A treatise of schemes & tropes: very profytable for the better understanding of good authors, gathered out of the best grammarians & oratours
Doubt not but that the title of this treatise all straunge unto our Englyshe eares, wil cause some men at the fyrst syghte to maruayle what the matter of it should meane: yea, and peraduenture if they be rashe of iudgement, to cal it some newe fangle, and so casting it hastily from them, wil not once vouch safe to reade it: and if they do, yet perceiuynge nothing to be therin that pleaseth their phansy, wyl count it by a tryfle, & a [Page A2r] tale of Robynhoode. But of thys sorte as I doubte not to fynde manye, so perhaps there wyll be other, whiche moued with the noueltye thereof, wyll thynke it worthye to be looked upon, and se what is contained therin. These words, Scheme and Trope, are not used in our Englishe tongue, neither bene they Englyshe wordes. No more be manye whiche nowe in oure tyme be made by continual use, very familier to most men, and come so often in speakyng, that aswel is knowen amongest us the meanyng of them, as if they had bene of oure owne natiue bloode. Who hath not in hys mouthe nowe thys worde Paraphrasis, homelies, usurped, abolyshed, wyth manye other [Page A2v] lyke? And what maruail is it if these words haue not bene used here tofore, seyinge there was no suche thynge in oure Englishe tongue where unto they shuld be applyed? Good cause haue we therefore to gyue thankes unto certayne godlye and well learned men, whych by their greate studye enrychynge our tongue both wyth matter and wordes, haue endeuoured to make it so copyous and plentyfull that therein it maye compare wyth anye other whiche so euer is the best. It is not unknowen that oure language for the barbarousnes and lacke of eloquence hathe bene complayned of, and yet not trewely, for anye defaut in the tongue it selfe, but [Page A3r] rather for slackenes of our countrimen, whiche haue alwayes set lyght by searchyng out the elegance and proper speaches that be ful many in it: as plainly doth appere not only by the most excellent monumentes of our auncient forewriters, Gower, Chawcer and Lydgate, but also by the famous workes of many other later: in especially of the tyght worshipful knyght syr Thomas Eliot, which first in hys dictionarye as it were generallye searchinge oute the copye of oure language in all kynde of wordes and phrases, after that setting abrode goodlye monumentes of hys wytte, lernynge and industrye, aswell in historycall knowledge, as of eyther the Philosophies, [Page A3v] hathe herebi declared the plentyfulnes of our mother tounge, loue toward hys country, hys tyme not spent in vanitye and tryfles. What shuld I speake of that ornamente Syr Thomas Wyat? which beside most excellente gyftes bothe of fortune and bodye, so flouryshed in the eloquence of hys natiue tongue, that as he passed therin those wyth whome he lyued, so was he lykelye to haue bene equal wyth anye other before hym, had not enuious death to hastely beriued us of thys iewel: teachyng al men verely, no filicitie in thys worlde to be so suer and stable, but that quicklye it may be ouerthrowen and broughte to the grounde. Manye other there be yet lyuynge [Page A4r] whose excellente wrytynges do testifye wyth us to be wordes apte and mete elogantly to declare oure myndes in al kindes of Sciences; and that, what sentence soeuer we conceiue, the same to haue Englyshe oracion natural, and, holpen by art, wherby it may most eloquently be uttered. Of the whych thynge as I fortuned to talke wyth you, Master Brooke, among other matters this present argument of Schemes and Tropes came in place, and offered it selfe, demed to be bothe profitable and pleasaunte if they were gathered together, and handsomelye set in a playne ordre, and wyth theire descriptions hansomely put into our Englishe tongue. [Page A4v] And bicause longe ago, I was well acquaynted wyth them, when I red them to other in the Latin, and that they holpe me verye muche in the exposicion of good authoures, I was so muche the more ready to make them speak English: partli, to renew the pleasure of mine old studies, and partelye to satysfy your request.
Beside this, I was moued also wyth the authorytye of that famous clarke Rodulphus Agricola, whyche in a certeine Epistle wrytten unto a frynde of hys, exhorteth men what soeuer they reade in straunge tongues, diligently to translate the same into their own language: because that in it we sonar perceiue if there [Page A5r] be any faute in our speaking, and howe euerye thynge eyther rightly hangeth together or is darkelye, ruggishly, and superfluously wrytten. No lerned nacion hath there bene but the learned in it haue written of schemes & fygures, which thei wold not haue don, except thei had perceyued the valewe.
Wherfore after theyr example obtaynyng a lytle lesure, I red ouer sundrye treatises, as wel of those which wrot long ago, as of others now in our daies: fyndynge amonge them some to haue wrytten ouer brieflye, some confuselye, and falselye some. Mosellane hathe in hys tables shewed a fewe fygures of grammer, and so hathe confounded them together, that his [Page A5v] second order called of Loquucion pertayneth rather to the rhetoricians then to hys purpose. Quintilian briefly hathe wrytten bothe of the Gramatical and rhetorical Schemes, but so that you may soone perceyue he did it by the waye, as muche as serued hys purpose. Cicero in hys boke of an oratour wyth hys incomperable eloquence hathe so hid the preceptes, that scarselye they may be tryed oute by theyr names, or by theyr examples. Erasmus in hys double copye of words and thynges, hath made as the tytle declareth but a comentarye of them bothe, and as it wer a litle bil of remembraunce. Wherfore to make these thinges more playne to the students [Page A6r] that lyst to reade them in oure tongue, I haue taken a lytle payne, more thorowelye to try the definicions, to apply the examples more aptly, & to make things defused more plaine, as in dede it shal ryght wel apere to the dylygente. I haue not translated them orderly out of anye one author, but runninge as I sayde thorowe many, and usyng myne owne iudgement, haue broughte them into this body as you se, and set them in so playne an order, that redelye maye be founde the figure, and the use whereunto it serueth. Thoughe unto greate wittes occupyed wyth weightye matters, they do not greatelye pertayne, yet to such as perchaunce shal not haue perfecte instructoures, [Page A6v] they may be commodious to helpe them selues for the better understandynge of such good authors as they reade.
For thys darre I saye, no eloquente wryter maye be perceiued as he shulde be wythoute the knowledge of them: for asmuche as al togethers they belonge to Eloquucion, whyche is the thyrde and pryncipall parte of rhetorique. The common scholemasters be wont in readynge, to saye unto their scholers: Hic est figura: and sometyme to axe them, Per quam figuram? But what profit is herein if they go no further? In speakynge and wrytynge nothyng is more folyshe than to affecte or fondly to laboure to speake darkelye for the nonce, sithe the [Page A7r] proper use of speach is to utter the meaning of our mynd with as playne wordes as maye be. But syth it so chaunseth that somtyme ether of necessitie, or to set out the matter more plaily we be compelled to speake otherwyse then after common facion, onles we wil be ignorante in the sence or meaninge of the mater that excellente authors do wryghte of, we muste nedes runne to the helpe of schemes & fygures: which verely come no sildomer in the writing and speaking of eloquente english men, then either of Grecians or Latins. Many thinges might I brynge in to proue not onely a great profyt to be in them but that they are to be learned euen of necessitie, for as muche [Page A7v] as not only prophane authors wythout them may not be wel understand, but that also they greatelye profit us in the readinge of holye scripture, where if you be ignoraunte in the fyguratiue speches and Tropes, you are lyke in manye greate doubtes to make to make but a slender solucion: as ryght wyll do testefy Castelio Vestimerus and that noble doctor saint Augustine. I confesse I haue not made the matter here so perfecte as my wyll and desyer is it shoulde haue ben, and that I haue but brieflye touched, and as it were with my litle fynger poynted to these thinges, which require a lenger declaracion. For what can be hasted, and absolute to? But if God spare me lyfe, I [Page A8r] truste hereafter to make it an introduccion, wherbi our youth not onlye shall saue that moste precious Iewell, Time, whyle they wander by them selues, readynge at all aduentures sundry and varyous authors: but that also thei shalbe able better to understande and iudge of the goodlye gyftes and ornamentes in mooste famous and eloquente oratoures. For as lyke plesure is not to him whiche gooeth into a goodlye garden garnyshed wyth dyuers kindes of herbes and flowers, and that there doeth no more but beholde them, of whome it maye be sayde that he wente in for nothynge but that he wold come out, and to hym which besyde the corporall eie pleasure, [Page A8v] knoeth of eueri one the name & propertye: so verelye much difference is there in readynge good authors, and in sundrye sortes of menne that do it: and muche more pleasure, and profit hathe he whiche useth arte and iudgement, then the other, which wyth greate studye in dede turneth them ouer but for lacke of the knowledge of preceptes wanteth also the fruite and delectacyon that he more amplye myghte obtayne. The lyuynge God from whome all good giftes do procede, gyue us grace so to order all oure words and speache, that it may be to his honour and glory for euer and euer. Amen.
2. A briefe note of eloqucion, the third parte of Rhetoricke, wherunto all Figures and Tropes be referred.[Page B1r]
Eloquucion, which the Greekes call Phrase, whereof also the name of eloquence dothe ryse, as of al partes it is the good lyest, so also is it the most profitable and hardeste: in the whyche is seene that diuine myghte and vertue of an oratoure, whyche as Cicero in hys oratorie particions defineth, is nothyng else but wisedom speakyng eloquently. For unto the maruelous greate inuencion of all thynges, both it addeth a fulnes, and varietie: it setteth oute & garnysheth wyth lyghtes of eloquent speche, the thinges that be spoken of, and also wyth very graue sentences, choyse wordes, proper, aptly translated, and wel soundyng, it bryngeth that greate fludde of eloquence, unto a certein kynd of stile [Page B1v] and indyghtyng. And oute of thys greate streame of eloquucion, not only must we chose apte, and mete wordes, but also take hede of placinge, and settinge them in order. For the myghte and power of eloquucion consisteth in wordes considered by them selues, and when they be ioyned together. Apt wordes by searchyng muste be founde oute, and after by diligence conueniently coupled. For there is a garnyshynge, euen when they be pure and fyne by them selues, and an other, when they be ioyned together. To chose them oute finely, and handsomlye to bestow them in their places, after the mynde of Cicero and Quintilian, is no easy thynge. So Marcus Antonius was wonte to say, that he had knowen many wel spoken men, but none eloquente. Tullye and Quintilian thoughte that inuencion and disposicion were the partes of a wytty and prudent man, but eloquence of an oratour. For howe to finde out matter, and set it in order, may be comen to all men, whyche eyther make abridgementes [Page B2r] of the excellent workes of aunciente wryters, and put histories in remembraunce, or that speake of anye matter themselues: but to utter the mynde aptely, distinctly, and ornately, is a gyft geuen to very fewe. And because we haue deuided eloquucion into two partes, that is, wordes symple, or considered by them selues, and compound or ioyned together in speache, accordyng to thys we saye, that euerye eloquence oracion must haue in it the poyntes: euidence, which belongeth to the fyrst parte of eloquucion, composicion & dignitie, which belongeth to the order.
Of these thynges that we put in eloquucion, lette thys be the fyrste care, to speake euidentlye after the dignitye and nature of thynges, and to utter suche wordes, whych as Cicero sayth in hys oratour, no man may iustely reprehende. The playne and euident speche is learned of Gramarians, and it keepeth the oracion put, and without all faute, and maketh that euerye [Page B2v] thyng may seme to be spoken purelye apertlye, and clerelye. Euerye speche standeth by usuall wordes that be in use of daylye talke, and proper wordes that belonge to the thinge, of the which we shal speke. Neyther be properties to be referred onely to the name of the thing, but much more to the strength and power ofthe significacion: & must be considered not by hearyng, but by understandyng. So translacion in the whych comonly is the greatest use of eloquucion, applieth wordes not the selfe proper thinges. But yet an unused worde or poetical, hath also somtyme in the oracion hys dignitie, and beyng put in place (as Cicero sayeth) oftentymes the oracion may seme greater, and of more antiquitie, for that Poetes do speake in a maner as it were in a nother tonge, it is righte sone perceiued. Finally two fautes are committed in euerye language, whereby it is not pure: Barbarisme, and Solecisme. Of the whych, that on is committed, when anye worde is fautely spoken or writen: [Page B3r] that other, when in many wordes ioyned together, the worde that foloweth is not wel applyed to that that goeth before. Of composicion and dygnitye, we wyll speake here after, when we come to the figures of rethoryque.
Before we come to the precepts of garnishing an action, we thinke good, bryeffye to shewe you of the thre kyndes of stile or endyghting, in the whych all the eloquucion of an oratoure is occupied. For that there be thre sundry kyndes, called of the Grekes characters, of us figures, I trowe there is no man, though he be meanlye learned, but he knoweth, namely when we se so manye wryters of sciences, bothe Greke and latine, whych haue ben before tyme, to haue folowed for the mooste parte sundrye sortes of wrytyng, the one unlyke to the other. And there hath bene marked inespecially thre kyndes of endightynge: The greate, the small, the meane.
The greate, the noble, the mightye, and the full kynde of endyghtynge, wyth an incredible, & a certen diuine power of oracion, is used in wayghty causes: for it hathe wyth an ample maiestye verye garnyshed wordes, proper, translated, & graue sentences, whych ar handled in amplificacion, and commiseracion, and it hathe exornacions bothe of woordes and sentences, wherunto in oracions they ascribe verye great strength and grauitie. And they that use thys kynge, bee vehement, various, copious, graue, appoynted and readye thorowlye to moue and turne mens myndes. Thys kynd dyd Cicero use in the oracion for Aulus Cluencius, for Sylla, for Titus Annius Milo, for Caius Rabirius: agaynste Catiline, agaynste Verres, agaynste Piso. But they that can not skyll of it oftentimes fall into fautes, when unto them that seemeth a graue oracion, whych swelleth, and is puffed up, whych useth straunge wordes hardelye translated, or to [Page B4r] olde, and that we nowe longe sythens lefte of from use of daylye talke, or more graue then the thing requyreth.
The small kynde of indighting, is in a subtile, pressed, and fyled oracion, meete for causes that be a lytel sharper then are in the comon use of speakynge. For it is a kynde or oracion that is lette downe euen to the mooste used custume of pure and clere speakyng. It hathe fyne sentences, subtile, sharpe, teachyng all thynges, and makynge them more playne, not more ample. And in the same kynde (as Cicero sayeth in hys oratoure) some bee craftye, but unpolyshed, and of purpose lyke the rude and unskylfull: Other in that leanes are trymme, that is somwhat floryshynge also and garnyshed. Cicero used thys kynde in hys philosophicall disputacions, in the oracion for Quincius for Roscius & Comedy plaier, & Terence, & Plautus in their Comedies. Such as can not handsomly use them [Page B4v] selues in that mery conceyted slendernes of wordes, fall into a drye and feble kynde of oracion.
The mean and temperate kynd of indyghting standeth of the lower, and yet not of the loweste, and moste comen wordes and sentences. And it is ryghtly called the temperate kynde of speakyng, because it is very nygh unto the small, and to the greate kynde, folowyng a moderacion and temper betwyxt them. And it foloweth as we saye in one tenour, distinguyshyng all the oracion wyth small ornamentes both of wordes, and sentences. Cicero useth thys for the lawe of Manilius, for Aulus Cecinna, for Marcus Marcellus, and moste of all in hys bookes of offices. In this it is fautye to come to the kynd that is nye unto it, whyche is called dissolute, because it waueth hyther and thyther, as it were wythout senowes and ioyntes, standyng surely in no poynte. And suche an oracion can not cause the hearer to take anye heede, when it goeth so in and out, [Page B5r] and comprehendeth not any thyng wyth perfecte wordes.
Scheme is a Greke worde, and signifyeth properlye the maner of gesture that daunsers use to make, when they haue won the best game, but by translacion is taken for the fourme, fashion, and shape of anye thynge expressed in wrytynge or payntinge: and is taken here now of us for the fashion of a word, sayynge, or sentence, otherwyse wrytten or spoken then after the vulgar and comen usage, and that thre sundry waies: by figure, faute, vertue.
Fygure, of Scheme the fyrst part, is a behauioure, maner, or fashion eyther of sentence, oracion, or wordes after some new wyse, other then men do commenlye use to wryte or speake: and is of two sortes. Dianoias, that is of sentence, and Lexeos of worde.
Figure of Dianoias, or sentence, because it properlye belongeth to oratoures we wyll speake of it hereafter in place conuenient, [Page B5v] now wyll we entrete of the figure Lexeos, or of worde, as it perteyneth to the Gramarians.
Figure Lexeos, or of worde, is when in speakyng or wrytyng any thynge touchynge the wordes is made newe or straunge, otherwyse then after the comen custume: & is of ii. kyndes, diccion, & construccion.
Ablatio, the takynge awaye of a letter or sillable from the begynnynge of a worde, of a letter, when we say: The penthesis of thys house is to low, for the epenthesis. Wher note this the word penthesis is a greke worde, & yet is used as an englishe, as many mo be, and is called a pentis by these figures, Sincope and Apheresis, the whole word beynge as is before, epenthesis, so called because [Page B6r] it is betwyxt the lyght & us, as in al occupiers shops commenli it is.
Contractio, the makynge short of a sillable which bi nature is long, as He is a man of good perseueraunce: wher some men commit .ii. fautes at once, one that they take perseueraunce for knoweledge, whiche signifieth [Page B6v] alwais continuance, an other that they make this sillable (ue) short, where it is euer longe: and so do they erre in thys worde, adherentes, also, makyng (he) short, when it is alwayes longe, as when they saye: I defye hym, and all his adherentes.
Presumpcio, a takynge before, or generall speakynge of those thynges whych afterwardes be declared more perticulerlye: as, in the meane season that kyng Henry rode royally to Calais on a sumpteous [Page B7r] courser, Lewes in a gorgeous chariot was carted to Boloygne.
Iunctio, ioynyng, as Linacer sayeth, is when in lyke sentences a certen comen thyng that is put in the one, and not chaunged in the other is not expressed, but lefte out: as in Vyrgyll. Before I forget Cesar, eyther the Parthian shall drynke of the flud Araris, or Germany of Tigris: here is left out, shall drynke. Or to define it more playnelye.
[Page B7v] Disiunctio, disiunccion, when of those thynges of whych we speake, eyther both, or eche one of them is concluded with their certen verbe, thus: The people of Rome destroyed Numance, ouerthrew Cartage, cast downe Corinth, and raced Fregels. Couetousnes hurteth the bodye, and corrupteth the mynd.
Concepcio, when in unlike clauses a certeyn common thynge that is put in one of them, can not agre with the other, excepte it be chaunged. But thys is more playne in the latine because of the concordes, albeit in englyshe for the verbe we may use this example. The Nobles and the Kynge was taken. Hys head and hys handes were cutte of: In the whyche sentences the verbe agreeth wyth the nexte.
Dissectio, a cutting, when the ioynyng of a compound worde is losed by putting somewhat betwixt, as: Hys saying was true, as here shal appere after, for hereafter. He shal be punyshed what man so euer offendeth, for whatsoeuer man.
[Page C1r] Inutilis repeticio eiusdem, is a vayne repeting agayn of one word or moe in all one sentence, whyche faute by takyng lytle heede, Cicero also fell into, as in the oracion for Aulus Cluencius. Therefore that iudgement was not lyke a iudgement O Iudges.
Sermo ubique sui similis, a greater faute then the other, is when the whole matter is all alyke, and hath no varietie to auoyde tediousnes, as: He came thither to the bath, yet he saide afterwardes. Here one seruant bet me. Afterwardes he sayde unto hym: I wyll consider. Afterwardes he chyd wyth hym, & tryed more and more when manye were presente. Such a folyshe tellyng of a tale shall you heare in many simple & halfe folyshe persons.
Sedulitas superflua, when ther is in speakyng to much diligence and [Page C1v] curiositye, and the sentence ouerladen with superfluous wordes, whiche faute is the same, or verye lyke to that, that is called Macrologia, whych is when the sentence upon desyre to seme fyne and eloquent, is longer then it shulde be.
Mala affectatio, euyll affectacion or leude folowyng; when the wytte lacketh iudgement, and fondlye folowyng a good maner of speaking, runne into a faute, as when affectyng copy, we fall into a vaine bablynge, [Page C2r] or laboryng to be brief, wax bare & drye. Also if we shuld saye: a phrase of building, or an audience of shepe, as a certen homely felow dyd.
Cumulatio, a mynglyng and heapyng together of wordes of diuerse languages into one speche: as of Frenche, welche, spanyche, into englyshe: and an usynge of wordes be they pure or barbarous. And although great authors somtyme in long workes use some of these fautes, yet must not their examples be folowed, nor brought into a common usage of speakyng.
Barbarismus is, when a worde is either naughtely wrytten or pronounced contrary to the ryght law & maner of speakinge. And it is done by addicion, detraccion, chaunging, transposynge, eyther of a letter, a syllable, tyme, accent, or aspiracion. Hereof we haue shewed exampels partly wher they be called figures, and partly, doute ye not, but both the speakynge and wrytyng of barbarouse men, wyll gyue you inow. Hytherto be referred the fautes of euil pronouncing certein letters, & of tomuch gapyng, or contrarye of speakyng in the mouth.
Inconueniens structura, is an unmete and unconuenient ioynynge together the partes of spech in construccion, whych is marked by all thynges that belong to the partes of speche: as when one parte is put for another, when gender for gender, case for case, tyme for tyme, mode for mode, number for number, aduerbe for aduerbe, preposicion for preposicion: whych because it is used of famous authores, in stede of fautes, be called figures.
Vertue, or as we saye, a grace & dygnitye in speakynge, the thyrde kynde of Scheme, is when the sentence is bewtyfied and lyfte up aboue the comen maner of speaking of the people. Of it be two kyndes: Proprietie, and garnyshyng.
Proportio, proporcion is, whereby the maner of true wrytynge is conserued. By thys the barbarous tonge is seperated from the verye true and naturall speche, as be the fyne metals from the grosser. To speke is no lawe, but an obseruacion or markyng, not leanyng upon cause, but upon example. For in eloquence, the iudgement of excellent men standeth for reason, as saythe Quintilian in hys fyrst boke.
Extensio, is that wherby a swete and pleasaunt modulacion or tunablenes [Page C3v] of wordes is kepte, because some are spoken wyth a sharpe tenure or accent, some wyth a flatte, some strayned out. This grace specially perteineth to a turnyng of the voyce in pleasaunte pronunciacion.
Garnyshyng as the word it selfe declareth, is when the oracion is gaylye set oute and floryshed with diuerse goodly figures, causyng much pleasauntnes and delectacion to the hearer: and hath two kyndes, composicion, and exornacion.
Composicion is an apte settinge together of wordes, whych causeth all the partes of an oracion to bee trymmed al alyke. And in it muste be considered that we so order our wordes, that the sentence decrease not by puttynge a weaker word after a stronger, but that it styl go upwarde and increase. There is also a naturall order, as to saye: men & women, daye and nyght, easte, and weste, rather then backenwardes. In thys muste be auoyded also to often comyng together of vowels, which make the oracion wyde and [Page C4r] gapyng. To muche repetyng of all one letter in the beginning of wordes, to much repeting of one word, and that they ende not to much all alyke, that the sentence be not held on to longe, which werieth the hearer, and the speaker: nor that manye consonantes run not to harshely together, wyth many other, which Cicero speaketh of in hys thyrde booke of hys oratour, and Quintilian in hys nynth, wherof here to put examples were to longe.
Emonge authors in anye tymes under the name of figures, Tropes also be comprehended: Neuerthelesse ther is a notable difference betwixt them. In figure is no alteracion in the wordes from their proper significacions, but only is the oracion & sentence made by them more pleasaunt, sharpe & vehement, after the affeccion of him that speketh or writeth: to the which use although tropes also do serue, yet properlye be they so [Page C4v] called, because in them for necessitye or garnyshynge, there is a mouynge and chaungynge of a worde and sentence, from theyr owne significacion into another, whych may agre wyth it by a similitude. The former parties ben these.
Translatio, translacion, that is a worde translated from the thynge that it properlye signifieth, unto another whych may agre with it by a similitude. And amonge all vertues of speche, this is the chyefe. None perswadeth more effecteouslye, none sheweth the thyng before oure eyes more euidently, none moueth more mightily the affeccions, none maketh the oracion more goodlye, pleasaunt, nor copious.
Abusio, when for a certeyne and proper worde, we abuse a lyke, or that is nie unto it, as when we say: longe counsel, lytle talke, smal matter. Here maye we soone perceyue that by abusion wee take wordes that be somwhat nye, whych properly do belong to unlyke thinges.
Transsumptio, Transsumpcion, is when by degrees we go to that that is shewed as: he hyd hym selfe in the blacke dennes. By blacke, is understand [Page C5v] ful of darkenes & consequently stepe downe, and verye depe.
Antonomasia, is, whych for the proper name putteth some other word. As the Archebyshop confuted the errour, for Cranmer. The Philosopher lyed that the worlde was eternall, for Aristotle. The Apostle sayeth wee be iustified by faythe, for Paule.
Circuicio, is a larger descripcion eyther to garnyshe it, or if it bee foule to hyde it, or if it be bryefe to make it more playn: by etimology, by sygnes, by definicion. Example of the fyrste. The prouidence of Scipio, ouerthrew the might of Carthago. Here saue onlye for garnyshyng sake he myghte haue sayde playnlye: Scipio ouerthrew Carthage: Of the nexte. When Saule was doyng his busines, Dauid might haue killed hym. Doyng hys busines, ye wot what it meaneth. Of the thyrd, you haue the larger exposicions upon the Gospels called by the name of thys figure. [Page C7r]
By sygnes, as: when by certeine notes we describe anye thynge, as if a man understandyng anger wyll saye that it is the boylynge of the mynde, or color, whych bryngeth in palenes into the countenaunce, fiersenes in the eyes, and tremblyng in the members.
Dissimulatio, is a mockyng whiche is not perceiued by the wordes but eyther by the pronunciacion, or [Page C7v] by the behaueour of the person, or by the nature of the thyng, as: You are an honest man in deede.
Amara irrisio, is a bitter sporting a mocke of our enemye, or a maner of iestyng or scoffinge bytynglye, a nyppyng tawnte, as: The Iewes sayde to Christ, he saued other, but he could not saue hymselfe.
Repeticio, repeticion, when in lyke and diuerse thynges, we take our begynnyng continually at one & the selfe same word, thus: Lo you this thyng is to be ascribed, to you thanke is to be geuen, to you thys thynge shal be honour. In this exornacion is much pleasantnes, grauitie, and sharpnes, & it is much used of al oratours & notably setteth oute, and garnysheth the oracion.
Conuersio, conuersion is whych taketh not hys begynnynges at al one and the same worde, but with all one worde styll closeth up the sentence, & it is contrary to that other before, as: Sence the time the concord was taken awaye from the citie, lyberty was taken awai: fidelity was taken away: frenship was taken away.
Complexio, conplexion compriseth both two exornacions, both this, & that whych we declared before, that both all one fyrste worde shulde be often tepered, & we shuld turne often to all one laste word, as: Who toke Sidechias prisoner, & put out both [Page C8v] hys eyes? Nabuchodonozer. Who put Daniell and hys felowes into the burnyng furnace? Nabuchodonozer. Who was transformed from a man unto a beast, & eate haye wyth oxen? Nabuchodonozer.
Reduplicatio, is a continent rehearsyng agayne of all one worde, or wordes, for the more vehemence, and some effect of the mynde. Cicero agaynst Catiline. Yet he liueth, liueth? yea commeth also into the counsel house. It is thou, it is thou that troublest all the houshold. Also dareste thou nowe come into our syght, the traitour of thy contrey? Thou traitour, say of thy contrei darest thou come into oure syghte?
Traduccio, Traduccion is, whyche maketh that when all one word is oftentymes used, that yet it doth not onlye not displease the mynde, but also make the oracion more trim in this wyse: Suffer ryches to belonge to riche men but prefer thou vertue before ryches: For if thou wylt compare ryches wyth vertue, thou shalte scarse thynke them meete to be called ryches, whych at but hand [Page D1r] maydens to vertue. Also, we are unto God the swete sauour of Christ. To the one part are we the sauour of death unto deathe, and unto the other part are we the fauour of lyfe unto lyfe. ii. Cor. ii.
Nominis communio, communion of the word, when we renewe not the selfe same worde by rehearsyng agayn, but chaunge that that is put wyth an other word of the same valewe, thus: Thou hast ouerthrowen the comon wealth euen from the foundacion, and cast downe the citye, euen from the roote. The iuste man shall floryshe as the palme tre, and shall be multiplyed as the Ceder tre. Cicero for D. Ligatius. Whose syde wolde that poynte of thy swerd haue pricked? what meaned thy weapons? what was thy mynde? what meante thynge eyes? handes, that burning of thy mynd? what desiredst thou? what wyshedste thou? Lytle differeth thys figure from the other before, only because the wordes be chaunges, the sentence remayning.
[Page D1v] Frequentacio, frequentacion is, when the thynges that be dispersed thorowout all the cause are gathered together into the place, that the oracion shulde be the wayghtier, & rebuke fuller, thus: What faute is he without? why shuld you O Iudges be mynded to deliuer hym? He is an harlot of hys owne bodye, he lyeth in wayte for others, gredy, in temperate, wanton, proud, unnatural to his parentes, unkynd to hys frindes, troubleous to hys kynse-folke, stubburn to hys betters, dysdaynful to his equals, cruel to hys inferiours, finally, intollerable to all men.
Exclamacio, exclamacion is, whiche sheweth the significacion of sorowe, or of anger, by callyng upon eyther a man, a place, or a thynge? Cicero in hys oratour: O deceitful hope of men and frayle fortune: & our vayne contencions, whych often tymes are broken in the myd way, rushe downe, and in the fal ar quite ouerthrowen before they can se the hauen. Hereunto belongeth expectacion, obtestacion, wishyng, rebuking.
Obtestacio, obtestacion, when for God, or for mannes sake we vehemently desyre to haue any thynge. As Cicero for Publius Sestius: O I praye you, & for the Gods sakes most herteli besech you, that as it was your wylles to saue me, so you wyl vouchsaf to saue them thorow whose helpe you receiued me agayne.
Interrogacio, Euerye interrogacion is not of grauity, neither yet a Scheme, but thys whyche when [Page D2v] those thinges be rehearsed up whiche hurte oure aduersaryes cause, strengthneth that thynge that is gone before, thus seynge then that he spake all these wordes, and dyd all these thynges, whether dyd he put away our felowes myndes from the common wealthe or not?
Raciocinatio, raciocinacion is, by the whych we our selues are a reason of our selfe, wherefore euerye thynge shulde be spoken, & that oftentymes we demaund of our selues a declaracion of euery proposicion after thys maner: Thys was well ordeined of oure elders to depryue no kynge of hys lyfe whome they had taken in batayl. Why so? for the power whyche fortune had geuen us, if to consume in the punyshement of them whom the same fortune a lytle before had set in hyeste degree, were agaynste reason. Yea but he brought a greate army agaynst you? I wyl not remember it. Why so? For it is the poynte of a valiaunte man, such as contend for the vyctorye, them to counte enemyes: such as be ouercome, those [Page D3r] to count men: so that fortitude maye diminishe war, humanitie increase peace. But he if he had ouercome, wolde he haue done so? Verelye he wolde not haue bene so wyse. Why shulde ye spare hym then? because such foly I am wont to despise, not to folowe.
Subiectio, when we are of oure selfe what can be saide agaynst us, and answere to our selues thus: Shall we tary in synne? God forbyd. Or compell our aduersarye to answer thus: O Iewes, what can you say for denyall of Christe. Wyl you saye that you haue not youre Messias? but your prophets say the contrarye. Your Types are confounded. Whom wyl you be iudged by? by Hystories? Oures declare that you be out of the way, & shall come agayne to Christ.
Tacite obiectioni responsio. When we make answere to a thynge that myght priuely be obiected agaynst us, as in the fyrst epystle of Ouide, Penelope wylling her husband Ulysses to come home hymselfe, and wryte nothyng unto her. Wher he [Page D3v] myght haue layed for hys tarying the warres, she priuely toke awaye & excuse, saying: Troy is destroied.
Dubitatio, dubitacion, when wee doute of two thynges, or of many, whych we shuld inespecially speke of. Much hurted the common wealth at that tyme, whether I shuld saye the folyshenesse of the consulles, or the malyce, or bothe, I can not tell.
Expeditio, expedicion, when many reasons rehearsed up, wherby a thynge myghte be done or not, the other are taken away, and one left that we entende, thus: It muste needes bee that thys controuersie touching the sacrament must stand eyther upon the much pressyng and rigour of the wordes, or upon the meanynge and understandynge of them. The wordes as they stande, brynge wyth them greate inconuenience, to wytte, to expositoures, and the other textes. The meaning doth not so, but auoydeth al these in conueniences, & satisfieth reason, expositours, & texts of the scripture: wherfore wyt, expositour, & scripture thinketh it better to take the sentence, then the worde.
[Page D4r] Conclusio, conclusion is, which by a brief argumentacion of these thinges that be spoken before or done, inferreth that thynge that necessarilye shulde folowe, thus: And if a reuelacion wer geuen to the Troianes, & Troy myght not be taken without the arowes of Philectetes, and thei did nothing else but strike Alexander to kyl him that in dede was Troy to be taken.
Permissio, permission, when we shew that we geue & graunt any thyng altogether to a mans wyll, thus: Because al thynges taken away, only is left unto me my body & mynd, these thynges, whych only at leste unto me of many, I graunte them to you and to your power.
Diuisio, diuision is which diuiding one thyng from another, endeth them both by shewing a reason, thus: why shuld I lay ani thing to thi charge? if thou bee good, thou hast not deserued [Page D4v] it, if thou be naught, thou carest not for it. Also, what shuld I speake of myne owne good turnes towarde the. If thou do remember them, I shuld but trouble you: If you haue forgotten them, when by deede I haue profited nothyng, what good can I do in wordes?
Contentio, contencion, when the reason standeth by contrary wordes or contraries be rehearsed by comparison, thus: flattery hath pleasaunt begynnynges, but the same hathe verye bytter endynges. Cicero agaynst Catiline: when they coulde not lyue honestlye, they had rather dye shamefully. They that be after the fleshe, care for these thynges that be of the fleshe. They that be after the spirite, care for the thynges of the spirite.
Contrarium, contrary is, that of two diuerse thynges confirmeth the one bryefely and easelye, thus: For he that alwayes wyll be an enemy to hys owne rekenyngs, how shuld a man trust that he wold be a frind to other mens matters? He that in familiare communicacion and company [Page D5r] of hys friendes wyl neuer say truth, thinkest them that he wil absteine from a lye in a common audience.
Membrum oracionis, a member of the reason is so called when a thinge is shewed perfitely in fewe wordes the whole sentence not shewed, but receiyed agayne with an other parte, thus: Thou dyddest bothe profite thyne enemie, and hurte thy frynd. Thys exornacion may be made of two partes only, but the perfiteste is made of thre, thus: Thou diddest profite thine enemy, hurt thi frind, and dydst no good to thy selfe.
Articulus, article is, when eche word is set a sunder by cutting the oracion thus. By sharpnes, voyce, countenaunce, thou madeste thyne enemyes afrayd. Thou destroyedst thyne enemyes wyth enuye, wronges, power, falsehead.
Compar, euen or equall, is when the oracion hath in it the partes of the whyche we spake before, & that they be made of euen number of sillables: but thys equalitie must not stand by numbryng of them, but by perceyuyng of it in the mynd. Christe [Page D5v] afore the Iudge was led, & on hys head a croune of thorne was putte, in token that in dede, the kynge of Iews he was borne. Here be some mo wordes in on member then in an other, yet sound they to the eare of lyke lengthe.
Similiter cadens, fallyng al alike is, when in the same construccion of wordes ther be two wordes or mo which be spoken alyke in the selfe same cases, thus: Thou praysest a man nedye of vertue, plenteful of money. Cicero for Flaccus: There is in them no varietie of opinion, none of wyll, none of talke.
Similiter desinens, endynge al alyke, when words or sentences haue alyke endyng, as: Thou dareste do fylthely, and studiest to speke baudely. Content thy selfe with thy state, in thy herte do no man hate, be not the cause of stryfe and hate.
Definicio, definicion, wherby the proper [Page D6r] effect of any thynge is declared briefely & absolutely in this wyse: This is not diligence but couetousnes, because the diligence is a nedy sauing of thine own: couetousnes is a wrongful desyre of other mens.
Transicio, transicion is, wherby briefly we monyshe what hath ben spoken, & what may folowe, as: What he hath ben to hys contrey I haue told, now ye shal hear how he hath shewed him self to hys parentes. Also Cicero for the law of Manilius: Because we haue spoken of the kind of the warre, now wyll we shewe a fewe thynges of the greatnes of it.
Occupatio, occupacion is, when we make as though we do not knowe, or wyl not know of the thyng that wee speke of most of al, in this wyse: I wyl not say that thou tokest money of our felowes, I wyl not stand much in thys that thou robbedst kingdoms, cityes, and al mens houses: I passe ouer thy theftes, & al thy rauyns.
[Page D6v] Auersio, auersion, when we turne our speche from them to whom we dyd speake to another personne, eyther present or absent, or to a thing to the whych we fayne a person, as a precher, speaking of priestes, that feede not the flocke, may fytly turn hys speche unto Peter, sayinge: O Peter, I wold thou liuedst, & sawest what thy brethren do, howe far they be gone from that thou prescribedst them to do. Againe: O world, howe pleasant be the thynges that thou dost promyse, how bytter ben they that thou geuest.
Necessum, necessitie, when we comfesse the thynge to be done, but excuse it by necessitye, eyther of the person or tyme, thus: I confesse that thys I dyd. But the woman that thou gauest me, dyd deceyue me. Also, somtyme I was in that opinion, but the tyme so required.
Eleuacio, when we make lyghte of, and dyspyse great argumentes brought agaynst us, whych to aunswer unto it is labour, and we saye they perteyne not to the purpose, or that they are unworthy to be answered unto, or that we kepe them tyll another tyme: Of thys ther nedeth none example
[Page D7v] As oute of lytle springs ariseth greate fluddes: so now these preceptes of grammer finyshed, and the fyrste order of the Rethorical figures: We nowe come unto that greate declaracion of eloquence, called of Quintilian & Cicero, the ornametens of sentence.
Particion called also diuision & distribucion rethoricall, is when a thing that mai be generally spoken, is more largely declared, and diuided into partes. Example: He is perfitely seene in all the sciences. This sentence spoken as it were in a summe, may be enlarged, if seuerally you reherse up al the kindes of learning. There is no kynd of doctrine at al but he is exquisitely sene in it. There is no science, but he hathe learned it thorowly, and so learned it, that you wolde thynke he had labored onely in it. So maruelouslye he knoweth all the fables of al the Poetes, he so aboundeth in the floures of the Rethoricians: He hath so boulted oute the paynefull [Page D8r] rules of the gramarians. So perfitely knoweth he the subtilnesse of the Logicians, and hath so soughte oute the priuities of natural thynges, and ouercome the harde poyntes of supernaturall wisedome: he hathe passed thorowe the secretes of the diuines, and hath thorowlie perceyued the mathematical demonstracions. He so knoweth the mocions of the starres, the reasons of numbers, the measurynges of the earth, the situacions, names & spaces of cities, mountaynes, fluddes, and fountaynes, he so knoweth the difference and harmonies of tunes: He so remembreth all hystoryes olde and late: So knoweth all good authors, all antiquities & nouelties, and also is perfitelye well seene as wel in Greke as latyne. Finallye whatsoeuer learnynge hathe bene found and taught of good authors, al that thorowlie hath he perceyued, knowen and remembred. Here these wordes, he is perfitelye seene in all the sciences, bee declared in theyr partes.
Enumeracion is much lyke unto thys, when not beynge contente [Page D8v] at once to declare the ende of the matter, we rehearse up all & went before it was done. Example: Cicero oppressed the mischeuous purposes of Catiline. Thus maye you set it forth: The myscheuous enterpryses of Catiline by most ungracious yonge men, whych went about the destruccion of the citie of Rome, M Tullius the consull dyd quickelye smell out by hys foresyghte, and by hys singuler vigilancye sought them oute, by his hyghe prudence espyed them, by his incredible eloquence conuinced them, and by hys graue authoritie repressed them, by force of armes subdued them, & with great happines toke them quyte awaye.
Hitherto also apperteineth, when we expound a thyng not barely, but repete the causes also sumwhat before, and of what begynnynges it came of. As if not contente to haue sayd, that the Frenchmen made bataile with the Neapolitans, we rehearse also what wer the causes of theyr stryfe, who was the setter forward, and what was the occasion of the warre, what hope and truste [Page E1r] eyther of them had to the victorye. Of these ar many examples in Saluste & Liuie. From thys differeth not when we do not simplye shewe forthe the matter, but reherse also those thynges that eyther go with it, or folowe it, as thus: We thanke the of thys warre. Thus maye you dilate the matter. The treasure spente upon the Barbariens, the youthe broken wyth laboures, the corne troden downe, the cattel driuen awaye, stretes and vyllages euery where set on fyre, fieldes lefte desolate, walles ouerthrowen, houses robbed, temples spoyled, so many olde men chylderles, so manye orphanes, so manye wyddowes, so many virgins shamefully defiled, the maners of so many yong men made worse by leude liberty, so many men slayne, so great mourning, so many good artes loste, lawes oppressed, religion blotted, al thynges of god and man confounded, all good order of the citie corrupted: I say all this heape of myschiefs that riseth of war, we mai thanke the only of it, which wast the beginner of this war. [Page E1v]
Enargia, euidence or perspicuitie called also descripcion rethoricall, is when a thynge is so described that it semeth to the reader or hearer that he beholdeth it as it were in doyng. Of thys figure ben many kyndes.
The seconde, the descripcion of a personne, when a man is described, as are the noble menne in Plutarch, and the Emperours in Suetonius. Howe be it the rethoricianes use thys worde Prosopopeia, that is descripcion of a personne to comprehende the sixe kyndes folowinge.
The .iiii is the fainyng of a person called Prosopographia, and is of .ii sorts. Fyrst the descripcion of a fained [Page E2r] person, as Vyrgyl in the syxt of Eneid, faineth Sibil to be mad, & fayneth the persons in hell. An other forme is when we fayne person, communicacion, or affecte of a man or of a beaste, to a dumme thynge, or that hath no bodye, or to a dead man: as to the Harpies, furies, deuils, slepe hongar, enuie, fame, vertue, iustice, and suche lyke, the poetes fayne a person, and communicacion. This seconde fashion the Poetes do call Prosopopey. The fyrst kind is called AEtopeia, that is an expression of maners or mylde affeccions, and hath thre kyndes: of the whych the fyrst is a significacion or expression of maners somewhat longer, as of wittes, artes, vertues, vices. Thus we expresse Thraso a boater, and Demea a sowre felowe.
The seconde forme, is an expression of naturall propensitie, and inclinacions to naturall affeccions, as of the fathers loue toward the chyldren &c. of fryendshyppe, neyghbourhod & cete. as you maye se in hystoryes.
[Page E2v] The thyrd kynde is the expression of lighter affeccions, as when wee go about by fayre meanes to gette the mery affeccions of meane to us ward or to other, & when the mynd is lyft up into hope, myrth, & laughter, and as be louyng salutations, promises, & communynges together in familiar epistles and dialogues, and the getting of loue and fauour in the begynnynges, and finallye thys figure doth teach, that Rethorique is a part of flattery. The sixt kynde of rethoricall descripcion is Pathopeia, that is expressyng of vehement affeccions and perturbacions, of them whych ther be two sortes.
The fyrste called Donysis, or intencion, and some call it imaginacion, wherby feare, anger, madnes, hatered, enuye, and lyke other perturbacions of mynde is shewed and described, as in Ciceros inuectiues.
Another forme is called Oictros, or commiseracion, wherby teares be pyked out, or pyty is moued, or forgeuenes, as in Ciceros peroracions, and complaintes in Poets: And to [Page E3r] be shorte ther is gotten no greater admiracion or commendacion of eloquence then of these two, Aetopeia, and Pathopeia, if they be used in place. The .vii. kind is Dialogismus whych is how often a short or long communicacion is fayned to a person, accordyng to the comelines of it. Such be the concions in Liuie, & other historians. The .viii. kynd is called Mimisis, that is folowing eyther of the wordes or manoutes whereby we expresse not onlye the wordes of the person, but also the gesture: and these foresayd sixe kindes Quintiliane doth put under Prosopopeia. The .ix. kynde is the descripcion of a place, as of Carthage in the fyrst of Eneid. Referre hither Cosmographie and Geographie. The .x. kynd is called Topotesia, that is ficcion of a place, when a place is described such one peraduenture as is not, as of the fieldes called Elisii in Virgil: refer hither Atrothesiam, that is the descripcion of starres. The .xi. kinde is Chronographia, [Page E3v] that is the descripcion of the tyme, as of nyght, daye, and the foure tymes of the yere.
A greate parte of eloquence is set in increasing and diminyshing, and serueth for thys purpose, that the thyng shulde seme as great as it is in dede, lesser or greater then it seemeth to manye. For the rude people haue commonly a preposterous iudgement, and take the worst thynges for the beste, and the beste for the worst. Al amplificacion and diminucion is taken eyther of thinges, or of wordes. Of thynges ryse effeccions, of words those fashions that nowe I wyll shewe. The first waye of increasyng or diminishing is by chaungynge the worde of the thynge, when in encreasynge we use a more cruell worde, and a softer in diminyshynge, as when we call an euyll man a thiefe, and saye he hathe kylled us, when he hathe beaten us. And it is more vehemente if by correccion we compare greater wordes wyth those that we put before: As thou haste broughte not a thyefe, but an extorcioner, nor [Page E4r] an adulterer, but a rauysher. & c.
Lyke unto this is Hyperbole, whyche saythe more then the truthe is in dede, as when we saye: The crye was hearde to heauen, meanyng it was a greate crye. An other kynde is by increase, whyche is when the thynges goyng before beynge exaggerate, we come from them to the hyeste: As agaynste Verres. It is a myscheuous deede to bynde a Citizen of Rome, haynous to beate hym, what? shall I saye to hange hym? An other waye of increase is, when wythoute distinccion in the context and course of the oracion, the circumstaunces sette in order, somewhat alwayes is added bygger then the fyrste, and that we come to the hyest by a swyfte pace. As he was not ashamed to playe at dyce wyth iesters in the common cokerye, beynge a prieste, a Person, a Diuine, and a Monke. There is another kynde of amplyfienge that is by comparison contrary to increase. For as in increase the thynges that go before beyng exaggerat, we go from [Page E4v] them to the hyest, so comparison taketh increase of the lesser, whych if they be greater in all mens opinions, that must nedes appeare verie greate that we wyll haue amplifico: And comparison is made by ficcion, & by puttynge to an example. By ficcion, eyther in one degree, or in many. As in the fyrst part of the amplifiyng of Antonies vomite, for he fayneth it had happened unto hym at supper beyng but a priuate person. If at supper in these great bowles of thine thys happened unto thee, who wolde not haue counted it a shame: But now in the syght of the people of Rome beynge a common officer, master of the horse, to whom it was shame once to belch. he wyth hys gobbets of meat that stanke al of wyne, fylled al his lap, and the iudgement seate. Here amplificacion is taken of smaller thinges, and is made by one degree of many degrees, this maye be an example. If a man gaue the euery yere xl. pound, woldest thou not thanke him? If a friend had redemed the out of prison with hys money, woldest thou [Page E5r] not loue hym? If eyther in battell or shypwracke a man by hys valiantnes had saued the, woldest thou not worshyp hym as God, and saye thou were neuer able to make hym amendes? What ingratitude is it then that Christ God & man, which hathe made the, to whom thou dost owe al that thou hast, &c. so to dispyse hym, so wyth dayely fautes to anger him, & for so great beniuolence to geue hym agayn so great contumelye and despyte? Neyther skylleth it that we haue rehearsed ficcion and comparicion amonge argumentes, for there is no cause why that amplificacion and ornacion shuld not be taken out of the same places from whence ther commeth probacion. Nor it is no newes the selfe same thynges to be applyed to diuerse uses. As of all circumstaunces both of the thyng, and of the person are taken argumentes, but euen oute of the selfe same are set affeccions and exaggeracions, whych is manifest in the kynde demonstratiue: As when we prayse chastitie in a yonge man, we go not [Page E5v] aboute to perswade that he was chaste, but that that vertue shulde appeare greater in floryshyng age. To lyke use serue examples and similitudes, as in Esaye: The Oxe knewe hys owner, and the Asse the maunger of hys master, but Israel hathe not knowen me. The example of the Oxe & the Asse is not used for this to proue that the Hebrewes dyd not knowe their God, but that the impietie and folishnes of that nacion shulde be amplified. The same may be applied to profe after thys maner. If the Oxe and Asse knowledge theyr masters, of whom they are norished and do serue them, how much more conueniente is it, that man shuld knowledge hys maker and norisher, and serue him bothe in bodye and mynd. Contrarye, when Paul sayth: no man serueth in warre on his owne wages, be proueth by similitudes, that it is not comelye, that they that war under the gospell, shulde be compelled to be carefull for their liuynge. He shuld haue applied it to amplifiyng, if he had propouned it thus. [Page E6r] They that serue under a capteine be not careful for their liuyng, but lokinge for the sustenaunce of their capteine, only studye for thys to do hym faythful seruice, howe much more shame is it that some menne that haue promosed to fyght under Christ in the gospel, to distrust such a capteyne, and studye all they can to gather riches. Comparison by puttyng to example is, when by setting out as it were a lyke example, wee brynge to passe that that we exaggerate may be thought either very lyke, eyther equal, either bygger. And in this kynd both the whole is compared to the whole, & the partes to partes: as in the oracion of Cicero for Milo. Did I pray you the nobleman Scipio being a priuat person kil Tiberius Gracchus whych shaked the common wealthe but a lytle, & shall wee beynge consulles suffer Catiline, that got he aboute to wast the whole worlde wyth murther and fyre? Here both Catiline is compared to Gracchus, and the estate of the common wealthe to the whole world, & a lytle shakyng [Page E6v] to slaughter, fyer and wastyng, and a priuate person to the consuls. Ther is an amplificacion also when contraries be set together, wherby bothe the partes seme bygger, and more euidente. As when exhorting men to liberalitie, we shewe howe foule a faute couetousenes is, that the foulnes of the faute being exaggerate, the goodlines of the vertue shulde be more encreased. There is another kynd of amplifiyng called reasonynge, when of those thinges that eyther folowe or go before, the hearer doth gather how great that thynge is that we wolde to be amplified. By thynges that go before, as when Homer armeth Achylles, or Hector to batayle, by the greate preparacion, we gather how sore the sight shal be. Of thinges that folowe: How much wyne Antony dranke, when the hauyng such a strong body he was not able to digeste it, but spewed it up the nexte daye after. Of thynges ioyned to: as when Maro sayeth to Poliphemus: He had the bodye of a pineapple tree for a staffe in hys hande. Manye other [Page E7r] kyndes ben there of amplifynge, which who so wyl se more at large, may read that right excellent boke of the famouse doctor Erasmus, whych be intituled the preacher.
The inuencion of many proposicions is, when the chyefe state or principal proposition of the cause is declared and proued by manye other proposicions and argumentes, so set in iuste order that there be no confusion of proposions. And proposicions be taken partely of those that be common, and partly of those thynges that belonge properlye to the cause: As if a man wolde counsell Tullye not to take the condicion offered of Antony, that is, that by burnynge of hys bookes called philippia, he shulde haue hys lyfe, hy mught use commonly these proposicions. Fyrste that no man oughte to by his life so dere, that therby he shulde lose hys immortall name.
To thys generall may serue a perticuler taken oute of circumstaunces, that it oughte not to be done, inespecialy of Cicero, whych by so many laboures hathe gotten unto [Page E7v] hym selfe an excellente and euerlastyng name, and that hath shewed moste eloquently by putting out so manye noble workes that deathe ought to be despised, inespeciallye seynge that now he hath not much tyme to lyue beynge an olde man. Agayn, another principall proposicion shall be taken of the circumstaunces. That nothynge is worse, then that Cicero beyng a very good man shulde owe his lyfe to Antonye the worst man of the world. The third proposicion shal be coniectural: how that Antony craftely goeth about that the bookes beynge burned, in the whych he perceiueth bothe hys owne immortal glory of Cicero, when he hath afterwardes taken awaye hys lyfe, he maye utterlye extinguishe Cicero.
So when proposicions be found, remaineth argumentacion or proues, called in Greke Pistis, because they make suretye of a doutefull thyng. Of proues some be artificiall, some unartificial. Unartificial be, foreiudgementes, E8r rumoures, tormentes, tabelles, othe, wytnesses, diuinacion, oracles. To these be referred whych the Greekes cal Symeia or sygnes: For they also commonlye are not set by the wytte of hym that disputeth, but are ministred otherwyse. They be called signes properlye, whyche rysynge of the thynge it selfe that is in question come under the sences of menne, as threatninges, whych be of the time that is paste, cryinge herde oute of a place, whyche is of the tyme presente, palenesse of hym whyche is axed of the murther, whyche is of the tyme folowynge, or that bloud leapte oute of the bodye latelye slayne, when he came that dyd the murther. Also of signes some bee necessary, as that he liueth whiche dothe breathe, and some probably, as bloude in the garmente, whych myghte also come oute of the nose, or otherwyse. Also proues and argumentes are taken oute of circumstaunces, partly of the person, partlye of the cause or thyng it self, and be called also of the Rethoricians [Page E8v] places, neyther cleane contrarie to those that Aristotle hath taughte, neyther the very same: for some agree wyth them, some be all one, and some diuerse. Onlye differeth the manour of teachynge, because the Rethoricianes do teache a patrone, the philosopher generally helpeth iudgement. Circumstaunces of the person ben these. Kinred, nacion, contrey, kynde, age, bryngynge up, or discipline, hauioure of the body, fortune, condicion, nature of the mynde, studies, affectacion, wordes forespoken, & deedes done before, commocion, counsell, name. Kynred monisheth us to consider of what progeny a man dothe come. For it is semely, and happeneth commonlye that the sonnes be lyke the forefathers, and thereof procedeth causes to lyue well or euyll: Nacion sheweth what disposicion and maners euery nacion hath peculiarly of theyr owne. The difference of kynde is knowen to euerye man: To diuerse ages diuerse thyngs be conueniente. It skylleth more by whom, and by what wayes men be [Page F1r] brought up, then of whom they be begotten. The hauioure of the bodye comprehendeth fayrnes or foulnes, strength or weaknes: For more credible is the accusacion of lecherye in a fayre body then in a foule, and violence more probable in the strong, then in the weake. Fortune perteineth to ryches, kynred, friendes, seruitures, dignities, honours. Condicion comprehendeth manye thynges: as whether he be noble or not noble, an officer, or a priuate person, a father or a sonne, a citizen or a straunger, a fre man, or a seruaunt, a maried manne, or a single man, a father or none, hauinge had but one wyfe, or two. The nature of the mynde hath manifold varieties in men. Some be fearful, some strong, some gentle, some vehement, chaste, lecherous, glorious, modeste &c. Studies, for other be the maners of the rustical, then of the lawyer, of the marchaunte, then of the Soldier, of the shipman then of the phisicion. To these they adde affectacion: For it skylleth muche what maner man euerye one wolde seme [Page F1v] to be, whether he be the same or not: as ryche, or eloquent, iuste or mightie, mery or sad, a fauorer of the people, or of the great men. Both wordes that be spoken before time, and dedes that be done, be also considered. For of thynges that be paste, the present be estemed, & also thinges that be to come. Commocion in thys differed from the nature of the mynde, because that one is perpetuall, that other for a whyle: as anger is commocion, rancour the nature of the mynde, and feare a commocion, fearefulnesse nature.
To these they adde the name of the person, of whence many tymes an argument is taken: as Cicero iesteth muche upon Verres, or sweepers name, because beyng a strong thief, he swepte altogether. Thus haue we shewed that much matter may be taken of thynges belongyng to a personne, so maye be also of those that belonge to a thynge or cause, whiche places bee so handeled of Quintiliane, that he myngleth them wyth the places whyche Aristotle hathe comprehended in hys eyghte [Page F2r] bookes of Topyckes. Circumstaunces of the thynges be these: Cause, place, tyme, chaunce, facultie, instrumente, manour. And fyrste of euerye thinge there be foure causes, efficient, materiall, formall and finall. Matter is the receptacle of al formes. The forme causeth it to be thys, and not another thynge: as the reasonable soule geueth to the body that it is a man, and the soule because it is a substaunce hathe her unnamed forme, whereby she is a soule, and not an aungel. And what soeuer is made, is made to a certen ende, and one thynge maye haue diuerse endes: as nature hathe geuen brestes unto women to geue milke, and also for comlynesse of theyr bodies, neyther doth any man that is of a sounde mynde take upon hym anye businesse, but for that he desyreth to haue some thynge: nor there is nothynge desyred, but under the consideracion of good or profite. So the ende why che is laste in effecte, and fyrste in intencion, loketh upon the gettinge of profites, increase, and confirmacion of them, [Page F2v] and also upon them, eschuynge of disprofites, diminyshynge, or puttyng them awaye. But in chosyng them, false perswacion deceyueth manye, whylest by errour they beleue that to be good that is naughte. This place therfore serueth for many thynges, to make more or lesse. Greatly happy shulde men be, if euerye man wolde looke upon the marke, not the whych desyre hathe sette before hym, but whyche God and honest reason hath prefixed. And of such strengthe is the ende, that hereof is taken the felicitie of euery thyng. To fast that the body maye obeye the mynde, to do good workes is an holy deede. To fast to be counted holye, is hypocrisie. To faste to encrease thy good, is couetousenesse. To faste to be whole in thy bodie is phisycke, and so of praiynge, almose, and other laudable workes. After lyke maner must be wayed the secondarie endes. An other circumstaunce of a thynge, is the place, whose qualitie oftentimes maketh the faute either greter or lesser: as to steale an holye [Page F3r] thing out of an holy place, is worse then some other kynde of theft. No lesse matter of argument acion ministreth the qualitie of time, which signifieth two thynges. Fyrst it is taken playnly for the time present, past, or to come: Seconde it signifieth oportunitie to do a thynge, and so when a man cometh as we wold haue it, we saye he cometh in time. And in the seuenth of Ihon, when Christ sayth: My tyme is not yet come, tyme is taken for oportunitie of tyme. And lykewyse in the fyrst to the Galat. Therfore whyle we haue tyme &c. The Rethoricianes put chaunce under tyme, because the ende of a thynge perteyneth to the time that foloweth: but of thys wyll we speke in the place called Euent. Facultie is a power to do the thynge that is taken in hand: and in coniectures two thinges speciallye be considered: whether he could or wold. Wyll is gathered of hope to performe it, and is made more probably when the nature of the mynde is ioyned to it: as it is not like he wyl abide in his [Page F3v] glorye, because he is enuious and ambicious. Also when we counsell one to leaue of vayne mournynge, when it is not in his power to get agayne that is gone.
Instrument semeth to be a part of facultie: for instrumentes sometyme are cause of oure hablenes to do a thinge: and it is a more mischevous deede to kyl with venome then with swearde. And to instrument some is the manour of doyng, that almoste it is all one. But more properlye perteyne to the manour or fashion, those thynges that be eyther excused, or made greater by wyl: As lesse faute is it to fall into a vice by ignorance or frailtie, then of a purpose and full deliberacion. The use of circumstances profiteth to amplifie, to extenuate, to euidence, to confirmacion, and probabilitie. And hytherto be referred also the common places that indifferentlye apperteyne to all kyndes and partes of causes, of the whyche Rodulphe entreateth, and Aristotle in his Topyckes. But before we speake of them, it is to be noted, [Page F4r] that thys woorde place, is taken foure maner of wayes. They are called common places, because thei be entreated of, of bothe partes, althoughe not in all one cause: as he that is sore spoken agaynste by witnesses, swadeth that we shulde not geue credite to witnesses. Contrarye, he that is holpen by them speaketh in defence of wytnesses, and so of other that we spake of before, when we entreated of unartificial argumentes. Lyke to thys sorte be sentences, whyche wee exaggerate as it were wythoute the cause, but so that they serue to the cause whiche wee haue in hande: as bee the amplificacions of vertues, and the exaggeracions of vices. As when wee accuse anye manner that by euill companions he was broughte to do also the mischeuouse deede. A common place shall bee, wyth wordes to exaggerate howe much it profiteth to keepe goodnesse, to bee in companye wyth good men, and contrarye howe greate myschyefe the companye of euyll men dothe cause.
[Page F4v] In the third sence places be called seates of argumentes, whyche the Rethoricianes do applie to eche kyndes of causes: as in the kynde suasorie, honest, profitable, pleasaunt easye, necessarie .&c. In demonstratiue kynde, kynred, contrey, goodes of the bodye and of the mynde. In the Judiciall kynde, inespecial deniall, those that we spake of euen nowe. The fourth places be general, whych declare what belongeth to euerye thynge, and bowe oute of eche of them there be taken argumentes, partly necessary, and partly probable. These be commen to the Oratours with the Logicians, albeit Aristotle hathe seperatelye written of them in hys Topickes, and in his Rethorickes hathe not touched them, and they profite much both to iudgement, and to endightynge, but the varietie of authors hath made the handlynge of them sumwhat darke, because amonge them selues they can not wel agre, neyther of the names, neyther of the number, neyther of the order.
All example is a rehearsall of a [Page F5r] thynge that is done, and an applynge of it unto our cause, eyther for similitude or dissimilitude, profitable to perswade, garnyshe, and delyght. Examples, some be taken out of hystories, some of tales, some of fayned argumentes, in comedies, and bothe sortes be dilated by parable and comparicion. Comparacion sheweth it equall, lesse, or bygger. Parable is a feete similitude, whych sheweth the example that is brought, ether like, unlyke or contrarye. Lyke as Camilius restored the common wealth of the Romaines that was oppressed by the Frenchmen, and when it was brought into extreme losse, by theyr valiauntnesse expelled the Barbariens: So Valla, whan thorowe the ignorance of the Barbarians, learnyng was destroyed, restored it agayn, as it wer from death into hys former brightnes. Unlike. As not lyke thanke is done to Laurence and Camilius, because that the one moued by vertue wyth the ieopardie of hys lyfe deliuered his contrey from the ungracious, that other styrred up by desyre [Page F5v] of fame, or rather wyth an euyll luste to checke manye, not restored agayn the lattenting oppressed, but brought it as it were into certen rules. Contrary, Brutus kylled hys chyldren goyng about treason, Manlius punished by death the valiauntnes of hys sonne. Comparacion sheweth the thing that is brought, eyther equall, lesse, or bigger: Lesse, as our elders haue warred oftentymes, because theyr marchauntes and mariners wer euyl entreated. What mynd ought you to be in, so many thousande citizens of Rome slaine at one message, and one time? Equall, as in the same Cicero. For it happed unto me to stand for an offyce wyth two gentlemenne, that one very naughte, that other very gentle, yet ouercame I Catiline by dignitie, and Galba by fauoure. Bygger: As for Milo, they saye he shulde not lyue that confesseth he hathe kylled a man, when M. Horacius was quitte, whyche kylled hys owne syster.
Parable, which some call similitude, some comparacion, is a comparyng [Page F6r] of a thyng that hath no life, or no bodye to our cause and purpose, for some thyng that is lyke or unlyke. And as example is taken of the dede of a man, and the person of an hystorye, or that is fabulous and fayned, so is comparison taken of thinges that be done, or that be ioyned to them by nature, or by chaunce. As Attilius retournyng agayne to hys enemies is an example of kepynge faythe and promise: But a shyp in the whych the sayles be hoysed up, or taken down after the blowyng of the winde, is a parable whiche teacheth a wyse man to geue place to tyme, and applye hymselfe to the world that is presente. And lyke fashion is of dilatyng a parable, as we haue shewed in example. For sometime it is noted in a word as: Doest thou not understand that the sayles muste be turned? Sometyme it is more largelye declared, as in the oracion for Mutena. And if unto menne that sayle out of the hauen. &c. Analogia.
Icon, called of the latines Imago, an Image in Englyshe, is muche [Page F6v] lyke to a similitude, and if you declare it is a similitude: as if you saye: As an Asse wyll not be driuen from her meat, no not with a club, untyl she be full: no more wil a warriour reste from murther untyil he hath fylled his mynd with it. This is a similitude: but if you saye that a man flewe upon his enemies like a dragon, or lyke a lyon, it is an Image. Howbeit an Image serueth rather to euidence or grauitie, or iocunditie, then to a profe. There is also a general comparacion, speciallye in the kynde demonstratiue, person wyth person, and one thing with an other, for praise or dispraise.
Indicacio, or authoritie, is the comparing of an other mans saying or sentence unto our cause: of the whiche ther be seuen principal kyndes. The fyrst a comon morall sentence, as a common principle perteyning to maners: as continuall laboure ouercommeth all thynges, and as be the sentences of Salomon and Cats: and all morall philosophy is ful of suche sentences. The seconde are common rules, whych be called [Page F7r] dignities in euery science. The .iii. a prouerb. The fourth called Chria, which is a very short exposicion of any dede or worde wyth the name of the author recited. The fyfte an Enthimeme, whyche is a sentence of contraries: as if it be a great praise to please good men, surely to please euyl men it is a greate shame. The syxte called AEnos, that is a saying or a sentence, taken out of a tale, as be the interpretacions of fables, and theyr allegories. The seuen is any answere taken out of the mouth of God, or taken out of the commaundement of God.
Expolicion is, when we tarye in one thynge, speakynge the same in diuerse wordes and fashions, as though it were not one matter but diuerse. A goodlye example of the moste largest expolicion is rehearsed in Erasmus, whych, because it is very profitable, I wyll wholye rehearse it. A wyse man for the common wealthe sake shall eschue no peryll: euen for thys cause that it happeneth often, that wher he wold not [Page F7v] dye for the common wealth, he perysheth yet of necessitie wyth the common wealth. And because all the commodities we haue be taken of our contrey, ther ought no incommoditie to be counted paynfull, taken for our contrey. They therfore that flye that peryll which must be taken for the common wealth, do folyshely: for neither can they auoyde it, and they be found ungrate to the citie. But they that by their owne peril put away the perils of their contrei, they are to be counted wyse, seyng that bothe they geue to the common wealth that honour that they shulde geue, and had rather dye for many, then with many. For it is much against reason that receiuing thy naturall lyfe by thy contrey, to deliuer it agayne to nature when she compelleth the, and not to geue it to thy contrey when she desyreth the. And where thou mayst wyth hye valiauntnes & honour die for thy contrei, to haue rather lyke a cowarde to liue in shame. And for thy fryndes and parentes, and other acquayntance to put thy selfe in peryll: for the common [Page F8r] wealth in the whyche both it & that most reuerende name of the contrey is conteyned, not to be willynge to come in ieopardye. Wherfore as he is to be dyspised whyche being upon the sea had rather haue hym selfe safe, then the ship: so is he to be rebuked, whych in ieopardye of the commen wealthe, prouideth more for his own then for the common wealthe. When the shyppe hathe ben broken, many haue ben saued: But after the shypwrake of the contrey no man can escape. Whyche thynge men thynketh Decius dyd wel perceiue, whych reported wholy to haue bestowed hym selfe, and for the sauegard of his men of war to haue run amonge the myddest of hys enemyes. Wherfore he loste not hys lyfe, but let it go: for he redemed for a thynge of verye small pryce, a ryght dere thyng. He gaue his life, but he receiued his contrei. He loste his life, but he inioyed glorye, whyche written to his greate prayse, shyneth euerye daye more and more. Wherefore if we haue proued both by reason & by example, [Page F8v] that we be bounde to put oure selfe in peryll for the common wealthe, they are to be counted wyse men, whych for the sauegarde of the contrey auoyde no peryll. It wolde be meete to exercyse chyldren in suche themes, wherby shal be gotten bothe wysedome and eloquence. And here me thynketh I maye ryghte well ende these Rethoricall preceptes, although I be not ignoraunt that much helpeth bothe to persuasions and copye, the proper handlyng of tales taken oute of the nature of beastes, dreames, fayned narracions, sumwhat lyke unto the truth, with allegories much used of diuines. But because they requyre a longer treatie, for this tyme I leaue them of, addynge unto these before written rules of oratory, a declamacion bothe profitable and verye eloquente, wrytten by Erasmus unto the moste noble Duke of Cleue, as here appereth after.