I haue lost this daye, [Page 79] (accounting that for no day, in whi­che The Theatre built, a place made halfe round, where the people as­sembled to be hold playes. he gaue not some thinge away.) He builded the Theatre at Rome, a place made round, very good to be­holde playes and enterludes. And at the fyrste erectinge thereof, he slewe siue thousande wilde beastes.

When he was throughe thys de­meaninge hym selfe passyngly well beloued of all men, he fell sicke and died at the same Manor place where hys father dyd, after that hee hadde Titus died. raigned two yeres, eight monethes, and twentye daies, and in the fortye yere of his age. There was no lesse Titꝰ his age and raigne. mone and lamentation made for him after his death, then if euery manne had bewailed his owne priuate losse and alonenesse. The Senate hearing of his decease, forthwith in hast wēt that same night in the eueninge tide into the counsaile house, and there rendred vnto him (being now at this time dead) so greate praise & thankes [Page] as they did neuer the lyke to hym at any time. While he yet liued, & was conuersaunt amonge them. He was Titus cano­nised. also canonised. After his decease, Domitianus 12. Domitianus the .xii. Em­peror brother to Titus be­gan his raign in the. 4043. yere after the creatiō of the worlde, in the 835. yeare af­ter the buyl­ding of Rome and in the ye­re of our Lord 83 he expulsed the Philoso­phers and studiers of the mathemati­call sciences forth of Rome he was the ii. emperor that persecuted ye christians, whō he put to deathe like as Nero dyd. The crueltye and pryde of Domitianus obtained the Empire, be­inge yonger brother to Titus: but he resembled more Nero or Caligula, or Tiberius, then he did eyther hys father or his brother. In the firste be­ginnyng of hys Empyre, he behaued hymself with great temperance and modesty: But soone after, being en­fected wyth the vices of fleshly lust, anger, cruelty, & auarice, he so kynd­led the hatred of all mē against him, that he dyd in manner quite abolishe and blot out of memory, the good de­sertes of hys father and brother. He slew the most worthy of the Senate. He was the firste whiche commaun­ded hym self to be called a God: He would not permyt the Romaynes to set vp anye pictures of hym, vnlesse they were of golde or siluer. He slew [Page 83] his owne cosen Germaine. He was moreouer of an horrible pryde. Hee made in his time .iiii. viages onlye. One agaynst the Sarmatians, an o­ther agaynst the Cattianes, and two into Dacia, (whyche is nowe called Denmarke.) He tryumphed twise o­uer the Dacianes and the Cattianes. When he had subdued the Sarma­tianes, he ware but a garlād of baies only. He sustained sondrye damages in those battailes: for in Sarmatia his Legiones and captain wer slain. And by the Danes, Appius Sabinus one of the Consuls, & Cornelius Fis­cus, captayn of the Emperours gard were also slayne, and great garysons of men with them besides. Hee finy­shed sondry pieces of work at Rome: among which, was the Capitoll, the place for Musicians and singing mē, the two gallaries called Isium and Serapium, and the Tilt, (a place for men to run in.)

[Page] At length, beinge abhorred and detested of all menne for diuers hys wycked doinges, hee was slayne in Domitianus slain. his palaice by his owne men, in the xiv. yere of his age, and the .xv. yeare Domitianus his age and raigne. of hys raigne. His corps was caryed forth to buriall by suche onlye, as v­sually cary the bodies of other mean men in Rome to buryinge, and so he was buryed verye dysworshipful­lye.

¶ The eyghte boke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

IN the eyght hun­dreth & fifty yeare after the building Vetus & Valens Cōsuls. of ye city of Rome, at what time Ve­tus and Valens, were Consulles, the weale publique When com­mon welthes florish. of Rome aspyred to a meruaylous prosperous estate agayne. For that nowe wyth greate good happe, the 13. Nerua the 13 Emperours began his Empyre in the. 4058. yere after the creatiō, of the worlde, in the 850. yeare after the buyl­ding of Rome and in the ye­re of our Lord God. 98. administrynge there of, was com­mitted and betaken to the guidaunce of good rulers.

For after the deathe of Domitia­nus that deadlye tiraunt, Nerua suc­ceaded: a manne whyche in hys pri­uate life, behaued hym selfe verye soberlye, and yet was he both stoute and manfull.

[Page] He was descended but of a meane line of nobilitye. [...]y the procur emēt of Petronius Secundus, who was captayne of the garde, and Partheni­us whyche was he that slew Domi­tianus, he was chosen Emperor, be­inge then berye aged. He demeaned hym selfe very vprightlye and curtu­ously. He prouided very [...]ire unispect­lye for the weale publique, by adop­ting Traianus to hys sonne. Nerua Nerua deceased. Nerua hys age & raygn. died at Rome, after that he had raig­ned 14 Vlpius Traianus the. iiii Emperor be­gan his raign in the. 4060 yere after the creation of the worlde, in the 8 [...]1. yere af­ter come was built, and in the. 100. yere after thincar­natiō of christ he was then. foreyner that was created Emperor, he was a Spaniard borne and no Italian. a­dopted to the successyon of the Empyre by Nerua. he was the third emperor that persecuted ye christians. But in his time it was decreed yt they should not be called to exa­minatyon, ex­cept they had bene fyrst ac­cused. Armenia re­nued. one yere, iiii. moneths, and .viii. dayes, in the .lxxvi. yeare of hys age. After his death, he was canonised.

After him succeded Vlpius Tra­ianus Crinitus, who was born at I­talica in Spayne, whose parentage was more auncient of time then no­ble of birthe. His father was fyrste Consul: thē after he became to haue gouernmēt of thother Agripina a ci­ty in Fraunce. He gouerned ye weale publique in suche sort, that he might [Page 85] worthelye be preferred aboue all o­ther Princes. He was one of passyng great ciuility and stoutnesse wythal. Hee enlarged bothe in lengthe and bredthe, the borders and marches of the Romaine Empire, whyche sithe the tyme of Augustus, was rather but defended and onlye conserued, then worthely augmented. He repai­red those cities which were ruinous and fallen in decaye on the farther side of Rheine in Germany. He sub­dued Dacia, and vanquished Deciba­lus. Hee created a Prouince on the farther side of Danubiꝰ, in those par­ties where as now ye Taiphalianes inhabite. That Prouince extended to a thousand miles in cixcuit. He recouered Armenia, which the Parthiās had won, and slewe Pharnaces the Sirian who deteined it. He appoyn­ted one to be king ouer the Albanes. Hee receiued vnder obeysaunce, the kynges of the Spaniardes, the Mos­couites, [Page] the Bosphoranes, the Ara­biaues, the Dsdroenes, and of the in­habitaunts of Cholchos. He conque­red the Adiabenes and Marchome­des. He subdued Antemusiū a greate region of Persia. He wanne Seleu­cia, Ctesiphontes, Babilone, and E­dissios, and broughte that countrey in subiection vnto the borders of In­dia, and marched still forwarde, vn­till he came to the redde sea, where he founded three Prouinces, Arme­nia, Assiria, and Mesopotamia: toge­ther Thre prouinces made. wyth those people whyche bor­der vppon Macedonie. After that, he reduced Arabia also into the forme of a Prouince. He prepared a nauye for the red Sea, minding there with A vlage pre­pared ok the red sea. to spoyle the coastes and borders of India. But his curtesye and sobriety excelled farre all those hys Martiall The passyng same of Tra­ianus. feates. He behaued himself at Rome and elsse where through all his Pro­uinces, fellow like to all men.

[Page 86] He went oftentimes to hys frendes houses to salute the [...] and visit them if they were sicke and diseased.

If they feasted one an other, he woulde also banket amonge them, without putting anye difference be­twene them and hym selfe.

Often woulde he ride wyth them in theyr chariottes. He would Meuer harme anye Senator, nor commit a­nye thinge contrarye to iustice, for the augmenting of his treasoure. He vsed greate liberalitye towardes all menne. Bothe openlye and secreat­lye enryched hee all personnes, and aduaunced to honoures diuers suche as he hadde but very small acquayn­taunce and familiaritye wythall. He buylte in manner a whole worlde hym selfe. He enfraunchised manye cities. In fine, he did nothinge, but it was very quietly done, and voyde of all trouble.

For during all hys whole raigne, [Page] there was but onlye one Senatour condempned, whome the residue [...] the Senate adiudged to deathe, vn­wittynge to Traianus. For whyche cause, he was throughe al the whole worlde reputed of all men most lyke to a God. So that both whilest he ye [...] Traianus reputed for a God. liued, and after his death also, he de­merited immortall honour. Amonge the residue of al his worthy sayings, thys one of hys, deserueth eternall memory. When his frendes hapned once to reprehend him, for that he behaued hym selfe so gently towardes all men, he made this aunswer: that when he was nowe Emperoure, he shewed hym selfe to be suche towar­des A worthy saying of an Emperoure. hys subiects and populer people, as he (when he was as yet a subiect) wished the Emperoure to haue bene to him wardes. When he had thus purchased great glory and renowne bothe for ciuil and also Martiall pol­licy, as he retourned from Persides, [Page 87] he sickned and died by the way, at Seleucia Traianus deceased. a town of Isauria of the flixe: when he had liued .lxii. yeres, ix. mo­nethes and .iiii. daies, in the .xix. yere Traianꝰ his age & raygne. vi. moneth, and .xv. day of his raigne. He was canonised, and of all other, Traiane the fyrste Empe­rour whyche was buryed wythin the city. he alone was buried within the city. His bones were put in a golden cup, and sette vnder a piller, in a streate whyche hee builte himselfe, whiche piller amounted in heighte to an C. and .xliiii. fote. The factes of Traia­nus are so rife in memory, that euen in these oure daies in the Senate or Councell house, the fortunate accla­mations and well wishynges to the Prince by his commons, at his elec­tions, are vsed to be these. That hes myght proue in his affairs more for­tunate then Angustus, and in beha­uioure and demeanor of hymselfe, to excel Traianus. So much preuailed in him the fame of perfect goodnesse, that whether men flatter him, or doo [Page] in deede commend him, he gaue vn­doutedly iust occasion to be accomp­ted a most worthy exāple to others.

When Traianus was deceassed, Elius Adrianus was created Em­peroure, 15. Elius Adria­nus the .xv. Emperoure, begenne his raigne in the. 4079. yere after the creatiō of the worlde, the 871. yeare af­ter Rome was builte, & the 119. yeare atfer Christe, he gaue hymself wholly to purchase pea­ce & quietnes, there was no one Emperor sence Augustꝰ time, whyche aduantaged ye common wele so much as he did, he was verye experte in Astrenomy he made prog nosticatyons, yerely for his owne self. He persecuted the christians at the fyrste, but after he had red diuers b [...] kes which certain Christi­ans that wer learned men, wrate to him, he wild that none shuld be apprehended for religyons sake. not for that Traianus wil­led it shoulde be so, but throughe the onlye procuremente of Plotina wife to Traianus. For so longe as Tra­ianus was yet liuinge, hee woulde neuer adopte hym, nor make him his heire: althoughe hee was his owne sisters daughters sonne, and cosen to hym. He was also borne at Italica in Spaine.

This Adrianus enuyinge at the glorye of Traianus, yelded vppe the keepinge of those three Prouynces whyche Traianvs hadde annexed to the city of Rome, and remouing hys armye [...] from Assiria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, hee mineded that hys Empire shuld not haue extended any further that way, thē to the riuer Eu­phrates. [Page 88] But when hee purposed to geue ouer Dacia also, which then ye Romaines kept, his frendes disswa­ded him from that (fearinge leaste by that meanes, many Romain citizens shuld haue ben endangered to fal in to the handes of the Barbarians.) For Traianus after that he had sub­dued Dacia,) remoued thither great plenty of people, whome he assēbled together throughe all the Romayne Empire and dominion, to inhabyte there, and manure that lande. For that Dacia was through the continu­all warres of Decibalꝰ, become now voide of inhabitauntes, and cleane wythout strength, He had peace du­ring the whole time of his Empyre. Only one battail waged he and that One bettayle only durynge the raigne of Adriands. by his Prouost. He went ouer all the Romain Empire hymself, and built manye places there. He was verye eloquent in the Latine tong, and ex­ceding well sene in the Greke tong. [Page] He was not greatly commended for any clemēcy which he vsed. He was exceding circumspect about the trea­sory, and Martiall policye. He decea­sed in Campania, beinge aboue the Adrianus deceased, hieage and raygne. age of .lx. yeares, when he had raig­ned .xxi. yeares .x. monethes and .xix. dayes. The Senate would not cano­nise him. Neuerthelesse his successor Ditus Aurelius Fuluius requyred very earnestly that he mighte be ca­nonised: whiche thing al the Senate did openly withstand. Howe be it at length, he obtained it. Than after, Adrianus there succeded Antonius Fuluius Boionius who was called 16. Antoniꝰ Fulnius Boioniꝰ the. 16. Em­peror, whom Adrianus a­dopted, began his raygne in the. 140. yere after the In­carnatyon of Christ. also Pias: he was descended of a no­ble familye, but yet of no longe anti­quity. He was a notable man, and suche one as might worthelye be cō ­pared with Numa Pompilius, like as [...]aianus mighte bee conferred wyth Romulus. Whē he was as yet a priuate man, he behaued hymselfe [Page 98] very well, and in his Empyre farre better. He shewed cruelty to no mā. He exhibited greate curtesye to all men. In Martiall feates he obtained meane glory, endeuoringe euermore rather to defend, then to amplify and enlarge his prouinces: assigning the iustest men that hee coulde finde, to heare office in the common wealth. He aduaunced alwaies to promoty­ons suche as were good men, and de­tested such as were leud and naugh­ty personnes, without vsinge (for all that,) any rigor or cruelty to anye of them. Amonge suche kynges as had ioyned frendshippe and amitye with the Romaynes, he was not onlye re­uerenced, but feared also. In so much that diuers nations of the Barbari­anes A notable ar­gument of instice and in­differency. (setting warres and force aside) would bring their controuersies and matters in debate, to bee decided be­fore him: yelding them selues whol­ly to abide his determinate sentence [Page] there in. And wher as before thaccep taunce of thempire, he was exceding riche, and of passing great welth, yet during his sayde raigne, he did won­derfullye diminishe and abate hys sayde substaunce, and greatly impo­ueryshe hymselfe by augmentynge the wages of his souldioures, and v­singe so greate liberalitye towardes his frendes. Howe be it he lefte the common treasoure well stored and welthy. He was called Pius, for the great pity and gentlenesse whych he vsed. Hee deceased at Lorium a Ma­nor Antonius de­ceased of a fe­uer. place of his owne, whiche was situate .xii. miles distant from Rome, when he had liued .lxxiii. yeares, and raigned .xxiii. yeres. He was worthe­ly canonised.

Nexte after him, Marcus Antoni­us 17. M. Antonius Verꝰ the 17. Emperor be­gan his raign in the yeare of our Lord 163 he was passig wellearnd, he adminystred the Empire ioyntly wyth his brother L. Antoninꝰ. In his time a pece of Eng­land receyued the fayth. Verus attained the Empyre: A man whiche doubtlesse was come of a very noble house. He conueyed hys discent by the fathers side, from Nu­ma [Page 99] Pompilius, and by his mothers side from kynge Salentinus. There raigned with him also as Emperor, Lucius Annius Antoninus Verus. At that tyme firste began the weale publyque of Rome to be administred by two Emperors at one time, who with like and indifferent authoritye gouerned the same, whereas before that tyme, it was gouerned by one alone.

Theese two were bothe of one kindred and aliaunce. For why, Ve­rus Annius Antoninus espoused the daughter of Marcus Antoninus, and Marcus Antoninus, was sonne in lawe to Antoninus Pius, by meane of his wyfe Galeria Faustina the yonger, which was his sisters daughter, and cosen germaine to hym.

They waged battayle agaynste the Parthianes, whyche neuer erste Battayle a­gainst the par thians. rebelled, sith the victory that Traia­nus had ouer them.

[Page] Verus Antonius tooke on him that viage, and staying for a time in An­tioche, and in the borders of Arme­nia, hee atcheued sondrye and those worthy feates there, by meane of his captaines. He wan Seleucia a verye Seleucia wan. famous City of Assiria, and toke pri­soners v. C. M. men in it. He brought a triumphe with him forthe of Par­thia and solempnised it with his bro­ther, who was also hys Father in lawe. But as hee departed from the citye Concordia, minedinge to go to­wardes Altium, (whych is now cal­led Torrine,) he died. For as he rode in chariot with his brother, hee was sodainlye stricken wyth an issue of bloude, by meane of a disease, which the Gretians call [...]. (The Antoniꝰ Ve­rus deceassed force of the disease is such, that those whom it taketh, it depriueth of their senses,) he was ve rye witty. Of hym selfe, hee was disp osed and enclyned to no great ciuility e. But yet for the [Page 100] rence whiche he stode in of hys bro­ther, he durst neuer attempt any cru­el fact. When he was deceased, whi­che Antoninus Verus hys age & raigne. was in the .xi. yere of his raigne, he was canonised. After his deathe, Marcus Antoninus alone gouerned The romaine Empire reduced to yt forme of a Monarch againe. the Empire, being suche one as men mighte rather meruaile at, then but praise only. For from the beginnyng of his raigne, he was very sober and graue. In so muche that in his child­hode, hee woulde neuer aultare hys countenaunce, either for mirth or for sorowe. He was whollye addicted to the Philosophy or doctrin of the Stoikes, professing him selfe not only in outward demeanor and kinde of ly­uinge, but by his learning also, to be a right Philosopher. When he was as yet but a very yong man, hee was had in suche admiration, that Adria­nus purposed then with himselfe, to leaue him as his successor in his Empire. How be it he adopted Antoninꝰ [Page] Piꝰ minding so to cōtriue the matter that Marcus should be sonne in law to Antoninus Pius whō he adopted, and that so, by order of succession, he might at laste aspyre to the Empyre. In Philosophye hee was instructed by Apollonius the Chalcedonian. He was traded vp in the Greke tounge by Sextus Cheronesus, who was neuew to Plutarch. He was taughte the Latine tounge, by Frontus a no­table Orator. He delt withal men vp rightlye at Rome. He was nothynge Worthy commendatyon of a prynce. the higher minded for all the pompe of his Empire. He was exceading li­berall. Hee entreated the Prouynces which were vnder his gouernmente with great gentlenesse & moderatiō. Matters tooke very good successe in Germany, during the raigne of thys Prince. He waged one battayle hymself againste the Marcomanes: (who are supposed to be the people of Bo­hemia.) A battayle by the Bohemi­ans. This battell was so great & [Page 104] cruel, that almost no mā can euer re­member ye like, so that it might well be compared with those whych were waged against ye Carthaginiens. It was so much the more ctuel and gre­uous, for in that battaile all his ar­mye died. For durynge his raigne, there fel so greate a Pestilence, that after the victory whiche he got ouer A great Pe­stilence in I­taly. the Persians, the greatest part of the inhabitauntes of Rome and Italye, and other the Prouinces, and well nigh all the souldioures died.

Where vppon when by the space of three yeares continuallye wyth­oute intermissyon, he hadde continu­ed his battayle at Carnuntum, he fi­nyshed at length his battayl against The battayle which the Bohemians fini­shed. the Marcomannes, whych the Qua­dianes, the Vaudales, the Sarma­tianes, the Swyssers, and all Bar­barye hadde maintained against the Romaynes.

[Page] He slewe there many thousandes of men: and when he had deliuered the Hungarians forth of bondage, he tri­umphed againe at Rome wyth hys M. Antoni­nus triūphed at Rome. sone Commodus Antoninus, whom he created Cesar. And when through the charges and expenses of the said battail, he hadde exceadingly wasted and nighe spent all his treasure, and had nowe nothinge lefte whiche hee mighte geue abrode as he had accu­stomed, he would not yet for all that, exact any thing among the Senators or others aboute the Prouinces, but did chuse rather to sell all his war­drobe by peece meale, in that streate whiche Traianꝰ made. There made Themperour solde all hys substaunce rather then he would charge his subiectes with exactiōs hee also open sale of all his plate of golde, cuppes of Cristal, & Murrhine stone: He sold moreouer, the apparel whyche belonged to him self and his wife, and diuers other Iewels & or­namentes of precious stones. The foresaid sale lasted by the space of .ii. [Page 98] whole monethes. By this meane, he got againe muche gold into his trea­sury. But so sone as he had obtained the victorye, hee repaired to suche as had bought any part of his said sub­staunce, their mony againe, to suche of them as would departe wyth the thinges whiche they had all readye bought. And those which desired ra­ther to deteine stil that whyche they had bought, then to take their mony again, he neuer molested or disquie­ted for it. He llcensed suche as were noble men to feaste with like sump­tuousnesse and furniture, and to bee serued with like seruitors as he was himself. When he had gotten the vi­ctorye, he was so liberall in dealinge gifts, that in one day (as the reporte went,) he gaue away an C. Lyons to gether. Thus when hee had reduced The greate largesse of Antoninus. the weale publique, to a most fortu­nate estate, bothe for manhoode and curtesy, he deceased in the .xviii. yere [Page] of his raigne, when hee had liued .lx. yeares and one, and was canonysed, (all the people earnestly laboring to haue it so,) After him succeded Luciꝰ Antoninꝰ Cōmodus his sonne, who L. Antoninꝰ Cōmodus, ye 18. emperour began hys raigne in the yeare of oure Lord. 181. in one thing resēbled his father, but only that he had also good successe in battaile against the Germaines. He wold haue chaunged the name of the moneth of September, and called it Cōmodꝰ after his own name. He de­famed himselfe with riot & ribaudry. He plaid oftentimes in thopē scholes of fence, & sometimes also vppon the theater or stage, with ths masters of defence them selues. He died sodenly Antoninus Commodus died sodenly. so y men did iudge that he was ether thrailed or poysoned, when hee had raigned .xii. yeres and .viii. monthes after the decease of his father, he was so abhorred of all men, that euen af­ter Commodus Antoninus his raigne. his decease, he was demed as an enemy of mankinde. After him succeded 19. Pertinax the 19 Emperour beganne his raign the 194 yeare of oure Lord. ded Pertinax, who was then very a­ged, [Page 107] for why he was lxx. yeres of age and at that time called Prefecturoo: And when he had raigned .lxxx. dais, he was slaine in an vproure whiche fell amonge the garde, throughe the Pertinax slayne. treason of Iulianus.

Nexte after him Saluius Iulia­nus got the Empire, a noble manne Saluius Iulianus the 26. emperour began his raigne in the yeare of oure Lorde. 194. and one whiche was very experte in the lawes: neuew to that Iulianus, who durynge the raigne of Adria­nus the Emperoure, (whom the Ro­maynes worshypped for a GOD,) made alwayes the Proclamatyons and other thedictes and ordinaunces of the Emperor. This Iulianꝰ was discomfited by Seuerus, at ye bridge Iulianus discomfyted. called Miluius bridge, and beynge pursued, was sone after slaine in hys palaice. He liued .vii. monthes after Iulianus slayne. the tyme that hee fyrste beganne to Iulianus his raigne. raygne. From that time, Septunius Seuerus tooke the rule and gouern­mente of the Romayne Empyre: [Page] Who was born at a town called Le­pus, whiche was in Tripolinata, a prouince in Affrick. He was the only Emperor, (after as any man can re­member,) The onlye Emperoure created forth of Affricke. either before that tyme, or sith, whiche was create Emperoure forth of Affricke. He had firste the or­dering and ouersight of the treasor, sone after hee was made Tribunus Militum. Frō thence, passing throu­ghe diuers offices and preferments: At last he became to haue the admy­nistration of the whole weale pub­lique. He willed that men should cal him Pertinax, for the great zeale and good wil whiche he semed to owe to that Pertinax whyche was flaine by Iulianus: He was very sparyng and nere him selfe, and by nature cruell. He waged sondry battails, and those with great dexterity & good successe. Seuerus his valiauntnes. He slewe Percenius Niger at Cizi­cus, who rebelled in Egipte and Si­ria. He oueacame the Parthians. He [Page 95] subdued the Arabians so nyghe, that he made a prouince there. By meane wherof, he demerited to haue the na­mes Sextinus Seuerus called Parthicꝰ and Arabicus to be called Parthicus and Ara­bicus. Hee repaired manye thynges throughe out the Romain Empyre. In this time also Clodius Albinus, who had associated hymself wyth Iulianus Clodius Al­binus created himself Cesa­rium France. to helpe him to [...]lea Pertinax, created hymselfe Cesar in Fraunce, and was vanquished at Louane, and slayne there. But Seuerus besides yt he did excell in glorye, purchased by feates of armes, he was also reuerē ­ced for his ciuil policy. He was hothe Worthy praise in a prince. learned, and had attained besides the perfection of the knowledge of Phi­losophy. The last battaile whych he waged, was in Britaine. And to the Seuerus subdued Bry­taine. end that hee mighte make sure wyth defence al suche prouinces as he had won there, he caused a trenche to be cast from sea to sea a long, the lēgth of .xxii. miles. He deceased at Yorke, [Page] being very aged in the xviii. yere and Seuerushys age & raygne. iiii. month of his raign, & was cano­nised. He left his sonne Bassianus & Geta to succede him in hys Empire. But he willed the Senate that they should cal his sonne Bassianꝰ, Anto­ninꝰ. Whervpon he was named Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Bassiainꝰ, 22. Antoninus Bassianꝰ the 22. Emperor, after his fa­thers deathe, begā his Empire in the 213. yere after Christes In­carnation, he slew his bro­ther in law at his mothers brestes. & succeded his father alone. For Ge­ta who was counted as open enemy to ye weale publique, dyed forthwith. Thus was Marcus Aurelius Anto­ninꝰ Bassianꝰ, who was also called Caracalla, created Emperor. He was wel nigh like of conditions vnto hys father, but somewhat sharpe & more ful of threatninges. Hee founded the bathes at Rome whiche were called Antonians, a notable pece of worke. Besides that, he did nothing worthy Autoniane bathes founded at Rome. of memory. He was out of mesure geuen to sensuality, and carnall concu­piscence: in so much that he espoused hys mother in law Iuba. He dyed in [Page 105] Osdroenes at Edessa, as hee made preparacion for his viage against the Parthians, in the .vi. yere and second month of his raign, when he had li­ued skant .xliii. yeres. He was buried very simply, after the commō sort of people. There were Opilius Macri­nus, and his sonne Diadumenꝰ crea­ted Emperors. This Macrinus was somtime captaine of the gard. They did nothing that was worthy of me­mory, for ye short time of their raign, whiche endured but by the space of one yeare and two monethes. They wer slain both together in a sedityon which fell amonge the souldioures. Next after them was Marcꝰ Aureliꝰ Antoninus created Emperor, whom men supposed to be the sonne of An­toninus Garacalla. Hee was one of the priestes of the Temple of Helio­galus. When he was come to Rome beinge long loked for, bothe by the Senate and souldioures.

[Page] He diffamed and prostituted himself to all kinde of shame and reproche. He liued very vnchastly and filthily. And about two yeares and .viii. mo­nethes afterward. Hee was slaine in Aurelius Antonius slayn. an vproure whyche the Souldioures made, and hys mother Semia Sira wyth him.

After him, Aurelius Alexander be 2. Aurelius A­lexander the xxv. Empe­ror, was cho­sen Emperor whē he was but .xii. yeres of age. He was a verye vertuous prī ce & one that fauoured all good men, he was the fyrst Emperoure that fauored Christians, he began hys raigne, the 225. yere af­ter Christes incarnatyon. Magister Scriuii. came Emperoure, whome the sonl­diors named Cesar, and the Senate created Augustus, beinge as yet but a very yonge manne. In the battaile which he attempted against the Per­sians, he vāquished with great glory their king Xerxes, with great diligēs he gaue himself to martiall pollicy. Certain legions of souldiours which made vproures and were vnquiet, he dismiste and put forthe of wages. He associated with him to assiste hym in iudgement and geuing of sentence, Vlpianꝰ who made the lawes, who also supplyed an O ffyce in Rome, [Page 107] which was called magister Scriuii, an office (much like that) whithe we call here the master of the Rolles.) This Emperour demeaned himself very gently at Rome. He was slaine Aurelius A­lexander slain in Fraunce in a tumult that grew a­mong the souldiours, iv the .xiii. yere and .viii. day of his raigne. Who she­wed during his whole life time very greate godlinesse to­wardes all men: espe­ciallye toward his mother Ma­mea.

¶ The ninthe booke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

AFter that Au­reliꝰ 26. Maximinꝰ ye 26. emperour beganne hys raigne in the yeare of oure Lord. 237. he was fyrste a shepherd in Thracia, and became after to be a souldi­oures. was dead Maximinꝰ ob­tained the Em­pire, being des­cended of a mene parentage: for why, his father was a souldioure. Hee was the firste that aspired to the Empyre, by meane of the souldiors only, not be­ing authorised by the Senate, & one who had bene neuer him self Sena­tor before: when hee had with good successe fought against the Germai­nes, and was by the souldioures no­minated Emperour, he was slain by Pupienus at Aquileia, (and his sōne Maximinus slayne. with him, who was as then but a ve­ry childe.) when hee had raigned by [Page 108] the space of three yeares, and a fewe Maximinus his raigne. dede daies, at which time his owne souldiors forsoke him, and fled from him, then were there three whyche at one time in Rome bare the name of Augustus, whych were Pupienus Thre Empe­rors together at Rome. Balbinus, and Gordianus: of which the .ii. first were descended of a verye base line, but Gordianus was come of a noble progeny: for whye, his fa­ther should haue bene chosen Prince by the souldioures, at what time hee supplyed the offyce of Consull in A­fricke: duringe the raign of Maximi­nus. So soone as they were come to Rome, Balbinus and Pupienꝰ wer Balbinus & Pupienus slayne. slaine in the palaice: and the Empire was reserued for Gordianus alone. Who being as yet but verye yonge, 27. Gordianꝰ the 27 Emperour beganne his raign the 241 yeare of oure Lord. espowsed Tranquilliua at Rome, and warred in two places together at ones.

And toke his viage from thēce into these parts, he waged battel agaīst ye He raygued vi. yeres. [Page] Parthians who were nowe readye to issue forthe of their citye againste him. This battail in short space toke very good successe. And he in sondry great skirmyshes dyd sore afflyct the Persiās. But as he returned, he was Gordianus slayne. slaine, not farre from the borders of the Romaynes, through the treason of Philip, who succeaded hym in the Empyre. After hys death one of hys souldioures erected a monum ent for a memoriall of him, about .xx. myles distant from Circesshus (whyche is now a castel of the Romaines): near adioyninge to Euphrates His fune­rals Gordianus canonised. were solempnized at Rome, and hee was canonised. Then the two Philips, the father and the sōne toke 28. Philip the 28 Emperoure, beganne his raigne with his sonne, the yeare of oure lord. 247. the yeare of theyr raign was the 1000. yere after Rome was built. on them the gouernment of the Em­pire, after that Gordianus was thus slaine, and returned into Italye, lea­ding backe with them the army forth of Siria. It was accompted the M. yere after the building of the citye of [Page 109] Rome, at what time they began first their raign: which yere was celebra­ted with great solempnity and preparation of games and shews. Not lōg after they were bothe slaine by thar­my. The ii. Phil­lips slayne. The elder Philip at Verona the yonger was slaiue at Rome. They raigned by the space of v. yeres, and were canonized both. After their de­cease, 29. Decius the 29. Emperer begāhis raign in the yeare of our Lord. 252 he was the. 8. Emperoure whiche perse­cuted the chry stiās, he made an act that all that worshipped Christe, shuld be slain. Some iudged he was swalowed vp in an earthouake. Decius (who was born at Bu­balia in Hungarie) obtained them­pire. Hee repressed a eiuill battayle which was commenced in Fraunce. He creaied his sonne Cesar. He foū ­ded a bathe in Rome. But bothe hee and his sonue were slaine in Barba­rie: after that they hadde raigned by the space of two yeres and were ca­nonised. There were then created Emperoures, Gallus Hostiliauus: and Volusianus his sonne.

During the time of their Empire, 10. Gallus Hosti Itanus the. 30 Empiror, be­gan his raign in the yeare of our lord. 254. together with his sonne Volusianus. He was also a persecutor of the christians they raygned skant ii. yeres Emilianus attempted new conspiracies in Moesia, and when they bothe [Page] wente to subdewe hym, they were slayne at Iteramna, and so raygned not full oute two yeares. They com­mitted no fact worthye of memorye. Their Empire was for thys cause only remembred, for that during the time there of, there fel great plagues and sondrye other diseases and mala dies with in the Romaine Empyre. Emilianus like as hee was of base Great plages in the romain Empyre. stocke descended, righte so was the time of his Empire verye obscure, and wythout fame: when bee hadde Emilianus emperours. raigned .iii. monthes he was slayne.

After him Lucinius Valerianus, who had the gouernment of Rhoetia and Norseus, and was lieuetenaunt 31. Lucius Va­lerius the 31. Emperor, begā his Empire in the 256 yereafter Christes Incarnation, he was a persecutor of the christians, & vsed them so extremely that ma­ny of thē for­soke the faith for feare of death. there, was by the army created Em­peroure, and eftsones made Augu­stus. At that time, was Galienus also made Cesar at Rome by the as­sent of the Senate. The raygne of these two was very pernityous and hurtful, and in māner an vtter decoy [Page 110] to the fame and renowne of the Ro­maines, what for the misfortune and euill luck which they had in their af­fairs, and what for the cowardnesse of the said princes. The Germaynes were entred within Italy, and apro­ched vnto the city Rauenna. Valeri­anus waginge battall in Mesopota­mia, Valerianus discomsyted & takē prisoner by Sapor [...]s. and vsed very vily, for when Sapores woulde take his horse, hee made Valeri­anus to lie on the ground that he might tread on hym while hee got vppon hys horsebacke in stead of a blok or sotestole. was discomslted there, by Sapores king of the Persians, and sone af­ter was taken prisonner: and ended his life among the Persians in most seruil boudage, Galienus (who was made Augustus) beinge as yet but a very yong man. At ye first he did with great derterity gouern ye weale pub­lique: Sone after, indifferently wel, and at the last, meruailous naughti­ly. For when he was but yong, he at cheued and brought to passe sondrye things in Frasice & Illiria [...]ery stoutly. He slew Iugenuꝰ at Mursia, (one of ye peres of y country) & Treballin­nꝰ. Long time after that, he behaued himself meruailous stil and quiet.

[Page] Afterward geuing himself wholy ouer to wantonnesse and ryot from thēce forth he gouerned y weal pub­lique, with exceadinge great cowar­dise, so that things fell into passynge greate desperation. The Almaines when they had despoiled Fraunce, The Romay­nes annoyed the Romaine empyre. they inuaded Italy. And Dacia, whi­che was situate on the farther side of the riuer Danubius, and by Traianꝰ was annexed to the Romaine Em­pire, was then loste. Grees, Macedo­nie, Pontns, and Asia were ouer run by the Gothes. Hungary was despoi­led by the Sarmatians, and the Bo­hemians. A great parte of the Romain empyre won by foreyners. The Germaines proceded stil forward vntil they cam to Spain, where they conquered the worthye city Tarracon. When the Parthiās had no we gotten Mesopotomia, they began also to pretende atytle and of claime to Syria. Thus when things were welnigh past all hope of reco­nerye, and the Romaine Empyre al­moste [Page 111] wholly extinguished, Posthu­mius a Frenche man borne, beynge Posthumius vsurped the e­state imperial come of a verye base stocke, intruded into thempire, and gouerned ye same by the space of .x. yeres, in suche sort, that through his great p [...]owesse and manhode, he recouered those prouin­ces, whiche were then almoste quite loste. But wythin a while after, hee was slaine in a tumult, in which the Posthumius slayne. souldiours rose against him, for that he would not licence and permit thē to rifle and sacke the city Moguncia, which rebelled against him: at which place, Lollianus also begā new con­spiracies. After him, Mariꝰ a handi­craftes Marius vsurped the impe­riall estate. man, of a very vile and reiect occupation, got the Empire, and the next daye after he was slayne. Then Victorinus gouerned Fraunce. Victorinus toke on him the gouern­ment of Fraunce: he was a meruay­lous stout man of courage, but ouer­muche geuen to carnall concupiscēs. And when he fel to deflour and forse [Page] other mens wiues, he was slayne at Victorinus slayne. the city Agrippina in the second yere of his raigne, through the treason of one Acturiꝰ. After him succeded Te­tricus the Senator, who being lieue­tenaunt Tetricus chosen emperour ouer y part of Fraūce, which is called Aquitany or Guion, was in his absence by the whole consent of his soldiors chosen Emperor, and at Burdeux he toke estate vppon hym. He ouerstode sondry tumultes of the souldioures. But whilest that those thinges toke this successe in Fraūce, the Persians were vanquishte in the East partes by Odenatꝰ. Syria was The Persi­ans vāquisht defended againste suche as inuaded it, and Mesopotamia was againe re­couered. Odenatꝰ proceded forward, vntil he came to Ctesiphōtes a town in Parthia. Then when Galienus had resigned and geuen vp the go­uernemente of the weale publique, the Romaine Empire was adminy­stred by two at ones. The East par­tes [Page 112] by Odenatus, and the West par­tes The romayn Empyre go­uerned by .ii. at ones. by Posthumius.

In this meane space, Galienus & Valerianus were slaine at Millaine, in the ninthe yere of their raign, and Claudius succeaded after them, who was chosen by the souldiors, and by 32. Claudius the 23. Empe­roure, be­gan his raign in the yeare of our Lord. 271 a very worthi man, he reco­uered agayne things which were gone to decay duryng the raygnes of Valeriauꝰ and Galienus the Senate created Augustus. He o­uercame in sharpe warres ye Gothes, he wan Illiria, and discomfited & put to flight suche as despoiled Macedo­nie. He was a very sparing man, and a sober. A maintainer of iustice, and suche one, as was fyt to gouernea weale publique. Within .ii. yeres af­ter that he began first his raigne, he sickned and died, and was canonised. The Senate attributed greate ho­nours vnto him. For why, they cau­sed to be hanged vp, a golden Tar­get or shielde in the Councel house: and in the Capitoll, a golden Image to be created for a perpetuall memo­ry of him.

[Page] Next after Quintiliꝰ brother to that same Claudius, was by the whole consent of the souldiours nominated Quintilius nominated emperour. Emperor, a man of singuler sobriety & gentlenes, worthy to be compared with his brother, or rather to be pre­ferd before him. By the assent of the Senate, he was made Augustꝰ, and Quintilius slayne. was slain within .xvii. dais after that he began his raign. Then Aurelianꝰ accepted the gouernment of the Em­pire. 33. Aurelianus the. 33. empe­rour prefer­red to that dignity by Clau­dius, begā his raigne in the yeare of oure Lorde. 213, he was the tenth emperor that deltexttemely with Christi­ans. He was borne at Dacia Ripen­sis, (which is now called Denmark.) He was a stout man in warre, howe be it his minde was enclined to vn­mesurable crueltye. He subdued also manfully the Gothes. He restored ye Romain Empire to the wonted and auncient precinctes, after longe and vncertain fortune of battail. He van­quished Tetricus at Catalaunos in Fraunce, where Tetricus betrayed Tetricꝰ van­quished and deposed .l. hys owne army vnto him, for that he could not endure the dayly sedytions [Page 113] and discensions whyche spronge a­monge hys souldioures. Whervpon he requested Aurelius by letters sea­creatly, that he woulde rid him from those calamities. In hys sayd letters he vsed this vearse of Virgil. eripe me his muicte malis (which is). Deliuer me forth of these miseries thou victory­ous, and inuincible conqueroure. He toke Zenobia prisnoner in an excea­ding greate battaile, almost faste by Antioche, when he had first slain her husbande Odenatus: who had nowe got all the East partes vnder his do­minion. Odenatus slayne. And when he cam to Rome, he triumphed worthilye, as he, who had againe recouered both the Easte and West partes of the Empyre. Aurelianus triumphed at Rome. There went before his charyot in y triumphe, Tetricus, and Zenobia. But Tetricus was afterward depu­ted to haue the refourminge and re­dressyng of Lucania, and lyued as a priuate person there, of longe tyme. [Page] And Zenobia atter her decease, lef [...] her posteritye at Rome, whiche deo as yet to this daye remayne there. Duringe the raigne of Aurelianus, the coyners of money rebelled wyth Coyners re­belled in Rome. in the city of Rome. They depraued the coyne, and slewe one Foelicissin­nus Rationalis. But Aurelianus when he had ones subdued them, he kept them vnder with great extremitye of punishment. Diuers of theyr Principals, he put to deathe. He de­meaned hymselfe wyth great cruel­ty, and as a bloud thyrster. Manye re­uerenced hym more for the dignitye and roume whyche he supplied, then for anye zeale or loue that they bare to hym. Hee practised alwayes hor­rible rigoure. In so muche that he [...] slue his owne sisters sonnes. How be it he endeuored by all meanes to re­fourme martial policy, and to reduce and frame to good order the dissolute and corrupted conditions of the peo­ple. [Page 114] He enuironed the City of Rome Rome walles new made. with stronger walles. He founded a temple there, whiche he dedicated to the Sunne. Vpon which he bestowed The temple of the Sunne founded at Rome. an infinite deale of golde and prety­ous stones. He surrendred and gaue vp the keping of the prouince of Da­cia: Dacia yelded vp. whiche Traianus founded vpon the farther side of the riuer Danubi­us, and despoyled al Illiria, and Mo­esta for that he stode in doubt how he should be able to defend the same a­ny longer.

And conueying all the Romaines [...]et [...] of the Cities and Countries of Dacia, he planted them in the myd­dest of Moesia, which is new situate lying on the right side of Danubius, where the lea hath hys course, which before lay more on the lefte side. Hee was slain through the treason of hys Aurelianus slayne. own seruants, who falsly & traiterously counterfaiting themperors hand, made in a rol y names of sōdry men, [Page] (which in dede were suche as them­perdure fansied, and was very much affectioned vnto) affirminge to them that the Emperor had decreed theyr deathes. Whervpon they thinkynge to preuent that pretence of the Em­peroure, slewe him in the myddest of his iourney vppon the causye waye, whiche was betwene Constantino­ple and Heraciea. The place was called Cenophrurium. Howe be it, hys death was not vnreuenged. He was canonized, he raigned by the space of v. yeres and .vi. monethes. Aurelianus hys raygne.

Next after him, Tacitus obtayned thempire, a man of excedinge good 34. Tacitus the 34. emperour began hys raigne in the yeare of oure Lord. 279. conditions, and suche one as was mete to gouerne o weale publyque. Neuerthelesse he could not shewe a­nye document of his worthinesse, for that wythin vi. monethes after the commencement of his Empyre, hes T [...]acitus de­ceased. was preusnted by death.

Then Florianus, who succeaded 35. [Page 115] Tacitus, administred the Empire by 35. Florianꝰ the 35. Emperor, begā his Empire in the 279 yere after Christes In­carnation. the space of two monethes and .xx. dais: who in like maner did nothing which was worthy of memory. After him, Probus a man singulerlye ex­pert in warfare, became Emperour. He recouered Fraunce, whyche the Barbarians had won before. He vanquished 36. Probus the 36. Empe­roure, be­gan his raign in the yeare of our Lord. 279 in sondry skirmishes, diuers which attempted to vsurp the estate imperial: as Saturninus in the East partes, and Proculus, and Bonosus at Agrippina. He licensed the french Fraunce reconered. men and the Hungarians to haue vineyardes. Hee caused the hyll Al­mus adioyning to the city Sirmium, and the hil Aureꝰ in Mesia the high­er, Uineyardes permiited in Fraunce and Hungary. to be planted with vines by the handes of his souldioures, and after gaue them to men of the same Pro­uinces, to be tilled and husbanded. After that he had waged innumera­ble battailes, and had at the last pur­chased peace: and that all the coun­tress [Page] round about were nowe quyet, he said that within short space, soul­dioures shoulde not be requisite ne nedeful. He was a very ernest, stout, and a iuste manne, and suche one as was hable to matche Aurelianus hys predecessour for renowne atche­ued by cheualrye, and as for ciuility and curteous behauioure, he excelled hym farre. He was slayn at Sirmium Probus slain in an vproure (whyche grew among the souldioures) in an Iron tower, when he had raigned .vi. yeares and Probus hys raygne. iii. monthes.

After him Carus was created Augustus, who was borne at Narbona 37. Carus the. 37. Emperour beganne his raign the 286. yeare of oure Lorde. in Fraunce. He immediatlye vppon his saide creation made Carinus and Numerianus his sonnes, Cesares: and with theym hee raigned by the space of two yeares. But when hee tooke battayle in hande agaynste the Carinus and Numerianꝰ Cesars. Sarmatians (hauyng vnderstanding of the insurrection of the Persians,) [Page 115] he chaunged his vyage into the East The Persiās subdued. partes, where hee atcheued thynges manfully against the Persians, & subdued them in battail. He wan Seleu­cia Seleucia and Ctesiphontes won. the chiefest city of Siria, and Cte­siphontes a towne in Persia, and be­ing in his tentes whiche wer pitched fast vppon Tigris, he was strycken Carus slayne with lightnīg wyth lightnyng from heauen, and so died: Numerianus also hys Sonne, (whome he toke to that battail with hym, whyche he waged agaynst the Persians,) beinge a yonge man of a wonderfull towardnesse, for that he was payned with a griefe in hys eyes so that he coulde not ride, was caried in an horse liter thronghe the perswasion of Aper hys Father in Numerianus slayne. lawe, by whose treason he was there slayne: and his deathe concelde vntil that Aper mighte haue oportunitye to gette the Empire. But throughe the stenche of his carkasse, his death was bewrayed.

[Page] For why, the souldioures whych fo­lowed the horse liter wherin he was caried, beyng anoyed with the smel, plucking of the coueringes from the bed, foūd him dead, and within short while after vnderstode how he was slaine. In this meane while, Carinꝰ whō Carꝰ his father (when he made his expedition against ye Persiās) had deputed Cesar ouer Illiria, Fraunce and Italy, gaue him selfe ouer to all kinde of mischief. He put diuers in­nocents to death for verye small cri­mes. He forsed and defloured dyuers noble mennes wiues, and harmed oft times such his schole felowes as reproued him gently, and wyth faire woordes for certaine misdemenures which he vsed in thauditory or place wher they hard theyr lectures, throughe which occasious, he grewe to be hated of all men, and not long after, suffred condigne punishmentes for those his factes. For when the army [Page 117] was retourned forth of Persia, after these discomfitures (that is to saye,) when they had lost Carus Augustus by lightning, and Numerianus Ce­sar by treason, they created Dioclesi­anus 38. Dioclesianus the. 38. Emperour beganne his raign the 288. yeare of oure Lorde, a man for policy and ciuill go­uernment, he was an exce­ding sore persecutor of chri­stians, in hys raigne there were slayne within .xxx. dayes space to the number of 17000. chri­stians. Emperoure, Who was borne at Dalmatia. He was descended of a very base stocke: for diuers adiudged that he was a scriueners sonne: O­thers there were that thoughte hym to be bondman to Anulinus the Se­nator, and by him made free: he toke an othe in the open assemblye of the souldioures, that Numerianus was not slain by any his treason: and ther with all, in the presence of all the souldiours, drawing forth his sword he ran Aper through, who stode fast by him, which was father in lawe to Numerianus, and had slaine him. After that, he ouercame Carinꝰ, who yet liued, being hated and despited of all men, whome his own army, whi­che was of great power & strength, [Page] betrayed, forsakynge hym betweene the two hils Viminatius and Aure­us, when Carinus had on this sorte obtained the Romalne Empyre, the peisauntes of Fraunce began a com­motion, and called that their conspi­racye Bagande. They chose Aman­dus, and one other called Elianus to A commotion of the pesants of Fraunce. be theyr captaines. Againste theym, was sente Maximianus Herculius, then Cesar: who in easye battailes vanquished the sayde peysaunts, and repressed and quieted agayne that parte of Fraunce. After this, Carau­sius also (who thoughe hee was des­cended Fraunce pacified. of a very base parentage, and yet had attained vnto great renoum, for that he demeaned hym self man­fullye in warres,) tooke vppon him at Bononia to bring in quiet and to appaise the sea alonge the coaste of Brittaine, and that part of Fraunce, called Gallia Belgica, which as thē the Frenchmen and Saxones did a­noye. [Page 118] This Carausius when hee had oft times apprehended sondrye Bar­barians, of whome he neither reser­ued the spoyl whole, nor yet was ac­coumptable for it, to those whyche had the ouer sighte of the prouinces, ne to the Emperoures them selues for that time being: it grew to be sus­pected, that of set purpose, he permitted the Barbarians to haue recourse that waye,) to the ende that as they passed by fraighted, he mighte borde and rifell them, and by that meanes enriche hym selfe. For whych cause, Maximtanus commaunded that hee shoulde be putte to deathe. But hee hauynge vnderstandinge ther of, fled Britayne de­tayned by Carausius. into Brittaine and kepte it by fōrce. Thus when as through the world al places were in an vprour, Carausius The romayn Empyre throughout disturbed. rebeld in Britain, Achilleꝰ in Egipt, ye Quinque gentiās molested Africk, & Narseꝰ waged battel against thEast parts, Dioclesianꝰ made Maximianꝰ Hercu­culiꝰ [Page] Augustus also, who before was but Cesar. And Cōstantius, and one other Maximinꝰ, he created Cesars. Maximianus Herculius made Au­gustus, and associated felow to Dioclesian in thempyre. This Constantius was thoughte to be Claudius his daughters sonne. And Maximianus Galeriꝰ was born in Dacia not farre from Sardica. To the ende therfore that he might knyt those two in alliaunce, he caused Cō ­stantius to espouse Theodora daughter in law to Herculius: vpon whom he begate .vi. children whyche were brothers to Constantinus. Galerins tooke to wife Valeria doughter to Dioclesianus. They were inforced bothe, to deuorse their wiues which they had before. Battayle was then attempted against Carausius. A mā Battayle a­gainst Carausius. of singuler experience in matters of warfare, but they tooke no good ef­fecte. Where vppon peace was concluded betwene them. And thē in Peace concluded with Ca­rausius. the .vii. yeare after, Carausius was slaine by Alectus his companion, Carausius slayne. [Page 119] Who then kepte Brittayne himself Alectus detained Bretain. by the space of three yeares, and was subdued afterwarde by Asclepiodoiꝰ captaine of the gard. Thus was Britaine recouered within .x. yeres after Britaine recouered. that Carausius ūrst tooke it. Aboute the same time, a battail was fought by Constantius Cesar in Fraunce, Warre in Fraunce. neare about the Langrecians: & that time he experimented bothe aduerse and prosperous fortune. For when the Barbarians assailed hym verye hastelye, hee was enforced to retyre backe againe to the City, where hee was so hardly bestead, that (ye gates of the city beinge shut) he was fayne to be drawen vp the wal with ropes. And within lesse then .v. hours space A great ouer throw of the Almaynes. after when he had assēbled his army together, he issued forth against thē, and slue almost .lx. M. Almaines. By this time, had Maximinus Augustus in lyke manner finished his warres in Affricke, where he subdewed the [Page] Quinquegentianes, and made peac [...] Peace concluded with the Quinquegentians. with them. About .viii. monethes af­ter, Dioclesianus ouercame Achilleꝰ of Alexandria and slewe him, and de­meaned the victory which he had go [...] Achilleus siayne. very cruelly. For why, he poluted all Egipt with great slaughter of men, and banished a great nōber besides. Neuerthelesse he established dyuers thinges verye circumspectlye there: which continue yet to these our dais. Valerius Maximianus experimēted at the first vnlucky fortune, and sone after, he had very good successe: For when he ioyned battail, and foughte rather vnaduisedly then cowardlye at Callinicum and the citye Carre geuinge the onset with a very fewe vppon an exceadyng populous army of his ennemies, he was discomfited there, and enforced to retire. Where vppon he retourned backe forthwyth to Dioclesianus for aide, whome hee met by chaunce in the mid waye as [Page 120] he came. And Dioclesiane (as it was sayd) welcomed him after such wan­ton and effeminate fation, that (be­ing then clad in his magistrates ro­bes,) he a lighted and ran on foote by Maximianus his chariot, as he rode. But so sone as Maximianus had as­sembled an army forth of Illiria and Moesia, he pitched a field and fought again with Narseus, graūdfather to Ormisda and Sapores in Armenia ye greater with passynge good fortune: and no lesse circumspectnes and va­liaunt courage for taking with hym two horsmen forthe of hys garryson, he kepte the skoute watche hym self. When he hadde vanquished Narse­us, and putte hym to flyght, he sackt hys tentes. He tooke his wyues, hys systers, and his children prisonners. And a greate parte of the Nobilitye Thr Persiā put to a great foyle. of the Persians, tooke he prisonners there.

[Page] He get moreouer great plenty of the Persians treasoure, and forst ye king to flee to the vttermost desert places of his Empire. Thus returning with great ioy he was again receiued very honorably by Dioclesiane, who tari­ed him in Mesopotamia with ayde there, redy if nede hadde bene. After that they bothe together, and eache of them alone, waged sondrye bat­tailes. They subdued the Carpianes and the Basternes, and conquered ye Sarmatians. From amonge whiche nations, they brought a great noum­ber of such as they had taken prison­ners, and placed them in the borders of the Romaine Empire. Dioclesia­nus ordered his doinges verye cyr­cumspectly, as one that was of a ve­ry sharpe wit, and suche one as could The close workynge of Dioclesiane. make other menne instrumentes to wreke his seueritye and rigoure by. He was a very diligent [...] [...]nd a wyse Prince. He induced into the Romain [Page 121] Empyre some vsages whiche were acustomed and put in practise, rather duringe the bondage of the kynges, then agreable wyth the libertye of the Romains. He commaunded men to worship him, where as before hys time, the vsage was only to salute ye Emperoure. He garnished his appa­rel and shoes, with precious stones, Dioclesianus geuen some­what to pride where before his raigne, the habite imperiall consisted but in a purple cloke. The residue of the Emperors apparaile, was better then the other peoples of Rome. But Herculiꝰ dyd outwardly demeane hymselfe wyth great cruelty, declaringe the same al so openly, by the terror of his counte­naunce, he applyed hym self wholly to followe the appetite of Dioclesia­nus, whose minde hee accomplyshed in all crueltye. But when Dioclesia­nus apperceiued that hee waxed vn­weldye to gouerne the Empyre, for that he now grew in age, hee began [Page] to perswade with Herculiꝰ that they Dioclesianus pers [...] ad [...]d with Herculius to resigne the state imperyall. both should become priuate persons againe, and resigne the gouernment of the weal publique, to such as wer both yonger and lustier men, to whi­che aduise of his, with muche a doo Herculius would assent. But yet ne­uerthelesse at length, eyther of them bothe vpon one daye chaunged theyr estate imperiall, and resumed agayn Herculiꝰ and Dioclesianus became pri­uate men a­gayne. the apparel of priuate persons, Dio­clesiane at Nicomedia, and Hercu­lius at Millaine, so sone as they had sinished the noble triumphes which they kept at Rome with great pomp and solemnity of pageants: In whi­che the concubines, the sisters, & the children of Narseus were led before their chariots. When this tryumphe was finished, the one of them wente to the city of Salona: and thother in­to Lucania. Dioclesian passed forthe his life worthelye in quiet, as a pry­uate man in a towne not far distante [Page 122] from Salona, demeaning hym selfe vertuouslye there. He was the onlye firste whyche fithe the foundatyon of the Romaine Empire, was willyng to reuerte againe from so hyghe de­gree, to a priuate estate and condity­on of lyfe. For whyche cause, there was graunted to him, that whyche neuer sithe anye man coulde euer re­member did chaunce to anye other: which was, that though he deceased Dioclesianus canonised af­ter his decese. thoughe he was apriuate man. a priuate persone, yet he was canonised, that notwyth­standing.

¶ The tenthe booke of the Breuiary of Eutropius.

WHen they hadd 39. Constantius the 39. empe­rour, beganne hys raigne with Galeri­us in the year of oure Lorde 308. thus finishedde theyr bearynge rule, ther were chosen Empe­rours, Constantius and Gale­riꝰ: and to them was committed the gouermente of the weale publique, and the Romaine Empyre was de­uided betwene them: So that Constā tius should possesse Fraunce, Italy & Affricke. Galerius should haue Illi­ria, Asia, and the East parts. whiche done, they substituted vnder them .ii. Cesars. But Constantius holdynge hym selfe content with the dignitye of Augustus, refused to sustaine the trouble whyche he shoulde haue en­dured through the administration of [Page 123] the affaires of Italye and Affricke, wherein he declared his worthines & passing great modesty. He soughte by all meanes howe he might enrich Worthy stu­dies of a Prince. the popular people of thempyre, and such as inhabited the Prouinces. He did not much affect the augmentyng or incresing of the common treasour, supposinge it farre better and more profitable, that the welth of ye whole Empyre shoulde be possessed and re­maine among priuate personnes, ra­ther then the wealth of priuate men to be included and shutte vp, in one place together. Hee was hymselfe so sklenderly stored of things necessary for houshold, that if it chaunced hym to feast any nomber of his frends, he was enforced to borow plate abrode here and there, to furnish hys tables wythall. He was not onlye beloued, but hadde in great reuerence also a­monge the frenchmen, for yt through his said accepting of the empire, they [Page] had now eshaped the suspected wittines of Dioclesiane, and the bloudye hastinesse and cruelty of Maximianꝰ. He deceased at Yorke in Brittain, in the .xiii. yere of his raign, and was canonised. Constantius deceased at York in England. Galerius who was endued with very good qualities, and was of greate prowesse in martiall pollicye besides, (when hee vnderstode that through the permission of Constanti­us, Italye was also annered to hys Empire,) he created two Cesars: but when Constantius was deceased, his Two Cesers created vnder Galerius. sonne Constantius being base born, was created Emperor in Brittain, & 40. Constantinꝰ the. 40. Em­peror began his raign in the yereof our Lord 310. He was the first Emperor that professed the name of christ he established the gospell in his Empire. Maxentius, Herculiꝰ hys sonne nomin­ted Augustaꝰ became gouernour of that country in his fathers roume, (which thing al ye people laboured earnestly to haue it so.) In this mean space, the gard be­gan a commotion at Rome, where they nominated Maxentius sonne to Herculius Augustus, which Herculiꝰ dwelt not far from the city of Rome, nigh to the high waye as men goo to [Page 116] Rome wardes. At whiche tidinges, Maximianus Herculius conceyued a good hope that he might again reco­uer ye estate which to fore by perswa­sion Herculius cam againe to Rome. of Dioclesian, & far againste hys own wil he had forgon and resigned. Whervpon, with great spede he ha­sted to Rome wards, forthe of Luca­nia. Which place he had before chosē (being a most plesant soyl to remain in,) where he had also spent a greate Herculius perswaded Dioclesian to resume the state unperial part of his time, after yt he had resig­ned first his Empire. Thē Maximia­nꝰ so sone as he was come to Rome, he begā to perswade with Dioclesian bi letters, yt he shuld likewise resume his former estate: which thīg he neg­lected to do. Thē was Seuerꝰ Cesar sēt to Rome with an army to represse Seuerus sent agaynste the garde. & asswage the commotion which the gard had made. But as he laide siege to the city, his own souldiors forsoke him, by meane wherof strength and power accrued & grewe to Maxentiꝰ. Seuerus slayne. [Page] Seuerus (as he wold haue fled thēs) was slaine at Rauenna. After that, Herculius Maximianus in an assemble of the souldiors, made semblance as if he would haue deposed his sōne Maxentius: for which his said enter­prise, hee sustained reproche and re­buke of the souldiours. From thence he departed to Fraunce, fayning that hee was expulsed by his sonne, and A cruell pre­tens of Herculius. forced to flye: (thinking by this mea­nes) he shoulde get to be receiued of his sonne in law Constantinus: whō he minded to slaye, if he mighte finde time and oportunitye conueniente: which Constantinus at that presēt, raigned in Fraunce with greate fa­uoure and loue, bothe of his souldy­ours and other the inhabitauntes of those prouinces. And when hee had slain the French men and Almains, and taken their kinges prisonners, (assembling a great companye to be­hold A cruell facte of Herculius. the sight) he set them forth to be [Page 125] deuoured of wilde beastes. But hys doughter disclosed to her husbande Constantinus, the wicked enterpry­ces of her father & reueled vnto him, what treason her father had preten­ded againste him. Whiche thinge so sone as Maximianus vnderstode, hee fled to Massilia, (thinckinge to haue passed ouer from thence, to his sonne Maxentius againe,) and was there Herculius slayne. slaine: suffring condign punishment for those his demerits: one who was euermore prone to all rigor and cru­elty. A man without faith, very per­nitious and hurtfull to all men, and void of all ciuility and courtesy.

Aboute the same time, Licinius was created Emperoure by Galeri­us. Licinius created Emperor. He was borne at Dacia, and pas­singe wel knowen of Galerius, for yt he had of long time bene of familyer acquaintaunce with him. He estemed him greatly for the earnest trauaile and payns which he sustained in the [Page] battail yt he waged against Narceus, & for other seruiceablenesse & good endeuor, which he apperceiued to be in him. This don, shortly after, Galeriꝰ deceassed. Then was the Empire ad­ministred Galerius de­ceased. by .iiii. at ones. By Constā tinus and Marentius, whose fathers Four Empe­rours at once in Rome. had ben Emperors before, and Lici­nius & Maximinꝰ which were newly created Emperors. But Constantinꝰ in the .v. yere of his raign, attempted a ciuil battail against Marentius. He discomfited his armies in sondry skirmishes. A ciuil battel by Constantinus. And at last, vanquished hym at Miluius bridge, and so got al Ita­ly vnder his obeisaunce. Maxentius vanquisht.

At this time, Maxentius exercised great tiranny vpon diuers the peres of his Empire. Not longe after that, Maximinus attempted warresin the War preten­ded by Maxi­minus agaīst Licinius. East partes also against Licinius.

But when he apperceiued yt he was like to be discōsited, he preuented the mischiefs imminent, by dying sodēly Maximianus deceassed. [Page 118] at Tarsus. Thē Cōstantiꝰ being one of a hauty stomak & corage, affecting to accōplish & bring to passe such thinges as he had once cōceiued in his fā tasy, coueting to become Emperor o­uer ye whole world, made war vpon This warre was againste Licinius by Constantius for religions sake chefelye. Licinius, although he was his frēd. For this Liciniꝰ had espoused his si­ster Constantia. He vanquished hym first in Hungary: the secōd time he o­uercame him at Cybale: wheras Liciniꝰ In the tyme os Constātius Scotlande receyued the sayth. began to renue battel with great preparation. whē he had thus got all Dardania, Mesia & Macedonie, he wā diuers other prouinces besides. After that, there were sondry battailes waged betweene them, and peace con­cluded, and broken agayne. At laste, Lycinius was cōquered at Nicome­dia Licinius conquered. a famous city of Bithinia, in bat­tayle bothe by Sea and lande. Hée yelded himself: and yet contrary to ye integritye of the othe and promyse made betwene them, he was slayne. Licinius slayne. [Page] At that time, (which neuer earst hapned) was the Romaine Empire sub­iect One Empe­ror and .iii. Cesars at Rome. to one Emperor and .iii. Cesars. At this time, Constantinus his chil­dren had the gouernment of Fraūce, the East partes, and of Italye. But this vnkethenesse of passinge greate good fortune & successe in his affairs, did somewhat chaunge and aultare Constantinus from that his wonted gentle & flexible minde. In so muche that he persecuted his owne bloude, and those whiche were of his ally­aunce. He slewe his own sisters son, a notable yong mā and very toward­ly. Eftsones he put his wife to death and after that, sondry of hys frendes also. In the firste beginninge of hys raign, he was worthy to haue beene compared with the best and chiefest princes of the Romaines that euer were: and at the end therof, to be re­sembled to suche as were of the meaner sort. He was endewed with son­dry [Page 127] and those excellent vertues. Hee was very muche geuen to purchase praise and fame by feates of cheual­ry. He had exceding good chaunce in battaile, and yet not so good chaunce but that his industry and endeuoure excelled it farre. Hee vanquished and put to flight at sondry times the Go­thes. After that he had repressed the ciuil warres, he vanquished the Go­thes in diuers places, and graunted them peace at laste: and wan greate memory of praise and worship amōg the Barbarians. He was passing de­sirous to attaine learning, and appli­ed him selfe wholly to the studye of the liberall artes. He endeuoured to gaine the loue of the people, through his well deseruinges, seking ye same by his great liberality, and facillity. Who like as he semed to some of his frendes vnstedfaste and suspected, so was he to the residue of them passing frendly and assured: suffring no way [Page] ne mean eskape, by which he could i­magin how to enrich & aduaūce thē. He enacted & established sōdry laws. Some groūded vpō equity & iustice: diuers superfluous & to no purpose, & many replenished with seuerity & ri­gor. The city which he built, he ertolled to so great port and estate, that he made it able to cōpare (ī maner) with the citye of Rome it selfe. And as he made preparation for battail against the Parthians, he died at Nicomedia Constantius [...]eceassed. in thopen town ther, in the .xxxi. yere of his raign, when he had liued .lxvi. yeres. His death was prognosticated by a Comet or blasing starre, whych was sene by a certain space being of Constantius hys deathe prognosiicate▪ a greate bignesse, (whiche starre the Grecians cal [...]. After his deth he was canonised. He lefte behinde him .iii. sonnes of his own, that is to wit Constantinus, Constans & Cō ­stantiꝰ to succede him in his Empire, & one other which was hys brothers [Page 128] sonne. But Dalmatius Cesar which was his brothers sonne, a yong man of a meruelous towardnes was slain Dalmatius Cesar slayne. in an vprour whiche fel amonge the souldioures, (his cosen Constantius 41. Constantinꝰ the. 41. Em­peror began his raigne in the yeare of oure Lorde 340, and with him his fa­ther Constantinus Mag­nus had apointed by his last will, that hys two brothers Constans & Constantinꝰ should perticipate and haue theyr portyon of thempyre. permittig only, rather thē procuring his deathe.) Not longe after, when Constantinꝰ attempted war against his brother at Aquileia, and demened hym selfe vnaduisedly there in, he was slayne. Then was the Empyre of the Romaynes reduced vnder the gouernemente of two onlye. The raign of Constās endured for a time valiant, which he administred wyth great iustice. Sone after, when he began to fail of his health, he associated vnto him in stede of frends euil disposed persōs to assist him about th Em­pire, through whose euil counsailes, Constantinꝰ slayne. he declined into horrible vices. By meane wherof, waring skante tolle­rable of thinhabitāts of ye prouinces & nothing regarded of his souldiors, [Page] hee was slaine at Magnensium in a Constans slayne. commotion there, in a castell called Helena castel not farre from Spain, in the .xvii. yere of his raigne, when he had liued .xxx. yeares. In his life time, he had atchieued diuers things very prosperouslye, and duringe hys whole raigne, he vsed no greate cru­elty towardes his souldioures. But Constantius experimented very vn­certaine and variable fortune in hys battayles. For why, he sustained dy­uers, and those greate damages by the Persians. They ofte times wan his townes, besieged his Cities, and slewe his armies: to be briefe, he ne­uer waged any battaile against Sa­pores, in whych he had good successe but only one which he fought at Singara, where he lost that victory also, whiche vndoubtedly he myght haue gotten, had it not bene for the outra­gious fiercenesse and ouer hasty cou­rage of his souldioures: whiche vn­aduisedly [Page 129] without any regard, cōtra­ry to all order of warfare, would ne­des ioyne the battail, when as nowe the day was cleane spente. After the death of Constans, whē as now Ma­gnentius possessed Italy, Affricke, & Fraunce, new matters begā to grow in Illiria, where the souldiors by the whole consent, chose Veteranio to gouerne the Empire, being now ve­rye Veteranio chosen prynce by the souldi­oures. aged, but yet well be loued of all men, for the good successe whiche he hadde of long time experimented in martiall affaires. There was assyg­ned vnto him, the gouernment of Il­liria. This Veteranio was both wit­ty, and a very good man. In condity­ons, much refembling toe auncyent Emperours of Rome, and one which was greatly enclined to the auncient vsage of the Emperors, and passing tractable hym self. How be it he was nothing at all learued. In so muche, that he knewe not the Alphabete or [Page] croscow, but as he lerned it in his ex­treme age after ye he was created emperor. This Veteranio was deposed Veteranio deposed. frō thempire, by Constantiꝰ, who to reuenge ye deth of his brother, begā a ciuil battail, and Veteranio after an vnkethe & straunge sort (was by the consent and agrement of ye soldiors, enforced to relinquishe and resigne his estate imperial. At the same time was there a commotion at Rome: at Nepotianus got thempire. which time Nepotianus, Constanti­nus hys sisters sonne, inuaded them­pire, being aided by a bande of them whiche vse to playe at the weapons (called gladiatores.) But accordyng to hys cruell beginninges, so had he an ende correspondente. For in the xxviii. day after his saide enterpryse, he was slain by the captains of Mag­nensius: Nepotianus slayne. and so suffred punishmēt fit for his demerites. His hed was smit­ten of, & set on theud of a tauelin, and so caried about the city. There were [Page 130] great banishments, and merueylous great slaughters of noble men thē cō mitted. Within a while after, Mag­nensius was also discōfited in battel at Mursa: & was well nighe taken. A great nōber of ye Romains wer slain Magnensius slayne. in y battall, which were men able to haue withstode all forain inuasiōs of enemies, and such, as the Romains, (through their prowes,) might haue gayned manye tryumphes, and bene in safetye and security agaynst theyr aduersaryes. Shortly after, Constantius deputed Gallus hys fathers brothers Gallus made Cesar. sonne, Ceaser ouer the Easte parts. Magnensius after that he had bene discomfited in so many battels, slewe hym selfe at Louane, when he Magnensius siue hymselfe. had raygned three yeares and seuen monethes. In lyke manner delte hys brother Senonis also, whom he had made Cesar, and sente to defende Gallus Cesar slayne. Fraunce. Aboute this time, was Gallus Cesar slaine by Constantius [Page] after that they had waged diuers ci­uil warres together: a man of cruell disposition, and very prone to tirāny, (if he might haue ruled according as himself hadde listed.) Siluanus also who attempted other newe matters Siluanus slayne. in Fraunce, was within .xxx. dais af­ter slain. Then Constantius himself alone, enioyed the Romain Empire. Constantius Emperour a­lone. Soone after, he appoynted Iulianus his vncles sonne, and brother to Gallus, Cesar ouer Fraunce, and sente him thither, espousing first his owne Iulianus made Cesar. sister vnto him. Now when the Bar­barians had won diuers townes, and besieged other some, and that euerye where ther was a pitiful spoyl made by them, so that the Romain Empire consisted in no small hasard and dan­ger, Iulianus slue greate armyes of the Almaines at Argentine a city of An ouer­throwe of the Almaynes. Fraunce. Theyr mighty and worthy kinge, was there taken prisonner, Fraunce was againe recouered. Iu­lianus [Page 131] was by the consente of the Iulianus Augustus. souldiors made Augustus: who with in a yere after, made a viage toward Illiria: Constantius who was busi­ed in battail against the Parthians, when he hard of this, returned home wardes to pacify that commotion, & died by the waye betwene Cilicia, Constantius deceassed, his age & raigne. and Cappadocia: in the .xxxviii. yere of his raigne, when he had liued .xlv. yeres, and was adiudged worthye to be canonised. He was a very peasible and quiet man: but such one, as gaue ouer muche creadit and affiaunce to his frendes, and those whiche were his familiers. And folowed to muche his wyues councell. Yet in the fyrste commencemēt of his Empire, he de­meaned himself with great sobriety, endeuoring by all meanes to enrich suche as were of his acquaintaunce, and would not see them vnpreferred to honoures and promotions, whose painful diligence and endeuoure be [Page] hadde ones experimented. How be it wyth greate seueritye and crueltye, he punished suche as he ones apper­tained to affect soueraintye in suche sorte, that hee woulde secke to de­priue him of his Empire. Otherwise he was very quiet and gentle: whose fortune and good chaunce, was more to be commended in ciuill warres, then in those whyche he waged forth of his Empire.

After that Iulianus was Empe­roure, who wyth greate preparation 42. Iulianus the 42. Emperor began his raign in the yere of oure Lord 362. one sene passynge well in the liberall sciences, but an earnest aduersary of christian reli­gyon. made warre vpon the Parthianes, at which viage I my self was present, diuers townes and holdes were pea­sibly yelded vp, and other some won by hym. And when he hadde despoy­led Assiria, hee pytched his tentes, and entrenched them, and soiourned there for a season. And retournynge from thence a conqueroure, hee was slain by his ennemies, as hee pressed som what vnaduisedlye into the [Page 124] battailes, in the .vi. of the kalends of Iuly, in ye .vii. yere of his raign, whē he had liued .xxxi. yeres, and was ca­nonised. He was a notable man, and suche one as would passinglye well haue gouerned the weale publique, if desteny wold haue permitted him to haue liued. He was exceadinglye wel sene in all the liberal sciences. He did excell in the Greke tounge, in so muche that his knowledge in the Latin tounge was nothing to be cō ­pared with that which he had in the Greke tong. He was very eloquent, and of a very redy & prompt memory. In manye thynges, hee resembled muche a Philosopher. He was lybe­rall to hys frendes, but not all toge­ther so hedefull aboute hys affayres, as it was sittinge and fitte for soo myghtye a Prince: whyche fault dy­uers obiected to hym, whereby hys fame and glorye was somedele stay­ned in that behalfe.

[Page] He delt very vprightly with thinha­bitauntes of the Prouinces, whyche were vnder the Romaynes. He charged his subiectes to pay as few tares and tributes as mighte be. Hee was very ciuil and curtuous to all men. He sought litle to augment hys own tresure. He was very desirous to at­taine glory and renoum: In so much that he did affect it sometimes wyth out measure. He was an exceadinge Iulianus a persecutor of Christians. great persecutor of Christian religi­on, but yet in suche sorte, that he ab­stained from sheding their bloud. He was not muche vnlyke to Marcus Antonius, whom he did also earnest­ly endeuor him selfe to immitate and folowe. Next after him, Iouinianus who as yet had neuer ben trained vp 43. Iouinianus the. 4 [...]z. Em­peror [...] hy [...] r [...]gne in the. 367 y [...]re of our Lorde he was a veri good prince, a fauourer of ye gospel, and cō fessors therof he instytuted that tythes shuld be payd to churches. in warfare abrode, was by the cōsent of the army, chosen to haue the admi­nistration and the rule ofth Empire: of whome the souldioures had better notyce throughe the commendatyon [Page 125] and good reporte of hys father, then for anye triall and knowledge they hadde of him selfe. Thus when the weale publyque of the Romaynes was disturbed, and the souldioures brought to extreme pouertye, so that they were destitute of al thinges ne­cessary, Iouinianus was vanquished in a battail or ii. by the Persians, and Iouinianus sustayned a shameful o­uerthrowe. forst to make a very reprochful peace for graunting wheref, he was forced to them, with a great portion of hys Empire: which thing sence the fyrst foūdation of the city of Rome, (whi­che was wel nighe a M. C. and. xviit. yere,) neuer erste happened. In lyke manner also, the Romayne Regions were discomfited and sustained an o­uerthrow by Pontius The lesinus at Eaudium a towne of the Samuites, The Romai­nes put to great foyles. and in Spaine at Numantia, and at Numidia and sent vnder yoke. But at that time they departed wyth no part of the Empire to their aduersa­ries. [Page] Nor yet that former concluding of peace on that condition, had bene greatly to be misliked wythal, if that afterwarde, so soone as he had bene able, he had infringed that league a­gaine, whiche before of necessity and force, he was constrayned to make: lyke as the Romaynes dyd in all those battailes whiche I haue before recited. For after anye suche peace made, they renewed battayle againe forthe wyth againste the Samnites, the Numantines, and the Numidi­ans, so soone as the peace was con­cluded.

But Iouinianus (dreadynge that he shoulde haue beene supplanted in the Empire,) helde hym selfe styll in the East partes, geuing in the mean time small hede or regarde to his r [...] ­nowme.

After that, as he tooke his iourne [...] from thence to warde Illiria, he dye sodenlye in the borders of Galacia [Page 126] one who in no other his affairs was eyther slouthfull or neglygente, or wanted any wyt. Of ye hys so sodayn deathe, dyuers coniectured diuersly. Some thoughte that he tooke it by eatynge rawe meate, for in deede he had surfited ouer nyght.

Other some supposed that it proceaded throughe the vnholsome ayre of the chamber, whyche for that that it was newlye pargeted wyth lyme, was verye noysome to him ly­inge there in.

And other some adiudged that it [...]ame by reason of the vnmeasurable burnynge of charcoles in his cham­ber, of whyche, for ye it was extreme colde weather, hee wylled there shuld be burned great plenty. He de­ [...]eased in the .vii. yere of his raigne, [...]he .xxiiii. of ye Kalends of March, in ye [...]xxiii. yere of his age: & throughe the [...] neuolens of them which succeded [...]im in the Empire, was canonised. [Page] He was geuen very muche to ciuili­ty, and was by nature very liberall. Suche was the state of the Romaine Empire, at what time the sayd Ioui­nianus, and Verouianus gouer­ned it (which was) in the M. C. and .xix. yere after the first building of the city of Rome. (⸫)

¶ Thus endeth the Breuiary of Eutropius.

¶ Imprinted at London in Fletestrete, near to Saynt Dunstons Churche, by Thomas Marshe.

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