The arte of rhetorique: for the use of all suche as are studious of eloquence, sette forth in English

The Arte of Rhetorique
for the use of all suche as are studious of Eloquence, sette forth in English

To the right honorable Lorde, John Dudley, Lorde Lisle, Earle of Warwike, and maister of the horse to the kynges majestie: your assured to commaund Thomas Wilson.

When Pyrrhus Kynge of the Epirotes made battayle agaynste the Romaynes, and could neither by force of Armes, nor yet by anye Policye wynne certayne stronge holdes: he used communely to send one Cineas (a noble Oratour, and sometimes scholer to Demosthenes) to perswade with the Capitaynes and people that were in them, that they shoulde yelde up the sayde holde or townes without fyght or resistaunce. And so it came to passe, that through the pithye eloquence of this noble Oratoure, divers stronge Castels and Fortresses were peaceablye geven up into the handes of Pirrhus, whyche he shoulde have founde verye harde and tedious to wynne by the sworde. And this thinge was not Pirrhus himselfe ashamed in his commune talke to the prayse of the sayde Oratoure, openlye to confesse: allegynge that Cineas throughe the eloquence of his tongue, wanne moe Cityes unto him, then ever him selfe shoulde els have bene able by force to subdue. Good was that Oratour [Page A1v] which coulde do so muche: and wise was that king which woulde use suche a meane. For if the worthines of eloquence may move us, what worthier thing can there be, then with a word to winne cities and whole countries? If profite may perswade, what greater gayne can we have, then withoute bloudshed to achive a conquest? If pleasure may provoke us, what greater delite do we know, then to se a whole multitude with the onely talke of a man ravished and drawen whiche waye him liketh best to have them? Boldly then may I adventure and without feare steppe forthe to offer that unto your Lordeshyppe, whiche for the dignitye is so excellente, and for the use so necessarye: that no man oughte to be withoute it, whiche either shall beare rule over manye, or muste have to do wyth matters of a Realme. Consideringe therfore your Lordshyps hyghe estate, and worthy callyng, I knowe nothyng more fittynge with your honoure, then to the gyfte of good reason and understandynge, wherwith we see you notably endued, to joyne the perfection of Eloquente utteraunce. And because that aswell by your Lordeshyppes moste tender imbracynge of all suche as be learned, as also by your right studious exercises, you do evidently declare, not onely what estimation you have of all learnynge and excellente qualities in generall, but also what a speciall desyre and affection you beare to eloquence: I therfore commende to youre Lordeshyppes tuition and patronage, thys traictise of Rhethorique, to [Page A2r] the ende that both ye maye get some furtheraunce by the same, and I also be discharged of my faithefull promyse this laste yere made unto you.

For where as it pleased you emonge other talke of learnynge, earnestlye to wyshe that ye myghte one daye see the Preceptes of Rhetorique sette forthe by me in Englishe, as I hadde erste done the Rules of Logique: havynge in my Countrey thys laste Somer a quiet time of vacation wyth the ryghte worshypfull sir Edwarde Dymmoke Knyghte: I travelyed so muche as my leasure myghte serve therunto, not onelye to declare my good harte to the satisfiynge of youre requeste in that behalfe, but also throughe that your mocion to helpe the towardnes of some other, not so well furnished as your Lordeshyppe is.

For as touchinge your selfe, by the tyme that perfect experience of manifolde and weyghtye matters of the commune weale, shall have encreased the eloquence, whyche alreadye dothe naturallye flowe in you: I doubt nothing but that you wil so farre be better than this my boke, that I shal not onelye blowshe to chalenge you for a Scholer, in the Arte of Rhetorique, by me rudelye sette forthe: but also be driven to sette this simple Traictise to your Lordshyppe to Schole, that it may learned Rhetorique of youre daylye talke, fyndynge you suche an Oratoure in your speach, as greate Clarckes do declare what an Oratoure shoulde be. [Page A2v]

In the meane season I shall ryghte humblye beseche your good Lordshippe so to be a Patrone and defendoure of these my Laboures to you dedicated: as I shal be a continuall peticioner unto almyghtye God for your preservation, and longe continuaunce.

1. A Prologue to the Reader.

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Greate maie their boldenesse bee thought, that seke without feare to set forthe their knowlege: and suffer their doynges to be seen, thei care not of whom. For not onelie thereby dooe thei bryng men to thinke, that thei stande moche in their owne conceipt, but also thei seme to assure them selves, that all men will like, whatsoever thei write. Wherein thei commit twoo greate faultes: the one is, that thei are proude: the other is, that thei are fonde. For, what greater pride can there be, then for any man, to thinke himself to be wiser then all men living? or what greater folie can be imagined, then for one to thinke, that all men will like what soever he writeth? Soche are thei for the moste parte by all likelihode, that dooe sette forthe bookes. Wherein thei dooe bothe betraie theim selves, and also give greate occasion to the worlde, to talke largelie of theim. But all those that doe write, are not soche as I saie, nor meane not as I thinke, as the whiche are wise and learned men, writyng onely under the correccion of others, to edifie their neighboure, and not sekyng in any wise their owne glorie. Neither all that be readers, will talke their pleasures, but rather staie their judgementes, and waie thinges with reason. Some perhappes maie like the writer, if his dooynges bee good, but the moste parte undoubtedlie, must of force bee offended, as the whiche are corrupte of judgement, bicause thei are nought. Then soche as seeke the greateste praise, for writing of bookes, should dooe beste in my simple minde, to write foolishe toies, for then the moste part, would beste esteme them. And herein perhappes maie I get some advauntage, that in my young yeres, have been bolde to sette forthe my simple fansies. For in folie I dare compare with the proudest, and in pride I dare match with him, that is most folishe: not doubting but to finde soche felowes, that not onelie will seeke to be eguall unto me, and perhappes excell me, but also soche [Page A4v] as will therein right well esteme me. Cicero in his seconde booke de Oratore,bringeth in one Lucilius, a pleasaunt and merie conceited manne, who saieth, that he would not have soche thinges as he wrote to bee redde, either of those that were excellentlie learned, or of theim that were altogether ignoraunt. For that the one would thinke more of his doynges, and have a farther meanyng with him, then ever the aucthour selfe thought: thother taking the booke in his hand, would understande nothing at all, beyng as meete to reade aucthours, as an Asse to plaie on the Organnes. This man in thus saiyng had some reason. But I being somewhat acquainted with the worlde, have founde out an other sorte of men, whom of all others, I would be lothe should reade any of my dooynges: especiallie soche thinges as either touched Christ, or any good doctrine. And those are soche malicious folke, that love to finde faultes in other mennes matters, and seven yeres together will kepe theim in store, to the utter undoyng of their christian brother: not minding to reade for their better learning, but seking to deprave whatsoever thei finde, and watching their time, will take best advauntage, to undoe their neighbour. Soche menne I saie of all others, would I bee lothe to have the sight, of any mine earnest doynges, if I could tell how to forbid theim, or how to hinder theim of their purpose.

Twoo yeres past, at my being in Italie, I was charged in Roome toune, to my greate daunger and utter undoyng (if Gods goodnes had not been the greater) to have written this booke of Rhetorique, and the Logike also, for the which I was coumpted an heretike, notwithstanding the absolucion, graunted to all the Realme, by Pope Julie the thirde, for all former offences or practises, devised against the holie mother Church, as thei call it. A straunge matter, that thinges doen in Englande seven yeres before, and thesame univesallie forgiven, should afterwardes be laied to a mannes charge in Roome. But what can not malice doe? Or what will not the wilfull devise, to satisfie their mindes, for undoyng of others? God bee my Judge, I had then as little feare (although death was presente, and the tormente at hande, [Page A5r] wherof I felte some smarte) as ever I had in all my life before. For when I sawe those that did seke my death, to be so maliciouslie sette, to make soche poore shiftes, for my rediar dispatche, and to burden me with those backe reckoninges: I tooke soche courage, and was so bolde, that the Judges then did moche mervaile at my stoutnesse, and thinkyng to bring doune my greate harte, tolde me plainlie, that I was in farther perille, then whereof I was aware, and sought thereupon to take advauntage of my woordes, and to bring me in daunger by all meanes possible. And after long debatyng with me, thei willed me at any hand, to submit my self to the holie Father, and the devoute Colledge of Cardinalles. For otherwise there was no remedie. With that being fully purposed, not to yelde to any submission, as one that little trusted their colourable deceipte: I was as ware as I could be, not to utter any thing for myne owne harme, for feare I should come in their daunger. For then either should I have died, or els have denied, bothe openlie and shamefullie, the knowen truthe of Christ and his Gospell. In the ende by Gods grace, I was wonderfullie delivered, through plain force of the worthie Romaines (an enterprise heretofore in that sort never attempted) being then without hope of life, and moche lesse of libertie. And now that I am come home, this boke is shewed me, and I desired to loke upon it, to amende it, where I thought meete. Amende it quoth I? Naie, let the booke firste amende it self, and make me amendes. For surely I have no cause, to acknowledge it for my boke, bicause I have so smarted for it. For, where I have been evill handeled, I have moche a doe, to shewe my selfe frendlie. If the soonne were the occasion, of the fathers imprisonmente, woulde not the Father bee offended with him thinke you? Or at the leaste, would he not take heede, how hereafter he had to dooe with him? If others never get more by bookes, then I have doen: it were better be a Carter, than a Scholer, for worldly profite. A burnte childe feareth the fire, and a beaten Dogge, escheweth the whippe. Now therefore, I will none of this booke from henceforthe, I will none of him I saie: take him that liste, and weare him that will. And by that tyme thei [Page A5v] have paied for him so dearelie as I have dooen, thei will bee as wearie of him, as I have been. Who that toucheth pitch shall be filed with it, and he that goeth in the Sonne, shalbe Sonne burnt, although he thinke not of it. So thei that wil reade this, or soche like Bookes, shall in the ende, bee as the Bookes are. What goodnesse is in this treatise, I can not without vaine glorie reporte, neither will I medle with it, either hotte or colde. As it was, so it is, and so be it still hereafter for me: so that I heare no more of it, and that it be not yet ones againe caste in my dishe. But this I saie to others, as I am assured thei shall laughe, that will reade it: so if the worlde should tourne (as God forbid) thei were most like to wepe, that in all poinctes would folowe it. I would be lothe that any man should hurte hymself, for my dooynges. And therefore to avoide the worste for all partes, the beste were never ones to looke on it: for then I am assured, no manne shall take harme by it. But I thinke some will reade it, before whom I dooe washe my handes, if any harme should come to them hereafter, and let theim not saie, but that thei are warned. I never harde a manne yet troubled for ignoraunce in religion. And yet me thinkes, it is as greate an heresie, not to knowe God thorow wilful ignorance, as to erre by simplicitie in the knowledge of God. But some, perhappes maie saie unto me: Sir, you are moche to be blamed, that are so fearefull, and doe caste soche perils before hande, to discourage menne from well dooyng. I answere: My minde is not to discourage any man, but onely to shewe, how I have been tried for this Bookes sake, tanquam per ignem. For in deede the prison was one fire, when I cam out of it, and whereas I feared fire moste (as who is he that doeth not feare it?) I was delivered by fire and sworde together. And yet now thus fearfull am I, that having been thus swinged, and restrained of libertie: I would first rather hasarde my life presentlie hereafter, to dye uppon a Turke: then to abide again without hope of libertie, soche painfull imprisonments for ever. So that I have now gotte courage with sufferyng damage, and made my self as you see, verie willyng from henseforthe to dye: beyng then brought onely but in feare of death. Thei that love sorowe upon sorowe: [Page A6r] God sende it theim. I for my parte, had rather be without sense of grief, then for ever to live in grief. And I thinke the troubles before death, beeyng longe suffered, and without hope continued, are worse a greate deale, then present death it self can be: especially to him that maketh little accoumpte of this life, and is well armed with a constaunte minde to Godwarde. Thus I have talked of my self, more then I needed, some will saie, and yet not more (maie I well saie) than I have needed in deede. For I was without all helpe, and without all hope, not onelie of libertie, but also of life, and therefore what thinge needed I notte? Or with what woordes sufficientlie, could I sette forthe my neede? GOD be praised, and thankes be given to him onely, that not onelie hath delivered me, out of the Lions mouth: but also hath brought Englande, my deare Countrie, out of greate thraldome, and forrein bondage.

And GOD save the Quenes Majestie, the Realme, and the scatered flocke of Christ, and graunte, O mercifull God, an universall quietnes of minde, perfite agrement in doctrine, and amendemente of our lives, that we maie be all one Sheepefold, and have one Pastour Jesus, to whom with the Father, and the holie Ghost, be honour and glorie, world without ende. Amen. This seventh of December. Anno Domini. 1560. [Page A3r] Eloquence first geven by God, after loste by man, and laste repayred by God agayne.

Man (in whom is poured the breathe of lyfe) was made at hys firste beinge an everlivyng Creature, unto the likenes of God, endued with reason, and appoynted Lorde over all other thinges living. But after the fall of our firste father, Sinne so crepte in, that our knowledge was muche darkened, and by corruption of this oure fleshe, mans reason and entendement were bothe overwhelmed. At what time God beinge sore greved with the folye of one man, pitied of his mere goodnesse, the whole state and posteritie of mankinde. And therefore (wher as throughe the wicked suggestion of our ghostelye enemye, the joyfull fruition of Goddes glorye was altogether loste:) it pleased our heavenly father to repayre mankynde of hys free mercye, and to graunte an everlivynge enheritaunce unto all suche as woulde by constante fayth seeke earnestlye thereafter. Longe it was ere that man knewe himselfe, beinge destitute of Gods grace, so that al thinges waxed savage, the earth untilled, societye neglected, Goddes will not knowen, man agaynst order. Some lived by spoyle, some like brute Beastes grased upon the ground, some wente naked, some romed lyke woodoses, none did anye thing by reason, but most did what they could, by manhode. None almoste considered the everlivynge God, but all lived moste communely after their own luste. By death they thoughte that all thinges ended, by life they loked for none other livynge. None remembred the true observation of wedlocke, none tendered the education of their chyldren, lawes were not regarded, true dealinge was not once [Page A3v] used. For vertue, vyce bare place, for right and equitie, might used aucthoritie. And therfore where as man through reason might have used order, manne through follye fell into erroure. And thus for lacke of skill, and for wante of grace, evyll so prevayled, that the Devyll was mooste estemed, and GOD either almost unknowen emonge theim all, or elles nothinge feared emonge so manye. Therefore even nowe when man was thus paste all hope of amendement, God still tendering his owne workemanship, stirred up his faythfull and elect, to perswade with reason, all men to societye. And gave his appoynted ministers knowledge bothe to se the natures of men, and also graunted them the gift of utteraunce, that they myghte wyth ease wynne folke at their will, and frame theim by reason to all good order.

And therefore, where as Menne lyved Brutyshlye in open feldes, having neither house to shroude them in, nor attyre to clothe their backes, nor yet anye regarde to seeke their best avayle: these appoynted of God called theim together by utteraunce of speache, and perswaded with them what was good, what was badde, and what was gainefull for mankynde. And althoughe at firste, the rude coulde hardelie learne, and either for straungenes of the thing, would not gladlye receyve the offer, or els for lacke of knoweledge could not perceyve the goodnes: yet being somewhat drawen and delighted with the pleasauntnes of reason, and the swetenes of utteraunce: after a certaine space, thei became through nurture and good advisement, of wilde, sober: of cruel, gentle: of foles, wise: and of beastes, men. Suche force hath the tongue, and such is the power of eloquence and reason, that most men are forced even to yelde in that, whiche most standeth againste their will. And therfore the Poetes doe feyne that Hercules being a man of greate wisdome, had all men lincked together by the eares in a chaine, to draw them and leade them even as he lusted. For his witte was so greate, his tongue so eloquente, and his experience suche, that no one man was able to withstand his reason, but everye one was rather driven to do that whiche he woulde, and to wil that [Page A4r] whiche he did, agreing to his advise both in word and worke, in all that ever they were able.

Neither can I see that menne coulde have bene broughte by anye other meanes to lyve together in felowshyppe of life, to mayntayne Cities, to deale trulye, and willyngelye to obeye one another, if menne at the firste hadde not by Art and eloquence perswaded that, which they ful oft found out by reason. For what manne I praye you being better able to maintayne him selfe by valeante courage, then by living in base subjection: would not rather loke to rule like a lord, then to lyve lyke an underlynge: if by reason he were not perswaded that it behoveth everye man to lyve in his owne vocation, and not to seke anye hygher rowme, then whereunto he was at the first appoynted? Who woulde digge and delve from morne till evening? Who would travaile and toyle with the sweate of his browes? Yea, who woulde for his kynges pleasure adventure and hasarde his life, if witte hadde not so wonne men, that they thought nothing more nedefull in this world, nor anye thing wherunto they were more bounden: then here to live in their duty, and to traine their whole lyfe accordynge to their callynge. Therfore where as menne are in manye thynges weake by Nature and subjecte to much infirmitye: I thinke in this one point they passe all other Creatures livynge, that they have the gift of speache and reason.

And emonge all other, I thinke him most worthye fame, and emongest menne to be taken for halfe a God, that therin dothe chiefelye, and above all other excell menne, wherin men doo excell beastes. For he that is emonge the reasonable, of all moste reasonable, and emonge the wittye, of all moste wittye, and emonge the eloquente, of all mooste eloquente: him thincke I emonge all menne, not onelye to be taken for a singuler manne, but rather to be counted for halfe a God. For in sekynge the excellencye hereof, the soner he draweth to perfection, the nygher he commeth to GOD who is the chiefe wisdome, and therefore called God, because he is most wise, or rather wisdome it selfe. [Page A4v]

Nowe then seinge that God gaveth his heavenlye grace unto all suche as call unto him with stretched handes, and humble harte, never wantynge to those, that wante not to them selves: I purpose by his grace and especial assistence, to set forthe preceptes of eloquence, and to shewe what observation the wise have used in handeling of their matters, that the unlearned by seinge the practise of other, may have some knowledge them selves, and learne by their neyghbours devise, what is necessarye for them selves in their own case.

What is Rhetorique [Page a1r]

Rhetorique is an art to set furthe by utteraunce of wordes, matter at large, or (as Cicero doeth saie) it is a learned, or rather an artificiall declaracion of the mynde, in the handelyng of any cause, called in contencion, that maie through reason largely be discussed.

The matter whereupon an Oratour must speaker.

An Orator muste be able to speake fully of all those questions,whiche by lawe and mannes ordinaunce are enacted, and appoyncted for the use and profite of man, suche as are thought apte for the tongue to set forward. Now Astronomie is rather learned by demonstracion, then taught by any greate utteraunce. Arithmetique smally nedeth the use of eloquence seeyng it maie be had wholy by nombryng onely. Geometrie rather asketh a good square, then a cleane flowyng tongue, to set out the arte. Therfore an Orators profession, is to speake onely, of all suche matters as maie largely be expounded, for mannes behove, and maie with muche grace be set out, for all men to heare theim.

Of Questions.

Every question, or demaunde in thynges, is of two sortes. Either it is an infinite question, and without ende, or els it is definite, and comprehended within some ende.

Those questions are called infinite, whiche generally are propounded, withoute the comprehension of tyme, place, and person, or any such like: that is to saie, when no certain thyng is named, but onely woordes are generally spoken. As thus, whether it is best to marie, or to live single. Whiche is better, a courtiers life, or a scholers life.

Those questions are called definite, whiche set furthe a matter, with the appoynctment, and namyng of place, time, and persone. As thus. Whether now it be best here in Englande, for a Prieste to Marie, or to live single. Whether [Page a1v] it were mete for the kynges majestie, that now is, to marie with a straunger, or to mary with one of his awn subjectes. Now the definite question (as the whiche concerneth some one persone) is moste agreyng to the purpose of an Oratour consideryng particuler matters in the Lawe, are ever debated betwixte certain persones, the one affirmyng for his parte, and the other deniyng, as fast again for his parte.

Thynges generally spoken without al circumstaunces, are more proper unto the Logician, who talketh of thynges universally, without respect of persone, time, or place. And yet notwithstandyng, Tullie doeth saie, that whosoever will talke of a particuler matter, must remember that within thesame also, is comprehended a generall. As for example. If I shall aske this question, whether it be lawfull for Willyam Conqueroure to invade Englande, and wynne it by force of armour, I must also consider this, whether it be lawfull for any man, to usurpe power, or it be now lawfull. That if the greater cannot be borne withall, the lesse cannot be neither. And in this respecte, a generall question agreeth well to an Oratours profession, and ought well to be knowen, for the better furtheraunce of his matter, notwithstandyng the particuler question, is ever called in controversie, and the generall onely thereupon considered, to comprehende and compasse thesame, as the whiche is more generall.

The ende of Rethorique.

Three thynges are required of an Orator. To teache. To delight. And to perswade.

First therefore an Orator muste labour to tell his tale, that the hearers maie well knowe what he meaneth, and understande him wholy, the whiche he shall with ease do, if he utter his mind in plain wordes, suche as are usually received, and tell it orderly, without goyng aboute the busshe. That if he doe not this, he shall never do the other. For what manne can be delited [Page a2r] or yet be perswaded, with the onely hearyng of those thynges, whiche he knoweth not what thei meane. The tongue is ordeined to expresse the mynde, that one mighte understande anothers meanyng: Nowe what availeth to speake, when none can tell, what the speaker meaneth? Therefore Phavorinus the Philosopher (as Gellius telleth the tale) did hit a yong man over the thumbes, very handsomely for usyng over olde, and over straunge woordes. Sirha (quoth he) when our old great auncesters and grandsires wer alive thei spake plainly in their mothers tongue, and used old language, such as was spoken at the building of Rome. But you talke me suche Latin, as though you spake with them even now, that were two or thre thousande yeres ago, and onely because you would have no man, to understand what you saie. Now wer it not better for the a thousand fold (thou foolishe fellowe) in sekyng to have thy desire, to holde thy peace, and speake nothyng at all? for then by that meanes, fewe should knowe what were thy meanyng. But thou saiest, the olde antiquitee doeth like thee best, because it is good, sobre, and modest. Ah, live man as thei did before thee, and speake thy mynde now, as menne do at this daie. And remember that, whiche Cesar saieth, beware as long as thou livest, of straunge woordes, as thou wouldest take hede and eschewe greate rockes in the Sea.

The next parte that he hath to plaie, is to chere his gestes, and to make them take pleasure, with hearyng of thynges wittely devised, and pleasauntly set furthe. Therfore every Orator should earnestly laboure to file his tongue, that his woordes maie slide with ease, and that in his deliveraunce, he maie have suche grace, as the sound of a lute, or any suche instrument doeth geve. Then his sentencies must be well framed, and his wordes aptly used, throughout the whole discourse of his Oracion.

Thirdly, suche quicknesse of witte must be shewed, and suche pleasaunt sawes so well applied, that the eares maie finde muche delite, whereof I will speake largely, when I shall entreate of movyng laughter. And assuredly nothyng is more nedefull, then to quicken these heavie loden [Page a2v] wittes of ours, and muche to cherishe these our lompishe and unweldie natures, for excepte menne finde delight, thei will not long abide: delight theim, and wynne them: werie theim, and you lose theim for ever. And that is the reason, that menne commonly tary the ende of a merie plaie, and cannot abide the halfe hearyng of a sower checkyng Sermon. Therefore, even these auncient preachers, must now and then plaie the fooles in the pulpite, to serve the tickle eares of their fleetyng audience, or els thei are like some tymes to preache to the bare walles, for though the spiritie bee apte, and our will prone, yet our fleshe is so heavie, and humours so overwhelme us, that wee cannot without refreshyng, long abide to heare any one thyng. Thus we se, that to delight is nedefull, without the whiche, weightier matters will not be heard at all, and therefore hym cunne I thanke, that bothe can and will ever, myngle swete, emong the sower, be he Preacher, Lawyer, yea, or Cooke either hardely, when he dresseth a good dishe of meate: now I nede not tell that scurrilitie, or Alehouse jestyng, would bee thought odious, or grosse mirthe would be deamed madnesse: consideryng that even the meane witted doe knowe that already, and as for other, that have no witte, thei will never learne it, therefore God spede them. Now when these twoo are dooen, he muste perswade, and move the affeccions of his hearers in such wise, that thei shalbe forced to yelde unto his saiyng, wherof (because the matter is large, and maie more aptly bee declared, when I shall speake of Amplificacion) I wil surcease to speake any thyng therof at this tyme.

By what meanes Eloquence is attained.

Firste nedefull it is that he, whiche desireth to excell in this gift of Oratorie, and longeth to prove an eloquent man, must naturally have a wit, and an aptnesse thereunto: then must he to his boke, and learne to be well stored with knowlege, that he maie be able to minister matter, for all causes necessarie. The which when he hath gotte plentifully, he muste use muche exercise, both in writyng, and also in speakyng. For though he [Page a3r] have a wit and learnyng together, yet shal thei bothe litle availe without much practise. What maketh the lawyer to have suche utteraunce? Practise. What maketh the Preacher to speake so roundly? Practise. Yea, what maketh women go so fast awaie with their wordes? Marie practise I warraunt you. Therfore in all faculties, diligent practise, and earnest exercise, are the onely thynges, that make men prove excellent. Many men knowe the arte very well, and be in all poynctes throughly grounded, and acquainted with the preceptes, and yet it is not their hap to prove eloquent. And the reason is, that eloquence it self, came not up first by the arte, but the arte rather was gathered upon eloquence. For wise menne sayng by muche observacion, and diligent practise, the compasse of diverse causes, compiled thereupon preceptes and lessons, worthie to bee knowen and learned of all men. Therefore before arte was invented, eloquence was used, and through practise made parfecte, the whiche in all thynges is a sovereigne meane, most highly to excell.

Now before we use either to write, or speake eloquently we must dedicate our myndes wholly, to folowe the moste wise and learned menne, and seke to fashion, aswell their speache and gesturyng, as their wit or endityng. The whiche when we earnestly mynde to do, we cannot but in time appere somewhat like theim. For if thei that walke muche in the sonne, and thinke not of it, are yet for the moste part sonne burnt, it cannot be but that thei, whiche wittyngly and willyngly travaile to counterfecte other, muste nedes take some colour of theim, and be like unto theim, in some one thyng or other, accordyng to the Proverbe, by companiyng with the wise, a man shall learne wisedome.

To what purpose this arte is set furthe.

To this purpose and for this use, is the arte compiled together, by the learned and wise men, that those whiche are ignorant, might judge of the lerned, and labour (when tyme should require) to folow their workes accordyngly. Again, the arte helpeth well to dispose and order matters of our awne invencion, the whiche we may folowe, aswell in speakyng, as in writyng [Page a3v] for though many by nature without art, have proved worthie menne, yet is arte a surer guide, then nature, consideryng we se as lively by the art, what we do, as though we red a thyng in writtyng, wheras natures doynges are not so open to all men. Again, those that have good wittes, by nature, shall better encrease theim by arte, and the blunte also shalbe whetted through art, that want nature to help them forward.

Five thynges to be considered in an Oratour.

Anyone that will largely handle any matter, muste fasten his mynde, first of all upon these five especial poynctes that folowe, and learne theim every one.

i. Invencion of matter. ii. Disposicion of thesame. iii. Elocucion. iiii. Memorie. v. Utteraunce.

The findyng out of apte matter, called otherwise invencion, is a searchyng out of thynges true, or thynges likely, the whiche maie reasonably sette furth a matter, and make it appere probably. The places of Logique, geve good occasion to finde out plentifull matter. And therefore thei that will prove any cause and seke onely to teache thereby the truthe, muste searche out the places of Logique, and no doubte thei shall finde muche plentie. But what availeth muche treasure and apt matter, if man cannot apply it to his purpose. Therefore in the seconde place is mencioned, the settelyng or orderyng of thynges invented for this purpose, called in Latine, Dispositio, the whiche is nothyng els, but an apt bestowyng, and orderly placyng of thynges, declaryng where every argument shalbe sette, and in what maner every reason shalbe applied, for confirmacion of the purpose.

But yet what helpeth it though we can finde good reasons, and knowe howe to place theim, if we have not apte wordes, and picked sentences, to commende the whole matter. [Page a4r] Therefore this poynct must nedes folowe, to beautifie the cause, the whiche beyng called Elocucion, is an appliyng of apte wordes and sentences to the matter, founde out to confirme the cause. When all these are had together, it availeth litle, if manne have no Memorie to contein theim. The Memorie therefore must be cherished, the whiche is a fast holdyng, both of matter and woordes couched together, to confirme any cause.

Be it now that one have all these .iiii, yet if he want the fift, all the other dooe little profite. For though a manne can finde out good matter, and good woordes, though he canne handsomely set them together, and cary them very well awaie in his mynde, yet it is to no purpose, if he have no utteraunce, when he should speake his minde, and shewe men what he hath to saie. Utteraunce therefore is a framyng of the voyce, countenaunce, and gesture, after a comely maner.

Thus we se that every one of these must go together, to make a perfecte Oratoure, and that the lacke of one, is an hynderaunce of the whole, and that aswell all maie be wantyng, as one, if we loke to have an absolute Oratour.

There are .vii. partes in every Oracion.

i. The entrance or beginnyng. ii. The Narracion. iii. The Proposicion. iiii. The division or severall partyng of thynges. v. The Confirmacion. vi. The Confutacion. vii. The Conclusion.

The Enteraunce or beginnyng, is the former part of the Oracion, whereby the will of the standers by, or of the Judge is sought for, and required to heare the matter.

The Narracion, is a plain and manifest poynctyng of the matter, and an evident settyng furthe of all thynges, that belong unto thesame, with a brief rehersall, grounded upon some reason. [Page a4v]

The Proposicion is a pithie sentence, comprehendyng in a smale roume, the some of the whole matter.

The division is an openyng of thynges, wherin we agree and rest upon, and wherein we sticke, and stande in traverse shewyng what we have to saie, in our awne behalfe.

The Confirmacion, is a declaracion of our awne reasons with assured and constaunt profes.

The Confutacion, is a dissolvyng or wipyng awaie, of all suche reasons as make against us.

The Conclusion is a clarkely gatheryng of the matter, spoken before, and a lappyng up of it altogether.

Now because in every one of these, greate hede ought to be had, and muche arte must be used, to content and like all parties: I purpose in the second boke to set furthe at large every one of these, that bothe we maie knowe in all partes, what to folowe, and what to eschewe. And first when tyme shalbe to talke of any matter, I would advise every man, to consider the nature of the cause self, that the rather he might frame his whole Oracion thereafter.

Every matter is conteined in one of these .iiii.

Either it is an honest thyng, whereof we speake, or els it is filthy and vile, or els betwixte bothe, and doubtfull what to bee called, or els it is some triflyng matter, that is of small weight.

That is called an honest matter, when either wee take in hande suche a cause, that all menne would maintein, or els gainsaie suche a cause, that no man can well like.

Then do we hold and defende a filthy matter, when either wee speake against our conscience in an evill matter, or els withstande an upright truthe.

The cause then is doubtfull, when the matter is half honest, and halfe unhonest.

Suche are triflying causes, when there is no weight in them, as if one should phantasy, to praise a Gose, before any other beast livyng (as I knowe who did) or of fruict to commende nuttes chefly, as Ovid did, or the fever quartaine, as Phavorinus did, or the Gnatte, as Virgill did, or the battaill of Frogges as Homere did, or dispraise beardes, or commende [Page b1r] shaven heddes.

Good hede to bee taken at the firste, upon the handelyng of any matter in Judgement.

Not onely it is necessarie to knowe, what maner of cause wee have taken in hande, when wee firste enter upon any matter, but also it is wisedome to consider the tyme, the place, the man for whome we speake, the man against whom we speake, the matter whereof we speake, and the judges before whom we speake, the reasons that best serve to further our cause, and those reasons also, that maie seme somewhat to hynder our cause, and in no wise to use any suche at all, or els warely to mitigate by protestacion, the evill that is in theim, and alwaies to use whatsoever can bee saied, to wynne the chief hearers good willes, and perswade theim to our purpose. If the cause go by favour, and that reason cannot so muche availe, as good wil shalbe able to do: or els if movyng affeccions can do more good, then bryngyng in of good reasons, it is meete alwaies to use that waie, whereby we maie by good helpe, get the over hand. That if mine adversaries reasons, by me beyng confuted, serve better to help forward my cause, then mine awn reasons confirmed, can be able to doe good: I should wholy bestowe my tyme, and travaill to weaken and make slender, all that ever he bringeth with hym. But if I can with more ease, prove myne awne saiynges, either with witnesses, or with wordes, then be able to confute his with reason, I must labour to withdrawe mennes myndes, from myne adversaries foundacion, and require them wholy to herken unto that whiche I have to saie, beyng of it self so just and so reasonable, that none can rightly speake against it, and shewe theim that greate pitie it were, for lacke of the onely hearyng, that a true matter, should want true dealyng. Over and besides all these, there remain twoo lessons, the whiche wisemenne have alwaies observed, and therefore ought of all men, assuredly to be learned. The one is, that if any matter be laied against us, whiche by reason can hardely bee avoyded, or the whiche is so open, that none almoste can deny, it were wisedome in confutyng all the other reasons, to passe over this [Page b1v] one, as though we sawe it not, and therefore speake never a worde of it. Or els if necessitie shall force a man to saie some what, he may make an outward bragge, as though there wer no matter in it, ever so speakyng of it, as though he would stande to the triall, makyng men to beleve, he would fight in the cause, when better it were (if necessitie so required) to run clene awaie. And herein though a man do flie and geve place, evermore the gladder, the lesse ravyng there is or stirryng in this matter: yet he flieth wisely, and for this ende, that beyng sensed otherwise, and strongly appoyncted, he maie take his adversary at the best advauntage, or at the least, werie hym with much lingeryng, and make hym with oft suche fliyng, to forsake his chief defence.

The other lesson is, that whereas we purpose alwaies to have the victorie, wee should so speake, that we maie labour rather not to hynder, or hurt our cause, then to seke meanes to further it. And yet I speake not this, but that bothe these are right necessarie, and every one that will doo good, muste take peines in theim bothe, but yet notwithstandyng, it is a fouler faulte a greate deale, for an Orator to be founde hurting his awne cause, then it should turne to his rebuke, if he had not furthered his whole entent. Therefore not onely is it wisedome, to speake so muche as is nedeful, but also it is good reason, to leave unspoken so muche as it nedelesse, the whiche although the wisest can do, and nede no teachyng, yet these common wittes offende muche nowe and then, in this behalfe. Some men beyng stirred, shall hurt more our cause then twentie other. Tauntyng wordes before some menne, will not be borne at all. Sharpe rebukyng of our adversary or frumpes geven before some persones: cannot be sufferd at all. Yea, sometymes a man must not speake all that he knoweth, for if he doo, he is like to finde small favour, although he have just cause to speake, and maie with reason declare his mynde at large. And albeit that witlesse folke, can soner rebuke that, whiche is fondly spoken, then redely praise that whiche is wisely kept close, yet the necessitie of the matter, must rather be marked, then the fonde judgement of the people estemed. What a sore saiyng were this? When a lawyer [Page b2r] should take in hande a matter, concernyng life and death, and another should aske how he hath sped, to hearetel that the lawyer, hath not onely cast awaie his client, but undoen hymself also, in speakyng thynges inconsideratly, as no doubt it often happeneth, that wise men, and those also that bee none evill men neither, maie unwares speake thynges, which afterward thei sore repent, and would cal backe again with losse of a greate somme. Now what a foly it is, not to remember the tyme and the men. Or who will speake that whiche he knoweth will not be liked, if he purpose to finde favour at their handes, before whom he speaketh, what man of reason will praise that before the Judges, (before whom he knoweth the determinacion of his cause resteth) whiche the Judges self cannot abide to heare spoken at all? Or doeth not he muche hinder his awne matter, that without al curtesie or preface made, will largely speake evil of those men, whom the hearers of his cause, tenderly doo favour? Or be it that there be some notable faulte in thyne adversary, with whiche the Judges also are infected, were it not foly for thee, to charge thyne adversary with thesame. Consideryng the Judges thereby maie thynke, thou speakest against theim also, and so thou maiest perhappes, lose their favour in sekyng suche defence, made without all discrecion. And in framing reasons, to confirme the purpose, if any be spoken plainly false, or els contrary to that, whiche was spoken before, dooeth it not muche hynder a good matter? Therefore in all causes, this good hede ought to bee had, that alwais we labour to do some good, in furtheryng of our cause, or if we cannot so do, at the least that we doo no harme at all.

There are three kyndes of causes, or Oracions, which serve for every matter.

Nothyng can be handled by this arte, but thesame is conteined, within one of these .iii. causes. Either the matter consisteth in praise, or dispraise of a thyng, or els in consultyng, whether the cause be profitable, or unprofitable, or lastly, whether the matter be right, or wrong. And yet this one thyng is to be learned [Page b2v] that in every one of these three causes, these three severall endes, maie every of them be conteined, in any one of them. And therfore he that shall have cause, to praise any one body, shall have juste cause to speake of justice, to entreate of profite, and joyntly to talke of one thyng with another. But because these three causes, are commonly and for the moste part, severally parted, I will speake of them, one after another, as thei are sette furthe by wise mennes judgementes, and particulerly declare their properties, all in order.

The Oracion demonstrative, standeth either in praise, or dispraise of some one man, or of some one thyng, or of some one deede doen.

The kynde Demonstrative, wherein chiefly it is occupied.

There are diverse thynges, whiche are praised, and dispraised, as menne, Contreis, Citees, Places, Beastes, Hilles, Rivers, Houses, Castles, dedes doen by worthy menne, and pollicies invented by greate warriers, but moste commonly men are praised, for diverse respectes, before any of the other thynges are taken in hande.

Nowe in praisyng a noble personage, and in settyng furthe at large his worthinesse, Quintilian geveth warnyng, to use this threfolded order. To observe thynges Before his life. In his life. After his death. Before a mannes life, are considered these places.

The Realme. The Shire. The Toune. The Parentes. The Ancestours.

In a mannes life, praise muste be parted threfolde. That is to saie, into the giftes of good thynges of the mynde, the body, and of fortune. Now the giftes of the body, and of fortune, are not praise worthy, [Page b3r] of their awne nature: but even as thei are used, either to, or fro, so thei are either praised, or dispraised. Giftes of the mynde, deserve the whole trumpe and sound commendacion above all other, wherein wee maie use the rehersall of vertues, as thei are in order, and beginnyng at his infancie, tell all his doynges, till his laste age.

The places whereof, are these. The birthe, and infancie. Whether the person be a man, or a woman. The childhode. The bringyng up, the nurturyng, and the behavour of his life. The stripelyng age, or spryng tide. To what study he taketh hymself unto, what company he useth, how he liveth.

Whereunto are referenced these. The mannes state. Prowesses doen, either abrode, or at home. The olde age. His pollicies and wittie devises in behove of the publique wele. The tyme of his departure, or deth. Thynges that have happened aboute his death.

Now to open al these places more largely, aswell those that are before a mannes life, as suche as are in his life, and after his death, that the reader maie further se the profite, I will do the best I can.

The house whereof a noble personage came, declares the state and nature of his auncesters, his alliaunce, and his kynsfolke. So that suche worthy feactes, as thei have heretofore doen, and al suche honors as thei have had, for suche their good service, redowndes wholy to the encrease and [Page b3v] amplifiyng of his honour, that is now livyng.

The Realme, declares the nature of the people. So that some Countrey brengeth more honor with it, then another doth. To be a Frenche manne, descendyng there of a noble house, is more honor then to be an Irishe manne: to bee an Englishe manne borne, is muche more honour, then to be a Scotte, because that by these men, worthy prowesses have been dooen, and greater affaires by theim attempted, then have been doen by any other.

The Shire or Toune helpeth somewhat, towardes the encrease of honour: As it is muche better, to bee borne in Paris, then in Picardie, in London, then in Lincolne. For that bothe the aire is better, the people more civill, and the wealth muche greater, and the menne for the moste parte more wise.

To bee borne a manchilde, declares a courage, gravitie, and constancie. To be borne a woman, declares weakenes of spirite, neshenes of body, and sikilnesse of mynde.

Now for the bringing up of a noble personage, his nurse must be considered, his plaie felowes observed, his teacher and other his servauntes, called in remembraunce. Howe every one of these lived then, with whom thei have lived afterwardes, and how thei live now.

By knowyng what he taketh hymself unto, and wherin he moste deliteth, I maie commende hym for his learnyng, for his skill in the Frenche, or in the Italian, for his knowlege in Cosmographie: for his skill in the lawes, in the histories of all countreis, and for his gift of endityng. Again, I maie commende hym for plaiyng at weapons, for runnyng upon a greate horse, for chargyng his staffe at the Tilte, for vauntyng, for plaiyng upon instrumentes, yea, and for paintyng, or drawyng of a platte, as in old tyme noble princes, muche delited therein.

Prowesse doen, declare his service to the Kyng, and his countrey, either in withstandyng the outwarde enemie, or els in aswagyng the rage of his awne countreymen at home.

His wise counsaill, and good advise geven, settes furthe the goodnesse of his witte. [Page b4r] At the tyme of his departyng, his sufferaunce of all sicknesse, may muche commende his worthinesse. As his strong harte, and cherefull pacience even to the ende, cannot want greate praise. The love of all men towardes hym, and the lamentyng generally for his lacke, helpe well moste highly to set furthe his honour.

After a mannes death, are considered his tombe, his cote armour set up, and all suche honours, as are used in funeralles. If any one liste to put these preceptes in practise, he maie doo, as hym liketh best. And surely I do thynke, that nothyng so muche furthereth knowlege, as daiely exercise, and enuryng our selves to do that in dede, whiche we know in woorde. And because examples geve greate lighte, after these preceptes are set furthe, I will commende two noble gentlemen, Henry Duke of Suffolk, and his brother lorde Charles Duke with hym.

An example of commendyng a noble personage.

Better or more wisely can none do, then thei which never bestowe praise, but upon those that best deserve praise, rather myndyng discretely, what thei ought to dooe, then vainly devisyng what thei best can doo, sekyng rather to praise menne, suche as are founde worthy, then curiously findyng meanes to praise matters, such as never wer in any. For thei which speake otherwise then truthe is, mynd not the commendacion of the persone, but the settyng furthe of their awne learnyng. As Gorgias in Plato, praisyng unrighteousnes, Heliogabalus Oratours, commendyng whoredome, Phavorinus the Philosophier, extollyng the fever Quantaine, thought not to speake as the cause required, but would so muche saie as their wit would geve, not weighyng the state of the cause, but myndyng the vaunte of their brain, lookyng how muche could be said, not passyng how litle should be saied. But I bothe knowyng the might of Gods hand, for suche as love fables, and the shame that in yearth redoundeth to evil reporters, will not commende that or those, whiche neede no good praise, but will commende them, that no man justly can dispraise, nor yet any one is well able worthely to [Page b4v] praise. Their towardnes was suche, and their giftes so great, that I know none whiche love learnyng, but hath sorowed the lacke of their beeyng, and I knowe that the onely namyng of theim, will stirre honest hartes, to speake well of them. I will speake of twoo brethren, that lately departed, the one Henry Duke of Suffolke, and the other Lorde Charles his brother, whom God thinkyng meter for heaven, then to live here upon yearth, toke from us in his anger, for the betteryng of our doynges, and amendement of our evill livyng. These twoo gentlemen were borne in noble England, bothe by father and mother, of an high parentage. The father called Duke Charles, by mariage beyng brother, to the worthy kyng of famous memorie, Henry theight, was in suche favour, and did suche service, that all Englande at this houre, doeth finde his lacke, and Fraunce yet doth fele, that suche a duke there was, whom in his life tyme, the godly, loved: the evil, feared: the wise men, honored for his wit, and the simple, used alwaies for their counsaill. Their mother, of birthe noble, and witte great, of nature gentle, and mercifull to the poore, and to the godly, and especially to the learned, an earnest good patronesse, and moste helpyng Lady above all other. In their youthe their father died, the eldest of them beyng not past .ix. yeres of age. After whose death, their mother knowyng, that welth with out wit, is like a sworde in a naked mannes hand, and assuredly certain, that knowlege would confirme judgement, provided so for their bringyng up, in al vertue and learnyng, that .ii. like were not to be had, within this realme again. When thei began bothe, to waxe somewhat in yeres, beyng in their primetide, and spryng of their age, thelder waityng of the kynges majestie that now is, was generally well estemed, and suche hope was conceived of his towardnes, both for learnyng, and al other thinges, that fewe wer like unto hym in al the courte. The other kepyng his boke, emong the Cambrige men, profited (as thei all well knowe) bothe in vertue and learnyng, to their great admiracion. For the Greke, the Latine, and the Italian, I knowe he could dooe more, then would be thought true by my report. I leave to speke [Page c1r] of his skill in pleasaunt instrumentes, neither will I utter his aptnes in Musike, and his toward nature, to all exercises of the body. But his elder brother in this tyme (besides his other giftes of the mynde, whiche passed all other, and were almost incredible) folowyng his fathers nature was so delited with ridyng, and runnyng in armour upon horsebacke, and was so comely for that feacte, and could do so well in chargyng his staffe, beyng but .xiiii. yeres of age, that menne of warre, even at this houre, mone muche the want of suche a worthy gentleman. Yea, the Frenche men that first wondered at this learnyng, when he was there emong theim, and made a notable Oracion in Latine: were muche more astonied when thei saw his comely ridyng, and litle thought to finde these twoo ornamentes, joyned bothe in one, his yeres especially beyng so tender, and his practise of so small tyme. Afterward commyng from the courte, as one that was desierous to be emong the learned, he laie in Cambrige together with his brother, where thei bothe so profited, and so gently used theimselfes, that all Cambrige did reverence, bothe hym and his brother, as two jewelles sent from God. Thelders nature was suche, that he thought hymself best, when he was emong the wisest, and yet contempned none, but thankefully used all, gentle in behavor without childishenes, stoute of stomacke without al pride, bold with all warenesse, and frendly with good advisement. The yonger beeyng not so ripe in yeres, was not so grave in looke, rather chereful, then sad: rather quicke, then auncient: but yet if his brother were sette a side, not one that went beyonde hym. A childe that by his awne inclinacion, so muche yelded to his ruler, as fewe by chastement have doen the like, pleasaunt of speeche, prompte of witte, stiryng by nature, hault without hate, kynde without crafte, liberall of harte, gentle in behaviour, forward in all thynges, gredy of learnyng, and lothe to take a foyle, in any open assembly. Thei bothe in all attemptes, sought to have the victory, and in exercise of witte, not onely the one with the other, did ofte stande in contencion, but also thei bothe would matche with the best, and thought themselfes moste [Page c1v] happie, when thei might have any just occasion, to put their wittes in triall. And now when this grene fruicte began to waxe ripe, and all menne longed to have tast, of suche their greate forwardnesse: God preventyng mannes expectacion, toke theim bothe aboute one houre, and in so shorte tyme, that first thei wer knowen to be dedde, or any abrode could tell thei were sicke. I neede not to reherse, what bothe thei spake, before their departure (consideryng, I have severally written, bothe in Latine and in Englishe, of thesame matter) neither will I heape here so muche together as I can, because I should rather renewe greate sorowe to many, then do moste men any great good, who loved them so well generally, that fewe for a greate space after, spake of these twoo gentle menne, but thei shewed teares, with the onely utteraunce of their wordes, and some through over muche sorowyng, wer fain to forbeare speakyng. God graunt us al so to live, that the good men of this world, may be alwaies lothe to forsake us, and God maie still be glad to have us, as no doubt these twoo children so died, as all men should wishe to live, and so thei lived bothe, as al should wishe to die. Seyng therfore these two wer suche, bothe for birthe, nature, and all other giftes of grace, that the like are hardely founde behynde theim: let us so speake of theim, that our good report maie warne us, to folowe their godly natures, and that lastly, wee maie enjoye that enheritaunce, whereunto God hath prepared them and us (that feare him) from the beginnyng. Amen.

The partes of an Oracion, made in praise of a manne. The Enteraunce. The Narracion. Sometymes the confutacion. The Conclusion.

If any one shall have just cause, to dispraise an evill man, he shall sone do it, if he can praise a good man. For (as Aristotle doeth saie) of contraries, there is one and thesame doctrine, and therefore he that can do the one, shall sone be able to do the other. [Page c2r]

Of an Oracion demonstrative, for some deede doen.

The kynd demonstrative of some thyng doen is this, when a man is commended or dispraised, for any acte committed in his life.

The places to confirm this cause, when any one is commended, are sixe in nomber.

The places of Confirmacion. i. It is honest. ii. It is possible. iii. Easie to be doen, iiii. hard to be doen. v. Possible to be doen, vi. Impossible to be doen.

Seven circumstaunces, whiche are to bee considered in diverse matters.

The circumstaunces. i. Who did the deede. ii. What was doen. iii. Where it was doen. iiii. What helpe had he to it. v. Wherefore he did it. vi. How he did it. vii. At what tyme he did it.

The circumstaunces in meter.

Who, what, and where, by what helpe, and by whose:
Why, how, and when, do many thynges disclose.

These places helpe wonderfully, to set out any matter, and to amplifie it to the uttermoste, not onely in praisyng, or dispraisyng, but also in all other causes where any advisement is to bee used. Yet this one thyng is to bee learned, that it shall not bee necessarie, to use theim altogether, even as thei stande in order: but rather as tyme and place shall best require, thei maie bee used in any parte of the Oracion, even as it shall please hym that hath the usyng of them.

Again, if any manne bee disposed, to rebuke any offence, he maie use the places contrary unto theim that are above rehersed, and apply these circumstaunces even as thei are, to [Page c2v] the profe of his purpose.

An example of commendyng Kyng David, for killyng greate Goliah, gathered and made by observacion of circumstances.

God beyng the aucthor of mankynd, powryng into hym the breath of life, and framyng hym of claie in suche a comely wise, as we al now se, hath from the beginnyng, been so carefull over his electe and chosen, that in al daungers, he is ever redy to assist his people, kepyng theim harmelesse, when thei were often paste all mannes hope. And emong all other his fatherly goodness, it pleased hym to shewe his power, in his chosen servaunt David, that all might learne to knowe his mighte, and reken with themselfes, that though man geve the stroke, yet God it is that geveth the overhande. For wheras David was of small stature, weake of body, poore of birthe, and base in the sight of the worldlynges, God called hym firste to matche with an houge monster, a litle body, against a mightie Gyaunt, an abjecte Israelite, against a moste valiaunt Philistine, with whom no Israelite durst encounter. These Philistines mynded the murder and overthrowe, of all the Israelites, trustyng in their awne strength so muche, that thei feared no perill, but made an accompte, that all was theirs before hande. Now when bothe these armies were in sight, the Philistines upon an hill of the one side, and the Israelites upon an hill, of the other side, a vale beyng betwixte theim bothe, there marched out of the Campe, a base borne Philistine, called Goliah of Geth, a manne of size cubites high. This souldiour, when through the bignes and stature of his body, and also with greate bragges, and terrible threatenynges, he had wonderfully abashed the whole armie of the Israelites, so that no man durst adventure upon hym, God to the end he mighte deliver Israell, and shewe that mannes helpe, with all his armour, litle availe to get victory, without his especiall grace: and again, to the ende he might set up David, and make hym honourable emong the Israelites, did then call out David, the sonne of Ephrateus, of Betheleem Juda, whose name was Isai, who beeyng [Page c3r] but a child in yeres, did kill out of hande, by Goddes might and power, Goliah the moste terrible enemie of all other, that bare hate against the children of Israell. When this mightie felowe was slain, aboute the vale of Terebinthus, betwixt both tharmies, the Israelites rejoysed, that before quaked, and wondered at hym then, who thei would scant knowe before, and no doubt this dede was not onely wonderfull, but also right godly. For in battaill to kill an enemie, is thoughte right worthy, or to adventure upon a rebell, (though the successe folowe not) is generally commended: yea, to put one to the worse, or to make hym flie the ground, is called manly, but what shall we saie of David, that not onely had the better hande, not onely bette his enemie, but killed streight his enemie, yea, and not an enemy, of the common stature of men, but a mightie Gyaunt, not a man, but a monster, yea, a devill in hart, and a beaste in body? Can any be compted more honest, then suche as seke to save their countrey, by hasardyng their carcasses, and shedyng of their bloude? Can love shewe it self greater, then by yeldyng of life, for the health of an armie? It had been muche, if half a dosen had dispatched, suche a terrible Gyaunte, but now, when David without helpe, beyng not yet a manne, but a boy in yeres, slewe hym hande to hande, what juste praise dooeth he deserve? If we praise other, that have slain evill men, and compte them haulte, that have killed their matches, what shall we saie of David, that beyng wonderfully overmatched, made his partie good, and gotte the gole of a monster? Lette other praise Hercules, that thinke best of hym: let Cesar, Alexander, and Hanniball, bee bruted for warriers: David in my judgement, bothe did more manly, then all the other wer able, and served his countrey in greater daunger, then ever any one of theim did. And shall wee not call suche a noble capitain, a good man of warre? Deserveth not his manhode and stoute attempte, wonderfull praise? If vertue could speake, would she not sone confesse that David had her in full possession? And therfore if well doynges, by right maie chalenge worthy brute, David wil be knowen, and never can want due praise, for suche an honest [Page c3v] deede. And what man wil not saie, but that David did mynde nothyng els herein, but the saufegarde of his countrey, thinkyng it better for himself to die, and his countrey to live, then hymself to live, and his coutnrey to die. What gain got David, by the death of Goliah, or what could he helpe, by the death of suche a monster, but onely that the love whiche he bare to the Israelites, forced hym to hasard his awne life: Thinkyng that if the Philistines should prevail the Israelites wer like to perishe, every mothers sonne of theim? Therefore he hassardyng this attempte, considered with hymself, the saufegard of the Israelites, the mainteinaunce of justice, his duetie towardes God, his obedience to his prince, and his love to his countrey. And no doubte, God made this enterprise appere full easie, before David could have the harte, to matche hymself with suche a one. For though his harte might quake, beeyng voyde of Gods helpe, yet assuredly he wanted no stomacke, when God did set hym on. Let tirauntes rage, let hell stand open, let Sathan shewe his mighte, if God bee with us, who can bee against us? Though this Goliah appered so strong, that .x. Davides were not able, to stande in his hande: yet .x. Goliaths were all over weake for David alone. Man cannot judge, neither can reason comprehende, the mightie power of God. When Pharao with all his armie, thoughte fully to destroye the children of Israell, in the redde sea, did not God preserve Moses, and destroye Pharao? What is man and all his power that he can make, in the handes of God, unto whom all creatures, bothe in heaven and in yearth, are subjecte at his commaundement? Therefore it was no mastery for David, beyng assisted with God, aswel to matche with the whole army, as to overthrowe this one man. But what did the Israelites, when thei sawe David take upon hym, suche a bolde enterprise? Some saied he was rashe, other mocked hym to scorne, and his brethren called hym foole. For thought thei, what a madde felowe is he, beeyng but a lad in yeres, to matche with suche a monster in body? How can it be possible otherwise, but that he shalbe torne in peces, even at his firste commyng? For if the Philistine maie [Page c4r] ones hit hym, he is goen though he had tenne mennes lifes. Now what should he meane, so unegally to matche himself except he were, wery of his life, of els were not well in his wittes? Yea, and to geve his enemies, all the advauntage that could bee, he came unarmed, and whereas the Philistine, had very strong armour, bothe to defende hymself, and a strong weapon to fight withall, David came with a slyng onely, as though he would kill crowes, whereat, not only the Philistine laughed, and disdained his folie, but also bothe the armies thought he was but a dedde man, before he gave one stroke. And in deede, by all reason and devise of manne there was none other waie, but deathe with hym, out of hande. David notwithstandyng, beeyng kyndeled in harte with Gods might, was strong enough for him, in his awne opinion, and forced nothyng, though all othere were muche against hym. And therefore made no more a dooe, but beyng redy to revenge in Goddes name, suche greate blasphemie, as the Philistine then did utter, marched towardes his enemie, and with castyng a stone out of a slyng, he overthrewe the Philistine at the first. The whiche when he had dooen, out with his sworde, and chopt of his hedde, cariyng it with his armoure, to the Campe of the Israelites: whereat the Philistines wer greatly astonied, and the Israelites much praised God, that had geven suche grace, to suche a one, to compasse suche a deede. And the rather this manly acte, is highly to be praised, because he subdued this houge enemie, when Saul firste reigned kyng over Israell, and was sore assaied with the greate armie of the Philistines. Lette us therefore that be now livyng, when this acte or suche like, come into our myndes: remember what God is, of how infinite power he is, and let us praise God in them, by whom he hath wrought such wonders, to the strengthenyng of our faithe, and constaunt kepyng of our profession, made to hym, by every one of us, in Baptisme.

Examinyng of the circumstaunces.

i. Who did the deede?

David beeyng an Israelite, did this deede, beeyng the sonne of Isai, of the Tribe of Juda, a boye in yeres. [Page c4v] This circumstaunce was used, not onely in the narracion, but also when I spake of the honestie and godlinesse, whiche David used, when he slewe Goliah.

ii. What was doen?

He slewe Goliah, the strongest Giaunt emong his Philistines. This circumstaunce I used also, when I spake of the honestie, in killyng Goliah.

iii. Where was it doen?

Aboute the vale of Terebinthus.

What helpe had he to it?

He had no help of any man, but went himself alone. And wheras Saul offred him harnes, he cast it away, and trusting onely in God, toke him to his sling, with .iiii. or .v. smal stones in his hand, the whiche wer thought nothyng in mannes sight, able either to do litle good, or els nothing at al. This circumstaunce I used, when I spake of the easenesse and possibilitie, that was in David, to kill Goliah, by Goddes help.

Wherefore did he it?

He adventured his life, for the love of his countrey, for the maintenaunce of justice, for thadvauncement of Gods true glory, and for the quietness of all Israell, neither seekyng fame, nor yet lokyng for any gain. I used this circumstaunce, when I shewed what profite he sought, in adventuryng this deede.

vi. How did he it?

Marie he put a stone in his slyng, and when he had cast it at the Philistine, Goliah fel doune straight. I used this circumstaunce, when I spake of the impossibilitie of the thing.

vii. What tyme did he it?

This deede was doen, when Saul reigned, first kyng over the Israelites, at what tyme the Philistines, came against the Israelites. Thus by the circumstaunces of thynges, a right worthy cause, maie be plentifully enlarged.

Of the Oracion demonstrative, where thynges are sette furthe, and matters commended.

The kynde demonstrative of thynges, is a meane wherby we do praise, or dispraise thynges, as vertue, vice, tounes, citees, castles, woddes, waters, hilles, and mountaines. [Page d14]

Places to confirme thynges are .iiii.

Places of confirmacion. i. Thynges honest. ii. Profitable. iii. Easy to be doen. iv. Hard to be doen.

Many learned, will have recourse to the places of Logique in stede of these .iiii. places, when they take in hand to commende any suche matter. The whiche places if they make them serve rather to commende the matter, the onely to teache men the truth of it, it were wel done and Oratourlike, for seying a man wholly bestoweth his wit to plaie the Oratour, he shoulde chefely seke to compasse that whiche he entendeth, and not do that onely which he but half mynded. For by plaine teachyng, the Logician shewes hymselfe, by large amplification and beautifying of his cause, the Rhetorician is alwaies knowne.

The places of Logique are these.

Definition. Causes. Partes. Effectes. Thynges adjoynyng. Contraries.

I do not se otherwise but that these places of Logique are confounded with thother .iiii. of confirmacion, or rather I thinke these of Logique must first be mynded ere thother can well be had. For what is he that can cal a thyng honest and by reason prove it, except he first knowe what the thyng is, the whiche he can not better doe, then by definyng the nature of the thyng. Againe how shal I know whether myne attempte be easie, or hard, if I know not the efficient cause, or be assured how it maie be doen. In affirmyng it to be possible, I shall not better knowe it, then [Page D1v]

An Example in commendacion of Justice or true dealyng.

So many as loke to live in peaceable quietnesse, beyng mynded rather to folowe reason, than to be led by wilfull affection: desire justice in al thynges without the which no countrie is able long to continue. Then may I be bolde to commende that, whiche all men wishe and fewe can have, whiche all men love, and none can want: not doubtyng but as I am occupied in a good thyng, so al good men wil heare me with a good wil. But woulde God I were so wel able to perswade all men to Justice, as al men know the necessarie use therof: and then undoubtedly I woulde be muche boulder, and force some by violence, whiche by faire wordes can not be entreated. And yet what nedes any perswasion for that thyng, whiche by nature is so nedeful, and by experience so profitable, that looke what we want, without justice we get not, loke what we have, without justice we kepe not. God graunt his grace so to worke in the hartes of al men, that they may aswell practise well doyng in their owne lyfe, as they would that other should folowe justice in their lyfe: I for my part wil bestow some labor to set forthe the goodness of upright dealing that al other men the rather may do therafter. That if through my wordes, God shal worke with any man, than may I thynke my self in happy case, and rejoyce much in the travaile of my wit. And how can it be otherwyse, but that al men shalbe forced inwardly to allowe that, whiche in outwarde acte many do not folowe: seying God poured first this law of nature into mans hart, and graunted it as a meane wherby we might know his will, and (as I might saie) talke with him, groundyng stil his doinges upon this poinct, that man should do as he would be done unto, the whiche is nothyng elles, but to lyve uprightly, without any wil to hurte his neighbour. And therfore havyng this light of Goddes wil opened unto us thorowe his mere goodnesse, we ought evermore to referre al our actions unto this ende, both in geving judgement, and devysing lawes necessarie for mans lyfe. And here upon it is that when men desire the lawe for trail of a matter, they [Page D2r] meane nothyng elles but to have justice, the whiche justice is a vertue that yeldeth to every man, his owne: to the ever living God, love above al thynges: to the Kyng, obedience: to the inferiour, good counsel: to the poore man, mercie: to the hateful and wicked, sufferaunce: to it self, truthe: and to al men, perfite peace, and charitie. Now what can be more said in praise of this vertue, or what thyng can be like praised? Are not al thynges in good case, when al men have their owne? And what other thyng doeth justice, but seketh meanes to contente al parties? Then how greatly are they to be praised, that meane truely in al their doynges, and not onely, do no harme to any, but seke meanes to helpe al. The sunne is not so wonderful to the world (saith Aristotel) as the just dealyng of a governour is merveilous to al men. No the yerth yeldeth not more gaine to al creatures, than doth the justice of a Magistrate to his whole Realme. For, by a lawe, we live, and take the fruites of the yearth, but where no law is, nor justice used: there, nothyng can be had, though al thynges be at hande: For, in having the thyng, we shall lacke the use, and living in great plentie, we shal stande in great nede. The meane therfore that maketh men to enjoye their owne, is justice, the whiche beyng ones taken away, all other thynges are lost with it, neither can any one save that he hath, nor yet get that he wanteth. Therfore if wrong doyng shoulde be borne withal, and not rather punished by death, what man coulde ! presse this [Page D2v] rage, and with holsome devises to traine men in an order, God hath lightened man with knowledge, that in al thynges he may se what is right, and what is wrong, and upon good advisement deale justly with al men. God hath created al thynges for mans use, and ordeined man for mannes sake, that one man might helpe another. For thoughe some one have giftes more plentfully then the commune sorte, yet no man can live alone without helpe of other. Therfore, we shoulde strive one to helpe another by juste dealyng, some this way, and some that way, as every one shal have nede, and as we shalbe alwaies best able, wherein the lawe of nature is fulfilled, and Goddes commaundement folowed. We love them here in yearth that geve us faire wordes, and we can be content to speake wel of them, that speake wel of us: and shall we not love them, and take ! made us to his owne likeness, endewyng us with al the riches of the yearth, that we might be obedient to his wil, and shal we neither love him, nor like his? How can we say that we love God, if there be no charitie in us? Do I love hym, whose mynde I w [Page D3r] of the Lorde is upon the heade of the juste. Heaven is theirs (saith David) that do justly from tyme to tyme. What els then shal we do that have any hope of the general resurrection, but do the will of God, and lyve justly all the daies of our life? Let every man, but consider with hymself what ease he shal finde therby, and I doubt not but every one depely waiyng the same, wil in hart confesse that justice maketh plentie, and that not one man coulde long hold his owne, if lawes were not made to restraine mans will. We travaile now, Wynter and Sommer, we watche, and take thought for maintenaunce of wife and children, assuredly purposyng (that though God shal take us immedately) to leave honestly for our familie. Now to what ende were all our gatheryng together, if just dealyng were set a side, if lawes bare no rule, if what the wicked list, that they may, and what they may, that they can, and what they can, that they dare, and what they dare, the same they do, and whatsoever they do, no man of power is agreved therwith? What maketh wicked men (which els woulde not) acknowlege the Kyng as their sovereigne lorde, but the power of a lawe, and the practise of justice for evil doers? Could a Prynce maintaine his state royal, if law and right had not provided that every man shoulde have his owne? Would servauntes obey their masters, the sonne his father, the tenaunt his landlorde, the citezen his maiour, or Shirife: if orders were not set and just dealyng appoincted for al states of men? Therfore the true meanyng folke in all ages geve them selves some to this occupacion, and some to that, sekyng therin nothing els, but to mainteine a poore life, and to kepe them selves true men both to God and the worlde. What maketh men to performe their bargaines, to stand to their promises, and yelde their debtes, but an order of a lawe grounded upon justice? Where right beareth rule, there craft is coumpted vice. The lyar is muche hated, where truthe is wel estemed. The wicked theves are hanged, where good men are regarded. None can holde up their heades, or dare showe their faces in a well ruled commune weale, that are not thought honest, or at the least have some honest way to lyve. The Egiptians therfore havyng a worthy and a wel governed [Page D3v] publike weale, provided that none shoulde lyve idlye, but that every one monethly should geve an accompte how he spente his tyme, and had his name regestrede in a Booke for the same purpose. But Lorde, if this lawe were used in England, how many would come behynde hande with their reckenynges at the audite daie. I feare me there doynges woulde be suche, that it would be long ere they gotte there quietus est. Therfore the wourse is our state, the lesse that this evil is loked unto. And suerly, if in other thynges we shoulde be as negligent, this Realme could not long stand. But thankes be to God, we hang theim a pace that offende a lawe, and therfore we put it to their choise, whether they wil be idle and so fal to stealyng, or no: they knowe their rewarde, go to it, when they will. But if therewithall some good order were taken for education of youthe, and settyng loiterers on worke (as thankes be to God the Citie is most Godly bent that way) all would soone be well without all doubt. The wyse and discrete persons in al ages sought all meanes possible to have an order in al thynges, and loved by justice to directe al their doynges, wherby appereth both an apt wil in suche men, and a natural stirryng by Godes power to make al men good. Therfore, if we doe not well, we must blame our selves, that lacke a wil, and do not cal to God for grace. For though it appere hard to do wel, because no man can get perfection without continuaunce: yet assuredly to an humble mynde that calleth to God, and to a willyng harte that faine would do his best, nothing can be hard. God hath set al thinges to sale for labour, and kepeth open shop, come who will. Therefore in all ages whereas we see the fewest good, we must wel thinke, the most did lacke good wil to aske, or seke for the same. Lorde, what love had that worthie Prince Seleucus to maintein justice, and to have good lawes kepte, of whome suche a wondrefull thyng is written. For whereas he established moste holsome lawes for savegarde of the Locrensians, and his owne sonne thereupon taken in adultrie, should lose bothe his iyes accordyng to the lawe then made, and yet notwithstandyng, the whole Citie thought to remitte the necessitie of his punishment for the [Page D4r] honour of his father, Seleucus woulde none of that in any wyse. Yet at last through importunitie beyng overcome, he caused first one of his owne iyes to be pluckte out, and next after, one of his sonnes iyes, leavyng onely the use of sight to hymself and his sonne. Thus through equitie of the lawe, he used the dew meane of chastisement, showyng hymself by a wonderful temperature both a merciful father, and a just lawe maker. Nowe happy are thei that thus observe a lawe, thinking losse of body, lesse hurt to the man, then sparyng of punishement, mete for the soule. For God wil not faile them that have suche a desire to folowe his wil, but for his promise sake, he will rewarde them for ever. And now, seeyng that justice naturally is geven to al men without the whiche we could not live, beyng warned also by God alwaies to doe uprightly, perceavyng againe the commodities that redounde unto us by livyng under a lawe, and the savegard wherin we stand having justice to assiste us: I truste that not onely all men will commende justice in worde, but also wil live justly in dede, the which that we may do, God graunt us of his grace, Amen.

An Oration deliberative.

An Oration deliberative is a meane, wherby we do perswade, or disswade, entreate, or rebuke, exhorte, or dehorte, commende, or comforte any man. In this kynd of Oration we doe not purpose wholly to praise any body, nor yet to determine any matter in controversie, but the whole compasse of this cause is, either to advise our neighbour to that thyng, whiche we thynke most nedeful for hym or els to cal him backe from that folie, which hindereth muche his estimacion. As for example, if I would counseil my frende to travaile byeond the Seas for knowlege of the tongues, and experience in forein countries: I might resorte to this kinde of Oration, and finde matter to confirme my cause plentifully. And the reasons which are commonly used to enlarge suche matters, are these that folowe.

The thyng is honest. Profitable. Pleasaunt. Saufe. Easie. Harde. [Page D4v] Lawful and meete. Praise worthie. Necessarie.

Now in speakyng of honestie, I may by devision of the vertues make a large walke. Againe loke what lawes, what customes, what worthie dedes, or saiynges have bene used heretofore, all these might serve wel for the confirmacion of this matter. Lastly where honestie is called in, to establish a cause: there is nature and God hym selfe present from whome commeth al goodnesse. In the seconde place where I spake of profite, this is to be learned, that under the same is comprehended the gettyng of gaine, and the eschewyng of harme. Againe, concernyng profite (which also beareth the name of goodnesse) it partely perteineth to the bodie, as beautie, strength, and healthe, partely to the mynde, as the encrease of witte, the gettyng of experience, and heaping together of much learnyng: and partely to fortune (as Philosophers take it) wherby bothe wealth, honor, and frendes are gotten. Thirdely in declaring it is plasaunt, I might heape together the varietie of pleasures, whiche comme by travaile, first the swetnesse of the tongue, the holsomnesse of the ayer in other countries, the goodly wittes of the jentlemen, the straunge and auncient buildynges, the wonderful monumentes, the great learned Clerckes in al faculties, with diverse other like, and almost infinite pleasures.

The easines of travaile may thus be perswaded, if we shew that freepassage is by wholsom lawes appointed, for al straungers, and waie fairers. And seyng this life is none other thyng but a travaile, and we as pilgrymes wander from place to place, much fondeness it were to thinke that hard, which nature hath made easie, yea and pleasaunt also. None are more healthful, none more lusty, none more mery, none more strong of body, then suche as have travailed countries. Mary unto them that had rather sleape al day, then wake one houre, chosyng for honest labour sleuthful ydlenesse: thinking this life to be none other thyng by a continual restyng place, unto suche [Page e1r] pardy, it shal seme painfull to abide any labour. To learne Logique, to learne the Lawe, to some it semeth so harde, that nothyng can enter into their heddes, and the reason is, that thei want a will, and an earnest mynde to do their endeavour. For unto a willyng harte, nothyng can bee harde, laie lode on suche a mannes backe, and his good harte maie soner make his backe to ake, then his good will, can graunt to yelde and refuse the weighte. And now where the sweete hath his sower joyned with hym, it shalbee wisedome to speake somewhat of it, to mitigate the sowernesse thereof, as muche as maie be possible.

That is lawfull and praise worthy, whiche lawes dooe graunt, good men do allowe, experience commendeth, and men in all ages have moste used.

A thyng is necessary twoo maner of waies. Firste, when either we must do some one thyng, or els do worse. As if one should threaten a woman, to kill her, if she would not lie with him, wherin appereth a forcible necessitie. As touchyng travaile we might saie, either a man must be ignoraunt, of many good thinges, and want greate experience, or els he must travaill. Now to be ignoraunt, is a greate shame, therefore to travaill is moste nedefull, if we will avoyde shame. The other kynde of necessitie is, when we perswade men to beare those crosses paciently, whiche God doeth sende us, consideryng will we, or nill we, nedes must we abide them.

To advise one, to study the lawes of Englande.

Again, when we se our frende, enclined to any kynde of learnyng, wee muste counsaill hym to take that waie still, and by reason perswade hym, that it wer the metest waie for hym, to dooe his countrey moste good. As if he geve his mynde, to the Lawes of the realme, and finde an aptnes thereunto, we maie advise hym, to continue in his good entent, and by reason perswade hym, that it were moste mete for him so to do. And first we might shew hym, that t grounded wholy upon naturall reason. Wherein we mighte take a large scope, if we would fully speake of all thynges, that are comprehended under honestie. [Page e1v] For he that will knowe what honestie is, must have an understandyng, of all the vertues together. And because the knowlege of theim is moste necessary, I will brifely set them furth. There are foure especial and chief vertues, under whom all other are comprehended.

Prudence, or wisedome. Justice. Manhode. Temperaunce.

Prudence or wisedome (for I will here take theim bothe for one) is a vertue that is occupied evermore, in searchyng out the truthe. Nowe wee all love knowlege, and have a desire to passe other therin, and thinke it shame to be ignoraunt: and by studiyng the lawe, the truth is gotten out, by knowyng the truth, wisedome is attained. Wherefore, in perswadyng one to studie the Lawe, you maie shewe hym that he shall get wisedome thereby. Under this vertue are comprehended.

Memorie. Understandyng. Foresight.

The memorie calleth to accompte those thynges, that wer doen heretofore, and by a former remembraunce, getteth an after witte, and learneth to avoyde deceipt.

Understandyng seeth thynges presently dooen, and perceiveth what is in them, waiyng and debatyng them, untill his mynde be fully contented.

Foresight, is a gatheryng by conjectures, what shall happen, and an evident perceivyng of thynges to come, before thei do come.


Justice is a vertue, gathered by long space, gevyng every one his awne, mindyng in all thynges, the common profite of our countrey, whereunto man is moste bounde, and oweth his full obedience.

Now, nature firste taught manne, to take this waie, and would every one so to do unto another, as he would be doen [Page e2r] unto hymself. For whereas Rain watereth all in like, the Sonne shineth indifferently over all, the fruict of the yerth encreaseth egually, God warneth us to bestowe our good wil after thesame sort, doyng as duetie byndeth us, and as necessitie shall best require. Yea, God graunteth his giftes diversly emong men, because he would man should knowe, and fele, that man is borne for man, and that one hath nede of another. And therefore, though nature hath not stirred some, yet through the experience that man hath, concernyng his commoditie: many have turned the lawe of nature, into an ordinary custome, and folowed thesame, as though thei were bounde to it by a Lawe. Afterwarde, the wisedome of Princes, and the feare of Goddes threate, whiche was uttered by his woorde, forced men by a lawe, bothe to allowe thinges confirmed by nature, and to beare with old custome or els thei should not onely suffer in the body, temporal punishement, but also lose their soules for ever. Nature is a righte, that phantasie hath not framed, but God hath graffed, and geven man power thereunto, wherof these are derived.

Religion and acknowlegyng of God. Naturall love to our children, and other. Thankfulnesse to all men. Stoutnesse bothe to withstande and revenge. Reverence to the superiour. Assured and constaunt truthe in thynges.

Religion is an humble worshippyng of God, acknowlegyng hym to be the creatour of creatures, and the onely gever of al good thynges.

Naturall love is an inward good will, that we beare to our parentes, wife, children, or any other that bee nighe of kynne unto us, stirred thereunto not onely by our fleshe, thinkyng that like as we wold love our selfes, so we shuld love theim but also by a likenesse of mynde: and therefore generally we love all, because all bee like unto us, but yet we love them moste, that bothe in body and mynd, be moste like unto us. And hereby it cometh that often we are liberal, and bestowe our goodes upon the nedy, remembryng that [Page e2v] thei are all one fleshe with us, and should not wante, when we have it, without our greate rebuke, and token of our moste unkynde dealyng.

Thankefulnesse is a requityng of love, for love, and wil, for will, shewyng to our frendes, the like goodnesse that we finde in them, yea, strivyng to passe theim in kyndenesse, losyng neither tyme nor tide, to do them good.

Stoutnes to withstand and revenge evil, is then used when either we are like to have harme, and do withstand it, or els when we have suffred evill for the truthsake, and therupon do revenge it, or rather punishe the evill, whiche is in the man.

Reverence, is an humblenesse in outward behavor, when we do our dutie to them, that are our betters, or unto suche as are called to serve the kyng, in some greate vocacion.

Assured and constant truthe is, when we doo beleve that those thynges, whiche are or have been, or hereafter aboute to be, cannot otherwise be, by any meanes possible.

That is right by custome, whiche long tyme hath confirmed, beyng partly grounded upon nature, and partly upon reason, as where we are taught by nature, to knowe the ever livyng God, and to worship him in spirite, we turnyng natures light, into blynde custome, without Goddes will, have used at lengthe to beleve, that he was really with us here in yearthe, and worshipped hym not in spirite, but in Copes, in Candlestickes, in Belles, in Tapers, and in Censers, in Crosses, in Banners, in shaven Crounes and long gounes, and many good morowes els, devised onely by the phantasie of manne, without the expresse will of God. The whiche childishe toyes, tyme hath so long confirmed, that the truthe is scant able to trie theim out, our hartes bee so harde, and our wittes be so farre to seke.

Again wher we se by nature, that every one should deale truely, custome encreaseth natures will, and maketh by auncient demeane, thynges to bee justly observed, whiche nature hath appoyncted.

As Bargainyng. Commons, or equalitee. Judgement geven. [Page e3r]

Bargainyng is, when twoo have agreed, for the sale of some one thyng, the one will make his felowe to stande to the bargain, though it be to his neighbors undoyng, restyng upon this poyncte, that a bargain is a bargain, and must stand without all excepcion, although nature requireth to have thynges dooen by conscience, and would that bargainyng should bee builded upon Justice, whereby an upright dealyng, and a charitable love is uttered emongest all men.

Communes or equalitee, is when the people by long time have a ground, or any suche thyng emong theim, the whiche some of them will kepe still, for custome sake, and not suffer it to be sensed, and so turned to pasture, though thei mighte gain ten tymes the value: but suche stubburnesse in kepyng of Commons for custome sake, is not standyng with Justice, because it is holden against all right.

Judgement geven, is when a matter is confirmed by a Parlement, or a Lawe, determined by a Judge, unto the whiche many had strong men, wil stande to dye for it, without sufferaunce of any alteracion, not remembryng the circumstaunce of thynges, and that tyme altereth good actes.

That is righte by a Lawe, when the truthe is uttered in writyng, and commaunded to bee kepte, even as it is sette furthe unto them.

Fortitude or manhode.

Fortitude is a considerate hassardyng upon daunger, and a willyng harte to take paines in behalfe of the right. Now when can stoutnes be better used, then in just maintenaunce of the lawe, and constaunt triyng of the truthe? Of this vertue there are four braunches.

Honourablenesse. Stoutenesse. Sufferaunce. Continuaunce.

Honorablenesse, is a noble orderyng of weightie matters, with a lustie harte, and a liberall using of his wealthe, to the encrease of honour. [Page e3v] Stoutnesse is an assured trust in hymself, when he myndeth the compasse of moste weightie matters, and a couragious defendyng of his cause.

Sufferaunce is a willyng and a long bearyng of trouble and takyng of paines, for the mainteinaunce of vertue, and the wealthe of his countrey.

Continuaunce is a stedfast and constant abidyng, in a purposed and well advised matter, not yeldyng to manne in querell of the right.


Temperaunce is a measuryng of affeccions, accordyng to the will of reason, and a subduyng of luste unto the Square of honestie. Yea, and what one thyng doth soner mitigate the immoderate passions of our nature, then the perfect knowlege of right and wrong and the juste execucion appoyncted by a lawe, for asswagyng the wilfull? Of this vertue there are three partes.

Sobrietie. Jentlenesse. Modestie.

Sobrietie is a bridelyng by discrecion the wilfulnesse of desire.

Jentlenesse is a caulmyng of heate, when wee begin to rage, and a lowly behavior in all our body.

Modestie is an honest shamefastnesse, whereby we kepe a constant loke, and appere sober in all our outward doynges. Now even as we should desire the use of all these vertues, so should we eschewe not onely the contraries herunto, but also avoyde all suche evilles, as by any meanes dooe withdrawe us from well doyng.

It is profitable.

After we have perswaded our frend, that the lawe is honest, drawyng our argumentes from the heape of vertues, we must go further with hym, and bryng hym in good beleve, that it is very gainfull. For many one seke not the knowlege of learnyng for the goodnesse sake, but rather take paines for the gain, which thei se doth arise by it. Take awaie the hope of lucre, and you shall se fewe take any paines: [Page e4r] No, not in the vineyard of the lorde. For although none should folowe any trade of life, for the gain sake, but even as he seeth it is moste necessary, for thadvauncement of Gods glory, and not passe in what estimacion thinges are had in this worlde: yet because we are all so weake of wit, in our tender yeres, that we cannot weigh with our selfes what is best, and our body so neshe, that it loketh ever to bee cherished, wee take that, whiche is moste gainfull for us, and forsake that altogether, whiche we oughte moste to folowe. So that for lacke of honest meanes, and for want of good order, the best waie is not used, neither is Goddes honor in our first yeres remembred. I had rather (saide one) make my child a cobler then a preacher, a tankerd bearer, then a scholer. For what shall my sonne seke for learnyng, when he shall never gette therby any livyng? Set my sonne to that, whereby he maie get somewhat? Do ye not se how every one catcheth and pulleth from the churche what thei can? I feare me one day thei will plucke doune churche and all. Call you this the Gospell, when men seke onely to provide for their belies, and care not a grote though their soules go to helle? A patrone of a benefice will have a poore yngrame soule, to beare the name of a persone for .xx. marke, or and the patrone hymself, wil take up for his snapshare, as good as an .c. marke. Thus God is robbed, learnyng decaied, England dishonored,and honestie not regarded. Thold Romaines not yet knowyng Christ, and yet beyng led by a reverent feare towardes God, make this lawe. Sacrum sacrove commendatum qui clepserit, rapseritue, parricida est. He that shall closely steale, or forcibly take awaie that thyng, whiche is holy, or geven to the holy place: is a murderer of his countrey. But what have I said? I have a greater matter in hand, then wherof I was aware, my penne hath run over farre, when my leasure serveth not, nor yet my witte is able to talke this case in suche wise, as it should bee, and as the largenesse therof requireth. Therefore to my lawyer again, whom I doubte not to perswade, but that he shall have the devill and all, if he learne a pase, and dooe as some have dooen before hym. Therefore I wil shewe howe largely this profite extendeth, that [Page e4v] I may have him the soner, to take this matter in hand. The lawe therefore not onely bryngeth muche gain with it, but also avaunceth men bothe to worshippe, renoume, and honour. All men shall seke his favour, for his learnyng sake: the best shall like his company, for his callyng: and his welth with his skill shalbe suche, that none shalbe able to woorke hym any wrong. Some consider profite, by these circumstaunces, folowyng.

To whom. When. Where. Wherefore.

Neither can I use a better order, then these circumstaunces minister unto me. To whom therefore is the Lawe profitable? Marie to them that bee best learned, that have redy wittes, and will take paines. When is the lawe profitable? Assuredly both now and evermore, but especially in this age, where all men go together by the eares for this matter, and that matter. Suche alteracion hath been heretofore, that hereafter nedes muste ensue muche altercacion. And where is all this a do? Even in litle Englande, or in Westminster hall, where never yet wanted busines, nor yet ever shall. Wherefore is the lawe profitable? Undoubtedly because no manne could hold his awne, if there were not an order to staie us, and a lawe to restrain us. And I praie you who getteth the money? The lawyers no doubt. And were not lande sometymes cheaper bought, then got by the triall of a lawe? Do not men commonly for trifles fall out? Some for loppyng of a tree, spendes al that ever thei have, another for a Gose, that graseth upon his ground, tries the lawe so hard, that he proves him self a Gander. Now when men bee so mad, is it not easie to gette money emong theim. Undoubtedly the lawyer never dieth a begger. And no marvaill. For an .C. begges for hym, and makes awaie all that thei have, to get that of hym, the whiche the oftener he bestoweth, the more still he getteth. So that he gaineth alwaies, aswell by encrease of lernyng as by storyng his purse with money, wheras the other get a [Page f1r] warme sonne often tymes, and a slappe wyth a foxe taile for al that ever thei have spent. And why woulde they? Tushe, if it were to do againe, thei would do it: therefore the lawyer can never want a livyng, til the yearth want men, and al be voyde.

The lawe easie to many, and harde to some.

I doubt not, but my lawyer is perswaded that the law is profitable: now must I beare him in hand that it is an easie matter to become a lawier, the whiche if I shalbe able to prove, I doubt not, but he will prove a good lawier, and that right shortly. The law is grounded upon reason. And what hardenesse is it for a man by reason to fynde out reason. That can not be straung unto him, the grounde wherof, is graffed in his brest. What, though the lawe be in a straunge tongue, the wordes may be gotte with out any paine, when the matter selfe is compast with ease. Tushe, a little lawe will make a greate showe, and therefore though it be muche to becomme excellent, yet it is easie, to get a taist. And surely for getting of money, a litle wil do as muche good oftentymes, as a greate deale. There is not a word in the law, but it is a grote in the lawiers purse. I have knowne diverse that by familiar talkyng, and moutyng together have comme to right good learning without any great booke skil, or muche beating of their braine by any close studie, or secrete musyng in their chamber. But where some say the lawe is very harde, and discourage young men from the studie therof, it is to be understande of suche as wil take no paines at al, nor yet mynde the knowlege therof. For what is not hard to man, when he wanteth wil to do his best. As good slepe, and saie it is harde: as wake, and take no paines.

The lawe. Godly. Juste. Necessarie. Pleasaunt.

What nedeth me to prove the lawe to be Godly, just, or necessarie, seeyng it is grounded upon Goddes [Page f1v] wil, and all lawes are made for the maintenaunce of justice. If we will not beleve that it is necessarie, let us have rebelles againe to disturbe the Realme. Our nature is so fonde that we knowe not the necessitie of a thyng, til wee fynde some lacke of the same. Bowes are not estemed as they have bene emong us Englishmen, but if we were ones well beaten by our enemies wee shoulde soone knowe the wante, and with feelyng the smarte lament muche our folie. Take awaie the lawe, and take awaie our lifes, for nothyng mainteineth our wealthe, our health, and the savegard of our bodies, but the lawe of a Realme, wherby the wicked are condempned, and the godly are defended.

An Epistle to perswade a young jentleman to Mariage, devised by Erasmus in the behalfe of his frende.

Albeit you are wyse enough of your selfe throughe that singulare wisedome of yours (most lovyng Cosyn) and litle nedes the advise of other, yet either for that olde fryndshippe whiche hath bene betwixt us, and continued with our age even from our cradles, or for suche your greate good turnes showed at all tymes towardes me, or elles for that faste kynred and alliaunce whiche is betwixt us: I thought my selfe thus muche to owe unto you if I woulde be suche a one in deede, as you ever have taken me, that is to saie a man bothe frendly and thankeful, to tell you freely (whatsoever I judged to apperteine either to the savegarde, or worshippe of you, or any of yours) and willyngly to warne you of the same. We are better seen oftentymes in other mens matters, than we are in our owne. I have felte often your advise in myne owne affaires, and I have founde it to be as fortunate unto me, as it was frendly. Nowe if you wil likewyse in your awne matters folowe my counsail, I truste it shal so come to passe that neither I shal repent me for that I have geven you counsail, nor yet you shal forthynke your self, that you have obeyed, and folowed myne advise. There was at supper with me the twelfe daie of Aprill when I laie in the [Page f2r] countrie, Antonius Baldus, a man (as you knowe) that most earnestly tendreth your welfare, and one that hath bene alwaies of great acquaintaunce and familiaritie with your sonne in lawe: A heavie feast we had, and ful of muche mournyng. He tolde me greatly to both our heavinesse, that your mother that moste godly woman, was departed this lyfe, and your sister beyng overcome with sorow and heavinesse, had made her selfe a Nunne, so that in you onely remaineth the hope of issue and maintenaunce of your stocke. Whereupon your frendes with one consent have offerde you in Mariage a jentlewoman of a good house, and muche wealthe, fayre of bodie, very well brought up, and suche a one as loveth you with all her harte. But you (either for your late sorowes whiche you have in freshe remembraunce or elles for Religion sake) have so purposed to lyve a syngle lyfe, that neither can you for love of your stocke, neither for desier of issue, nor yet for any entreatie that your frendes can make, either by prayeng, or by wepyng: be brought to chaunge your mynde.

And yet notwithstandyng all this (if you wil folowe my counsaill) you shalbe of an other mynde, and leavyng to lyve syngle whiche bothe is barren, and smally agreeyng with the state of mannes nature, you shall geve your selfe wholy to moste holy wedlocke. And for this parte I will neither wishe that the love of your fryndes, (whiche elles ought to overcome your nature) nor yet myne aucthoritie that I have over you, shoulde doe me any good at all to compasse this my requeste, if I shall not prove unto you by moste plaine reasons, that it will be bothe muche more honest, more profitable, and also more pleasaunt for you, to marie, than to lyve otherwyse. Yea, what will you saie, if I prove it also to be necessarie for you at this tyme to Marie. And firste of all, if honestie maie move you in this matter (the whiche emong all good men ought to bee of much weighte,) what is more honest then Matrimonie, the which CHRISTE hym selfe did make honest, when not onely he, vouchesaufed to bee at a Mariage with his Mother, but also did consecrate the Mariage [Page f2v] feaste with the first miracle that ever he did upon yearthe? What is more holie then Matrimonie whiche the creatour of all thynges did institute, did fasten, and make holie, and nature it selfe did establishe? What is more praise worthie than that thyng, the whiche whosoever shall dispraise, is condempned streight for an Heretique? Matrimonie is even as honourable, as the name of an heretique, is thought shamefull. What is more right, or meete, than to geve that unto the posteritie, the whiche we have received of our auncesters? What is more inconsiderate than under the desire of holinesse to escew that as unholie, which God hym selfe the fountaine and father of al holinesse, woulde have to be counted as moste holie? What is more unmanly than that man shoulde go against the lawes of mankynde? What is more unthankfull than to deny that unto youngelynges, the whiche (if thou haddest not receyved of thine elders) thou couldest not have bene the man livyng, able to have denied it unto theim. That if you woulde knowe who was the first founder of Mariage, you shal understande that it came up not by Licurgus, nor yet by Moses, nor yet by Solon, but it was first ordeined, and instituted by the chief founder of all thynges, commended by the same, made honourable and made holie by thesame. For at the firste when he made man of the yearthe, he did perceyve that his lyfe shoulde be miserable and unsaverie, excepte he joyned Eve as mate unto hym. Whereupon he did not make the wyfe upon the same claie wherof he made man, but he made her of Adams ribbes, to the ende we might plainely understande that nothyng ought to be more deare unto us then our wyfe, nothyng more nigh unto us, nothyng surer joyned, and (as a man woulde saie) faster glewed together. The selfe same GOD after the generall floude, beyng reconciled to mankynde is saied to proclaime this lawe firste of all, not that men shoulde lyve single, but that they shoulde encrease, be multiplied, and fill the yearth. But howe I praie you could this thyng be, savyng by mariage and lawful comyng together? And first least we should allege here either the libertie of Moyses lawe, or els the necessitie of that tyme? What [Page F3r] other meanyng els hath that commune and commendable reporte of Christe in the Gospell, for this cause (saieth he) shall man leave father and mother and cleave to his wyfe. And what is more holie than the reverence and love due unto parentes? And yet the truthe promised in Matrimonie is preferred before it. And by whose meanes? Mary by GOD hym self. At what time? Forsouth not onely emong the Jues, but also emong the Christians. Men forsake father and mother and takes themselfes wholie to their wyfes. The sonne beyng past one and twentie yeres, is free and at his libertie. Yea the sonne beyng abdicated, becommeth no sonne. But it is death onely that parteth maried folke, if yet death doe part them. Now if the other Sacramentes (whereunto the Churche of Christe chiefely leaneth) bee reverently used, who doeth not see that this Sacramente shoulde have the most reverence of al, the whiche was instituted of GOD, and that firste and before all other. As for the other they were instituted upon yearth, this was ordeined in Paradise: the other were geven for a remedie, this was appoincted for the felowshippe of felicitie: the other were applied to mannes nature after the fall, this onely was geven when man was in most perfite state. If we counte those lawes good that mortall men have enacted, shall not the lawe of Matrimonie be moste holie, whiche wee have receyved of him, by whome we have received lyfe, the whiche lawe was then together enacted when man was first created? And lastly to strengthen this lawe with an example and deede doen, Christe beyng an young man (as the Storie reporteth) was called to a Mariage, and came thither willyngly with his mother, and noe onely was he there present, but also he did honest the feaste with a wonderfull mervaile begynnyng first in none other place to worke his wounders, and to doe his miracles. Why then I praie you (will one saie) howe happeneth it that Christ forbare Mariage? As though good Seir there are not many thynges in Christe at the whiche we ought rather to mervaile, than seeke to folowe. He was borne and had no father, he came into this worlde without his mothers painefull travaile, he came out of the grave [Page f3v] when it was closed up, what is not in hym above nature? Let these thynges be propre unto hym. Let us that lyve within the boundes of nature, reverence those thynges that are above nature, and folowe suche thynges as are within our reache suche as we are able to compasse. But yet (you saie) he woulde bee borne of a Virgine: Of a Virgine (I graunt) but yet of a maried Virgine. A Virgyne beyng a mother did moste become GOD, and beyng maried she did showe what was beste for us to doe. Virginitie did become her, who beyng undefiled, brought hym forthe by heavenly inspiration that was undefiled. And yet Joseph beyng her housbande dothe commende unto us the lawe of chaiste wedlocke. Yea, howe coulde he better sette out the societie in wedlocke, than that willyng to declare the secrete societie of his divine nature with the bodie and soule of man, whiche is wonderfull even to the heavenly Aungelles, and to showe his unspeakable and ever abidyng love towarde his Churc Churche. If there had bene under heaven any holier yoke, if there had bene any more religiouse covenaunt than is Matrimonie, without doubte the example thereof had bene used. But what lyke thyng doe you reade in all Scripture of the syngle lyfe? The Apostle S. Paul in the thirteen Chapi. of his Epistle to the Hebrues calleth Matrimonie honourable emong all men, and a bedde undefiled, and yet the syngle lyfe is not so muche as ones named in the same place. Nay they are not borne withall that lyve syngle, except they make some recompence with doyng some greater thyng. For elles, if a man folowyng the lawe of nature, doe labour to gette children, he is ever to be preferred before hym that lyveth still unmaried, for none other ende, but because he woulde bee out of trouble, and lyve more free. Wee doe reade that suche as are in very deede chaiste of their body, and lyve a Virgines lyfe, have bene praised, but the single lyfe was never praised of it selfe. Nowe againe the lawe of Moses accurseth the barrenesse [Page f4r] of maried folke, and wee doe reade that some were excommunicated for the same purpose, and banished from the aultar. And wherefore I praie you? Marie Sir because that they like unprofitable persones, and livyng onely to theim selves, did not encrease the worlde with any issue. In Deuteronomie it was the chiefest token of Goddes blessynges unto the Israelites that none shoulde be barren emong them, neither man, nor yet woman. And Lya is thought to bee out of Goddes favour, because she coulde not bryng furth children. Yea, and in the Psalme of David an hundreth twentie and eight, it is counted one of the chiefest partes of blesse to bee a frutefull woman. Thy wife (sayeth the Psalme) shalbe plentifull lyke a vine, and thy children lyke the braunches of Olyves, rounde about thy Table. Then if the lawe do condempne, and utterly dissalowe barren Matrimonie, it hath alwaies muche more condempned the syngle lyfe of Bacchelaures. Yf the fault of nature hath not escaped blame, the willof man can never wante rebuke. Yf they are accused that woulde have children, and can gette none, what deserve they whiche never travaile to escape barreinesse?

The Hebrues had suche a reverence to maried folke, that he whiche had maried a wyfe, the same yeare shoulde not be forced to go on warrefaire. A Citie is lyke to fall in ruine, excepte there be watchemen to defende it with armour. But assured destruction muste here needes folowe excepte men throughe the benefite of Mariage supplie issue, the whiche through mortalitie doe from tyme to tyme decaie.

Over and besides this the Romaines did laie a penaltie upon their backe that lived a syngle lyfe, yea they would not suffer them to beare any office in the commune weale. But thei that had encreased the world with issue, had a reward by commune assent, as men that had deserved well of their countrie. The olde foren lawes did appoincte penalties for suche as lived syngle, the whiche although they were qualified by Constantius the Emperour in the favor of Christes religion, yet these lawes do declare howe litle it is for the commune [Page f4v] weales advauncement, that either a Citie should be lessened for love of sole life, or els that the countrie shoulde be filled ful of bastardes. And besides this, the Emperour Augustus being a sore punisher of evil behaviour, examined a souldior because he did not marie his wife accordyng to the lawes, the whiche souldiour had hardely escaped judgement, if he had not gotte .iii. children by her. And in this point doe the lawes of al Emperours seeme favourable to maried folke, that they abrogate suche vowes as were proclaimed to be kept and brought in by Miscella, and woulde that after the penaltie were remitted, suche covenauntes, beyng made against al right and conscience, shoulde also be taken of none effect, and as voide in the lawe. Over and besides this, Ulpianus doth declare that the matter of Dowries was evermore and in al places the chiefest above alother, the whiche should never have bene so, excepte there came to the commune weale some especial profite by mariage. Mariage hath ever bene reverenced, but frutefulnesse of body hath bene muche more. For so sone as one gotte the name of a father, there discended not onely unto him enheirtaunce of lande, but al bequestes, and gooddes of suche his frendes as dyed intestate. The whiche thyng appereth plaine by the Satyre Poete.

Through me thou are made, an heire to have lande,
Thou hast al bequestes one with another,
All goodes and cattel are come to thy hande
Yea gooddes intestate, thou shalt have suer.

Now he that had .iii. children, was more favoured, for he was exempted from al outward ambassages. Again he that had fyve children was discharged and free from all personal office, as to have the governaunce, or patronage of younge jentlemen, the whiche in those daies was a great charge and ful of paines without any profit at al. He that had .xiii. children was free by the Emperour Julianus law, not onely from beyng a man at Armes, or Captaine over horsemen: but also from al other offices in the commune weale. And the wise founders of all lawes geve good reason why suche favour was shewed to maried folke. For what is more blesseful than to live ever? [Page G1r] Now where as nature hath denied this, Matrimony doth geve it by a certaine sleyght, so muche as maye be. Who dothe not desire to be bruted, and live through fame emong men hereafter? Now there is no buildinge of pillers, no erectinge of Arches, no blasinge of Armes, that dothe more sette forthe a mannes name, then doth the encrease of children. Albinus obteined his purpose of the Emperour Adrian, for none other desert of his, but that he had begote an housefull of children. And therefore the Emperoure (to the hinderaunce of his treasure) suffred the children to enter wholye upon their fathers possession, forasmuche as he knewe well that his realme was more strengthened with encrease of children, then with store of money. Againe, all other lawes are neither agreynge for all Countryes, nor yet used at all times. Licurgus made a lawe, that they whiche maried not, shoulde be kepte in Somer from the sighte of stage playes, and other wonderfull shewes, and in winter they shoulde go naked aboute the market place, and accursinge theim selves, they shoulde confesse openly that they hadde justlye deserved suche punishment, because they did not live accordinge to the lawes. And without any more a doe, will ye knowe how much our olde Auncesters heretofore estemed Matrimonie? Waye well, and consider the punishment for breaking of wedlocke. The Grekes heretofore thought it mete to punishe the breache of Matrimonie with battaile that continued ten yeres. Yea, moreover not onely by the Romaine lawe, but also by the Hebrues and straungers, aduouterous persons wer punished with death. If a thiefe payde .iiii. times the value of that whiche he toke awaye, he was delivered, but an aduouterers offence, was punished with the sworde. Emonge the Hebrues, the people stoned the aduouterers to death, with their owne handes, because they had broken that, without which the worlde could not continue. And yet they thought not this sore law sufficient inoughe, but graunted further to runne him thorowe withoute lawe, that wastaken in aduoutrye, as who should saye, they graunted that to the griefe of maried folke, the whiche they woulde hardlye graunte to hym [Page g1v] that stode in his owne defence for saufegarde of his life, as though he offended more haynously that toke a mans wife, then he did that toke away a mannes lyfe. Assuredly wedlocke muste neades seme to be a mooste holye thinge, consideringe that beinge once broken, it muste neades be purged with mannes bloude, the revenger wherof is not forced to abide either lawe or judge, the whiche libertie is not graunted anye to use upon him that hathe killed either his father or his mother. But what do we with these Lawes written? This is the lawe of Nature, not written in the Tables of Brasse, but firmelye prynted in oure myndes, the whiche Lawe, whosoever dothe not obeye, he is not worthye to be called a manne, muche lesse shall he be counted a Citezen. For if to live well (as the Stoikes wittelye do dispute) is to folowe the course of Nature, what thinge is so agreynge with Nature as Matrimonye? For there is nothinge so naturall not onelye unto mankinde, but also unto all other livinge creatures, as it is for everye one of theim to kepe their owne kinde from decaye, and throughe encrease of issue, to make the whole kinde immortall. The whiche thinge (all menne knowe) can never be dooen, withoute wedlocke and carnall copulation. It were a fowle thinge, that brute beastes shoulde fighte against Nature. Whose worcke if we woulde narowly loke upon, we shall perceyve that in all thinges here upon earthe, she woulde there shoulde be a certaine spice of mariage. I wil not speake nowe of Trees, wherin (as Plinie mooste certainelye writeth) there is found mariage with some manifeste difference of bothe kyndes, that excepte the housbande Tree do leane with his boughes even as thoughe he shoulde desire copulation upon the womenne Trees growynge rounde aboute him: they woulde elles altogether waxe barraine. The same Plinie also dothe report that certaine aucthoures do thincke there is bothe male and female in al thinges that the Earthe yeldeth. I will not speake of previous stones, wherein the same aucthoure affirmeth, and yet not he onely neither, that there is bothe [Page G2r] male and female emonge theim. And I praye you hath not GOD so knitte all thinges together with certaine lynckes, that one ever semeth to have neade of another? What saye you of the skye or firmamente, that is ever stirrynge with continuall movinge? Dothe it not playe the parte of a husbande, while it puffeth up the Earthe, the mother of all thinges, and maketh it fruitefull with castinge seede (as a manne woulde saye) upon it. But I thincke it over tedious to rune over all thinges. And to what ende are these thinges spoken? Marye sir, because we might understande that through Mariage, all thinges are, and do styll continue, and withoute the same all thinges do decaye, and come to noughte. The olde auncient and moste wise Poetes do feyne (who hadde ever a desire under the coloure of fables to set forthe preceptes of Philosophie) that the Giauntes whiche had snakes fete, and were borne of thearth, builded greate hilles that mounted up to heaven, minding thereby to be at utter defiaunce with God and all his aungelles. And what meaneth this fable? Marye it sheweth unto us, that certaine fierce and savage menne, suche as were unknowen, coulde not abide wedlocke for anye worldes good, and therefore they were stricken downe headelonge with lighteninge, that is to saye: they were utterlye destroyed, when they soughte to eschue that, whereby the weale and saulfegarde of all mankinde onelye doth consiste. Nowe againe, the same Poetes do declare that Orpheus the musitian and minstrell, did styrre and make softe with his pleasaunte melodye the mooste harde rockes and stones. And what is their meaninge herein? Assuredlye nothinge elles, but that a wise and well spoken manne, did call backe harde harted menne, suche as lived abroade like Beastes, from open whoredome, and brought them to lyve after the mooste holye lawes of Matrimonye. Thus we se plainelye, that suche a one as hathe no minde of Mariage, semeth to be no manne, but rather a Stone, an enemye to Nature, a rebel to God him selfe, seking through his owne folye, his last ende and destruction. [Page G2v] Well, let us go on still (sayenge we are fallen into fables that are not fables altogether) when the same Orpheus in the middes of Hell, forced Pluto him selfe and all the devilles there, to graunte him leave to carye awaye his wife Euridice, what other thinge do we thinke that the Poets meant, but only to set forthe unto us the love in wedlocke the whiche even amonge the Devilles was compted good and Godlye.

And this also makes wel for the purpose, that in olde time they made Jupiter Gamelius, the God of mariage, and Juno Lucina ladye midwife, to helpe suche women as laboured in child bedde, beynge fondlye deceived, and supersticiouslie erring in naming of the Gods, and yet not missinge the trueth, in declaring that Matrimonie is an holy thinge, and mete for the worthines therof, that the Goddes in heaven shoulde have care over it. Emonge divers countries, and divers manne, there have bene divers lawes and customes used. Yet was there never anye countrey so savage, none so farre from all humanitie, where the name of wedlocke was not counted holye, and hadde in great reverence. This the Thracian, this the Sarmate, this the Indian, this the Grecian, this the Latine, yea, this the Britain that dwelleth in the furtheste parte of all the worlde, or if there be anye that dwell beyonde them have ever counted to be moste holye. And why so? Marye because that thinge must neades be commune to all, whiche the commune mother unto all, hath graffed in us all, and hath so thorowlye graffed the same in us, that not onely stockedoves and Pigions, but also the most wilde beastes have a natural felinge of this thinge. For the Lyons are gentle against the Lionesse. The Tygers fight for safegard of their yong whelpes. The Asse runnes through the hote fyre (which is made to kepe her awaie) for safegarde of her issue. And this they call the lawe of Nature, the whiche as it is of most strengthe and force, so it spreadeth abroade most largely. Therfore as he is counted no good gardener, that being content with thinges present, doth diligently proyne his old trees, and hath no regard either to ympe or graffe yong settes: because [Page G3r] the selfe same Orcharde (thoughe it be never so well trimmed) muste nedes decaye in time, and all the trees dye within fewe yeres: So he is not to be counted halfe a diligent citizen, that beinge contente with the present multitude, hathe no regarde to encrease the number. Therefore there is no one man that ever hath bene counted a worthy Citezen, who hath not laboured to get children, and sought to bring them up in Godlines.

Emong the Hebrues and the Persians he was most commended, that had most wives, as thoughe the countrey were most beholding to him, that encreased the same with the greatest number of children. Do you seke to be compted more holie then Abraham him selfe? Well, he should never have bene compted the father of manye Nacions, and that through Gods furtheraunce, if he had forborne the companye of his wife. Do you loke then Jacob? He doubteth nothinge to raunsome Rachel from her greate bondage. Will you be taken for wiser then Salomon? And yet I praye you what a number of wives kept he in one house? Will you be compted more chaste then Socrates, who is reported to beare at home with Zantippe that verye shrewe, and yet not so muche therefore (as he is wonte to jeste accordinge to his olde maner) because he might learne pacience at home, but also because he mighte not seme to come behinde with his dutye in doyng the wil of nature. For he beynge a manne, suche a one (as Appollo judged him by his Oracle to be wise) did well perceyve that he was gote for this cause, borne for this cause, and therfore bounde to yelde so muche unto nature. For if the olde auncient Philosophers have saide wel, if our divines have proved the thinge not without reason, if it be used everye where for a commune proverbe, and almost in everye mans mouthe, that neither God nor yet Nature, did ever make any thinge in vayne: Why did he geve us such membres, how happeneth we have suche luste, and suche power to get issue, if the single lyfe and none other be altogether prayse worthye? If one shoulde bestowe upon you a verye good thinge, as a bowe, a coate, or a sworde, al men would [Page G3v] thincke you were not worthye to have the thinge, if either you coulde not, or you woulde not use it, and occupie it. And where as all other thinges are ordeyned upon suche greate considerations, it is not like that Nature slepte or forgate her selfe when she made this one thinge. And nowe here will some saye, that this fowle and filthye desire, and styrringe unto luste, came never in by Nature, but through Sinne: for whose wordes I passe not a strawe, seinge their saiynges are as false, as God is true. For I pray you was not Matrimonye instituted (whose worke can not be done withoute these membres) before there was anye Synne. And againe, whence have all other brute beastes their provocations? Of Nature, or of Sinne? A man woulde thinke they hadde theim of Nature. But shall I tell you at a worde, wee make that filthye by oure owne Imagination, whiche of the owne nature is good and Godlye. Or elles if we will examine matters, (not accordinge to the opinion of menne, but weye them as they are of their owne Nature) howe chaunceth it that we thincke it lesse filthye, to eate, to chewe, to digest, to emptye the bodye, and to slepe, then it is to use carnall copulation, such as it [Note: sic] lawfull, and permitted. Naye sir (you will saye,) we muste folowe vertue, rather then Nature. A gentle dishe. As thoughe anye thinge can be called vertue that is contrary unto Nature. Assuredly there is nothinge that can be perfectlye gote, either throughe laboure, or throughe learning, if man grounde not his doynges altogether upon Nature.

But you will live an Apostles life, suche as some of them did that lived single, and exhorted other to the same kinde of life. Tushe, let them folowe the Apostles that are Apostles in deede, whose office seynge it is bothe to teache and bringe up the people in Goddes doctrine, they are not able to discharge their dutyes bothe to their flocke, and to their wife and familye. Althoughe it is well knowen that some of the Apostles had wives. But beit that Bishoppes live single, or graunt we them to have no wives. What do you folowe the profession of the Apostles, beynge one that [Page G4r] is farthest in life from their Vocation, beinge bothe a temporall manne, and one that liveth of youre owne. They hadde this Pardon graunted them to be cleane voyde from Mariage, to the ende they mighte be at leasure to get unto Christe a more plentifull number of his children. Let this be the order of Priestes and Monkes, who belike have entred into the Religion and rule of the Essens, (suche as amonge the Jewes lothed Mariage) but youre callinge is an other waye. Naye, but (you will saye) Christe him selfe hath compted theim blessed, whiche have gelded theim selves for the Kingdome of GOD. Sir, I am contente to admitte the aucthoritie, but thus I expounde the meaning. Firste, I thincke that this doctrine of Christe did chieflye belonge unto that time, when it behoved theim chieflye to be voyde of all cares and busines of this Worlde. They were fayne to travayle into all places, for the persecutoures were ever readye to laye handes on theim. But nowe the worlde is so, that a manne can finde in no place the uprightnes of behavioure lesse stayned, then emonge maried folke. Let the swarmes of Monkes and Nunnes sette forthe their order never so muche, let theim boaste and bragge their bealies full, of their Ceremonies and church service, wherin they chieflye passe all other: yet is wedlocke (beynge well and trulye kepte) a mooste holye kinde of life. Againe, would to God they were gelded in very dede, whatsoever they be, that coloure their noughtye livinge wyth suche a jolye name of geldinge, living in muche more filthye luste under the cloke and pretence of chastitie. Neither can I reporte for verye shame, into howe filthye offences they do often fall, that will not use that remedye whiche Nature hath graunted unto manne. And last of all, where do you reade that ever Christe commaunded anye manne to live single, and yet he dothe openlye forbidde divorcement. Then he dothe not worste of all (in my Judgemente) for the commune weale of Mankinde, that graunteth libertye unto Priestes: yea, and Monkes also (if neede be) to mary, and to take them to their wives, namely seing there is suche [Page G4v] an unreasonable number everye where, emonge whom I praye you how many be there that live chaste. How muche better were it to turne their concubines into wyves, that where as they have them now to their greate shame wyth an unquiet conscience, they mighte have the other openlye with good report, and get children, and also bringe them up godlye, of whom they them selves not onelye mighte not be ashamed, but also might be counted honest men for them. And I thinke the bishoppes officers woulde have procured this matter long agoe, if they had not founde greater gaines by priestes lemmans, then they were like to have by priestes wives. But virginitie forsothe is an heavenlye thing, it is an Aungels life. I aunswer, wedlocke is a manly thinge, suche as in mete for man. And I ! that kepes him selfe true to his wife, and marieth rather for encrease of children, then to satisfy his luste. For if a brother be commaunded to stirre up sede to his brother that dieth without issue, will you suffer the hope of all youre stocke to de [Page h1r] that tyme sake, I would wishe nowe, that thei, whiche exhort yong folke every where, and without respect (suche as yet knowe not themselfes) to live a single life, and to professe virginitie: that thei would bestowe thesame labour, in settyng furth the descripcion of chast and pure wedlocke. And yet those bodies that are in suche great love with virginitie, are well contented that menne should fight against the Turkes, whiche in nomber are infinitely greater then wee are. And now if these menne thinke right in this behalfe, it must nedes be thought right good and godly, to labour earnestly for children gettyng, and to substitute youthe from tyme to tyme, for the maintenaunce of warre. Except paraventure thei thinke that Gunnes, Billes, Pikes, and navies, should be provided for battaill, and that men stand in no stede at all with them. Thei also allowe it well, that we should kill miscreaunt and Heathen parentes, that the rather their children not knowyng of it, might bee Baptized and made Christians. Nowe if this bee righte and lawfull, how muche more jentlenesse were it to have children Baptized, beyng borne in lawfull mariage. There is no nacion so savage, nor yet so hard harted, within the whole worlde, but thesame abhoreth murderyng of infauntes, and newe borne babes. Kynges also and hedde rulers, dooe likewise punishe moste streightly, all suche as seke meanes to be delivered before their tyme, or use Phisicke to waxe barren, and never to beare children. What is the reason? Marie thei compt small difference betwixt hym, that killeth the child, so sone as it beginneth to quicken: and thother, that seketh all meanes possible, never to have any child at all. The self same thyng that either withereth and drieth awaie in thy body, or els putrifieth within thee, and so hurteth greatly thy healthe, yea, that self same, whiche falleth from thee in thy slepe, would have been a manne, if thou they self haddest been a man. The Hebrues abhorre that man, and wishe him Goddes cursse, that (beyng commaunded to marie with the wife of his dedde brother) did cast his seede upon the ground least any issue should bee had, and he was ever thought unworthy to live here upon yerth, that would not suffer that [Page h1v] child to live, whiche was quicke in the mothers wombe. But I praie you how litle do thei swarve from this offence whiche bynd themselfes to live barren, all the daies of their life? Doo thei not seme to kill as many men, as were like to have been borne, if thei had bestowed their endevors to have got children? Now I praie you, if a man had lande that wer very fatte and fertile, and suffered thesame for lacke of maneryng, for ever to waxe barren, should he not, or wer he not worthy to be punished by the lawes, consideryng it is for the common weales behove, that every man should wel and truly husbande his awne. If that man be punished, who litle hedeth the maintenaunce of his Tillage, the whiche although it be never so wel manered, yet it yeldeth nothyng els but wheat, barley, beanes, and peason: what punishement is he worthy to suffer, that refuseth to Plough that lande, whiche beyng tilled, yeldeth children. And for ploughyng land, it is nothyng els, but painful toylyng from tyme to tyme, but in gettyng children, there is pleasure, whiche beyng ordeined, as a redy reward for paines takyng, asketh a short travaill for all the tillage. Therfore if the workyng of nature, if honestie, if vertue, if inwarde zeale, if Godlinesse, if duetie maie move you, why can you not abide that, whiche God hath ordeined, nature hath established, reason doeth counsaill, Gods worde and mannes worde do commende, all lawes do commaunde, the consent of all nacions doeth allowe, whereunto also the example of all good men, doth exhort you. That if every honest man should desire many thynges, that are moste painful for none other cause, bot onely for that thei are honeste, no doubt but matrimonie ought above all other, moste of all to be desired, as the whiche wee maie doubte, whether it have more honestie in it, or bryng more delite and pleasure with it. For what can bee more pleasaunt, then to live with her, with whom not onely you shalbe joyned, in felowship of faithfulnes, and moste hartie good will, but also you shalbe coupled together moste assuredly, with the company of bothe your bodies? If we compt that great pleasure, whiche we receive of the good will of our frendes and acquaintaunce, how pleasaunt a thyng is it above all other, to have one, with whom [Page h2r] you maie breake the botome of your harte, with whom ye maie talke as frely, as with your self, into whose truste, you maie saufly commite your self, suche a one as thinketh al your goodes to be her charge. Now what an heavenly blisse (trow you) is the companie of man and wife together, seyng that in all the worlde, there can nothyng be found, either of greater weight and worthinesse, or els of more strengthe and assuraunce. For with frendes, we joyne onely with them in good will, and faithfulnesse of mynde, but with a wife, we are matched together, bothe in harte and mynde, in body and soule, sealed together with the bonde and league of an holy Sacrament, and partyng all the goodes we have, indifferently betwixt us. Again when other are matched together in frendship, do we not see what dissemblyng thei use, what falshode thei practise, and what deceiptfull partes thei plaie? Yea, even those whom we thinke to be our most assured frendes, as swallowes flie awaie when sommer is past, so thei hide their heddess, when fortune gynnes to faile. And oft tymes when we get a newe frend, we streight forsake our old. We heare tell of very fewe, that have continued frendes, even till their last ende. Whereas the faithfulnesse of a wife, is not stained with deceipte, nor dusked with any dissemblyng, nor yet parted with any chaunge of the world but dissevered at last by death onely, no not by death neither. She forsakes and settes lighte by father and mother, sister and brother for your sake, and for your love onely. She only passeth upon you, she puttes her trust in you, and leaneth wholy upon you, yea, she desires to die with you. Have you any worldly substaunce? You have one that will maintain it, you have one that will encrease it. Have you none? You have a wife that will get it. If you live in prosperitee, your joye is doubled: if the worlde go not with you, you have a wife to put you in good comfort, to be at your commaundement, and redy to serve your desire, and to wishe that suche evill as hath happened unto you, might chaunce unto her self. And do you thinke that any pleasure in al the world, is able to be compared with suche a goodly felowship and familier livyng together? If you kepe home, your wife is at hand to kepe your company, the rather that you might fele no werines of living al alone, if you [Page h2v] ride furth, you have a wife to bid you fare well with a kisse, longyng muche for you, beyng from home, and glad to bidde you well come at your next returne. A swete mate in your youthe, a thankfull comforte in your age. Every societie or companiyng together, is delitefull and wished for by nature of all menne, forasmuche as nature hath ordeined us to be, sociable, frendly, and lovyng together. Now howe can this felowship of manne and wife, be otherwise then moste pleasant, where all thynges are common together betwixt them bothe. Now I thinke he is moste worthy, to bee despised above all other, that is borne, as a man would saie for hymself, that liveth to hymself, that seketh for himself, that spareth for himself, maketh cost onely upon himself, that loveth no man, and no man loveth hym. Would not a manne thinke that suche a monster, were mete to be caste out of all mennes companie (with Tymon that careth for no manne) into the middest of the sea. Neither do I here utter unto you those pleasures of the body, the which, wheras nature hath made to be moste pleasaunt unto man, yet these greate witted men, rather hide them, and dissemble them (I cannot tel how) then utterly contempne them. And yet what is he that is so sower of witte, and so drowpyng of braine (I will not saie) blockhedded, or insensate, that is not moved with suche pleasure, namely if he maie have his desire, without offence either of God or man, and without hynderaunce of his estimacion. Truely I would take suche a one, not to be a man, but rather to bee a very stone. Although this pleasure of the body, is the least parte of all those good thynges, that are in wedlocke. But bee it that you passe not upon this pleasure, and thinke it unworthy for man to use it, although in deede we deserve not the name of manne without it, but compte it emong the least and uttermoste profites, that wedlocke hath: Now I praie you, what can be more hartely desired, then chast love, what can bee more holy, what can bee more honest? And emong all these pleasures, you get unto you a joly sort of kinsfolke, in whom you maie take muche delite. You have other parentes, other brethren, sistrene, and nephewes. Nature in deede can geve you but one father, and one [Page h3r] mother: By mariage you get unto you another father, and another mother, who cannot chuse, but love you with all their hartes, as the whiche have put into your handes, their awne fleshe and bloud. Now again, what a joye shal this be unto you, when your moste faire wife, shall make you a father, in bringyng furthe a faire childe unto you, where you shall have a pretie litle boye, runnyng up and doune youre house, suche a one as shall expresse your looke, and your wives looke, such a one as shall call you dad, with his swete lispyng wordes. Now last of all, when you are thus lynked in love, thesame shalbee so fastened and bounde together, as though it wer with the Adamant stone, that death it self can never be able to unto it. Thrise happie are thei (quoth Horace) yea, more then thrise happie are thei, whom these sure bandes dooe holde, neither though thei are by evill reporters, full ofte sette a sonder, shall love be unlosed betwixt theim two, til death them bothe depart. You have them that shal comforte you, in your latter daies, that shall close up your iyes, when God shall call you, that shall bury you, and fulfill all thynges belongyng to your Funerall, by whom you shall seme, to bee newe borne. For so long as thei shall live, you shall nede never bee thought ded your self. The goodes and landes that you have gotte, go not to other heires, then to your awne. So that unto suche as have fulfilled all thynges, that belong unto mannes life, ! y long talke. Mariage is an happie thyng, if all thynges hap well, [Page h3v] what and if one have a curste wife? What if she be lighte? What if his children bee ungracious? Thus I see you will remember all suche men, as by mariage have been undoen. Well, go to it, tell as many as you can, and spare not: you shal finde all these were the faultes of the persones, and not the faultes of Mariage. For beleve me, none have evill wifes, but suche as are evill men. And as for you sir, you may chuse a good wife, if ye list. But what if she be croked, and marde altogether, for lacke of good orderyng. A good honest wife, maie be made an evill woman, by a naughtie husbande, and an evill wife, hath been made a good woman, by an honest man. We crie out of wifes untruly, and accuse them without cause. There is no man (if you wil beleve me) that ever had an evil wife, but through his awne default. Now again an honest father, bryngeth furthe honest children, like unto hymself. Although even these children, how so ever thei are borne, commonly become suche men, as their educacion and bringyng up is. And as for jealousy you shal not nede to feare that fault at all. For none be troubled with suche a disease, but those onely that are foolishe lovers. Chaste, godly, and lawfull love, never knew what jelousie ment. What meane you to call to your mynde, and remember suche sore tragedies and doulefull dealynges, as have been betwixt manne and wife. Suche a woman beyng naughte of her body, hath caused her husbande to lose his hedde, another hath poysoned her goodman, the third with her churlishe dealyng (whiche her husbande could not beare) hath been his outer undoyng, and brought hym to his ende. But I praie you sir, why doo you not rather thinke upon Cornelia, wife unto Tiberius Gracchus? Why do ye not mynde that most worthy wife, of that most unworthy man Alcestes? Why remembre ye not Julia Pompeyes wife, or Porcia Brutus wife? And why not Artemisia, a woman most worthie, ever to bee remembered? Why not Hipsicrates, wife unto Mithridates kyng of Pontus? Why do ye not call to remembraunce the jentle nature of Tertia Aemilia? Why doo ye not consider the faithfulnesse of Turia? Why cometh not Lucretia and Lentula to your remembraunce? And why not Arria? Why not [Page h4r] thousandes other, whose chastite of life, and faithfulnes towardes their husbandes could not bee chaunged, no not by death. A good woman (you will saie) is a rare birde, and harde to be founde in all the worlde. Well then sir, imagine your self worthy to have a rare wife, suche as fewe men have. A good woman (saith the wiseman) is a good porcion. Be you bold to hope for such a one, as is worthy your maners. The chifest poyncte standeth in this, what maner of woman you chuse, how you use her, and how you order your self towardes her. But libertee (you will saie) is muche more pleasaunt: for, who soever is maried, wereth fetters upon his legges, or rather carieth a clogge, the whiche he can never shake of, till death part their yoke. To this I answere, I can not see what pleasure a man shall have to live alone. For if libertie be delitefull, I would thinke you should get a mate unto you, with whom you should parte stakes, and make her privey of all your joyes. Neither can I see any thyng more free, then is the servitude of these twoo, where the one is so muche beholdyng and bounde to thother, that neither of them bothe wold be louse, though thei might. You are bound unto him, whom you receive into your frendship: But in mariage neither partie findeth fault, that their libertie is taken awaie from them. Yet ones again you are sore afraied, least when your children are taken awaie by death, you fal to mourning for want of issue. Well sir, if you feare lacke of issue, you must marie a wife for the self same purpose, the which onely shal be a meane, that you shall not want issue. But what do you serche so diligently, naie so carefully, al the incommodities of matrimonie, as though single life had never any incommoditie joyned with it at al. As though there wer any kinde of life in al the world, that is not subject to al evils that may happen. He must nedes go out of this world, that lokes to live without felyng of any grief. And in comparison of that life which the sainctes of god shal have in heaven, this life of man is to be compted a deth, and not a life. But if you consider thinges within the compasse of mankynde, there is nothyng either more saufe, more quiet, more plasaunt, more to be desired, or more happy, then is the maried mannes life. How many do you se, that having [Page h4v] ones felt the swetneses of wedlocke, doeth not desire eftsones to enter into thesame? My frende Mauricius, whom you knowe to be a very wise man, did not he, the nexte monethe after his wife died (whom he loved derely) get hym streight a newe wife? Not that he was impacient of his luste, and could not forbeare any longer, but he said plainly, it was no life for hym, to bee without a wife, whiche should bee with hym as his yoke felowe, and companion in all thynges. And is not this the fourthe wife, that our frende Jovius hath maried? And yet he so loved the other, when thei wer on live that none was able to comforte hym in his heavinesse: and now he hastened so muche (when one was ded) to fill up and supply the voyde roume of his chamber, as though he had loved the other very litle. But what do we talke so muche of the honestie and pleasure herein, seyng that not onely profite doeth advise us, but also nede doeth earnestly force us, to seke mariage. Let it bee forbidden, that man and woman shall not come together, and within fewe yeres, all mankynde must nedes decaye for ever. When Zerxes kyng of the Persians, behelde from an high place, that greate armie of his, suche as almoste was incredible, some said he could not forbeare wepyng, consideryng of so many thousandes, there was not one like to bee a live, within seventie yeres after. Now why should not we consider thesame of all mankynd, whiche he meant onely of his armie. Take awaie mariage, and howe many shall remain after a hundreth yeres, of so many realmes, contrees, kyngdomes, citees, and all other assemblies that be of men, throughout the whole world? On now, praise we a gods name the single life above the nocke, the whiche is like for ever to undoe all mankynde. What plague, what infeccion can either heaven or hell, sende more harmefull unto mankynd? What greater evill is to be feared by any floud? What could be loked for, more sorowfull, although the flame of Phaeton should set the world on fire again? And yet by suche sore tempestes, many thynges have been saved harmelesse, but by the single life of man, there can be nothyng left at all. We se what a sorte of diseases, what diversitee of missehappes do night and daie lye in waite to [Page i1r] lessen the smal number of mankynde. Howe many doeth the plague destroie, how many do the Seas swallowe, how many doeth battaile snatche up? For I will not speake of the daily dyeng that is in al places. Deathe taketh her flight every where rounde about, she runneth over theim, she catcheth theim up, she hasteneth asmuche as she can possible to destroie al mankynde, and now do we so highly commend syngle lyfe and eschewe Mariage? Except happely we like the profession of the Essens (of whome Josephus speaketh that they wil neither have wyfe, nor servauntes) or the Dulopolitans, called otherwyse the Rascalles and Slaves of Cities, the whiche companie of theim is alwaie encreased and continued by a sorte of vagabounde peasauntes that continue, and be from time to time stil together. Or doe we loke that some Juppiter shoulde geve us that same gifte, the whiche he is reported to have geven unto Bees that wee shoulde have issue without procreacion, and gather with our mouthes out of flowers, the seede of our posteritie? Or elles do we desier, that lyke as the Poetes feyne Minerva to be borne out of Juppiters head: in lyke sorte there should children leape out of our heades? Or last of al doe we looke accordyng as the olde fables have been, that men shoulde be borne out of the yerth, out of rockes, out of stockes, stones, and olde trees? Many thynges breede out of the yearth without mans labour at all. Young shrubbes growe and shoute up under the shadowe of their graundsyre trees. But nature woulde have man to use this one waie of encreasing issue, that through labour of bothe the housband and wyfe, mankynd might stil be kept from destruction. But I promise you if all men tooke after you, and still forbare to marie: I can not see but that these thynges whiche you wonder at, and esteme so muche, could not have been at al. Do you yet esteme this syngle lyfe so greatly? Doe you praise so muche virginitie above all other? Why man, there will be neither syngle men, nor virgines a lyve, if men leave to marie, and mynde not procreation, why do you then preferre virginitie so muche, why set it you so hye, if it be the undoyng of all the whole world? It hath been muche commended, but it was for that [Page i1v] tyme, and in a fewe. God woulde have men to see as though it were a paterne, or rather a picture of that heavenly habitacion, where neither any shalbe maried, nor yet any shall geve theirs to Mariage. But when thynges be geven for an example, a fewe may suffise, a nomber were to no purpose. For even as al groundes though they be very frutefull, are not therefore turned into tillage for mans use and commoditie but parte lyeth fallowe, and is neve mannered, parte is kepte and cherished to lyke the lye and for mans pleasure: and yet in al this plentie of thynges, where so great store of lande is, nature suffereth very litle to waxe barren: But nowe if none should be tilled, and plowe men went to plaie, who seeth not but that wee shoulde al sterve, and bee faine shortely to eate acornes: Even so, it is praise worthie if a fewe live syngle, but if al should seke to lyve syngle, so many as be in this worlde, it were to great an inconvenience. Now again be it that other deserve worthie praise that seke to live a virgines life, yet it must nedes be a great faulte in you. Other shalbe thought to seke a purenesse of lyfe, you shalbe coumpted a parricide, or a murtherer of your stocke: that whereas you may by honest mariage encrease your posteritie: you suffer it to decaie for ever, through your wilful single lyfe. A man may havyng a house ful of children, commende one to God to lyve a virgine al his lyfe. The plowe man offereth to God the tenthes of his owne, and not his whole croppe al together: But Sir, muste remember that there is none left alive of al your stocke, but your self alone. And nowe it mattereth nothyng whether you kill, or refuse to save that creature, which you onely might save and that with ease. But you wil folow the example of your sister, and lyve syngle as she doth. And yet me thynketh you shoulde chefely even for this selfe same cause, be afraied to lyve single. For whereas there was hope of issue heretofore in you bothe, nowe ye see there is no hope left but in you onely. Be it that your sister may be borne withal, because she is a woman, and because of her yeares, for she beyng but a girle and overcome with sorow for losse of her mother toke the wrong way, she cast her selfe doune headlong, and became [Page i2r] a Nunne at the earnest sute either of folishe women, or elles of doultishe Munkes: but you beyng muche elder, must evermore remember that you are a man. She woulde nedes dye together with her auncesters, you muste labour that your auncesters shal not dye at all. Your sister woulde not doe her dutie, but shranke away: thynke you nowe with your selfe that you have .ii. offices to discharge. The daughters of Lothe never stuck at the matter to have a doe with their dronken father, thinkyng it better with wicked whoredome and inceste to provide for their posteritie, than to suffer their stocke to die for ever. And wil not you with honest, Godly, and chaist Mariage (whiche shalbe without trouble and turne to your greate pleasure) have a regarde to your posteritie most like elles for ever to decaie? Therfore, let them on Goddes name folow the purpose of chaist Hippolitus, let them lyve a syngle life, that either can bee maried men, and yet can gette no children, or els suche, whose stocke may be continued by meanes of other their kynsfolke or at the least whose kyndred is suche that it were better for the commune weale, they were all deade, than that any of that name shoulde be a lyve, or elles suche men, as the everlivyng God of his moste especiall goodnes hath chosen out of the whole worlde to execute some heavenly office, wherof there is a marveilouse smal nomber. But where as you accordyng to the reporte of a Phisicion that neither is unlearned, nor yet is any lyar, are lyke to have many children hereafter, seeyng also you are a man of greate landes, and revenues by your auncesters, the house whereof you came, beyng bothe right honourable and right auncient, so that you coulde not suffer it to perishe without youre greate offence, and greate harme to the commune weale: againe seeyng you are of lustie yeares, and very comely for your personage, and many have a maide to your wyfe suche a one as none of your countrie hath knowen any to bee more absolute for all thynges, commyng of as noble a house as any of theim, a chaiste one, a sobre one, a Godlie one, an excellent fayre one, havyng with her a wonderfull Dowrie: seeyng also youre frendes desyre you, [Page i2v] your kynsfolke wepe to wynne you, your Cosyns and aliaunce are earnest in hande with you, your countrie calles and cries upon you: the asshes of your auncesters from their graves make harty sute unto you, do you yet holde backe, do you stil mynde to lyve a syngle lyfe? Yf a thyng were asked you that were not halfe honest, or the whiche you could not wel compasse, yet at the instaunce of your frendes, or for the love of your kynsfolke, you woulde be overcome, and yelde to their requestes: Then howe muche more reasonable were it that the wepyng teares of your frendes, the hartie good wil of your countrie, the deare love of your elders might wynne that thyng at your handes, unto the whiche bothe the lawe of God and man doth exhorte you, nature pricketh you forwarde, reason leadeth you, honestie allureth you, so many commodities cal you, and last of all, necessitie it selfe doeth constraine you. But here an ende of al reasonyng. For I trust you have now and a good while ago chaunged your mynde thorowe myne advise, and taken your selfe to better counsell.

Of Exhortation.

The places of exhortyng and dehortyng, are the same whiche wee use in perswadyng and dissuadyng, savyng that he whiche useth perswasion, seeketh by argumentes to compasse his devise: he that laboures to exhorte, doeth stirre affections.

Erasmus sheweth these to be the most especial places that do perteine unto exhortation.

Praise, or Commendacion. Expectation of al men. Hope of victorie. Hope of renowme. Feare of shame. Greatnesse of rewarde. Rehersall of examples, in all ages, and especially of thynges lately doen.

Praisyng is either of the man, or of some deede doen. We shall exhorte men to doe the thyng, if we showe [Page i3r] them that is a worthy attempte, a Godly enterprise, and suche as fewe men hetherto have adventured.

In praisyng a man, we shal exhorte hym to go forwarde, consideryng it agreeth with his wounted manhode, and that hetherto he hath not slacked to hasarde boldely upon the best and worthiest deedes, requiryng hym to make this ende aunswereable to his mooste worthie begynnynges, that he maye ende with honour, whiche hath so long continued in suche renowme. For it were a foule shame to lose honour through folie, whiche hath been gotte through virtue, and to appere more slacke in kepyng it, than he semed carefull at the first to atteine it.

Againe whose name is renowemed, his doynges from time to tyme wil be thought more wonderfull, and greater promises wil men make unto them selves of suche mens adventures in any commune affaires, than of others, whose vertues are not yet knowne. A notable master of fence is marveilouse to beholde, and men looke earnestly to see hym doe some wonder, howe muche more will they looke when they heare tel that a noble Captaine, and an adventurouse Prince shal take upon hym the defence, and savegarde of his countrie against the ragyng attemptes of his enemies? Therfore a noble man can not but go forwarde with most earnest wil, seyng al men have suche hope in hym, and count hym to bee their onely comforte, their fortresse, and defense. And the rather to encourage suche right worthie, we may put them in good hope to compasse their attempte, yf wee showe them that God is an assured guide unto all those, that in an honest quarell adventure them selves, and showe their manly stomake. Sathan hym selfe the greatest adversarie that man hath, yeldeth lyke a captive, when GOD dothe take our parte, muche sooner shal al other be subjecte unto hym, and crye Peccavi. For if God be with hym, what matereth who be against hym?

Nowe when victorie is got, what honour doeth ensewe? Here openeth a large fielde to speak of renowme, fame, and endles honour. In all ages the worthiest men have alwaies adventured their carcases for the savegarde of their countrie, [Page i3v] thynkyng it better to dye with honor, than to live with shame. Againe the ruine of our Realme shoulde put us to more shame, than the losse of our bodies should turne us to smarte. For our honestie beyng stained, the paine is endles, but our bodies beyng gored, either the wounde maie sone be healed, or elles our paine beyng sone ended, the glory endureth for ever.

Lastely he that helpeth the nedelesse, defendeth his poore neighbours, and in the favour of his countrie, bestoweth his lyfe: wil not God besides al these, place hym where he shall lyve for ever, especially seeyng he hath doen all these enterprises in faith and for Christes sake?

Nowe in al ages to recken suche as have bene right soverayne, and victoriouse, what name gotte the worthie Scipio that withstood the rage of Annibal? What Brute hath Cesar for his most worthie conquestes? What triumphe of glory doth sounde in al mennes eares upon the onely namyng of mightie Alexander, and his father Kyng Philippe? And now to come home, what head can expresse the renowmed Henry the fifte Kyng of Englande of that name after the conquest? What witte can sette out the wonderful wysedom of Henry the seventh, and his greate foresight to espie mischiefe like to ensewe, and his politique devises to escape daungers, to subdewe rebelles, and mainteyne peace?

Of movyng pitie, and stirryng men to shewe mercie.

Likewise we may exhorte men to take pitie of the fatherlesse, the widowe, and the oppressed innocent, if we set before their iyes the lamentable afflictions, the tyrannouse wronges, and the miserable calamities, whiche these poore wretches do susteine. For if fleshe and bloude move us to love our children, our wyfes, and our kynsfolke: muche more shoulde the spirite of God and Christes goodnes towardes men stirre us to love our neighbours moste entirely. These exhortacions the preachers of God may most aptely use, when they open his Gospell to [Page i4r] the people, and have just cause to speake of suche matters.

Of Commendyng.

In commendyng a man, wee use the reporte of his witte, honestie, faithfull service, painefull labour, and carefull nature to do his maisters will, or any suche lyke, as in the Epistles of Tullie there are examples infinite.

Of Comfortyng.

Now after al these, the weake would be comforted and the soroufull woulde bee cherished that there grief might bee aswaged, and the passions of man brought under the obedience of reason. The use hereof is great, aswell in private troubles, as in commune miseries. As in losse of gooddes, in lacke of frendes, in sicknes, in darthe, and in death. In all whiche losses, the wyse use so to comforte the weake, that they geve them not just cause even at the firste to refuse all comforte. And therefore they use two waies of chereshyng the troubled mindes. The one is when wee showe that in some cases and for some causes either they shoulde not lament at all, or elles bee sory very litle: the other is when we graunt that they have just cause to bee sadde, and therfore wee are sad also in their behalfe, and woulde remedie the matter, if it coulde be, and thus enteryng into felowshippe of sorowe, wee seeke by litle and litle to mitigate their grief. For all extreme heavinesse, and vehement sorowes, cannot abyde comforte, but rather seeke a mourner that woulde take parte with theim.

Therefore muche warenesse ought to be used, when wee happen upon suche excedyng sorowfull, leaste wee rather purchace hatred, than aswage grief.

Those harmes shoulde bee moderatly borne, whiche muste needes happen to every one, that have chaunced to any one. As deathe, whiche spareth none, neither Kyng, nor Cayser, neither poore, nor riche. Therefore to bee impacient for the losse of our frendes, is to fall [Page i4v] out with God, because he made us men, and not Aungelles. But the Godly (I truste) will alwaies remitte thorder of thynges to the wil of God, and force their passions to obey necessitie. When God lately visited this Realme with the sweatyng disease, and received the two worthie jentlemen Henry Duke of Suffolke, and his brother Lorde Charles: I seeyng my Ladies grace their mother takyng their deathe most greavouslie could not otherwise for the duetie whiche I then did, and ever shallowe unto her, but comforte her in that her heavinesse, the whiche undoubtedly at that tyme muche weakened her bodie. And because it may serve for an example of comforte, I have been boulde to set it forthe as it foloweth hereafter.

An example of comforte.

Though myne enterprise maie be thought folishe, and my doynges very slender in busiyng my braine to teache the expert, to gyve counsel to other when I lacke it my self, and wheras more neede were for me to be taught of other, to take upon me to teache my betters, yet dutie byndyng me to doe my beste, and emong a nomber though I can doe leaste, yet good will settyng me forthe with ! e his desire? Who lacketh men that lacketh no monie? But when God striketh the mightie with his strong hand, and displaceth those that [Page K1r] were hyghelye placed, what one manne dothe once looke backe for the better easemente of his deare Brother, and Godlye comfortynge his even Christian, in the chiefe of all his sorowe. All menne communelye more rejoyce in the Sunne risynge, then they doe in the Sunne settinge. The hope of Lucre and expectation of private gayne, maketh manye one to bear oute a countenaunce of favoure, whose herte is inwardelye fretted wyth deadlye rancoure. But suche Frendes, even as prosperitye dothe gette theim, so adversitye dothe trye theim. God is the searcher of every mannes thought, unto whose judgemente I referre the assuraunce of my good wyll.

And thoughe I can do little, and therfore deserve as little thancke, as I loke for prayse (whyche is none at all) yet will I endevoure earnestlye at all tymes, as well for mine owne discharge, to declare my duty, as at this present to say somewhat for the better easemente of your grace, in thys your heavines. The passions of the mynde have divers effectes, and therfore worke straungelye, accordynge to theyr properties. For like as joye comforteth the harte, nourisheth bloude, and quickeneth the whole bodye: so heavinesse and care hinder digestion, engender evyll humoures, waste the principall partes, and wyth time consume the whole bodye. For the better knowledge hereof, and for a livelye syght of the same, wee neade not to seeke farre for anye example, but even to come strayghte unto youre grace, whose bodye as I understande crediblye, and partelye see my selfe, is soore appayred within shorte tyme, your mynde so troubled, and youre harte so heavye, that you hate in a maner all lyght, you lyke not the sighte of anye thynge that myght be your comforte, but altogether stricken in a dumpe, you seke to be solitarye, detestinge all joye, and delitynge in sorowe, wishynge wyth harte (if it were Goddes will) to make youre last ende. In whyche youre heavinesse, as I desire to be a comfortoure of your grace, so I can not blame your naturall sorowe, if that nowe after declaration of the same, you woulde moderate all youre griefe hereafter, and call backe your pensifenes, to the prescripte order of reason. [Page K1v]

And firste, for the better remedye of everye disease, and troubled passion, it is beste to knowe the principall cause, and chiefe occasion of the same. Youre grace hadde two sonnes, howe noble, howe wittye, howe learned, and how Godlye, manye thousandes better knowe it, then anye one is able well to tell it. God at his pleasure hath taken them bothe to his mercy, and placed them with him, which were surelye over good to tarye here with us. They bothe died as your grace knoweth verye younge, whiche by course of Nature and by mannes estimation, mighte have lived muche longer. They bothe were together in one house, lodged in two severall chambers, and almoste at one time bothe sickened, and both departed. They died bothe dukes, bothe well learned, bothe wise, and bothe right Godlye. They bothe before gave straunge tokens of death to come. The elder sittinge at Supper, and verye merye, saide soudainlye to that ryghte honest Matrone, and Godly aged gentilwoman, that most faythful and longe assured servaunt of yours, whose life God graunte longe to continue: Oh Lorde, where shall we suppe to morowe at night, whereupon she beinge troubled, and yet saiynge comfortablye, I truste my llorde, either here, or elles where at some of your frendes houses: Naye (quod he) we shall never suppe together againe in this worlde, be you well assured, and with that seinge the gentilwoman discomforted, turned it unto mirthe, and passed the reste of his Supper with much joye, and the same night after .xii. of the clocke, beynge the .xiiii. of Julye sickened, and so was taken the nexte morning aboute .vii. of the clocke, to the mercye of God, in the yeare of our Lorde .M.D.Li. When the elder was gone, the younger woulde not tarye, but tolde before (havinge no knowledge therof by any bodye livinge) of his brothers Deathe, to the greate wonderinge of all that were there, declaringe what it was to lose so deare a frende, but comfortinge him selfe in that passion, saide: well, my brother is gone, but it maketh no matter, for I will go straight after him, and so did within the space of halfe an houre, as your grace can best tell, whiche was there presente. Nowe [Page K2r] I renue these wordes to youre graces knowledge, that you might the more stedfastlie consider their time to be then appointed of GOD to forsake this evill worlde, and to live with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the Kingedome of heaven. But wherfore did God take two suche awaye, and at that time? Surelye to tell the principall cause, we maye by all likenes affirme, that they were taken awaye from us for our wretched sinnes, and mooste vile naughtines of life, that therby we beinge warned, might be as readie for God, as they nowe presentlie were, and amend our lives in time, whom God will call, what time we knowe not. Then as I can see, we have small cause to lament the lacke of them, whiche are in suche blessed state, but rather to amende our owne living, to forthinke us of oure offences, and to wishe of GOD to purge oure hartes, from all filthines and ungodlie dealinge, that we maie be (as they nowe be) blessed with God for ever. Notwithstandinge the worckes of God are unsearcheable, without the compasse of mannes braine perciselye to comprehende the verie cause, savinge that this perswasion oughte surelye to be grounded in us, evermore to thinke that God is offended with sinne, and that he punisheth offences to the thirde and fourthe generation of all them that breake his commaundementes, beinge juste in all his worckes, and doinge all thinges for the beste. And therfore when God plagueth in such sorte, I would wish that our faithe might alwaies be staied upon the admiration of Goddes glorie, througheoute all his doinges, in whom is none evil, neither yet was there ever any guile found. And I doubt not but your grace is thus affected, and unfaynedlye confessinge your owne offences, taketh this scourge to come from God as a juste punishmente of Sinne, for the amendemente not onelye of your owne selfe, but also for the amendemente of all other in generall. The lamentable voyce of the pore (whiche is the mouthe of God) throughout the whole Realme declares full well the wickednes of this life, and showes plainelye that this evill is more generallye felte, then anye man is able by worde, or by writinge at full to set forthe. [Page K2v]

When God therfore that is Lord, not onelye of the riche but also of the poore, seeth his grounde spoyled frome the holesome profite of manye, to the vayne pleasure of a fewe, and the earthe made private to suffise the luste of unsaciable covetousnesse, and that those whiche be his true membres cannot live for the intollerable oppression, the soore enhaunsynge, and the moost wicked grasing of those throughout the whole Realme, whiche otherwise myght well lyve with the onelye value and summe of their landes and yerelye revenues: he striketh in his anger the innocentes and tender yonglinges, to plague us with the lacke of them, whose innocencye and Godlines of life mighte have bene a juste example for us to amende our mooste evill doynges. In whiche wonderfull worcke of God, when he received these two mooste noble ympes,and his chyldren elected to the everlastinge Kingedome, I can not but magnifye his mooste glorious name, from time to tyme, that hath so graciouslye preserved these two worthy gentilmenne from the daunger of further evil, and moost vile wretchednes, moost like righte shortelye to ensue, excepte wee all repente, and forthincke us of oure former evill livynge. And yet I speake not this, as thoughe I knewe anye cryme to be more in you, then in anye other: but I tell it to the shame of all those universallye within this Realme, that are gyltye of suche offences, whose inward consciences condempne their owne doinges, and their open deedes beare witnes against their evil nature. For it is not one house that shal feele the fall of these two prynces, neither hath God taken them for one private personnes offence: but for the wickednes of the whole Realme, whyche is lyke to feele the smarte, excepte God be merciful unto us. But now that they be gone, thoughe the fleshe be frayle, weake, and tender, and muste neades smart, being wounded or cut: yet I doubt not but your grace lackinge two suche porcions of your owne fleshe, and havinge theim (as a manne woulde saye) cutte awaye frome youre owne bodye, will suffer the smarte with a good stomake, and remembre that sorowe is but an evil remedye to heale a sore. For if your hande were detrenched, or youre [Page K3r] bodie maimed with some soubdaine stroake, what profite were it for you to wepe upon your wounde, and when the harme is done, to lamente still the sore? Seinge that with wepinge it will not be lesse, and maye yet throughe weping full sone be made more. For the sore is encreased, when sorowe is added, and the paine is made double, whiche before was but single. A constante christiane shoulde beare all miserie, and with pacience abide the force of necessitie, shewinge with sufferaunce the strengthe of his faithe, and especiallie when the chaunge is from evyll to good, from woe to weale, what folye is it to sorowe that, for the whiche they joye that are departed? They have taken nowe their rest, that lived here in travaile: they have forsaken their bodies, wherin they were bounde, to receive the spirite, wherby they are free. They have chosen for sickenes, healthe: for earth, heaven: for life transitorie, life immortall: and for manne, God: then the whiche, what can they have more? Or howe is it possible they can be better? Undoubtedly if ever they were happye, they are nowe moste happie: if ever they were well, they are nowe in beste case, beynge delivered frome this presente evyll worlde, and exempted from Sathan, to lyve for ever with Christe our Savioure.

Then what meane we that not onely lamente the want of other, but also desire to tarye here oure selves, hopinge for a shorte, vayne, and therewith a paynefull pleasure, and refusynge to enjoye that continuall, perfecte, and heavenlye enheritaunce, the whiche so soone shal happen unto us, as Nature dissolveth this Earthlye bodye. Truthe it is, wee are more fleshelye then spirituall, soner fealynge the ache of our bodye, then the griefe of our Soule: more studious with care to be healthfull in carkasse, then sekynge with prayer to be pure in Spirite. And therfore if oure frendes be stayned with Synne, wee dooe not, or we wyll not espye their sore, we counte theim faulteles, when they are mooste wicked: neither sekinge the redresse of their evyll doynge, nor yet once amendynge the faultes of oure owne livynge. [Page K3v]

But when oure frende departeth this worlde, and then forsaketh us when Synne forsaketh him: wee begynne to shewe oure fleshelye natures, we wepe, and we wayle, and with longe sorowe withoute discretion declare our wante of Goddes grace, and all goodnes. For wheras we see that as some be borne, some do dye also, menne, women, and children, and not one houre certaine to us of all oure life, yet we never mourne, we never weepe, neither markynge the deathe of suche as we knowe, nor regardynge the evyll lyfe of those whom we love. But when suche departe as were either nigheste of oure kynred, or elles mooste oure frendes, then wee lamente withoute all comforte, not the synnes of their Soules, but the chaunge of their bodyes, leavinge to doe that whiche we shoul onelye we declare muche wante of Faythe, but also we shewe greate lacke of wytte. For as the other are gone before, either to heaven or elles to hell: so shall oure frendes and kinsfolke folowe after. We are all made of one metall, and ordeyned to dye, so manye as live. Therfore what folye is it in us, or rather what fleshelye madnesse immoderatelye to wayle their death whom God hathe ordeyned to make their ende, excepte wee lamente the lacke of oure owne livinge? For even as well we myghte at theyr firste byrthe bewayle theyr Nativitye, consideryng they must nedes dye, because they are borne to lyve. And whatsoever hath a beginnynge, the same hath also an endynge, and the ende is not at oure will whiche desire continuaunce of life, but at hys wyll whyche gave the begynnynge of lyfe. Nowe then, seynge God hath ordeyned all to dye, accordynge to his appointed wil, what meane they that woulde have theirs to lyve? Shall God alter his fyrst purpose for the onelye satisfiynge of oure folyshe pleasure? And where God hathe mynded that the whole worlde shall decaye, shall anye man desyre that anye one house may stande? In my mynde, there can be no greater comforte to anye one livynge for the lacke of his frende, then to thinke that thys happened to him, whyche all other eyther have felte, or elles shall feele hereafter: And that God the rather made Deathe [Page K4r] commune to all, that the universall plague and egalnes to all, myght abate the fiercenes of death, and comfort us in the crueltie of the same, considerynge no one man hath an ende, but that all shall have the lyke, and dye we muste everye mothers sonne of us, at one time or other. But you will saye: my chyldren might have lived longer, they dyed younge. Sure it is by mannes estimation they myght have lived longer, but had it bene best for them thincke you to have continued styll in this wretched worlde, where Vyce beareth rule, and Vertue is subdued, where GOD is neglected, his lawes not observed, his worde abused, and his Prophetes that preache the judgemente of God almost every where contemned. If your children were alive, and by thadvice of some wicked person were brought to a brothell house, where entisinge harlottes lived, and so were in daunger to commit that fowle sinne of whoredome, and so, ledde from one wickednes to another: I am assured your grace woulde call them backe with laboure, and would with exhortations induce theim to the feare of God, and utter detestation of al synne, as you have ful often heretofore done, rather fearing evil to come, then knowing any open faulte to be in either of them. Nowe then, seynge God hath done the same for you him selfe, that you woulde have done for them if they hadde lived, that is, in deliverynge them bothe from this present evil worlde, whiche I counte none other then a brothel house, and a life of al noughtines: you ought to thanke God highlye, that he hath taken awaye your two sones, even in their youthe, beynge innocentes bothe for their livynge, and of suche expectation for their towardnes, that almoste it were not possible for them hereafter to satisfye the hope in their age, whyche all menne presently hadde conceyved of their youthe. It is thought, and in dede it is no lesse then a great poynct of happines to dye happely. Now when youre two noble gentilmen have dyed better then when they were at the best, mooste Godlye in manye thynges, offendinge in fewe, beloved of the honeste, and hated of none, (if ever they were hated) but of suche as hate the best. As in deede, noble vertue never wanted cankarde [Page K4v] envy to folow her. And considering that this life is so wretched, that the beste are ever most hated, and the vilest alwayes most estemed, and your .ii. sonnes of the other side beynge in that state of honestie, and trained in that pathe of Godlines (as I am able to be a lively witnes, none hath be like these many yeres, or at the lest, none better brought up) what thinke you of God, did he envye them, or els did he providently forsee unto them bothe, when he toke them bothe from us. Assuredly whom God loveth best, those bewitching of lies, make good thinges darke, the unstedfastnes also and wickednes of voluptuouse desire, turne aside the understanding of the simple. And thoughe the righteous was sone gone, yet fulfilled he much time, for his soule pleased God, and therfore hasted he to take him away from amonge the wicked. Yea, the good men of god in al ages, have ever had an earnest desire to be dissolved. My soule (quod David) hath an earnest desire to ente ! t left us, but gone before us to enherite with Christ, their kingdom prepared. And what shuld this greve your grace that they are gone before, considering our whole lyfe is nothing els but the righte waye to death. Shoulde it trouble any one that his f [Page l1r] Our life is nothyng els, but a continuall travaill, and death obtaineth rest after all our laboure. Emong men that travaill by the high waie, he is best at ease (in my mynde) that sonest cometh to his journeis ende. Therfore, if your grace loved your children (as I am wel assured you did) you must rejoyce in their rest, and geve God hartie thankes, that thei are come so sone to their journeis ende. Marie, if it were so that man might escape the daunger of death, and live ever, it were another matter: but because we must all dye, either first or last, and of nothyng so sure in this life, as we are all sure to dye at length, and nothyng more uncertain unto man then the certain tyme of every mannes latter tyme: what forceth when wee dye, either this daie, or to morowe, either this yere, or the next, savyng that I thinke them moste happie that die sonest, and death frendely to none so muche, as to theim whom she taketh sonest. At the tyme of an execucion doen for grevous offences, what mattereth who dye firste, when a dosen are condempned together, by a lawe, consideryng thei muste all dye one and other. I saie still, happie are thei, that are sonest ridde out of this worlde, and the soner gone, the soner blessed. The Thracians lament greatly at the birthe of their children, and rejoyce muche at the burial of their bodies, beyng well assured that this world is nothyng els but miserie, and the worlde to come, joye for ever. Now again, the child newe borne, partly declareth the state of this life, who beginneth his tyme with wailyng, and firste sheweth teares, before he can judge the cause of his wo. If we beleve the promise of God, if we hope for the generall resurreccion, and constantly affirme, that God is just in all his woorkes: we cannot but joyfully saie, with the just man Job: The lorde gave them, the lorde hath taken them again, as it pleaseth God, so maie it be, and blessed be the name of the lorde, for now and ever. God dealeth wrongfully with no man, but extendeth his mercie moste plentifully, over all mankynde. God gave you twoo children, as the like I have not knowen, happie are you moste gracious ladie, that ever you bare them. God lent you them twoo for a tyme, and toke them twoo again at his tyme, you have no wrong doen you, that he hath [Page l1v] taken them: but you have received a wonderfull benefite, that ever you had them. He is very unjust that boroweth, and will not pay again, but at his pleasure. He forgetteth muche his duetie, that boroweth a jewell of the kynges majestie, and will not restore it with good will, when it shall please his grace, to call for it. He is unworthy hereafter to borowe, that will rather grudge, because he hath it no longer, then ones geve thankes, bicause he hath had the use of it so long. He is over coveteous, that compteth not gainfull, the tyme of his borowyng: but judgeth it his losse, to restore thynges again. He is unthankfull, that thynkes he hath wrong doen, when his pleasure is shortened, and takes the ende of his delite, to bee extreme evill. He loseth the greatest parte of his joye in this worlde, that thynketh there is no pleasure, but of thynges present: that cannot comfort hymself with pleasure past, and judge them to be moste assured, consideryng the memorie of them ones had, can never decaye. His joyes be over straighte, that bee comprehended within the compasse of his sighte, and thynketh no thyng comfortable, but that whiche is ever before his iyes. All pleasure whiche man hath in this worlde, is very shorte, and sone goeth it awaie, the remembraunce lasteth ever, and is muche more assured, then is the presence or lively sight of any thyng. And thus your grace maie ever rejoyce, that you had twoo suche, whiche lived so verteously, and died so Godly: and though their bodies bee absent from your sight, yet the remembraunce of their vertues, shall never decaye from your mynde. God lendeth life to all, and lendeth at his pleasure for a tyme. To this man he graunteth a long life, to this a shorte space, to some one, a daie, to some a yere, to some a moneth. Now when God taketh, what man should be offended, consideryng he that gave frely, maie boldely take his awne when he will, and dooe no manne wrong. The Kynges Majestie geveth one .x. pounde, another fourtie pounde, another three skore pounde, shall he be greved, that received but tenne pound, and not rather geve thankes, that he received so muche? Is that man happier, that dieth in the latter ende of the monethe, then he is that died in the beginnyng of thesame Monethe? Doeth distance [Page l2r] of tyme, and long tariyng from God, make men more happie, when thei come to God? By space of passage we differ muche, and one liveth longer then another, but by death at the last, we all are matched, and none the happier, that liveth the longer, but rather moste happie is he, that died the sonest, and departed best in the faithe of Christ. Thinke therfore your self most happie, that you had two suche, and geve God hartie thankes, that it pleased him so sone, to take two suche. Necessitie is lawles, and that whiche is by God appoyncted, no man can alter. Rejoyce we, or wepe we, die we shall, how sone, no man can tell. Yea, we are all our life tyme warned before, that death is at hande, and that when we go to bedde we are not assured to rise the nexte daie in the mornyng, no, not to live one houre longer. And yet to se our foly, we would assigne God his tyme, accordyng to our sacietie, and not content our selfes with his doynges, according to his appoynctment. And ever we saie, when any dye young, he might have lived longer, it was pitie he died so sone. As though forsothe he were not better with God, then he can bee with manne. Therefore, whereas for a tyme your grace, muche bewailed their lacke, not onely absentyng your self from all company but also refusyng all kynde of comforte, almost dedde with heavinesse, your body beyng so worne with sorowe, that the long continuance of thesame, is muche like to shorten your daies: I shall desire your grace for Goddes love, to referre youre will to Goddes will, and whereas hetherto nature hath taught you to wepe the lacke of your naturall children, lette reason teache you hereafter, to wipe awaie the teares, and lette not phantasie encrease that, whiche nature hath commaunded moderately to use. To bee sory for the lacke of oure dearest, wee are taughte by nature, to bee overcome with sorowe, it commeth of oure awne fonde opinion, and greate folie it is, with naturall sorowe, to encrease all sorowe, and with a litle sickenesse, to purchase readie deathe. The sorowes of brute beastes are sharpe, and yet thei are but shorte. The Cowe lackyng her Caulfe, leaveth Loweyng within three or foure daies at the farthest. Birdes of the ayre perceivyng their youngones taken from their neaste, [Page l2v] chitter for a while in trees there aboute, and streighte after thei flie abrode, and make no more a dooe. The Doo lackyng her Faune, the Hynde her Caulfe, braie no long tyme after their losse, but seyng their lacke to be without remedy, thei ceasse their sorowe within short space. Man onely emong al other, ceaseth not to favour his sorowe, and lamenteth not onely so muche as nature willeth him, but also so muche as his awne affeccion moveth hym. And yet all folke do not so, but suche as are subject to passions, and furthest from fortitude of mynde, as women commonly, rather then men, rude people, rather then godly folke: the unlearned, soner then the learned: foolishe folke, soner then wise men: children, rather then yong men. Whereupon we maie well gather, that immoderate sorowe is not naturall, (for that whiche is naturall, is ever like in al) but through folie mainteined, encreased by weakenesse, and for lacke of reason, made altogether intollerable. Then I doubte not but your grace, will rather ende your sorowe, by reason: then that sorowe should ende you, through foly: And whereas by nature, you are a weake woman in body, you will shewe your self by reason, a strong man in harte: rather endyng your grief by godly advertisementes, and by the just consideracion of Gods wonderfull doynges: then that tyme and space, should weare awaie your sorowes, whiche in deede suffer one continually to abide in any one, but rather ridde them of life, or els ease them of grief. The foole, the ungodly, the weake harted have this remedy, your medicine must be more heavenly, if you do (as you professe) referre all to Goddes pleasure, and saie in your praier. Thy will bee doen in yearth, as it is in heaven. Those whom God loveth, those he chasteneth, and happie is that body, whom God scourgeth, for his amendement. The man that dieth in the faithe of Christ is blessed, and the chastened servaunt, if he doo repent and amende his life, shalbe blessed. We knowe not what we dooe, when we bewaile the death of our dearest, for in death is altogether all happines, and before deathe, not one is happie. The miseries in this worlde declare, small felicitee to be in thesame. Therefore, many men beyng overwhelmed with muche woe, and wretched [Page l3r] wickednes: have wished and praied to God, for an ende of this life, and thought this worlde to be a let, to the heavenly perfeccion, the whiche blisse all thei shall attain hereafter that hope well here, and with a lively faith declare their assuraunce. Your graces two sonnes, in their life wer so godly, that their death was their advauntage: for, by death thei lived, because in life thei wer dedde. Thei died in faithe, not wearie of this worlde, nor wishyng for death, as overloden with synne: but paciently takyng the crosse, departed with joye. At whose diyng, your grace maie learne an example of pacience, and of thankes gevyng, that God of his goodnesse, hath so graciously taken these your two children, to his favourable mercy. God punisheth, partly to trie your constancie, wherein I wishe that your grace, maie nowe bee as well willyng to forsake theim, as ever you were willyng to have them. But suche is the infirmitie of our fleshe, that we hate good comforte in wordes, when the cause of our comforte in deede (as we take it) is gone. And me thinkes I heare you cry notwithstandyng all my wordes, alacke my children are gone. But what though thei are gone? God hath called, and nature hath obeyed. Yea, you crie still my children are dedde: Marie therefore thei lived, and blessed is their ende, whose life was so godly. Wo worthe, thei are dedde, thei are dedde. It is no new thyng, thei are neither the first that died, nor yet the last that shall die. Many went before, and all shall folowe after. Thei lived together, thei loved together, and now thei made their ende bothe together. Alas thei died, that were the fruicte of myne awne body, leavyng me comfortlesse, unhappie woman that I am. You do well, to cal them the fruict of your body, and yet you nothyng the more unhappie neither. For, is the tree unhappy, from whiche the appelles fall? Or is the yearth accurssed, that bringeth furthe grene Grasse, whiche hereafter notwithstanding doth wither. Death taketh no order of yeres, but when the tyme is appoyncted, be it earely or late, daie or nighte, awaie we muste. But I praie you, what losse hath your grace? Thei died, that should have died, yea, thei died, that could live no longer. But you wished theim longer life. Yea, but God made you no suche promise, and mete it wer [Page l3v] not that he shuld be led by you, but you rather should be led by him. Your children died, and that right godly, what would you have more? All good mothers desire, that their children maie die Goddes servauntes, the whiche youre grace hath moste assuredly obteined. Now again mannes nature altereth, and hardely tarieth vertue long in one place, without muche circumspeccion, and youth maie sone be corrupted. But you will saie. These were good and godly broughte up, and therefore moste like to prove godly hereafter, if thei had lived still. Well, thoughe suche thynges perhappes had not chaunced, yet suche thynges mighte have chaunced, and although thei happen not to al, yet do thei happe to many, and though thei had not chaunced to your children, yet we knew not that before, and more wisedome it had been, to feare the worst with good advisement, then ever to hope, and loke stil for the best, without all mistrustyng. For, suche is the nature of man, and his corrupt race, that evermore the one foloweth soner, then thother. Commodus was a verteous childe, and had good bringyng up, and yet he died a moste wicked man. Nero wanted no good counsaill, and such a master he had, as never any had the better, and yet what one alive, was worse then he? But now death hath assured your grace, that you maie warrant your self, of their godly ende, whereas if God had spared them life, thynges might have chaunced otherwise. In wishyng longer life, we wishe often tymes longer woe, longer trouble, longer foly in this world, and weye all thynges well, you shall perceive wee have small joye to wishe longer life. This imaginacion of longer life, when the life standeth not by nomber of yeres, but by the appoyncted will of God, maketh our foly so muche to appere, and our teares so continually to fall from our chekes. For if we thought (as we should dooe in deede) that every daie risyng, maie be the ende of every man livyng, and that there is no difference with God, betwixt one daie, and an hundreth yeres: we might beare all sorowes, a greate deale the better. Therfore it wer moste wisedome for us all, and a greate poynct of perfeccion to make every daie an even rekenyng of our life, and talke so with God every houre, that we maie bee of even borde with [Page l4r] hym, through fulnes of faithe, and redy to go the nexte houre folowyng, at his commaundemente, and to take alwaies his sendyng in good part. The lorde is at hande. We knowe not when he will come (at mid night, at cocke crowe, or at noone daies) to take either us, or any of ours. Therfore, the rather that we maie be armed, let us folowe the examples of other godly men, and lay their doynges before our iyes. And emong all other, I knowe none so mete for your graces comfort, as the wise and Godly behaviour of good Kyng David. Who when he was enfourmed, that his sonne was sicke, praied to God hartly, for his amendement, wept, fasted, and with much lamentacion, declared greate heavinesse. But when woorde came of his sonnes departure, he left his mournyng, he called for water, and willed meate to be set before hym, that he might eate. Wherupon, when his men marveiled why he did so, consideryng he toke it so grevously before, when his child was but sicke, and now beyng deede, toke no thought at all, he made this answere unto theim: so long as my child lived, I fasted, and watered my plantes for my young boye, and I saied to my self, who can tell, but that God perhappes will geve me hym, and that my child shall live, but now seyng he is deede, to what ende should I faste? Can I call hym again any more? Naye, I shall rather go unto hym, he shall never come againe unto me. And with that David comforted his wife Bethsabe, the whiche example, as I truste your grace hath redde, for your comfort, so I hope you will also folowe it for youre healthe, and bee as strong in pacience, as ever David was. The historie it self shall muche delighte youre grace, beeyng redde as it lieth in the Booke, better then my bare touchyng of it can dooe, a greate deale. The whiche I doubte not but your grace will often reade, and comforte other your self, as David did his sorowfull wife. Job losyng his children, and all that he had, forgatte not to praise God in his extreme povertie. Tobias lackyng his iye sighte, in spirite prased GOD, and with open mouthe, confessed his holy name to bee magnified throughout the whole yearthe. Paule the Apostle of God, reproveth them as worthy blame, whiche mourne and lament, the losse of their derest. I would [Page l4v] not brethren (quod he) that you should be ignorant, concernyng them whiche be fallen on slepe, that you sorowe not as other doo, whiche have no hope. If we beleve that Jesus died, and rose again, even so thei also, whiche slepe by Jesus, wil God bryng again with hym. Then your grace, either with leavyng sorowe, must shewe your self faithfull, or els with yeldyng to your wo, declare your self to be without hope. But I trust your grace, beyng planted in Christ, will shew with sufferaunce, the fruicte of your faithe, and comforte your self with the wordes of Christ, I am the resurreccion and the life, he that beleveth on me, yea, though he wer dedde, yet should he live, and whosoever liveth, and beleveth in me, shal never die. We read of those that had no knowlege of God, and yet thei bare in good worth, the discease of their children. Anaxagoras hearyng tell, that his sonne was dedde, no marvail quod he, I knowe well I begot a mortall body. Pericles chief ruler of Athens, hearyng tell that his twoo sonnes, beyng of wonderfull towardnesse, within foure daies wer bothe ded, never greately chaunged countenaunce for the matter, that any one could perceive, nor yet forbare to go abrode, but accordyng to his wonted custome, did his duetie in the counsail house, in debatyng matters of weighte, concernyng the state of the common peoples weale. But because your grace is a woman, I will shewe you an example of a noble woman, in whom appered wonderfull pacience. Cornelia, a worthy ladie in Rome, beyng comforted for the losse of her twoo children, Tiberius, and Caius Gracchus, bothe valiaunt jentle men, although bothe not the moste honest menne, whiche died not in their beddes, but violently were slain in Civill battaill, their bodies liyng naked and unburied, when one emongest other said: Oh unhappie woman, that ever thou shouldest se this daie. Naie quod she, I wil never thinke my self otherwise, then moste happy, that ever I brought furthe these two Gracchions. If this noble lady, could thinke her self happie, beyng mother to these twoo valiaunt jentlemen, and yet bothe rebelles, and therefore justly slain: Howe muche more maye youre grace, thynke youre self moste happie, that ever you broughte furthe twoo suche Brandons, not onely by natural [Page m1r] birth, but also by most godly education, in such sort that the lyke .ii. have not been for their towardnes universallie. Whose deathe the general voice of all men declares howe muche it was lamented. So that whereas you might ever have feared some daungerouse ende, you are nowe assured that they both made a most godly ende, the whiche thyng is the ful perfection of a Christian lyfe. I reade of one Bibulus, that hearyng of his two children to dye both in one daie, lamented the lacke of them bothe for that one daye, and mourned no more. And what coulde a man doe lesse than for two chil ! to doe the office of a father, then the dutie of an highe minister. Paulus Emilius after his moste noble victorie had of Kyng Perse, desired of God, that if after suche a triumphe there were any harme lyke to hapen to the Romaines, the same might fal u [Page m1v] happie men. Let us loke round about even at home, and we shal finde enowe subject to this misfortune, for who liveth that hath not lost? Therfore I woulde wishe your grace even nowe to come in againe with God, and although he be angry, yet show you your self most obedient to his wil, consideryng he is Lorde over Kynges, Emperours, and over al that be bothe in heaven and yearth, and spareth noone whom he listeth to take, and no doubt he wil take all at the last. His dart goeth daily, neither is any darte cast in value whiche is sent amongest a whole armie standyng thicke together. Neither can you justly lament that they lyved no longer, for they lyved long enough, that have lived well enough. You muste measure your children by their vertues, not by their yeres. For (as the wise man saith) a mans wisedom is the grey heeres, and an undefiled life, is the old age. Happie is that mother that hath had Godly children, and not she that hath had long lyvyng children. For if felicitie should stande by length of tyme, some tree were more happy then is any man, for it liveth longer, and so likewyse brute beastes, as the Stagge, who liveth (as Plinius dothe say) two hundreth yeares, and more. If we woulde but consider what man is, we shoulde have small hope to lyve, and litle cause to put any great assuraunce in this lyfe. Let us se him what he is: Is his body any thyng els but a lumpe of earth made together in suche forme as we do see? A frail vessell, a weake carion, subject to miserie, cast doune with every light disease, a man to daie, to morowe none. A flower that this daie is freshe, to morowe withereth. Good Lorde do we not see that even those thynges whiche nourishe us, doe rotte and dye, as herbes, birdes, beastes, water, and al other without the whiche we cannot lyve. And how can we lyve ever, that are susteined by dead thinges? Therfore when any one doth dye, why do we not thynke, that this may chaunse to every one, whiche now hath chaunsed to any one. We be now as those that stande in battail raie. Now one man is suer of him selfe before an other, but al are in daunger in lyke maner to death. That your children died before other that were of riper yeares, we may judge that their ripenes for vertue and [Page m2r] all other giftes of nature were brought even to perfection, wherby death the soner approched, for nothyng long lasteth that is sone excellent. God gave your grace two most excellent children, God never geveth for any long tyme those that be right excellent. Their natures were heavenly, and therfore more meete for God then man. Emong frute we se some appels are sone ripe and fal from the tree in the middest of summer: other be stil greene, and tary til winter, and hereupon are commonly called wynter frute: Even so it is with men, some dye young, some dye old, and some die in their midle age. Your sunnes wer even .ii. suche already, as some hereafter may be with long continuance of tyme. Thei had that in their youth for the giftes of nature, whiche al men would require of them bothe scacelie in their age. Therfore beeyng bothe now ripe, they were now most ready for God. There was a childe in Rome of a mans quantite, for face, legges and other partes of his body, wherupon wise men judged he would not be long livyng. How could your grace thynke, that when you sawe auncient wisdom in the one, and most pregnant wit in the other, mervailouse sobriete in the elder, and most laudable gentlines in the younger, them bothe most studious in learnyng, most forward in al feates aswel of the body, as of the mind, beyng two suche, and so excellent, that they were lyke long to continue with you? God never suffreth such excellent and rare jewels long to enherite therth. Whatsoever is nie perfection the same is most nigh falling. Vertue being ons absolute cannot long be seen with these our fleshly iyes, neither can that tary the latter end with other, that was ripe it self first of al and before other. Fier goth out the soner, the clearer that is made of most course matter. In greene wood we may see that where as the fuel is not most apt for burning, yet the fier lasteth longer, than if it were nourished with like quantitie of drie wood. Even so in the nature of man the mynde beeyng ripe, the body decaiyeth streight, and life goeth away beeyng ones brought to perfection. Neither can there be any greater token of shorte lyfe, than full ripenes of naturall witte: The whiche is to the bodie, as the heate of the Sunne is to thynges yearthly. [Page m2v] Therfore judge right honourable ladie, that even now they both died, when they both wer most readie for God, neither thinke that thei died over soone, because thei lived no longer. They died both Gods servauntes, and therfore they died wel and in good tyme. God hath set their tyme, and taken them at his tyme blessed children as they be, to reigne with hym in the kyngdom of his father prepared for them from the beginnyng. Unto whose wil, I wishe and I truste your grace doth wholy referre your wil, thankyng hym as hartely for that he hath taken them, as you ever thanked hym, for that he ever lent you them. I knowe the wicked wordes of some ungodly folke have muche disquieted your grace, notwithstandyng God beyng judge of your naturall love towardes your children, and al your faithful frendes, and servauntes bearyng earnest witnes with your grace of the same: there ungodly talke the more lightely is to bee estemed, the more ungodly that it is. Nay your grace may rejoyce rather, that whereas you have doen well, you heare evill, accordyng to the wordes of Christe: Blessed are you, when men speake al evil thynges against you. And again consider GOD is not ledde by the reporte of men to judge his creatures, but perswaded by the true knowlege of every mans conscience, to take them for his servauntes, and furthermore the harme is theirs whiche speake so lewdlie, and the blesse theirs whiche beare it so paciently. For loke what measure thei use to other, with the same they shalbe measured againe. And as they judge so shal they be judged. Be your grace therfore strong in adversitie, and pray for them that speake amisse of you, rendryng Gode for evil, and with charitable dealyng showe your self long suffryng, so shal you heape cooles on their heades. The boisterouse Sea trieth the good mariner, and sharpe vexation declareth the true Christian. Where battaill hath not been before, there never was any victorie obteined. You then beyng thus assailed, show your self rather stowte to withstand, than weake, to geue over: rather cleavyng to good, than yeldyng to evil. For if God be with you, what forceth who bee against you. For when al frendes faile, GOD never faileth them that put their trust in him, and with an unfained hart [Page m3r] cal to hym for grace. Thus doyng I assure your grace, God wilbe pleased, and the Godly wil muche praise your wisdom, though the worlde ful wickedly saie their pleasure. I praie God your grace may please the Godlie and with your vertuouse behaviour in this your wydohode, winne there commendation to the glory of God, the rejoysyng of your frendes, and the comforte of your soule. Amen.

Thus, the rather to make preceptes plaine, I have added examples at large both for counsel gevyng, and for comfortyng. And most nedeful it were in suche kynd of Oracions to be most occupied, considering the use hereof appereth full ofte in al partes of our life, and confusedly is used emong al other matters. For in praisyng a worthie man, we shal have just cause to speake of all his vertues, of thynges profitable in this lyfe, and of pleasures in generall. Lykewyse in traversyng a cause before a judge, we cannot wante the side of persuasion, and good counsel, concernyng wealth, health, life and estimacion, the helpe wherof is partely borowed of this place. But whereas I have sette forthe at large the places of confirmacion concernyng counsel in diverse causes: it is not thought that either they should al be used in numbre as they are, or in ordre as they stande: but that any one may use theim and ordre theim as he shal thynke best, accordyng as the tyme, place, and person, shal most of al require.

Of an Oration judicial.

The whole burdeine of weightie matters, and the ernest trial of al controversies, rest onely upon judgement. Therfore when matters concernyng lande, gooddes, or life, or any suche thyng of lyke weight are called in Question, we must ever have recourse to this kynde of Oration, and after just examinyng of our causes by the places therof: loke for judgement accordyng to the law.

Oration Judicial what it is.

Oration Judicial is, an earnest debatyng in open assemblie of some weightie matter before a judge, where the complainaunt commenseth his action, and the defendaunt thereupon aunswereth at his peril to al suche thynges as are laied to his charge. [Page m3v]

Of the foundacion, or rather principall poincte in every debated matter, called of the Rhetoricians the State, or constitucion of the Cause.

Not onely is it nedefull in causes of judgement to considre the scope whereunto wee must leavell our reasons, and directe our invencion: but also we ought in every cause to have a respect unto some one especial poincte, and chief article: that the rather the whole drift of our doynges may seeme to agree with our firste devised purpose. For, by this meanes our judgement shalbe framed to speake with discretion, and the ignoraunt shall learne to perceive with profite, whatsoever is said for his enstruction. But they that take upon theim to talke in open audience, and make not their accompte before, what thei wil speake after: shal neither be well liked for their invencion, nor allowed for their witte, nor estemed for their learnyng. For, what other thyng do they, that boult out their wordes in suche sorte, and without al advisement utter out matter: but showe themselves to plaie as young boyes, or scarre crowes do, whiche showte in the open and plaine feldes at all aventures hittie missie. The learned therfore and suche as love to be coumpted Clerkes of understandyng, and men of good circumspection and judgement: doe warely scanne what they chefely mynd to speake, and by definition seke what that is whereunto they purpose to directe their whole doynges. For, by suche advised warenesse, and good iye castyng: they shall alwaies be able both to knowe what to say, and to speake what they ought. As for example if I shal have occasion to speake in open audience of the obedience due to our sovereigne kyng I ought first to learne what is obedience, and after knowelege attained, to direct my reasons to the onely prove of this purpose, and wholly to seke confirmacion of the same, and not turne my tale to talke of Robbyn Hoode, and to showe what a goodly archer was he, or to speake wounders of the man in the Mone, suche as are moste nedelesse and farthest from the purpose. For then, the hearer lookyng to be taught his obedience, and hearing in the meane season mad tales of archerie, and great mervailes of the man in the Mone: beyng half astonied [Page m4r] at his so great straing wil perhappes say to himself: Now, whether the devill wilt thou, come in man againe for very shame, and tel me no bytailes, such as are to no purpose but show me that whiche thou diddest promise both to teache and perswade at thy first entrie. Assuredly suche fonde felowes there have been, yea even emong Preachers, that talking of faith, thei have fetcht their ful race from the .xii. signes in the Zodiake. An other talking of the general resurrection hath made a large matter of our blessed Lady, praisyng her to be so jentle, so courtise, and so kynd, that it were better a thousandfold to make sute to her alone then to Christ her sonne. And what needed (I pray you) any suche rehersal beyng both ungodly, and nothyng at al to the purpose? For, what maketh the praise of our lady to the confirmacion of the general dowme? Would not a man thinke him mad that havyng an earnest errand from London to Dover, would take it the next way to ride first into Northfolke, next into Essex, and last into Kent? And yet assuredly many an unlearned and wittelesse man hath straied in his talke much farther a great deale, yea truely as farre, as hence to Rome gates. Therfore wise are thei that folow Plinies advise, who would that al men both in writing and speakyng at large upon any matter, should ever have an iye to the chief title and principal ground of their whole entent, never swarving from their purpose, but rather bringyng al thinges together to confirme their cause so much as they can possible. Yea, the wise and experte men wil aske of themselfes, how hangeth this to the purpose? To what end do I speake it? What maketh this for conformacion of my cause? And so by oft questionyng either chide their owne folie, if they speake amisse: or els be assured thei speake to good purpose.

A State therfore generally is the chief ground of a matter, and the pryncipal poincte whereunto both he that speaketh shoulde referre his whole wit, and thei that heare should chefely marke. A Preacher taketh in hande to showe what praier is, and how nedeful for man, to cal upon God: Now, he shoulde ever remembre this his matter, applieng his reasons wholy and fully to this end that the hearers may both knowe the nature of praier, and the nedefulnesse of praier. [Page m4v] The whiche when he hath doen, his promise is fulfilled, his time wel bestowed, and the hearers wel instructed.

A State, or constitution what it is in matters of Judgement.

In al other causes the state is gathered without contention, and severally handled upon good advisement, as he shal thynke best that professeth to speake. But in matters criminall, where judgement is required: there are two persons at the least, whiche must through contrarietie, stande and reste upon some issue. As for example: A servyng man is apprehended by a lawyer for felonie upon suspicion. The lawier saith to the servyng man: Thou hast done this robbery. Nay, (saith he) I have not doen it. Upon this conflicte and matchyng together, ariseth this State, whether this serving man hath done this robbery, or no? Upon whiche poincte the lawyer must stande, and seeke to prove it to the uttermost of his power.

A State therfore in matters of judgement is that thyng, whiche doeth arise upon the first demaunde and denial made betwixt men, whereof the one part is the accuser, and the other part the person, or persons accused. It is called a State because we doe stande and reste upon some one poincte, the whiche must wholly and onely be proved of the one side, and denied of the other. I cannot better terme it in Englishe than by the name of an issue, the whiche not onely ariseth upon muche debatyng and long traverse used, whereupon all matters ar said to com to an issue: but also elswhere an issue is said to be then and so often as bothe parties stande upon one poinct, the whiche doth aswel happen at the first begynnyng before any probacions are used, as it doth at the latter endyng after the matter hath at large been discussed.

The division of States, or issue.

Now that we knowe what an Issue is, it is nexte most nedeful to showe how many thei are in numbre. The wisest and best learned have agreed upon thre onely, and no lesse, the whiche are these folowyng. [Page n1r]

The State. Conjectural. Legall. Juridiciall.

And for the more playne understandynge of these darcke wordes, these three questions folowinge, expounde their meaninge altogether.

Whether the thinge bee, or no. What it is. What maner of thinge it is.

In the fyrst we consider upon rehearsal of a matter whether anye suche thinge bee, or no. As if one shoulde be accused of Murther, good it were to knowe, whether anye murther were comitted at all, or no, if it be not perfectlye knowne before: and after to go further, and examine whether suche a man that is accused, have done the dede or no.

In the seconde place, we doubte not upon the thinge done, but we stande in doubte what to call it. Sometimes a man is accused of felonye, and yet he proveth his offence to be but a trespace, wherupon he escapeth the daunger of deathe. An other beynge accused for killynge a man, confesseth his faulte to be manslaughter, and denieth it utterlye to be any murder, wherupon he maketh frendes to purchase his Pardon. Nowe the lawyers by their learninge muste judge the doubte of this debate, and tell what name he deserveth to have that hath thus offended.

In the thyrde place, not onely the dede is confessed, but the maner of doynge is defended. As if one were accused for killynge a man, to confesse the deede, and also to stande in it that he myght justely so do, because he did it his owne defence: wherupon ariseth this Question, whether his doing be ryght or wrong. And to make these matters more plaine, I will adde an example for every st

Of the state Conjecturall. [Page n1v]

The Assertion.

Thou hast killed this manne.

The Aunswere.

I have not killed him.

The State or Issue.

Whether he hath killed this man or no. Thus we see upon the avouchinge and deniall, the matter standeth upon an issue.

Of the state Legall.


Thou has committed treason in this facte.


I denye it to be treason.

State or issue.

Whether his offence done maye be called treason or no. Here is denied that any suche thinge is in the dede done, as is by word reported, and saide to bee.

Of the state Juridiciall.


Thou hast kylled this manne.


I graunte it, but I have doone it lawfullye, because I killed him in mine owne defence.

State or issue.

Whether a man may kill one in his own defence, or noe, and whether this man did so, or no.

The Oration conjectural, what it is.

The Oration conjectural is, when matters be examined and tryed out by suspicions gathered, and some likelihode of thinge appearinge. A souldiour is accused for killinge a Farmar. The Souldioure denieth it utterly, and sayth he did not kyll him. Hereupon riseth the question, whether the Souldioure killed the Farmar or no, who is well knowen to be slayne. Nowe to prove this question, we muste have suche places of confirmation, as hereafter do folowe.

Places of conformation, to prove thinges by conjecture. [Page n2r]

i. Will, to do evill. ii. Power, to do evil.

In the will muste be considered the qualitye of the man, whether he were like to do suche a dede or no, and what shoulde move him to attempte suche an enterpryse, whether he did the murther upon anye displeasure before conceyved, or of a sodayne anger, of els for that he loked by his death to receyve some commoditie, either lande, or office, money, or money worth, or anye other gainefull thinge.

Some are knowen to want no will to kill a manne, because they have bene flesht heretofore, passing as little upon the deathe of a man, as a Bocher dothe passe for killinge of an Oxe, beynge heretofore either accused before a Judge of manslaughter, or els quitte by some general pardon. Now, when the names of such menne are knowen, they make wise men ever after to have them in suspection.

The countrey where the man was borne declares sometime his natural inclination, as if he wer borne or brought up emong the Tindale, and Riddesdale menne, he may the soner be suspected.

Of what trade he is, by what occupation he liveth.

Whether he be a gamester, an alehouse haunter, or a panion emong Ruffians.

Of what wealthe he is, and how he came by that whiche he hath, if he have anye.

What apparell he weareth, and whether he loveth to go gaye, or no.

Of what nature he is, whether he be hastye, headye, or readye to pike quarels.

What shiftes he hath made from time to tyme.

What moved him to do suche an haynous dede.

Places of Confirmation to prove whether he had had power to do suche a dede, or no. [Page n2v]

The grounde whether it was in the hygh waye, in a woode, or betwixt two hylles, or els where, nigh to an hedge or secrete place.

The tyme, whether it was earlye in the mornynge, or late at nyght.

Whether he was there about that time or no.

Whether he ranne away after the deede done, or had anye bloude aboute him, or trembled, or stakerde, or was contrarie in tellyng of his tale, and how he kept his countenaunce.

Hope to kepe his dede secrete, bi reason of the place, time, and secrete maner of doynge.

Witnesses examined of his beynge, either in this or that place.

By comparinge of the strengthe of the murtherer wyth the other mans weakenes, armoure with nakednes, and stoutnes with simplicitie.

His Confession.

An example of an Oration Judiciall, to prove by Conjectures the knowledge of a notable and moost haynous offence, committed by a Souldiour.

As Nature hath ever abhorred murder, and God in all ages most terriblye hath plagued bloudsheading: so I truste your wisedomes (mooste worthye Judges) will spedelye seke the execution of this mooste hatefull synne. And where as God revealeth to the syght of menne the knowledge of suche offences by divers likelihodes, and probable conjectures: I doubte not but you beyng called of God to heare suche causes, wyll doe herein as reason shall require, and as this detestable offence shall move you upon rehearsall of the matter. The Manne that is well knowen to be slayne, was a worthye Farmar, a good house keper, a welthye husbandemanne, one that traveyled muche in this worlde, meanynge uprightlye in all hys doinges, and therfore beloved emonge all men, and lamented of manye when his deathe was knowen. This Souldioure [Page n3r] beynge desperate in his doynges, and livyng by spoyle all his lyfe tyme, came newlie from the warres, whose handes hath bene latelye bathed in bloude, and nowe he kepeth this countrey (where this farmar was slaine) and hath ben here for the space of one whole moneth together, and by all likelihodes he hath slaine this honest farmer. For, such menflesht vilaynes, make small accompte for kyllinge anye one, and do it they will withoute anye mercye, when they maye see their time. Yea, this wretch is bruted for his beastly demeanoure, and knowen of longe time to be a stronge thiefe. Nether had he escaped the daunger of the law, if the kinges free pardon had not prevented the execution. His name declares his noughtye nature, and his wycked livynge hathe made him famous. For, who is he that hearynge of N. (the notable offenders name myght here be rehearsed) doth not thynke by and by, that he were lyke to do suche a dede? Neither is he onelye knowen universallye to be nought, but his soyle also (where he was borne) geveth him to be an evill man: consideringe he was bredde and brought up emong a denne of theves, emonge the men of Tindale and Ryddesdale, where pillage is god purchase, and murderynge is counted manhode. Occupation hath he none, nor yet any other honeste meanes, whereby to maintayne him selfe: and yet he liveth mooste sumptuouslye. No greater gamester in a whole countrey, no such riotour, a notable whoremonger, a lewde roister emong Ruffians, an unreasonable waister, to day ful of money, within a sevennight after not worth a grote. There is no man that seethe him, but will take him for his apparell to be a gentilman. He hath his chaunge of sutes, yea, he spareth not to go in his silkes and velvet. A greate quareller, and fraie maker, glad when he may be at defiaunce with one or other, he hath made such shyftes for money ere now, that I marvaile how he hath lived till this daye. And now beyng at low ebbe, and lothe to seme base in his estate, thought to adventure upon this farmar, and either to winne the saddle, or els to lose the horse. And thus beynge so farre forwarde, wantinge no will to attempte this wicked deede, he sought by all meanes possible, convenient oportunitye [Page n3v] to compasse his desire. And waytinge under a woode side, nighe unto the hyghe way, aboute sixe of the clocke at night, he sette upon this farmer, at what time he was comming homewarde. For, it appeareth not onelye by his owne confession, that he was there aboute the selfe same time, where this man was slayne: but also there be men that saw him ride in greate haste aboute the selfe same time. And because GOD would have thys murder to be knowen, loke I praye you what bloude he carieth aboute hym, to beare witnesse agaynste hym of hys moost wicked deede. Againe, hys owne confession dothe playnelye goe againste hym, for he is in so many tales, that he can not tel what to saye. And often his coloure chaungeth, his bodye shaketh, and hys tongue foultereth wythin hys mouthe. And suche men as he bryngeth in to beare witnesse wyth hym, that he was at suche a place at the selfe same houre, when the Farmar was slayne: they wyll not be sworne for the verye houre, but they saye, he was at suche a place, wythin two houres after. Now Lord, dothe not this matter seeme most playne unto al men, especially seing this dede was done such a time, and in suche a place, that if the devyl had not bene his good Lorde, thys matter hadde never come to lyghte. And who wyll not saye that this Caytife hadde little cause to feare, but rather power inoughe to doe his wycked feacte, seynge he is so sturdye and so stonge, and the other so weake and unweldy: yea, seyng this vilaine was armed, and the other man naked. Doubte you not (worthye Judges) seynge such notes of his former lyfe to declare his inwarde nature, and perceiving suche conjectures lawfully gathered upon juste suspicion: but that this wretched Souldioure hath slayne thys worthye Farmar. And therfore I appeale for justice unto your wisdomes for the deathe of thys innocente man, whose bloude before God asketh juste avengement. I doubt not but you remember the wordes of Salomon, who saith. It is as greate a synne to forgeve the wicked, as it is evill to condempne the innocente: and as I call unfaynedlye for ryghtfull Judgement, so I hope assuredlye for juste execucion. [Page n4r]

The Person accused beynge innocente of the cryme that is layed to his charge, may use the selfe same places for his owne defence, the whyche hys accuser used to prove hym gyltye.

The interpretation of a lawe, otherwise called the State legall.

In boultynge out the true meaninge of a lawe, we must use to search out the nature of the same, by defining some one worde, or comparing one law wyth an other, judging upon good triall, what is right, and what is wronge.

The partes.

i. Definition. ii. Contrarye lawes. iii. Lawes made, and thende of the law maker. iiii. Ambiguitye, or doubtfulnes. v. Probation by thinges like. vi. Chalengynge or refusinge.

Definition what it is.

Then we use to define a matter, when wee can not agree upon the nature of some word, the which we learne to know by askyng the question what it is. As for example. Where one is apprehended for killing a man, we laye murder to his charge: wherupon the accused person when he graunteth the killing, and yet denieth it to be murder: we must straight after have recourse to the definition, and aske, what is murder, by defininge whereof, and comparing the nature of the word, with his dede done: we shall sone know whether he committed murder or manslaughter.

Contrarye lawes.

It often happeneth that lawes seme to have a certaine repugnancie, wherof emong many riseth much contencion, wher as if both the lawes wer wel weied and considered according to their circumstances, thei wold [Page n4v] appeare nothing contrari in matter, though in wordes they seme to dissent. Christ geveth warning, and chargeth his disciples in the .x. of Math. that they preach not the glad tidinges of his comming into the world to the Gentils, but to the Jewes only, unto whom he was sent by his father. And yet after his resurrection we do read in the last of Mat. that he commaunded his disciples to go into all the whole world, and preach the glad tidinges of his passion, and raunsome, paied for al creatures living. Now though these .ii. lawes seme contrary, yet it is nothing so. For if the Jewes would have received Christ, and acknowledged him their savioure, undoubtedly they had bene the onelye children of God, unto whom the promise and covenaunt was made from the beginninge. But bicause they refused their Savoure, and crucified the Lord of glory: Christ made the lawe generall, and called all men to life that woulde repent, promisinge salvation to all suche as beleved and were baptised. So that the particuler law, beyng nowe abrogated, muste neades geve place to the superioure.

Foure lessons to be observed, where contrarye lawes are called in question.

i. The inferioure law must geve place to the superiour.

ii. The lawe generall muste yelde to the speciall.

iii. Mans lawe, to Gods lawe.

iiii. An olde lawe, to a newe lawe.

There be Lawes utterde by Christes owne mouthe, the whiche if they be taken accordinge as they are spoken, seme to conteyne great absurditie in them. And therfore the mind of the lawe maker muste rather be observed, then the bare wordes taken onely, as they are spoken. Christ sayth in the .v. of Mathew. If thy right eye be an offence unto thee, plucke him out, and cast him awaye from thee. If one geve the a blowe of thy ryghte cheke, turne to him agayne thy lefte [Page o1r] cheke. There be some Eunuches, that have gelded themselfes for the kyngdome of heaven. Go, and sell all that thou hast, and geve it to the poore. He that doeth not take up his crosse and folowe me, is not worthy of me. In all whiche sentences there is no suche meanyng, as the bare wordes uttered seme to yelde. Pluckyng out of the iye, declares an avoydyng of all evill occasions: receivyng a blowe upon the lefte cheke, commendes unto us, modestie and pacience in adversitie. Geldyng, signifieth a suduyng of affeccions, and tamyng the foule luste of pleasure, unto the will of reason. Go and sell all: declares we should be liberal, and glad to part with our gooddes to the poore and neady. Bearyng the Crosse, betokeneth sufferance of all sorowes, and miseries in this worlde. Now to prove that the will of the lawe maker, is none other then I have saied: I maie use the testimonies of other places in the Scripture, and compare theim with these sentences, and so, judge by juste examinacion, and diligent searche, the true meanyng of the lawe maker.


Sometymes a doubt is made, upon some woorde or sentence, when it signifieth diverse thynges, or maie diversly be taken, wherupon ful ofte ariseth muche contencion. The lawyers lacke no cases, to fil this parte full of examples. For, rather then faile, thei will make doubtes often tymes, where no doubt should be at all. Is his Lease long enough (quoth one): yea sir, it is very long, saied a poore husbande man. Then (quoth he) let me alone with it, I will finde a hole in it, I warrant thee. In all this talke, I excepte alwaies the good lawyers, and I maie well spare theim, for thei are but a fewe.

Probacion by thygnes like.

When there is no certain lawe by expresse wordes uttered for some heinous offender, we maie judge the offence worthy deathe, by rehersall of some other Lawe, that soundeth muche that waie. As thus. The civil lawe appoyncteth that he shalbe put in a sacke, and cast in the Sea, that killeth his father: well, then he that killeth his mother, should by all reason, in like sort be ordered. [Page o1v] It is lawfull to have a Magistrate, therefore it is lawfull to plead matters before an officer. And thus, though the last cannot be proved by expresse wordes, yet thesame is found lawfull, by rehersall of the first.

Chalengyng, or refusyng.

We use this order, when wee remove our sewtes, from one Courte to another, as if a manne should appele from the Common place, to the Chauncerie. Or if one should bee called by a wrong name, not to answere unto it. Or if one should refuse to answere in the spirituall court, and appele to the lorde Chauncellor.

The Oracion of right or wrong, called otherwise the state Juridiciall.

After a deede is well knowen to be doen, by some one persone, we go to the next, and searche whether it be right, or wrong. And that is, when the maner of doyng is examined, and the matter tried through reasonyng, and muche debatyng, whether it be wrongfully doen or otherwise.

The division.

This state of right or wrong, is twoo waies divided, wherof the one is, when the matter by the awne nature, is defended to bee righte, without any further sekyng, called of the Rhetoricians, the state absolute.

The other (usyng litle force, or strengthe to maintein the matter) is, when outward help is sought, and bywaies used to purchase favour, called otherwise the state assumptive.

Places of confirmacion for the first kynd, are seven.

i. Nature it self. ii. Goddes lawe, and mannes lawe. iii. Custome. iiii. Aequitie. v. True dealyng. vi. Auncient examples. vii. Covenauntes and deedes autentique. [Page o2r]

Tullie in his moste worthy Oracion, made in behalfe of Milo, declareth that Milo slewe Clodius moste lawfully, whom Clodius sought to have slain moste wickedly. For (quod Tullie) if nature have graffed this in man, if lawe have confirmed it, if necessitie have taught it, if custome have kept it, if aequitie have mainteined it, if true dealyng hath allowed it, if all common weales have used it, if deedes auncient have sealed this up, that every creature livyng should sense it self, against outward violence: no man can thinke that Milo hath dooen wrong, in killyng of Clodius, except you thinke, that when menne mete with theves, either thei must be slain of theim, or els condempned of you.

Places of confirmacion for the seconde kynde, are foure.

Grauntyng of the faulte committed. Blamyng evill companie for it. Comparyng thee fault, and delcaryng that either they must have doen that, or els have doen worse. Shiftyng it from us, and shewyng that wee did it upon commaundement.

Confessyng of the faulte, is when the accused person graunteth his crime, and craveth pardon therupon, leavyng to aske justice, and leanyng wholy unto mercie.

Confession of the faulte, used twoo maner of waies.

The first is, when one excuseth hymself, that he did it not willyngly, but unwares, and by chaunce.

The second is, when he asketh pardone, for the fault doen, consideryng his service to the common weale, and his worthy deedes heretofore dooen, promisyng amendement of his former evill deede: the whiche wordes, would not be used before a Judge, but before a kyng, or generall of an armie. For the Judges muste geve sentence, accordyng to the Lawe: the Kyng maie forgeve, as beyng aucthour of the lawe, and havyng power in his hande, maie do as he shall thinke best.

Blamyng other for the faulte doen, is when wee saie that the accused persone, would never have doen suche a deede, if other against whom also, this accusacion is intended, had not [Page o2v] been evill men, and geven just cause, of suche a wicked dede.

Comparyng the faulte is when we saie, that by slayng an evill man, we have doen a good dede, cuttyng awaie the corrupte and rotten member, for preservacion of the whole body. Or thus: some sette a whole toune on fire, because their enemies should have none advauntage by it. The Saguntynes beeyng tributarie to the Romaines, slewe their awne children, burnte their goodes, and fired their bodies, because thei would not be subjecte to that cruell Haniball, and lose their allegiaunce, due to the Romaines.

Shiftyng it from us, is when we saie, that if other had not set us on, wee would never have attempted suche an enterprise. As often tymes the souldiour saieth, his Capitaines biddyng, was his enforcement: the servaunt thynketh his Maisters commaundemente, to bee a sufficient defence for his discharge. [Page o3r]

2. The Second Booke.

Now that I have hetherto set furthe what Rhetorique is, whereunto every Orator is moste bounde, what the causes bee, bothe in their nature, and also by nomber, that comprehende every matte, and what places serve to confirme every cause: I thinke it is moste mete after the knowlege of al these, to frame an Oracion accordingly, and to shew at large, the partes of every Oracion, (but specially suche as are used in judgement) that unto every cause, apte partes maie evermore bee added. For every matter hath a diverse beginnyng, neither al controversies, or matters of weight shuld alwaies after one sort be reherssed, nor like reasons used, nor one kynd of movyng affeccions, occupied before all men, and in every matter. And therfore, wheras I have briefly spoken of them before, I wil now largely declare them, and shewe the use of theim in every matter, that cometh in debate,and is nedeful, through reason to be discussed.

An enteraunce, two waies divided.

The first is called a plain beginnyng, when the hearer is made apte, to geve god eare out of hande, to that whiche shall folowe.

The second is a privey twinyng, or close creping in, to win favor with muche circumstaunce, called insinuacion.

For in all matters that man taketh in hande, this consideracion ought first to be had, that we first diligently expend the cause, before wee go through with it, that wee maye bee assured, whether it be lawfull, or otherwise. And not onely this, but also we must advisedly marke the menne, before whom wee speake, the men against whom we speake, and all the circumstaunces, whiche belong unto the matter. If the matter bee honest, godly, and suche as of righte ought to bee well liked, we maie use an open beginnyng, and will the hearers to rejoyce, and so go through with our parte. If the cause be lothsome, or suche as will not be well borne withall, but nedeth muche helpe, and favour of the hearers: it shalbe the speakers parte, prively to get favour, and by humble talke, to wynne their good willes. Firste, requiryng theim to geve [Page o3v] him the hearing, and next, not streightly to geve judgement, but with mercie to mitigate, all rigor of the Lawe. Or in a complaint made, whiche the counsail shall grevously stomack, to exaggerate it the more, if we as just cause to set it forward. And whereas many often tymes, are suspect to speake thynges of malice, or for hope of gaine, or els for a set purpose, as who should saie, this I can do: the wisest will evermore clere themselfes, from all suche offences, and never geve any token so muche as in them lieth, of any light suspicion.

In accusyng any persone, it is best to heape all his faultes together, and whereas any thyng semeth to make for hym, to extenuate thesame to the outermoste. In defendyng any persone, it is wisedome to reherse all his vertues first and foremost, and with asmuche arte as maie be, to wipe awaie suche faultes, as were laied to his charge. And before all thynges, this would be wel marked, that, whensoever we shal largely talke of any matter, wee alwaies so invent, and finde out our first enteraunce in the cause, that thesame be for ever taken, even from the nature and bowelles therof, that al thynges, whiche shall first be spoken, maie seme to agree with the matter, and not made as a Shippe mannes hose, to serve for every legge. Now whereas any long talke is used, the beginnyng thereof is either taken of the matter self, or els of the persones, that are there present, or els of theim, against whom the accion is entended. And because the winnyng of victorie, resteth in three poynctes: Firste, in apt teachyng the hearers, what the matter is, next in gettyng them to geve good eare, and thirdly in winnyng their favour: Wee shall make theim understande the matter easely, if first of all we begin to expounde it plainly, and in brief woordes, settyng out the meanyng, make them harken to our saiynges. And by no meanes better, shall the standers by, knowe what we saie, and cary awaie that, whiche thei heare, then if at the firste, wee couche together the whole course of our tale, in as smale roume as we can, either by definyng the nature and substaunce of our matter, or els by dividyng it in an apte order, so that neither the hearers bee troubled with confoundyng of matter, and heapyng one thyng in anothers necke, nor yet their memorie [Page o4r] dulled with overthwarte rehersall, and disorderly tellyng of our tale. Wee shall make the people attentive, and glad to heare us, if wee will promise them, to speake of weightie matters, of wholsome doctrine, suche as thei have heretofore wanted: yea, if we promise to tell them thynges, concerynyng either their awne profite, or thadvauncement of their countrey, no doubte wee shall have theim diligent hearers. Or els if thei like not to heare weightie affaires, wee maie promise theim straunge newes, and perswade them, we will make them laugh, and thinke you not, that thei wil rather heare a foolishe tale then a wise and wholesome counsail? Demosthenes therfore seyng at a tyme, the fondnes of the people to be suche, that he could not obtein of them, to heare hym speake his mynde, in an earnest cause, concernyng the wealthe of his countrey: required them to tary, and he would tell them a tale of Robin Hode. Whereat thei all staied, and longed to knowe what that should be. He began streight to tel them, of one that had sold his Asse to another man, whereupon thei bothe went furthe to the next Market toune, havyng with them the saied Asse. And the wether beyng somewhat hotte, the first awner, whiche had now sold his Asse, went of that side the Asse, whiche kept hym best from the heate. The other beyng now the awner, and in full possession, would not suffer that, but required hym to geve place, and suffer him to take the best commoditie, of his awne Asse, that he could have, wherat the other answered and saied, naie by saincte Marie sir, you serve me not so, I sold you the Asse, but I solde you not the shadowe of the Asse, and therfore pike you hence. When the people hard this, thei laughed apace, and likte it very well. Whereupon Demosthenes havyng wonne theim together, by this merie toye, rebuked their folie, that were so slacke to heare good thinges, and so redy to heare a tale of a Tubbe, and thus havyng them attentive, perswaded with them to heare hym, in matters of great importaunce, the whiche otherwise he could never have doen, if he had not taken this waie with hym.

We shall get the good willes of our hearers, foure maner of waies, either beginnyng to speake of our selfes, or els of our adversaries, or els of the people, and company present, [Page o4v] or last of all, if we begin of the matter it self, and so go thorowe with it. We shall get favour for our awne sakes, if we shall modestly set furthe our bounden dueties, and declare our service doen, without all suspicion of vauntyng, either to the common weale, and in servyng either in the warres abrode, or els in bearyng some office at home, concernyng the tranquilitie of our countrey: or in helpyng our frendes, kynsfolkes, and poore neighbours, to declare our goodnes, doen heretofore towardes them: and lastly, if wee shewe without all ostentacion, aswell our good willes towardes the judges there, as also pleasures doen for theim in tymes paste, to the outermoste of our power. And if any thyng seme to lette our cause, by any misreport, or evil behavior of our partes heretofore: best it were in moste humble wise to seke favour, and sleightly to advoyde all suche offences, laied to our charge.

We shall get favoure, by speakyng of our adversaries, if we shall make suche reporte of theim, that the hearers shall either hate to heare of them, or outerly envy them, or els altogether despise theim. We shall sone make our adversaries to be lothed, if we shewe and set furth, some naughtie deede of theirs, and declare how cruelly, how vilie, and how maliciously thei have used other men heretofore. We shall make theim to be envied, if we reporte unto the Judges, that thei beare theimselfes haulte, and stoute upon their wealthy frendes, and oppresse poore men by might, not regardyng their honestie, but sekyng alwaies by hooke and croke, to robbe poore men of their Fermes, Leases, and money. And by the waie declare some one thyng, that thei have doen, whiche honest eares would scant abide to heare.

We shall make theim to bee sette naught by, if we declare what luskes thei are, how unthriftely thei live, how thei do nothyng from daie to daie, but eate, drinke, and slepe, rather sekyng to live like beastes, then myndyng to live like men, either in profityng their countrey, or in tenderyng their awne commoditie, as by right thei ought to do.

We shall gette good will, by speakyng of the Judges and hearers: if we shall commende their worthy dooynges, and praise their just dealyng, and faithfull execucion of the law, [Page p1r] and tel them in what estimacion the whole country hath them for their upright judgyng and determinyng of matters, and therfore in this cause needes must it be that they must aunswere their former doynges, and judge so of this matter, as all good men have opinion they wil do.

We shal finde favor by speakyng of the matter, if in handlyng our owne cause, we commende it accordyngly, and dispraise the attempt of our adversarie extenuatyng al his chief purposes, so muche as shalbe necessarie.

Now resteth for me to speake of the other part of Enteraunce into an Oration, whiche is called a close, or privie gettyng of favour when the cause is daungerouse, and cannot easely be heard without displeasure.

A privy begynnyng, or crepyng in, otherwyse called Insinuation must then, and not els be used, when the judge is greaved with us, and our cause hated of the hearers.

The cause selfe oftentymes is not lyked for thre diverse causes. If either the matter selfe be unhonest, and not meete to be utterd before an audience, or els if the judge hymselfe by a former tale be perswaded to take part against us, or last if at that tyme we are forced to speake, when the judge is weried with hearyng of other. For the judge hymself beyng weried by hearyng, wil be muche more greeved if any thyng be spoken either overmuche, or els against his likyng. Yea, who seeth not that a weried man will soone mislike a right good matter? Yf the matter be so hainouse that it cannot be hearde without offence, (as if I shoulde take a mans parte, who were generally hated) wysedome were to lette hym go and take some other whom al men liked: or if the cause were thought not honest, to take some other in stede therof which were better lyked, til they were better prepared to heare the other: so that evermore nothyng shoulde bee spoken at the firste, but that whiche might please the judge, and not to be acknowen ones to thynke of that, whiche yet we minde most of al to perswade. Therfore when the hearers are somwhat calmed, we may entre by litle and litle into the matter, and saie that those thynges whiche our adversarie doth mislyke in the person accused, we also do mislyke the same. [Page p1v]

And when the hearers are thus wonne, we may saie, that all, whiche was saied nothyng toucheth us, and that wee mynde to speake nothyng at al against our adversaries, neither this waie, nor that waie. Neither were it wysedome openly to speake against theim, whiche are generally well estemed and taken for honest menne. And yet it were not amisse for the furtheraunce of our owne causes closely to speake our fantasie, and so, streighte to aulter their hartes. Yea and to tel the judges the like in a like matter, that suche and suche judgement hath bene geven: And therfore at this time consyderyng the same case, and the same necessitie, lyke judgement is looked for. But if the adversarie have so tolde his tale that the judge is wholy bent to geve sentence with hym, and that it is well knowen unto what reasons the judge most leaned and was perswaded: we may first promise to weaken that, whiche the adversarie hath made moste strong for hym selfe, and confute that parte whiche the hearers didde most esteme, and best of all lyke. Or elles we may take advauntage of some part of our adversaries tale, and talke of that firste, whiche he spake last: or elles begynne so, as though wee doubted what were best firste to speake, or to what parte it were moste reason firste of all to aunswere, wonderyng, and takyng GOD to wittenesse at the straungenesse of his reporte, and confirmacion of his cause. For when the standersby perceive that the aunswerer (whome the adversaries thought in their mind was wholly abashed) feareth so litle the objections of his adversarie, and is ready to aunswere Ad omnia quare, with a bolde contenaunce: they wil thynke that they themselves rather gave rashe credite, and were overlighte in belevyng the firste tale: than that he whiche nowe aunswereth in his owne cause, speaketh without grounde, or presumeth upon a stomacke to speake for hym selfe without just consideracion.

But if the tyme bee so spente, and the tale so long in tellyng, that al menne be almost weried to heare any more: than we must make promise at the first to be very shorte, and to lappe up our matter in fewe wordes. [Page p2r]

And if tyme may so serve it were good when men bee weried to make them somewhat merie, and to beginne with some pleasaunt tale, or take an occasion to jest wittely upon some thyng then presently doen.

Or if the tyme wil not serve for pleasaunt tales, it were good to tell some straunge thyng, some terrible wonder that they all may quake at the onely hearyng of the same. For lyke as when a mannes stomacke is full and can brooke no more meate, he may stirre his appetite either by some Tarte sawce, or elles quicken it somewhat by some sweate dishe: even so when the audience is weried with weightie affaires, some straunge wounders maye call up their spirites, or elles some merie tale may cheare their heavie lookes.

And assuredly it is no small connyng to move the hartes of menne either to mirthe, or saddenesse: for he that hath suche skill, shal not lightely faile of his purpose whatsoever matter he taketh in hande.

Thus have I taught what an Enteraunce is, and how it shoulde be used. Notwithstandyng I thynke it not amisse often to reherse this one poincte, that evermore the begynning be not overmuche laboured, nor curiously made, but rather apte to the purpose, seemyng upon present occasion, evermore to take place, and so to be devised, as though we speake all together without any great studie, framyng rather our tale to good reason, than our toungue to vaine paintyng of the matter. In all whiche discourse, whereas I have framed all the Lessons and every Enteraunce properly to serve for pleadyng at the Barre: yet assuredly many of theim maye well helpe those that preache Goddes truthe, and exhorte men in open assemblies to upright dealyng.

And no doubte many of theim have muche neede to knowe this Arte, that the rather their tale may hange together, where as oftentymes they begynne as muche from the matter, as it is betwixte Dover and Barwyke, whereat some take pitie, and many for werines can skante [Page p2v] abyde their begynnyng, it is so long or they speake any thyng to the purpose. Therefore the learned Clerkes of this our tyme, have thought it good that al Preachers shoulde take their begynnyng upon the occasion of suche matter as is there written, declaryng why and wherfore and upon what consideracion suche wordes were in those daies so spoken, that the reason geven of suche talke then utterde, might serve wel to begynne there Sermon. Or els to gather some several sentence at the firste, whiche brifely comprehendeth the whole matter folowyng, or elles to begynne with some apte similitude, example, or wittie saiyng. Or lastely to declare what wente before, and so to showe that whiche foloweth after. Yea sometimes to begynne lamentablie with an unfained bewailyng of sinne, and a terrible declaryng of Goddes threates: Sometymes to take occasion of a matter newly done, or of the company there present, so that alwaies the begynnyng be aunswerable to the matter folowyng.

Of Narration.

After the preface and first Enteraunce, the matter must bee opened, and everythyng lyvely tolde, that the hearers may fully perceave what we go about. Now in reportyng an acte done, or utteryng the state of a controversie, we must use these lessons, whereof the firste is to be shorte, the next to be plaine, and the thirde is, to speake likely, and with reason, that the hearers may remember, understande, and beleve the rather, suche thynges as shalbe said.

And first whereas we should be shorte in tellyng the matter as it lyeth, the best is to speake no more than needes we muste, not ravyng it from the botome, or tellyng bytales suche as rude people full ofte doe, nor yet touchyng every poinct, but tellyng the whole in a grosse summe. And whereas many matters shal neither harme us, nor yet do us good beyng brought in, and reported by us: it were well done not to medle with them at al, nor yet twyse to tell one thyng, or reporte that, whiche is odiouse to be tolde againe. Notwithstandyng this one thyng woulde bee wel considered, that in seekyng to be short, we be not obscure. And therfore to make [Page p3r] matter plaine, that all may understande it, the beste were first and formest to tell everythyng in order so muche as is nedeful, observyng bothe the tyme, the place, the maner of doyng, and the circumstaunces thereunto belongyng. Wherin good heede woulde bee had that nothyng bee doubtfullie spoken, whiche maie have a double meanyng, nor yet any thyng utterde that may make asmuche against us, as with us, but that al our woordes runne to confirme wholly our matter. And suerly if the matter be not so plainely told that al may understande it, we shall doe litle good in the reste of our report. For in other partes of the Oration if we be somewhat darke, it is the lesse harme, we may bee more plaine in an other place. But if the Narration, or substaunce of the tale bee not well perceyved, the whole Oration besydes is darckened altogether. For to what ende should we go about to prove that which the hearers know not what it is? Neither can we have any libertie to tel our tale again, after we have ones tolde it, but must streight go furthe and confirme that whiche we have said howsoever it is. Therfore the reportyng of our tale may soone appere plaine, if we firste expresse our mynde in plaine wordes, and not seeke these rope rype termes, whiche betraie rather a foole, than commende a wyse man: and again if we orderly observe circumstaunces, and tell one thyng after another from tyme to tyme, not tumblyng one tale in an others necke tellyng halfe a tale, and so leavyng it rawe, hackyng and hemmyng as though our wittes and our senses were a woll gatheryng. Neither shoulde we suffer our tongue to runne before our witte, but with much warenesse sette forthe our matter, and speake our mynde evermore with judgement.

We shal make our saiynges appere lykely, and probable: Yf we speake directely as the cause requireth, if wee showe the very purpose of al the devise, and frame our invencion accordyng as we shal thynke them most willyng to allowe it, that have the hearyng of it.

The Narration reported in matters of judgement shall seeme to stande with reason, if wee make our talke to agree with the place, tyme, thyng, and persone, if we shall showe [Page p3v] that whatsoever we say, the same by al likelyhodes is true, if our conjectures, tookens, reasons, and argumentes be suche that neither in them there appere any fablyng, nor yet that any thyng was spoken whiche might of right otherwyse be taken, and that wee not onely speake this, but that divers other of good creditie will stande with us in defense of the same, all whiche reportyng may sone bee lyked, and the tale so tolde, may be thought very reasonable. Yea, we shall make our doynges seme reasonable, if we frame our worke to natures wil, and seke none other meanes, but suche onely, as the honest and wyse have ever used and allowed, bryngyng in, and blamyng the evil alwaies for suche faultes chiefely, wherunto thei most of al are like to be subject. As to accuse a spend al, of thefte: a whoremunger, of adulterie: a rash quareller, of manslaughter: and so of other. Sometimes it is good and profitable to be merie and pleasaunt in reportyng a matter, against some maner of man and in some cause. For neither against all men that offend, nor yet against all matters shoulde the wittie alwaies use jestyng. And nowe for those that shall tel their mynde in the other kyndes of Oratorie, as in the kynde Demonstrative, Deliberative, in exhortyng or perswadyng: the learned have thought meete, that they must also cal the whole summe of their matter to one especial poincte, that the rather the hearers may better perceive whereat they leavel al their reasons. As if a Clarke do take in hande to declare Goddes hest, he will after his Enteraunce, tell what thyng is chiefly purposed in that place, and nexte after, showe other thynges annexed thereunto wherby not onely the hearers may gette great learnyng, and take muche profite of his doctrine, but he hym self may knowe the better what to say, what order to use, and when to make an ende.

Some do use after the literal sense to gather a misticall understandyng, and to expounde the saiynges spiritually, makyng their Narration altogether of thynges heavenly. Some rehersing a texte particularly spoken, applie thesame generally unto all states, enlargyng the Narracion moste Godly by comparyng wordes long agoe spoken, with thynges [Page p4r] and matters that are presently done. Notwithstandyng the auncient fathers because they did onely expounde the Scriptures for the moste parte, made no artificiall Narration: but used to folowe suche order as the plaine text gave theim. So that if every sentence were plainely opened to the hearers, they went not muche farther, savyng that when any worde gave them occasion to speake of some vice, they woulde largely saie their mynde in that behaulfe: As Chrisostome and Basile have done, with other.

The ware markyng and heedie observacion of tyme, place, and person may teache al menne (that be not past teachyng, ) howe to frame their Narration in all Controversies that are called in Question, and therfore when presente occasion shall geve good instruction, what neede more lessons? And especially seeyng nature teacheth what is comely, and what is not comely, for all tymes.

Yea what tell I nowe of suche lessons, seeyng GOD hath raised suche worthie Preachers in this our tyme, that their Godly, and learned dooyges, may be a moste juste example for al other to folowe: aswell for their lyvyng, as for their learnyng. I feare me the preceptes are more in nomber, than wil be wel kepte or folowed this yeare.

Of Division.

After our tale is told, and the hearers have wel learned what wee meane, the nexte is to reporte wherein the adversarie and wee, cannot agree, and what it is wherin we do agree. And then to part out suche principall poinctes whereof we purpose fully to debate, and laie theim out to be knowen: that the hearers may plainely see, what we wil say, and perceive at a worde, the substaunce of our meanyng. Now Tullie would not have a devision to be made, of, or above thre partes at the most, nor yet lesse than thre neither, if nede so require. For if we have thre chief groundes wherupon to rest, appliyng al our argumentes therunto, we shal bothe have matter enough to speake of, the hearers shal with ease understand our meanyng, and the whole Oration shal sone be it at an end. Notwithstandyng this lesson must not so curiouslie be kepte, as though it were synne to make [Page p4v] the division of fower, or fyve partes, but it was spoken for this ende that the division shoulde be made of as fewe as may be possible, that menne may the better carie it away and the reporter with more ease maie remember what he hath to saie. Nowe in praisyng, or dispraisyng, in perswadyng, or disswadyng, divisions muste also be used. As if one woulde enveighe against those women that will not geve their owne children sucke, he might use this devision. Whereas women commonly put their children furthe to nursyng, I will first prove that it is bothe against the lawe of nature and also against Goddes holie wil: Againe I wil showe that it is harmefull bothe for the childes bodie, and also for his witte, lastly, I wil prove that the mother selfe falleth into muche sickenesse thereby.

First, nature geveth milke to the woman for none other ende, but that she shoulde bestowe it upon her childe. And we see beastes feede there youngones, and why shoulde not women? GOD also commaundeth all women to bryng up their children.

Againe, the childrens bodies shalbe so affected, as the milke is whiche they receyve. Nowe, if the Nurse be of an evil complexion, or have some hidde disease, the childe suckyng of her brest muste needes take parte with her. And if that be true whiche the learned doe saie, that the temperature of the mynde folowes the constitucion of the bodie, needes must it be that if the Nurse be of a naughtie nature, the childe muste take thereafter. But be it, the Nurse be of a good complexion, of an honest behaviour (whereas contrary wyse Maydens that have made a scape are commonly called to bee Nurses) yet can it not bee but that the mothers mylke shoulde be muche more naturall for the childe, than the mylke of a straunger.

As by experience, let a man be long used to one kynde of drynke, if the same man chaunge his ayre, and his drynke, he is lyke to mislyke it. Lastely for the mothers, howe are they troubled with sore brestes besydes other diseases that happen throughe plentie of mylke. The whiche Phisicians can tell, and women full ofte have telte. Lykewyse in [Page q1r] speakyng of fastyng, I might use this division. Firste, it is godly to fast, because the spirite is more free and apter for any good worke. Again it is wholesome, because thereby evill humours are waisted, and many diseases either clerely put awaie, or muche abated of their tirannie. Lastly it is profitable, because men spende lesse money, the lesse bandequetyng that thei use. Therfore, if men love either to be wise, godly, healthfull, or wealthy, let them use fastyng, and forbeare excesse.

Now upon a division, there might also be made a subdivision, as where I saie, it is godly to fast, I might divide godlinesse, into the hearyng of Goddes worde, into praiyng devoutly, and charitable dealyng with all the worlde.

Again, speakyng of healthe, I mighte saie that the whole body, is not onely more lustie with moderate fastyng, but also more apte for al assaies. The learned man studieth better when he fasteth, then when he is full. The counsailor heareth causes with lesse pain beyng emptie, then he shalbe able after a full gorge.

Again, whereas the five senses, bryng us to the knowlege of many thynges: the more apte that every one is, the more pleasure thei bryng ever with them. The iyes se more clerely, the eares heare more quickely the tongue rouleth more roundly, and tasteth thinges better, and the nose smelleth evill savours the soner.

Philosophie is divided into the knowlege of thynges naturall, thynges morall, and into that arte, whiche by reason findeth out the truthe, commonly called Logique. Nowe of these three partes of Philosophie, I might make other thre subdivisions, and largely set them out. But these maie suffice for this tyme.

Of Proposicions.

Quintilian willeth, that streight and immediatly after the Narracion, there should also be used suche sentences, as might bee full of pithe, and contein in them the substaunce of muche matter, the rather that the hearers maie be stirred upon the only report, of some sentencious saiyng, or weightie text in the law. As in speakyng largely against extorcion, one might after his reasons applied [Page q1v] to the purpose, bryng in a pithie and sentencious proposicion as thus. Those handes are evill that scratche out the iyes: and what other dooe thei, that by force robbe their Christian brethren? Wo be to that realme, where might outgoeth right. Or thus, when rage doth rule, and reason doeth waite, what good man can hope to live long in rest. Also an act of a realme maie wel serve to make a proposicion. As thus. The lawe is plain: that man shall dye as an offendour, whatsoever he bee that breaketh up another mannes house, and seketh by spoyle to undo his neighbour. Now here is no man that doubteth, but that thou hast doen this deede, therfore, what nedes any more, but that thou muste suffer, accordyng to the lawe? In dividyng a matter, proposicions are used, and orderly applied for the better setting furth of the cause. As if I should speke of thankfulnesse, I might first shewe, what is thankfulnesse, next how nedefull it is, and last, how commendable and profitable it is universally? Thankfulnesse is a kynde of remembryng good will shewed, and an earnest desire to requite the same. Without thankfulnesse, no man would do for another. The brute beastes have these properties, and therefore man cannot want them, without his greate rebuke. Some porposicions are plain spoken, without any cause, or reason added therunto. As thus. I have charged this man with felony, as you have hard, but he denieth it: therfore judge you it, I pray you. Sometymes a cause is added, after the allegyng of a proposicion. As thus, I have accused this man of felonie, because he tooke my pursse by the high waie side, and therfore I call for justice. Thus proposicions might bee gathered, nexte and immediately after the rehersall of any cause, and beautifie muche the matter, beyng either alleged with the cause annexed, or els beyng plainly spoken, without gevyng any reason to it at all.

When we have declared the chief poynctes, whereunto wee purpose to referre all our reasons, wee muste heape matter and finde out argumentes, to confirme thesame to the outermoste of our power, makyng firste the strongest reasons that wee can, and nexte [Page q2r] after, gatheryng all probable causes together, that beeyng in one heape, thei maie seme strong, and of greate weighte. And whatsoever the adversarie hath saied against us, to answere thereunto, as tyme and place beste maie serve. That if his reasons be light, and more good maie bee doen in confutyng his, then in confirmyng our awne: it were best of all to sette upon hym, and putte awaie by arte, all that he hath fondely saied without witte. For provyng the matter, and searchyng out the substaunce, or nature of the cause, the places of Logique muste helpe to sette it forward. But when the persone shalbe touched, and not the matter, we must seke els where, and gather these places together.

i. The name. ii. The maner of livyng. iii. Of what house he is, of what countre and of what yeres. iiii. The wealthe of the man. v. His behaviour or daily enuryng with thynges. vi. What nature he hath. vii. Whereunto he is moste geven. viii. What he purposeth from tyme to tyme. ix. What he hath doen heretofor befaulne unto hym heretofore. xi. What he hath confessed, or what he hath to saie for hymself.

In well examinyng of all these matters, muche maie be said, and greate likelihodes maie be gathered, either to or fro, the whiche places I used heretofore, when I spake of matters in judgement, against the accused souldiour. Now in triyng the truth, by reasons gathered of the matter: we must first marke what was doen at that time by the suspected persone, when suche and suche offences were committed. Yea, what he did, before this acte was dooen. Again, the tyme muste bee marked, the place, the maner of doyng, and what hart he bare hym. As thoportunitie of doyng [Page q2v] and the power he had to do this deede. The whiche all sette together, shal either acquitte him, or finde him giltee. These argumentes serve to confirme a matter in judgement, for any hainous offence. But in the other causes which are occupied, either in praisyng, or dispraisyng, in perswadyng, or diswadyng, the places of confirmacion, be suche as are before rehersed, as when wee commende a thyng, to prove it thus.

Honest. Profitable. Easie. Necessarie. to be doen.

And so of other in like maner, or els to use in stede of these, the places of Logique. Therefore, when we go aboute to confirme any cause, wee maie gather these groundes above rehersed, and even as the case requireth, so frame our Reasones. In confutyng of causes, the like maie be had, as we used to prove: if we take the contrarie of thesame. For as thynges are alleged, so thei maie be wrested, and as houses are buylded, so thei maie bee overthrowen. What though many conjectures be gathered, and diverse matters framed, to overthrowe the defendaunt: yet witte maie finde out bywaies to escape, and suche shiftes maie be made either in avoydyng the daunger, by plain denial, or els by objeccions, and reboundyng again of reasons made, that small harme shall turne to the accused persone, though the presumptions of his offence be greate, and he thought by good reason to be faultie. The places of Logique, as I saied, cannot be spared, for the confirmacion of any cause. For, who is he, that in confirmyng a matter, wil not know the nature of it, the cause of it, theffect of it, what is agreyng therunto, what likenesse there is betwixt that, and other thinges, what examples maie bee used, what is contrary, and what can be saied aginst it. Therefore, I wishe that every manne should desire and seke to have his Logique perfect, before he looke to profite in Rhetorique, consideryng the grounde and confirmacion of causes, is for the moste part gathered out of Logique. [Page q3r]

Of conclusion.

A conclusion is the handsome lappyng up together, and brief heapyng of all that, whiche was saied before, stirryng the hearers by large utteraunce, and plentifull gatheryng of good matter, either the one waie, or the other.

There are twoo partes of a conclusion, the one resteth in gatheryng together briefly, all suche argumentes as wer before rehersed, reportyng the somme of them, in as fewe wordes as can be, and yet after suche a sorte, that muche varietie be used, bothe when the rehersall is made, as also after the matter is fully reported. For, if the repeticion should be naked, and onely set furthe in plain woordes, without any chaunge of speache, or shift of Rhetorique: neither should the hearers take pleasure, nor yet the matter take effect. Therfore, when the Oratour shall touche any place, whiche maie geve juste cause to make an exclamacion, and stirre the hearers to be sory, to bee glad, or to be offended: it is necessary to use arte to the outermoste. Or when he shall come to the repeatyng of an heinous acte, and the maner thereof: he maie set the Judges on fire, and heate them earnestly against the wicked offendor. Thus in repeatyng, arte maie bee used, and nexte with the onely rehersall, matters maie bee handsomely gathered up together.

The other part of a conclusion resteth, either in augmentyng and vehemently enlargyng that, whiche before was in fewe wordes spoken, to set the Judge or hearers in a heate: or els to mitigate and asswage displeasure conceived, with muche lamentyng of the matter, and movyng theim thereby the rather to shewe mercie. Amplificacion is of twoo sortes, whereof I will speake more at large, in the nexte Chapiter. The one resteth in wordes, the other in matter. Suche wordes muste bee used, as be of greate weight, wherein either is some Metaphore, or els some large understandyng is conteined. Yea, wordes that fill the mouthe, and have a sound with them, set furthe a matter very well. And sometymes wordes twise spoken, make the matter appere greater.

Again, when we firste speake our mynde in lowe wordes, [Page q3v] and after use weightier, the fault likewise semeth to be greater. As when one had killed a jentleman, thus might another amplifie his mynd. For one slave to strike another, wer worthy of punishement, but what deserveth that wretche, whiche not onely striketh a manne, but striketh a jentlemanne, and not onely striketh a jentleman, but cowardly killeth a jentlemanne, not gevyng hym one wounde, but gevyng hym twentie. To kill any manne in suche sorte, deserveth deathe, but what saie you to him, that not onely killeth hym so, but also hangeth hym moste spitefully upon a tree. And yet not content with that, but scourgeth hym, and mangleth hym when he is dedde, and last of all, maketh a jest of his moste naughtie deede, leavyng a writyng there, aboute the dedde mannes necke. Now then seyng his crueltee is suche, that thonly killyng, cannot content his devilishe deede, and moste dedly malice: I aske it for Gods love, and in the waie of Justice, that this wicked Devill, maie suffer worthy death, and bee punished to the example of all other. Amplifiyng of the matter, consisteth in heapyng, and enlargyng of those places, whiche serve for confirmacion of a matter. As the definicion, the cause, the consequent, the contrary, the example, and suche other.

Again, amplificacion maie be used, when we make the law to speake, the dedde persone to make his complaint, the countrey to crie out of suche a deede. As if some worthy manne wer cast awaie, to make the countrey saie thus: If England could speake, would she not make suche, and suche complaints? If the walles of suche a citee or toune, had a tongue, would thei not talke thus and thus? And to bee shorte, all suche thynges should be used, to make the cause seme greate, whiche concerne God, the common weale, or the lawe of nature. For if any of these three bee hindered, we have a large fielde to walke in. In praisyng, or dispraisyng, wee muste exaggerate those places towardes the ende, whiche make menne wonder at the straungenesse of any thyng. In perswadyng, or disswadyng, the rehersall of commoditees, and heapyng of examples together, encrease muche the matter. It were a greate labour to tell all the commoditees, and all the properties, [Page q4r] whiche belong unto the conclusion. For suche arte maie bee used in this behalfe, that though the cause bee very evill, yet a wittie manne maie gette the overhande, if he bee cunnyng in his facultee.

The Athenians therfore did streightly forbid by a lawe, to use any conclusion of the cause, or of any enterance of the matter to wynne favour. Cicero did herein so excell, that lightly he gotte the victorie in all matters, that ever he tooke in hande. Therefore as juste praise ariseth by this parte, so I doubte not, but the wittiest will take moste paines in this behalf, and the honest, for ever will use the defence of moste honest matters. Weapons maie bee abused for murder, and yet weapons are onely ordeined for saufgard.

Of the figure amplficacion.

Emong all the figures of Rhetorique, there is no one that so muche helpeth forwarde and Oracion, and beautifieth thesame with suche delitefull ornamentes, as dooeth amplificacion. For if either wee purpose to make our tale appere vehemente, to seme pleasaunt, or to be well stored with muche copie: nedes must it be that here we seke helpe, where helpe chiefly is to be had, and not els where. And nowe because none shall better bee able, to amplifie any matter then those, whiche beste can praise, or moste dispraise any thyng here upon yearth, I thinke it nedefull, firste of all to gather suche thynges together, whiche helpe best this waie. Therefore in praisyng, or dispraisyng, we muste bee well stored ever with suche good sentences, as are often used in this our life, the whiche through arte beyng encreased, helpe muche to perswasion. As for example, where it is saied (jentle behavioure wynneth good will, and clerely quensheth hatered) I mighte in commendyng a noble jentlemanne for his lowlinesse, declare at large howe commendable, and how profitable a thyng, jentle behavioure is, and of the other side, how hatefull and howe harmefull, a proude disdainfull manne is, and howe beastly a nature he hath, that beeyng but a manne, thinketh hymself better then any other manne is, and also over good to have a matche [Page q4v] or felowe in this life. As thus, if lowelinesse and Charitee maintayne life, what a beaste is he, that throughe hatered will purchace deathe? If God warneth us to love one another, and learne of him to be jentle, because he was jentle and humble in harte: howe cruell are thei, that dare withstande his commaundemente? If the subject rebell against his kyng, we crie with one voyce, hang hym, hang hym, and shall wee not thynke hym worthy the vilest death of all, that beeyng a creature, contempneth his creatour, beyng a mortall manne, neglecteth his heavenly maker, beyng a vile moulde of claie, setteth lighte by so mightie a God, and ever livyng Kyng? Beastes and birdes without reason, love one another, thei shroude, and thei flocke together, and shall men endued with suche giftes, hate his even christian, and eschewe companie? When Shepe dooe straie, or cattell doo strive one against another, there are Dogges ready to call them in, yea, thei wil bite them (as it hath been full often seen) if twoo fight together: and shall man wante reason, to barke against his lewde affeccions, or at the least shal he have none to checke hym for his faultes, and force him to forgeve? Likewise if you would rebuke one that geveth eare to backbiters and slaunderers, ye muste declare what a greate mischief an evill tongue is, what a poysone it is, yea, what a murder, to take a mannes good name from hym. We compte hym worthy death, that poysoneth a mannes body, and shal not he suffer the like pain that poysoneth a mannes honestie, and seketh to obscure and darken his estimacion? Menne bee well accepted emong the wise, not for their bodies, but for their vertues. Now take awaie the thyng, whereby menne are commended: and what are menne, other then brute beastes? For beastes do nothyng agaisnt nature, but he that goeth against honestie, thesame manner fighteth against nature, whiche would that all menne should live well. When a manne is killed secretly, wee aske Judgement for the offendour, and shall thei escape without Judgement, that covertly murder a mannes soule? That separate hym from GOD, that Judge hym to helle, whose life hath ever been moste heavenly? When oure pursse is piked, we make strieght searche for it agayne, and emprisone [Page r1r] the offendoure, and shall we not seke recoverye of our good name, when evyll tongues have stayned it? If our fame be of more price, then is either golde or grotes, what meane we to be so carelesse in kepynge the one, and so carefull in kepynge the other? Fonde is his purpose that beinge in the rayne, casteth his garmente in a Bushe, and standeth naked him selfe, for savynge the glosse of his gaye coate. And yet what other thing do they that esteme the losse of money, for greate lacke: and counte not the losse of the exaggerate anye matter.

Agayne, sentences gathered and heaped together commende muche the matter. As if one shoulde saye: Revengemente belongeth to God alone, and therby exhorte menne to pacience: He myghte brynge in these sentences with him, and geve greate cause of muche matter. No man is hurte but of him selfe, that is to saye: adversitie or wronge sufferinge is no harme to him that hathe a constaunt harte, and lives upright in all his doynges.

He is more harmed that dothe wronge, then he that hath suffered wronge.

He is the stowter that contemneth, then he is that committeth wronge.

Yea, he gayneth not a little, that had rather suffer much losse, then trye his ryght by contention.

Gaine gotte by fraude, is harme and no gaine.

There is no greater victorye, then for manne to rule hys affections.

It is a greater matter to overcome anger, then to winne a fortresse or a tower.

There is no greater token of a noble harte, then to contemne wronge.

He that requiteth evill for evill: throughe hatred of an evil manne, is made evyll hym selfe, and therfore worthy to be hated.

He that contenmeth his enemye in battayle, is counted [Page r1v] a goodman of warre, and a wise.

He that requiteth good for evill, is an aungell of God.

He that mindeth revengemente, is at the next doore to manslaughter.

God is moved wyth nothynge soner to forgeve us oure offences, then if we for his sake forgeve one another.

The requitinge of injuries hath no ende.

Strife is best ended throughe Pacience.

Anger is a madnesse, differing from it in this point only, that anger is shorte, and tarieth not longe, madnesse abideth still.

It is folye to suffer the fome of a horse, or the striking of his fote, and not abyde anye thynge that a foole dothe, or a noughtye disposed felowe speaketh.

No man trusteth a dronkard: And yet seyng the dronkennes of rage, and madnesse of anger, are much more daungerous then surfetinge with wyne: he dothe folyshely that trusteth his owne wytte anye thynge, when he is in a rage. Good dedes shoulde all waies be remembred, wronge doing shoulde sone be forgeven, and sone be forgotten.

Againe for liberalitye, sentences might serve. It is the propertie to a God to helpe man. He hathe receyved a good turne by gevynge, that hath bestowed his liberalitye upon a worthye man.

He geveth twise, that geveth sone and chearefully.

God loveth the gladde gever.

It is a poyncte of liberalitie, sometymes to lose a good turne.

He that geveth to hym that wyll evyll use it, geveth no good thing, but an evil thing.

Nothyng is more safelye layed up, then is that whiche is bestowed upon good folke.

Be not afrayed to sowe good fruite.

Nothinge is better geven to Christe, then is that whiche is geven to the pore.

No one man is borne for him selfe.

He is unworthye to have, that hath onelye for him selfe. [Page r2r]

The thirde kinde of Amplifiynge is when wee gather suche sentences as are communelye spoken, or elles use to speake of suche thynges as are notable in thys lyfe. Of the first these maye be examples. In lamenting the miserye of wardeshyppes, I might saie it is not for noughte so communely said: I wil handle you like a warde. She is a steppe mother to me: that is to saye, she is not a naturall mother: who is worsse shodde then the shomakers wife? That is to saye: gentilmens children full ofte are kepte but meanelye. Trotte sire, and trotte damme, how should the fole amble, that is, when bothe father and mother were noughte, it is not like that the childe wil prove good, without an especial grace of God.

Likeryshe of tongue, lighte of taile: that is, he or she that will fare dainetelye, will ofte live full wantonlye. Sone rype, sone rotten. Honoure chaungeth maners. Enoughe is as good as a feaste. It is an evil coke that can not licke his owne fingers. I will soner truste mine eye, then myne eare. But what nede I heape all these together, seynge Heywodes Proverbes are in prynte, where plentye are to be hadde: whose paynes in that behalfe, are worthye immortall prayse.

Thinges notable in this life are those, the which chaunce to fewe. As this: To see a man of an hundred yeres of age. A yonge chylde as sober as a man of fiftye yeres. A woman that hath hadde .xxiiii. chyldren. A man once worthe three or foure thousande pownde, now not worthe a grote. A yong man fayrer then anye woman. A woman that hath had seven or eyght husbandes. A man able to draw a yarde in his bow besides the feathers. A man merye nowe, and deade wythin halfe an houre after. There is none of all these, but serve muche to make oure talke appeare vehemente, and encrease the weight of communication. As for example, If one woulde perswade an ole man to contemne the vanities of thys worlde, he might use the examples of sodayne death, and shew that children have dyed in their mothers lappe, some in their cradell, some stryplinges, some elder, and that not one emonge a thousande cometh to thre score yeres. [Page r2v]

Or be it that some lyve an hundred yeares, beyonde the which not one in this last age passeth, what is there in this lyfe, for the whiche anye manne shoulde desire to live longe, seynge that olde age bringeth this onelye commoditye wyth it, that by longe livinge, we see many thinges, that we woulde not see, and that manye a manne hath shortened his life, for wearines of this wretched worlde. Or what thoughte some pleasures are to be hadde in this life, what are they al to the pleasures of the lyfe to come? Lykewise in speakinge of evill happe, I myght brynge him in that was once worthe three thousande pounde, and is not nowe worthe three grotes, and perswade menne either to set lyghte by riches, or elles to comforte theim, and perswade theim not to take thought, seyng great harmes have happened to other heretofore, and time maye come when God will sende better. These sentences above rehearsed, being largely amplified, encrease much any suche kinde of matter.

What is amplification.

Amplification is a figure in Rhetorique, which consisteth mooste in Augmentynge and diminishynge of anye matter, and that divers wayes.

The devision of Amplification.

Al Amplification and diminishynge eyther is taken oute of the substaunce in thinges, or els of wordes. Oute of the substaunce and matter, affections are derived: oute of wordes, suche kindes of amplification, as I wyl nowe shewe, and partly have shewed before, when I speke of the Conclusion, or lappynge up of anye matter.

The firste kinde of Amplification is, when by chaunging a woorde, in augmentynge we use a greater, but in diminishynge, we use a lesse. Of the firste, this may be an example. When I see one sore beaten, to saye he is slayne: to call a naughtye felowe, thiefe, or hangemanne, when he is not [Page r3r] knowen to be anye suche. To call a womanne that hathe made a scape, a commune harlot: to call an Alehouse haunter, a dronkarde: to call one that is troubled with choler, and often angrye, a madde manne: to call a pleasaunte gentilman, a raylynge jester: to call a covetous man, a devill.

Of the latter, these examples shalbe: when one hath sore beaten his felowe, for the same manner to saye that he hathe scant touched him: When one hath sore wounded another, to saye that he hurt him but a little: when one is sore sicke, to be saide he is a little crased. In lyke maner also, when we geve vices, the names of vertue, as when I cal him that is a cruell or mercilesse man, somewhat soore in judgement. When I call a naturall foole, a playne symple man: when I call a notable flatterer, a fayre spoken man: a glutton, a good felowe at hys table: a spende all, a liberall gentilman: a snudge, or pynche penye, a good husbande, a thriftye man.

Nowe in all these kindes, where woordes are amplified, they seme muche greater, if by correction the sentence be utterde, and greater wordes compared with them, for whome they are utterde. In the whiche kynde of speache, we shal seme as thoughe we wente up by stayres, not onelye to the toppe of a thinge, but also above the toppe. There is an example hereof in the seventh action that Tullie made against Verres. It is an offence to bynde a Citezen of Rome with chaynges, it is an haynouse deede to whyppe him: it is worse then manslaughter to kyll him: what shall I call it to hang hym up upon a gibet? If one woulde commende the aucthoritye whiche he alledgeth, he myght saye thus. These wordes are no fables utterde emonge men, but an assured truth lefte unto us by wrytynge, and yet not by anye commune writynge, but by suche as all the worlde hath confirmed and agreed upon, that it is autentique, and canonicall: neyther are they the wordes of one, that is of the commen sort, but they are the wordes of a doctour in the church of God, and yet not the woordes of a devine, or doctoure of the commune sorte, but of an Apostle: and yet not of one that is the worste, but of Paule, that is the best of al other: and yet not Paules, but rather the wordes of the holye ghost, speakyng [Page r3v] by the mouthe of Paule. He that loveth to enlarge by this kinde, must marcke well the circumstaunces of thinges, and heapynge them altogether, he shall with ease espye how one thinge riseth above an other. And because the use hereof extendeth largelye, I will largelye use examples. As thus. If a gentleman and officer of the kinges, beynge overcharged at Supper with overmuche drynke, and surfetyng with gorge upon gorge, should vomite the next daye in the parliamente house: I myghte enveyghe thus: O shameful dede, not onelye in sighte to be lothed, but also odious of all men to be hearde. If thou haddest done this dede at thyne owne house beynge at Supper wyth thy wyfe and children, who would not have thought it a filthy dede? But now for the to do it in the Parliamente house, emong so manye gentilmen, and such, yea, the best in al England: beyng bothe an officer of the kynges, and a man of muche aucthoritye, and there to caste oute gobbets (where belchinge were thoughte greate shame) yea, and suche gobbets as none coulde abyde the smell, and to fyll the whole house wyth evill savoure, and thy whole bosome with muche filthines, what an abhominable shame is it above all other? It had bene a fowle dede of it selfe to vomite where no suche gentilmen were: yea, where no gentilmen were: yea, wher no Englysh men were: yea, wher no men were: yea, wher no company were at al: or it had ben evil, if he had borne no maner of office, or had ben no publique officer, or had not bene the kinges officer: but being not onely an officer, but a publike officer, and that the kynges officer: yea, and suche a kinges, and doyng such a dede: I can not tel in the world what to say to him. Divers examples maye be invented like unto this. As thus, againste an heade officer in a noble mans house, I myght enveigh thus. Now Lorde, what a man is he, he was not ashamed beyng a gentilman, yea, a man of good yeres, and much aucthoritie, and the heade Officer in a Dukes house, to playe at dyce in a alehouse wyth boyes, bawdes, and verlets. It had bene a greate faulte to playe at so vile a game, emonge suche vile persons, beynge no gentilman, beynge no officer, beyng not of suche yeres: But beynge bothe a man of fayre landes, of [Page r4r] an auncient house, of great aucthoritie, an officer to a duke, yea, and to suche a Duke, and a man of such yeres, that his white heeres shoulde warne him to avoyde all suche folye, to play at suche a game, with suche roysters, and such verlets, yea, and that in such a house as none come thither but theves, bawdes, and Ruffians: nowe before God I can not speake shame enoughe of him. There is an other kynde of Amplification when unto the hyghest, there is added some thinge higher then it is. As thus. There is not a better preacher emonge theim all, excepte Hughe Latimer, the father of all preachers. There is no better Latine man within England, excepte Gualter Haddon the lawer.

Againe, we amplifye a matter not ascendyng by degrees, but speakinge that thinge onely, than the whiche no greater thinge can be spoken. As thus. Thou haste killed thyne owne mother, what shall I saye more, thou hast kylled thine owne mother. Thou hast deceaved thy soveraine Lord and kinge, what shall I saye more, thou hast dedeived thy soveraine Lorde and kinge.

Sometymes wee amplifie by comparynge, and take oure grounde upon the weakest and least, the whiche if they seme greate, then muste that neades appeare greate, whyche wee woulde amplifie and encrease. As Tullie againste Catiline. My servauntes in good south, if they feared me in such sort, as all the Citezens do feare thee: I would thinke it best for me to forsake my house. Thus by using the lesse first, this sentence is encreased, fewe servauntes are compared with all the citezens, bondmen are compared with free men: Tullie the master, is compared with Catiline the traytour, which was neither lord nor ruler over the Citezens: and Tullies house is compared with the Citye.

By comparing of examples, we use also to encrease oure matter. As thus. Did the Maior of London thrust throughe Jacke Straw beinge but a verlet rebell, and onely disquietinge the Citye: and shall the kynge suffer Capitayne Kete to live in Englandes grounde, and enjoye the fruites of his realme, beinge a most tyrannous traytoure, and such a rebell as sought to overthrowe the whole Realme? [Page r4v]

Here is Jacke Strawe compared with Capitaine Kete, the Citye of London, with the whole Realme, the Maior with the kinge. So that if he which is a private person, and hathe no power of deathe, myghte punyshe wyth deathe the disquietynge of a Citye: the kynge him selfe havynge all power in his hande, maye justelye punishe hym that seketh to overthrowe his whole realme.

The places of Logique helpe ofte for Amplification. As, where men have a wronge opinion, and thynke theft a greater faulte then slaunder, one myght prove the contrarye aswell by circumstaunces, as by argumentes. And first he might shewe that slaunder is thefte, and that everye slaunderer is a thiefe. For as well as the slaunderer as the thiefe, doe take away an other mannes possession againste the owners will. After that he might shewe that a slaunderer is worse then anye thiefe, because a good name is better then all the goodes in the worlde: and that the losse of money maye be recovered, but the losse of mannes good name, can not be called backe againe, and a thefe maye restore that agayne whiche he hath taken awaye, but a slaunderer can not geve a man his good name againe, whiche he hath taken from him. Agayne, he that stealeth goodes or cattell, robbes onely but one man, but an evill tongued man infecteth all their mindes: unto whose eares this reporte shall come.

Besides this, there are lawes and remedies to subdue theves: but there is no lawe agaynste an evyll tongue. Agayne, all suche haynouse Offences are ever the more grevouslye punished, the more closlie, and more craftelye they are committed. As it is thought a greater faulte to kyll one with poyson, then to kyll him with the swerde, and a more haynouse offence to commit murder, then to commit manslaughter: we maye gather an argument also from the instrumente or maner of doyng. As a thefe hath done this offence wyth hys hande, a slaunderer hath done it with his tongue. Agayne, by the judgement of al menne, enchauntement is a notable evill: But they that infecte a prynce or a kinge with wycked counsayle, are not they more wycked enchaunters, considerynge they doe as muche as if one shoulde a Poyson a [Page s1r] conduite head, or a River from whence al men featche their water. And yet they do more, for it is a greater fault to poison the mynde, then the bodie. Thus by the places and circumstaunces, great matter might be made.

By contraries set together, thynges oftentymes appere greater. As if one shoulde set Lukes Velvet against Geane velvet, the Lukes wil appere better, and the Geane wil seeme worser. Or sette a faire woman against a foule, and she shal seeme muche the fairer, and the other muche the fouler. Accordyng whereunto there is a saiyng in Logique: Contraria inter se opposita magis elucescunt. That is to say, Contraries beyng set, the one against the other, appere more evident. Therefore if any one be disposed to set furthe chastitie, he may bryng in, of the contrarie parte, whordome, and show what a foule offence it is to live so unclenly, and then the deformitie of whoredome shall muche sette forthe chastitie: or if one be disposed to perswade his felow to learnyng and knowlege, he may showe of the contrarie what a naked wretche, man is, yea how muche a man is no man, and the life no lyfe, when learnyng ones wanteth. The lyke helpe we may have by comparyng lyke examples together either of creatures livyng, or of thynges not livyng: As in speakyng of constauncie, to showe the Sonne who ever kepeth one course: in speakyng of inconstaunce to showe the Moone whiche keepeth no certaine course. Againe, in younge Storkes wee may take an example of love towardes their damme, for when she is olde, and not able for her crooked bil to picke meat, the youngones fede her. In young Vipers there is a contrary example (for as Plinie saieth) they eate out their dammes wombe, and so come forthe. In Hennes there is a care to bryng up their chickens, in Egles the contrarie, whiche caste out their egges if thei have any mo then thre: and al because they woulde not be troubled with bryngyng up of many.

There is also a notable kynde of amplification when we would extenuate and make lesse, great faultes, which before we did largely encrease: to thende that other faultes might seeme the greatest above all other. As if one had robbed his [Page s1v] maister, thrust his felow through the arme, accompaned with harlottes, kepte the taverne till he had been as dronke as a ratte: to say after a large invective against al these offences. You have heard a whole court roule of ribauldrie and yet al these are but fle bitynges in respect and comparison of that which I shal now show you. Who doth not loke for a marveilouse great matter and a most hainouse offence, when those faultes are thought moste grevouse are counted but fle bitynges in respect and comparison of that whiche he myndeth to reherse? In like maner, one might exhort the people to godlinesse, and whereas he hath set forthe al the commodities that folowe the same, as in showyng a quiet conscience, not gilty of any great faulte, the libertie of spirite, the peace whiche we have with GOD, the felowship with al the electe, for the servant of Sathan, to be the sonne of GOD, the comforte of the soule, the greatenesse wherof noe man is able to conceive: to say at lengthe, and what can be greater, what can be more excellent, or more blesseful? And yet al these are smal matters if thei be compared with the blessed enheritaunce of the everliving God prepared for al those that live Godlie here upon earthe, fastenyng there whole trust upon Christe above, whiche bothe is able, and will save all those that cal unto him with faith. We do encrease our cause by reasonyng the matter and casting our accompt, when either by thynges that folow, or by thynges that go before, or elles by suche thynges as are annexed with the matter, wee geve sentence how great the thyng is. By thynges goyng before, I judge when I see an enviouse, or hasty man fight with an other as hastie, that there is lyke to be bloudshed. As who should saie, can enviouse, or hastie men matche together, but that they must needes trie the matter with bloudshedyng? Assuredly it can not be otherwyse but that bloude must appease their rage. Likewyse seeyng two wyse men earnestly talkyng together, I cannot otherwyse judge but that their talke must nedes be wittie, and concerne some weightie matter. For to what ende shoulde wyse men joyne, or wherefore shoulde they laie their heades together, if it were not for some earnest cause? What a shame is it for a strong man, of [Page s2r] muche health and great manhode, to be overcome with a cuppe of drynke. From thynges joyned with the cause, thus. A woman havyng her housbande emprisoned, and in daunger of death, soubdenly steppe before the Kyng and craved his pardon. Bold was that woman whiche durst adventure to knele before a Kyng, whose housband had so grevously offended. Though women by nature are fearful, yet in her apered a manly stomake, and a good bolde harte, yea even in greatest daunger. By thynges that folowe, thus. Al England lament the death of Duke Henrie and Duke Charles twoo noble brethren of the house of Suffoke. Then may we wel judge that these two jentlemen were wonderfully beloved, when they both were so lamented.

There is a kynde of Amplifiyng, when in speakyng of .ii. that fought together, wee praise hym muche that had of worse, because we would the other to have more praise. Consideryng for a man to beate a boye, it were no praise, but for a talle man to matche with an other, that were as talle as hym selfe: that were somwhat worthe. Therfore I woulde have the Scottes wel praised, whome the Englishmen have so often vanqished. He that praiseth muche the stronghold of Boleine, must nedes thereby praise kyng Henry the .viii. of England, who by martial power, wonne it, and kepte it al his lyfe tyme. Or thus. Suche a one kepes a marveilouse good house, for the worst boie in his house drynkes one and thesame drynke with his master, and al one bread, yea every one hath his meate in silver, chamber vessels, and all are of silver. We judge by apparel, by armour, or by harnesse what a man is of stature, or biggenes. We judge by occasion, the goodnes of men, as when they might have doen harme, thei would not, when they might have slaine, thei sought rather to save. From the place where one is, encrease may be gatherd. As thus. Beyng even in the Court, he was never moved to gammyng, beyng at Rome, he hated harlottes, where there is by report so great plentie as there are starres in the element.

>From the tyme thus, he must needes be well learned in the lawes of our Realme that hath been a student this thirtie wynter. [Page s2v]

>From the age: assuredly, he is lyke to be good, for beeyng but a childe he was ever most godlie. From the state of lyfe: no doubt but he is honest, for beyng but a servaunt he lyved so uprightely, as none coulde justly blame his lyfe.

>From the hardenesse of a thyng. That whiche is almost onely proper to Aungels must nedes be harde for man: therefore chastitie is a rare gifte, and harde for man to kepe.

>From the straungenesse of a thyng. Eloquence must nedes bee a wonderful thyng, when so fewe have attained it.

Lykewyse notable adventures doen by a fewe, are more praise worthy than suche as have been done by a great nomber. Therfore the battail of Muskelborow against the Scottes where so fewe Englishmen were slaine, and so many Scottes dispatched: must nedes be more praise worthie, than if the nomber of Englishmen had been greater.

Vehemencie of woordes full often helpe the matter forwarde, when more is gatherde by cogitacion, than if the thyng had been spoken in plaine woordes. When wee heare one say suche a man swelled seyng a thyng against his mynd, we gather that he was then, more than half angrie. Againe, when wee heare one saie, suche a woman spittes fier, we gather streight that she is a Devill. The Preacher thunderde in the Pulpite, belyke then he was metely hoote. But concernyng all suche speaches, the knowlege of a Metaphore, shall bryng men to muche knowlege, (whereof I wil speake hereafter emong the figures) and therefore I surcease to speake of it in this place.

We encrease our cause by heapyng of wordes and sentences together, couchyng many reasons into one corner which before were scaterde abrode, to thentent that our talke might apere more vehement. As when by many conjectures and great presumptions we gather that one is an offendor, heapyng them al into one plumpe, whiche before were sparpled abrode, and therefore did but litle good. As thus: To prove by conjectures a murder committed, I might thus say against a suspected person. My Lordes do not weye my wordes and sentences severally, but consider them all altogether. If [Page s3r] the accused persone here shal receive profite by this other mans deathe, if his lyfe heretofore hath ever been evill, his nature covetouse, his wealthe most slendre, and that this dead mans gooddes could turne to no mans availe so muche as unto this accuased person, and that no man could so easely dispatche him, and that this man could by no better meanes compasse his desier, and that nothyng hath been unattempted whiche might further his naughtie purpose, and nothyng doen that was thought needelesse, and seeyng a meete place was chefely sought for, and occasion served very wel, and the tyme was most apt for suche an attempte and many meanes heretofore devised to compasse this offence, and greate hope bothe to kepe it close, and also to dispatche it, and besydes that, seeyng this man was seen alone a litle before in the same place, where this other man was slaine, and that this mans voice whiche did slaye hym was hard a litle before in the same place where this other man was slaine, and seyng it is well knowne that this man came home late the same night, and the nexte daie after beyng examined, did answere confusedlie, fearefullie, and as though he were amased, and seeyng al these thynges are partely showed by wittenesses, partely by good reason, partely by his owne confession, and partely by the reporte that comonly goeth of hym, whiche by lyke is not spoken without some grounde: It shalbe your partes worthie judges wayng al these thynges together to geven certaine judgement of hym for this offence, and not to thynke it a matter of suspicion. For it might have been that thre or foure of these conjectures beyng proved, might geve but onely a cause of suspicion, but whereas all these together are plainely proved by hym, it can not be otherwise but that he hath offended.

It is an excellent kynd of Amplifiyng when thynges encreased, and thynges diminished are both set together, that the one may the rather beautifie the other. As if, when Gods goodnesse towardes us were largely amplified, we did streight extenuate our unthankfulnesse towardes him again. As thus: Seeyng God hath made man a creature unto his owne likenesse, seeyng he hath geven hym lyfe, and the spirite [Page s3v] of understandyng, endewyng hym with his manifolde graces, and redemyng hym not with vile money, but with his owne preciouse bodie, sufferyng deathe, and blodesheddyng upon the Crosse, the rather that man might lyve for ever: what an unthankefull parte is it, yea what an hainouse thyng is it for man so ofte to offende, so ofte to wallowe in suche his wickednesse, and evermore for Goddes lovyng kyndnesse, to showe hym selfe of al other creatures most unkynde?

Lykewyse contraries beyng rehersed and the evil immediatly utterde after the good, make muche for encrease. As many men now a daies for sobrietie, folowe gluttonie, for chastitie, take leachery, for truthe, lyke falsehode, for gentlenesse, seeke crueltie, for justice, use wrong dealyng, for heaven, hell, for God, the Devill: to whome they will without peradventure, if Goddes grace be not greater.

Of movyng affections.

Because the beautie of Amplifiyng, standeth most in apte movyng of affections: It is needefull to speake somewhat in this behaulfe, that the better it may be knowne what they are, and howe they maie bee used. Affections therefore (called Passions) are none other thyng, but a stirryng, or forcyng of the mynde, either to desier, or elles to detest, and lothe any thyng, more vehemently then by nature we are commonly wonte to doe. We desier those thynges, we love them, and lyke them earnestly, that appere in our judgement to be goodlie, we hate and abhorre those thynges which we thinke either hurtful, or profitable for our selves, but also we rejoyce, we sorie, or we pitie, an other mannes happe.

And evermore there are twoo thynges whiche move us, either this waie, or that waie. The matter selfe whiche doth happen, or is lyke to happen: and the person also whome the matter dothe concerne. As for example: If wicked wretche have his desertes, we are al glad to heare it, but if an innocent [Page s4r] shoulde be cast away, we thynke muche of it, and in stomake repine against wrong judgement. If an evil man finde muche favour, we envie his good happe, yea it greeveth us, that any suche shoulde have suche favour showed: And not onely doe we hate the evil, that are come to any wealth, but also we envie commonly all suche as come to any preferrement, especially if either they have been as poore men as we are, or elles came of a meaner house than we have done. No one man woulde have any to be better than hym selfe, and every one enhableth his owne goodnes to deserve lyke dignitie with the best. And whereas some have gotte before, startyng soubdeinly from an inche to an elle, we spare not to saie that flattery made theim speede, and though they have muche gooddes, yet are they cleare voide of all goodnes, and therefore muche good may it do theim, we woulde not come by gooddes in suche sorte to wynne al the worlde. For the Devill and they (saie wee) shall parte stakes with theim one daie. And thus wee can never bee content to geve our neighbour a good woorde. Yea though they have served right well, and deserved a greate rewarde, wee muste needes finde some faulte with theim to lessen their praises, and saye that though their desertes bee great, yet their natures are nought: none so proude, though fewe bee so hardy: none so enviouse, though fewe so faithfull: none so covetouse, though fewe so liberall: none so gluttonouse, though fewe kepe suche an house. And thus, thoughe wee graunt them one thyng, yet we will take another thyng as fast againe from them.

Suche a man is an excellent felowe (saieth one) he can speake the tongues wel, he plaies of instrumentes few men better, he feyneth to the Lute marveilouse swetely, he endites excellently: but for all this (the more is the pitie) he hath his faultes, he will be droncke ones a daie, he loves women well, he will spende Goddes coope if he had it, he will not tarye longe in one place, and he is somewhat large of his tongue. That if these faultes were not, surely he were an excellent fellowe. Even as one shoulde saie: If it were not for liyng and stealyng, there were not [Page s4v] an honester man than suche a one is that perchaunce hath some one good qualitie to set hym forwarde. These buttes bee to brode, and these barres be over bigge, for looke what is geven to one by commendyng, the same is streight taken away by buttyng. Therfore suche are not to be lyked that geve a man a shoulder of mutton, and breake his heade with the spitte when thei have doen. And yet this is many a mans nature, especially where envie hath any grounded dwellyng place, whose propertie is alwaies to speake nothyng of other without reproche and slaunder.

In movyng affections, and stirryng the judges to be greved, the weight of the matter must be so set forth, as though they saw it plaine before their iyes, the report must be suche and the offence made so hainouse, that the like hath not been seene heretofore, and al the circumstaunces must thus be heaped together: The naughtines of his nature that did the dead, the cruel orderyng, the wicked dealyng and maliciouse handelyng, the tyme, the place, the maner of his doyng, an the wickednesse of his wil to have doen more. The man that susteined the wrong, how litle he deserved, how wel he was estemed emong his neighbours, howe small cause he gave hym, how great lacke men have of hym. Now, if this be not reformed, no good man shal lyve saufe, the wicked wil overflowe al the worlde, and best it were for savegard to be nought also, and to take parte with them, for no good man shal goe quiet for them, if there be not spedie redresse found, and this faulte punished to thexample of al other.

Quintiliane coucheth together in these few wordes the ful heape of such an heanouse matter by gatheryng it up after this sorte.

i. What is doen. ii. By whome. iii. Against whome. iiii. Upon what mynde. v. At what tyme. vi. In what place. vii. After what sorte. viii. How muche he would have doen. [Page t1r]

If one bee beaten blacke and blewe, wee take it grevously: but if one be slain, we are muche more troubled. Again, if a slave or ruffine shall do suche a dede, we are displeased, but if an officer, a preacher, or an hed jentleman, should use any slaverie, wee are muche more agreved. Yea, or if a very notable evill man, commit suche an horrible offence, we thynke hym worthy to have the lesse favor. If a sturdy felowe be stroken, we are not so muche disquieted, as if a child, a woman, an aged man, a good man, or a chief officer, should be evil used. If the offence be committed upon a prepensed mynde, and wilfulle, wee make muche more a do, then if it were doen by chaunce medly. If it be doen upon an holy daie, or els upon the daie of Assise, or upon the daie of a kynges coronacion, or about suche a solumpne tyme, or if it bee dooen in the nighte, rather then at Noone daies, we make the matter greater, then if it had been dooen at another tyme. In the courte if one strike a man, it is thought greater, then if he should strike hym in the open streate. The maner of dooyng also, doeth muche move the pacience of men, as if one should cowardly kill one, and strike hym sodainly, he were worthy greater blame, then if he should manfully set upon him: or if one kill his felowe secretly with a gunne, he wer worthy more hatred, then if he killed hym with a sword, or if he wounded hym sore, or cruelly mangeled hym, we crie out muche more, then if he had barely killed hym. And last of al, if his will had been to have doen muche more then he did: we encrease our anger against his rage muche more, then ever we would els have doen.

Of movyng pitee.

Nowe in movyng pitie, and stirryng menne to mercie, the wrong doen must first be plainly told: or if the Judges have susteined the like extremitee, the best wer to will them to remembre their awn state, how thei have been abused in like maner, what wronges thei have suffered by wicked doers: that by hearyng their awne, thei maie the better hearken to others.

Again, whereas all other miseries, that befall unto man, are grevous to the eare, there is nothing more heinous, then to heare that the most honest men, are sonest overthrowen by [Page t1v] them that are moste wicked, and vertue put to flight, through the onely might of vice. That if the like hath not happened, unto the hearers of this cause, yet it wer mete to shewe them that the like maie happen, and so require them to geve judgement in this cause, as thei would doo in their awne, and remember that harme may chaunce to every one, that perhappes chaunceth to any one. And no doubt every man remembryng hymself, and his awne case, will loke well about hym, and geve judgement, accordyng to right.

Neither can any good be doen at all, when we have saied all that ever we can, excepte we bryng thesame affeccions in our awne harte, the whiche wee would the Judges should beare towardes our awne matter. For how can he be greved, with the report of any heinous acte, either in stomackyng the naughtinesse of the deede, or in bewailyng the miserable misfortune of the thyng, or in fearyng muche, the like evill hereafter: excepte the Oratour hymself utter suche passions outwardly, and from his harte fetche his complaintes, in suche sort, that the matter maie appere, bothe more grevous to the eare, and therwith so heinous, that it requires earnestly a spedy reformation? There is no substaunce of it self, that wil take fire, excepte ye put fire to it. Likewise no mannes nature is so apt, streight to be heated, except the Orator himself, be on fire, and brynge his heat with hym. It is a common saiyng, nothyng kyndeleth soner then fire. And therefore a fierie stomack, causeth evermore a fierie tongue. And he that is heated with zeale and godlinesse, shall set other on fire with like affeccion. No one man can better enveigh against vice, then he can do, whiche hateth vice with al his herte. Again, nothyng moysteth soner then water. Therefore a wepyng iye causeth muche moysture, and provoketh teares. Neither is it any mervaile: for suche men bothe in their countenaunce, tongue, iyes, gesture, and in all their body els, declare an outwarde grief, and with wordes so vehemently and unfeinedly, settes it forward, that thei will force a man to be sory with them, and take part with their teares, even against his will. Notwithstandyng, when suche affeccions are moved, it wer good not to stande long in them. For though a vehement talke maie [Page t2r] move teares, yet no arte can long hold theim. For as Cicero doth saie, nothyng drieth soner, then teares, especially when we lament another mans cause, and be sory with him for his sake.

But now that I have taught men to be sory, I wil attempt again to make them mery, and shewe what learned men saie concernyng laughter, in delityng the hearers when tyme and place shal best require.

Of delityng the hearers, and stirryng them to laughter.

Consideryng the dulnesse of mannes nature, that neither it can be attentive to heare, nor yet stirred to like or allowe, any tale long tolde, except it be refreshed, or finde some swete delite: the learned have by witte and labor devised muche varietee. Therefore sometymes in tellyng a weightie matter, thei bryng in some hevy tale, and move them to be right sory, wherby the hearers are more attentive. But after when thei are weried, either with tediousnesse of the matter, or hevines of the report: some pleasant matter is invented both to quicken them again, and also to kepe theim from sacietie. But surely fewe there be, that have this gift in due tyme to chere men. Neither can any do it, whom nature hath not framed, and geven an aptnes therunto. Some mannes countenaunce will make pastyme, though he speake never a worde. Yea, a foolishe worde, uttered by an apte manne, or a gesture straungely used by some pleasant body, settes men ful oft upon a laughter. And whereas some thinke it a trifle, to have this gift, and so easy, that every varlet or common jester is able to matche with the best: yet it appereth that thei, whiche wittely can be pleasant, and when time serveth, can geve a mery answere, or use a nippyng taunte, shalbee able to abashe a right worthy man, and make hym at his wittes ende, through the sodein quip and unloked frumpe geven. I have knowen some so hit of the thumbes, that thei could not tell in the world whether it were beste to fighte, chide, or to go their waie. And no mervaile: for wher the jest is aptly applied, the hearers laugh immediatly, and who would gladly be laughed to scorne? Some can pretely by a word spoken, take occasion to be right mery. Other can jest at large, and tel a round tale pleasantly, though thei have none occasion at that tyme geven. But assuredly [Page t2v] that mirth is more worth, whiche is moved by a word newly spoken, then if a long tale should be pleasauntly told. For asmuche as bothe it cometh unlooked for, and also declares a quickenesse of witte, worthy commendacion. There are five thynges, whiche Tullie noteth, concernyng pleasaunt talke.

i. What it is to delite the hearers. ii. Whereof it cometh. iii. Whether an orator may move laughter. iiii. How largely he maie go, and what measure he must use. v. What are the kyndes of sportyng, or movyng to laughter.

Now to tell you in plain woordes, what laughter is, how it stirreth and occupieth the whole body, how it altereth the countenance, and sodainly brasteth out, that we cannot kepe it in: Let some mery man on Goodes name, take this matter in hande. For it passeth my cunnyng, and I thynke even thei that can best move laughter, would rather laugh merily when suche a question is put furthe, then geve answere earnestly, what, and how laughter is in deede.

The occasion of laughter, and the meane that maketh us merie (whiche is the second observacion) is the fondnes, the filthines, the deformitee, and all suche evill behavior, as we se to bee in other. For wee laugh alwaies at those thynges, whiche either onely or chiefly touche handsomely, and wittely some especiall fault, or fonde behavior in some one body, or some one thing. Sometymes we jest at a mannes body that is not well proporcioned, and laugh at his countenaunce, if either it be not comely by nature, or els he through foly, cannot wel set it. For if his talke be fond, a mery man can want no matter to hit hym home, ye maie be assured. Some jest is made, when it toucheth no man at al, neither the demaunder, neither the standers by, nor yet any other, and yet deliteth as muche the hearers, as any the other can do. Now when wee would abashe a man, for some woordes that he hath spoken, and can take none advauntage of his persone, or makyng of his body, wee either doulte hym at the firste, and make hym beleve, that he is no wiser than a Goose: or els wee confute [Page t3r] wholy his saiynges, with some pleasaunt jest, or els we extenuate and diminishe his doynges, by some pretie meanes, or els we cast the like in his dishe, and with some other devise, dashe hym out of countenaunce: or last of all, we laugh him to skorne out right, and sometymes speake almost never a word but onely in coutnenaunce shewe our selfes pleasaunt. But how soever we make sport, either the delite is uttered by countenaunce, or by poynctyng some thyng, or els shewed at large by some tale, or els occasion taken by some word spoken.

The .iii. question is, whether it standeth with an Orators profession, to delite the hearers with pleasaunt reportes, and wittie saiynges, or no. Assuredly it behoveth a man, that must talke muche, evermore to have regard to his audience, and not onely to speake so muche as is nedefull, but also to speake no longer then thei be willyng to heare. Even in this our tyme, some offende muche in tediousnesse, whose parte it were to comfort all men with cherefulnes. Yea, the preachers of God, mynd so muche edefiyng of soules, that thei often forget, we have any bodies. And therefore, some doo not so muche good with tellyng the truthe, as thei doe harme with dullyng the hearers, beyng so farre gone in their matters, that oftentymes thei cannot tell when to make an ende. Plato therefore, the father of learnyng, and the well of all wisedome, when he hard Antisthenes make suche a long oracion, that he starke weried all his hearers, phy for shame man (quoth he) doest thou not knowe, that the measuryng of an oracion, standeth not in the speaker, but in the hearers. But some perhapps wil saie unto men pascite quantum in vobis est, to whom I answere, estote prudentes. And now bicause our senses be suche, that in hearyng a right wholsome matter, wee either fall a slepe, when we should moste harken, or els are weried with stil hearyng one thyng, without any change, and thinke that the best part of his tale, resteth in makyng an ende: the wittie and learned have used delitefull saiynges, and quicke sentences ever emong their weightie causes, consideryng that not onely good wil is got therby (for what is he that loveth not mirth?) but also men wounder at suche a head, as hath mennes hartes at his commaundement, beyng able to make theim merie when [Page t3v] he list, and that by one worde speakyng, either in answeryng some thyng spoken before, or els oftentymes, in gevyng the onset, beyng not provoked thereunto. Again, we se that men are full ofte abashed, and putte out of countenaunce, by suche tauntyng meanes, and those that have so dooen, are compted to be fine men, and pleasaunt felowes, suche, as fewe dare set foote with them.

Thus knowyng, that to move sporte, is lawfull for an orator, or any one that shall talke, in any open assembly: good it were to knowe, what compasse he shoulde kepe, that should thus be merie. For feare he take to muche ground, and go beyonde his boundes. Therfore, no suche should be taunted, or jested with all, that either are notable evill livers, and heynous offendours: or els are pitifull caitifes, and wretched beggers. For every one thinketh it a better and a meter deede, to punishe naughtie packes, then to skoffe at their evill demeanoure: and as for wretched soules, or poore bodies, none can beare to have them mocked, but thinke rather, that thei should be pitied, except thei foolishely vaunt themselfes. Again, none suche should be made any laughyng stockes, that either are honest of behaviour, or els are generally welbeloved. As for other, we maie be bold to talke with them, and make suche game and pastime, as their good wittes shal geve good cause. But yet this one thyng, we had nede ever to take with us, that in all our jestyng we kepe a meane, wherin not onely it is mete to avoyde al grosse bourdyng, and alehouse jestyng, but also to eschue al folishe talke, and ruffin maners, such as no honest eares can ones abide, nor yet any wittie man can like well, or allowe.

The division of pleasaunt behaviour.

Pleasauntnesse, either appereth in tellyng a rounde tale, or els in takyng occasion of some one worde. The matter is told pleasauntly, when some mannes nature (whereof the tale is tolde,) is so set furthe, his countenaunce so counterfeited, and all his jesture so resembled, that the hearers might judge the thing, to be then lively doen, even as though he were there, whereof the tale was told. Some can so lively set furthe another mannes nature, and with suche grace reporte a tale: that fewe shalbe able to [Page t4r] forbeare laughter, whiche knowe bothe parties, though thei would the contrary never so fain. Now in counterfeityng after this sort, if suche moderacion be not used, that the hearer maie judge more by hymself, then the pleasant disposed man is willyng fully to set furth: it will not be well liked. For he that excedeth and telleth all: yea, more then is nedefull, without al respecte, or consideracion had: thesame shalbe taken for a common jester, suche as know not howe to make an ende, when thei once beginne, beyng better acquainted with bible bable, then knowyng the frute of wisedomes lore.

Pleasauntnesse in a saiyng, is stirred by the quicke altryng of some one worde, or of some one sentence. But even as in reportyng a tale, or counterfeityng a manne, to muche is ever naught: so scurrilitie or (to speake in old plain english) knavery in jestyng would not be used, where honestie is estemed. Therfore though there be some wit, in a pretie devised jeste: yet we ought to take hede, that we touche not those, whom we would be most loth to offend. And yet some had as leve lose their life, as not bestowe their conceived jest, and oftentimes thei have, as thei desire. But shall I say of suche wilful men, as a Spaniard spake of an earnest Gospeller, that for woordes spoken against an Ecclesiasticall lawe, suffered death in Smithe fielde? Ah miser, non potuit tacere et vivere? Ah wretche that he was, could he not live, and hold his peace?

Again, to jest when occasion is geven, or when the jest maie touch al men: it is thought to be against al good maner. Therfore the consideracion of time, and moderacion of pastyme, and seldome usyng of drie mockes, even when nede moste requireth, make a difference, and shewe a severall understandyng, betwixte a common jester, and a pleasaunt wise man.

Now the time requireth, to shew what kindes there are of movyng laughter, and makyng the harte to be mery: notwithstanding this would first be learned, that out of diverse pleasant speches, auncient saiynges also maie be gathred. As for example we maie by one worde, bothe praise a faithfull servaunt and if he be naught, we maie also jest of him, and dispraise him. According to that mery saiyng of Nero, upon his man that was light fingered. I have one at home (quoth he) emong all other, to [Page t4v] whom there is no cofer lockt, nor dore shut in all my house, meanyng that he was a picklocke, and a false verlet, and yet these wordes might have been spoken of a faithfull servaunt.

We shall delite the hearers, when thei looke for one answere, and we make theim a cleane contrary, as though we would not seme to understande, what thei would have. When Pompilius, a souldiour of Julius Cesar, had saied often to Cesar, and shewed him that he was wounded in the face, for his sake. Cesar beyng wearied with soche his often rehearsall. Well (quod he) the next tyme that thou runnethe awaie, thou wilte not looke backe. The Souldiour therewith was moche agasht, as one that looked not for any soche answere. Again, one Pontidius beyng sore greved, that another man had committed adoutrie, came to a frend of his, and saied sadly: Ah lorde, what thinke you sir of hym, that was taken in bedde of late, with another mannes wife? Marie quoth the other, I thynke him to be a very sluggard. Pontidius hearyng him saie so, was abashed at the straungeness of his answere, and lokyng for no suche thyng was driven to laugh at his awne errour, although before, he was muche greved with thadouterers moste wicked deede.

One beyng sore greved with the evill behaviour of a certain jentleman, spake his pleasure largely against hym, wherupon another merie man, dissemblyng to take his part, said he was an honester man then so. Yea (quoth thother) what one thing hath he, wherby to prove himself honest at al? Marie (quoth the man) he hath the kynges pardon, and what saie you to that?

When is it best to dine (quoth one) to Diogenes? Mary (quoth he) for a riche man, when he list: for a poore man when he canne.

A noble man that whilome kept a chapell, beyng disposed to serve God, went to his closette devoutely, and made hym self redy to praie, wherupon one came doune in hast, and said to the Chaunter, you muste begin sir. The Chaunter beyng a merie man, answered thus, as though he were angry. Begin quoth he? I will begin with none, except thei begin with me. And so made the whole Quier, that then was redy for syngyng, to fall streight a laughyng. The whiche is all one, for, syng we, or laugh we, what maketh matter, so we be merie?

An Abbate in Italie, beyng grosse of his bodie, and unweldie to behold, walking out of Florence for his pleasure, and havyng farther travailde towardes the evenyng, then he thought hymself well able to retourne, before the gates of the citee were shutte: mette a countrie manne commyng from thense, and because it was somewhat late, asked hym, if he might gette in at the gates: the housbande man seeyng this fatte Abbate, lokyng for a readie answere, and lothe to lose any time, for feare he should be kept out, saied pleasauntly to the devoute religious fatte Priest: Sir, bee not afraied, for a Carte loden with Haie, maie easelie get in at any gate in Florence, and therefore you nede not to doubte, although you were as bigge againe, whereas the Abbates meanyng was, if he might come in tyme, before the gates were lockt.

A frende of myne and a good fellowe, more honeste then welthie, yea, and more pleasaunt then thriftie, havyng nede of a nagge, for his journey that he had in hande, and beyng in the countrie, minded to goe to Partnaie faire in Lincolnshire, not farre from the place, where he then laie, and meting by the waie one of his acquaintaunce, tolde him his arrande, and asked him, how horses went at the faire. The other answered merelie, and saied, some trotte sir, and some amble, as farre as I can se. If their pases be altered, I praie you tell me at our next meetyng. And so ridde awaie, as fast as his horse could carie hym, without saiyng any woorde more, whereat he there beyng alone, fell a laughyng hartelie to hymself, and loked after a good while, untill the other was out of sight.

A gentilman having harde a Sermon at Poules, and beyng come home, was asked what the Preacher saied. The gentilman answered, he would first heare what his manne could saie, who then waited upon hym, with his hatte and cloke, and called his man to hym, saied, now sir, what have you brought from the Sermon. Forsothe good Maister, said the servaunte, your cloke and your hatte. An honeste true dealyng servaunte out of doubte, plaine as a packesaddell, having a better soule to God, though his witte was simple, then those have that under the colour of hearyng, gave themselves to privie pickyng and so bryng other mennes purses home in their bosomes, in the steade of other mennes Sermons.

In the tyme of Pope Julie the seconde or Alexander the sixte, I dooe not well remember (but either of theim bothe maie serve well for this purpose, beeyng bothe warriers, as what Pope is not) it so happened that a Cardinall of Spain havyng charge under the Pope, of an armie, and seeyng it necessary to triethe fortune of battaile, against the enemies of the Popes holinesse, valiauntlie encouraged those souldiours, to shewe themselves like men, assuryng to theim that would hassarde their lives, in that conflict, not onely to have ful pardon of their sinnes, but also that thei should that mornyng, goe dine with God and his Angelles in heaven. And when he had thus saied, he withdrewe himself from the battaile. Unto whom a souldiour saied that was nigh at hand. Right reverende father, how happeneth your grace dooeth not whitesave to taire with us, that you might also go dine this mornyng, with God and his Angelles. Holde thy peace knave, quoth the Cardinale, I have no liste to eate now, it is to earelie for me, my stomake is not yet come to me.

Wordes doubtfully spoken, geve often just occasion of muche laughter. Ah (quoth a certain man) do you se yonder felowe, and do [Page v1r] you knowe him? Yea, (quod the other) I knowe him verye well. I shall tell you sir (saide the gentilman) there is not a manne of greater understandinge within this Citye then he is. Tushe it is not so (quode he). No? (saide the other) marcke well the bought of his legge, and you shall see hys understandinge worthye to be compared with the beste, and greatest of them all.

Sometimes it is well liked, whan by the chayngynge of a letter, or takinge awaye some parte of a worde, or addinge sometimes a sillable, we make an other meaninge. As one saide that meante ful unhappelye, enveighynge againste those that helde of Christes spirituall beynge in the Sacrament: some (quod he) wil have a Trope to be in these wordes: This is my bodye: But surely I would wishe the T. were taken awaye, and they had that for their labour, whiche is lefte behinde.

A Gentilman beyng handfasted to a Gentilwoman, and suer to her, as he thought: afterwardes lost her, being made faster to an other man, then ever she was to hym. Whereupon he tooke greate displeasure, and sought by Lawe to winne her, notwithstandyng she had carnallie been acquainted with the other Gentilman. A noble manne beyng earnestlie desired of hym, that had first lost her, to helpe hym to her again: I mervaile (quoth the noble man) what you meane to be so earnest to recover her, whom an other man hath alreadie coverde. If I were in your case, she should go for me, and he should have her, that hath thus before hande seased upon her. The Gentilman discouraged upon this answere, departed with an unquieted minde, and thought notwithstanding to be even with the woman, if he could tell possible how, or whiche waie.

What carye you master Person (quod a gentilman) to a Prieste that hadde his woman on horsebacke behynde him, have you gotte your male behinde you? No syr (quod the Prieste) it is my female.

The interpretation of a worde doth oft declare a witte. As when one hath done a robbery, some wil saye, it is pitie, he was a handsome man, to the which another made answere, you saye truthe syr, for he hathe made these shyftes by hys handes, and gotte his livyng wyth lyght fingeringe, and therfore beinge handsome as you saye he is, I woulde God he were handsomelye hanged.

Sometimes it is delightful when a mannes word is taken, and not his meaninge. As when one hadde sayde to an other (whose helpe he must nedes have) I am sory sir to put you to paynes: The other aunswered, I will ease you syr of that sorowe, for I will take no paynes for you at all.

The turning of a word, and deniynge that wherwith we are charged, and aunswering a much worsse, doth often move the hearer. There was one Bassus (as Quintilian dothe tell) whiche seinge a Ladye called Domitia to be very nighe her selfe, spake his pleasure of her. Wherupon she being greved, charged hym wyth these woordes, that he shoulde saye she [Page v1v] was suche a pynche penye, as woulde sell her olde shone for money, whereupon he aunswered. No forsothe madame (quod he) I saide not so, but these were my wordes, I saide you bought olde shone, suche as you coulde get beste cheape for money.

The Hollanders woordes are worthye rehearsall, who beynge a pore man (as Erasmus telleth the tale) had a cow or two goyng in the communes, whereupon it hapened that an Oxe of a riche mans, who then was Maior of the towne, hadde gored the pore mannes cowe, and almoste kylled her. The pore man being in this case halfe undone, thought notwithstanding by a wittye devise to get right judgement of master Maior for the losse of his cowe, if he gotte nothynge elles, and therfore thus he framed his tale. Sir so it is that my cowe hath gored and almoste kylled your Oxe. What hath she (quod he) by sainte marye thou shalte pay for him then. Naye (quod the poore man) I crye you mercye, youre Oxe hathe gored my cowe. Ah (quod the Maior) that is an other matter, we wyl talke of that hereafter at more leasure.

These wordes were spoken of purpose, but now you shal heare what an olde woman spake of simplicitie. In the dotynge worlde, when stockes were saintes, and dumme walles spake, this olde grandamme was devoutelye kneling upon her knees before the ymage of our Ladye. Wherupon a merye felowe asked her what she meante to crouche and knele there. Marie (quod the olde mother) I praye to our Ladye, that she maye praye to her Sonne for me: with that he laughed at her ignoraunce. Wherupon she thinkinge that her wordes were spoken amisse, corrected her owne sayinge in this wise. Naye (quod she) I praye to Christe in heaven, that he will praye for me to this good Ladye here.

Wordes rehearsed contrarie to that which was spoken, and (as a man would say) overthwartly answered, do much abash the opponent, and delite the hearers. As when Sergius Galba being sicke, and therfore keping his house, had appointed certaine of his frendes to hear a matter of one Libo Scribonius, Tribune of the people, a man muche noted for hys noughtye and uncleane life: this Libo saide to him in this [Page v2r] wise. Good Lorde, when shall we see you Sir abroade, out of youre Parloure. Marye (quod he) when thou kepeste thy selfe oute of an other mannes chambre, meanynge that he was over familiar with an other mans wife. Thus we se howe and in what maner pleasaunt sawes are gathered and used, upon the occasion of divers wordes spoken.

Alphonsus king of Naples, had a Jester in his Courte, who made a booke, and kept a reckenyng of all folies, especially soche as he thought to bee folies, of all those Gentilmenne and others, that waited in the Courte, whereat the king tooke greate pleasure oftentimes. And so it happened, that the kyng havyng a More in his house, sente thesame manne into Levaunte, with three or fower thousande pound in his purse, to buie horses in Affrica. The Jester seing this acte, did put it in his booke of remembraunce, for a plaine folie. Now it happened, that within a little while after, the kyng asked this Jester for his booke, bicause he had not seen it of a long tyme before. And readyng upon his booke, wher he founde many merie madde toyes, he hitte at length upon himself, and the More, unto whom he had given three thousande pounde, to buye horses for him in Barbarie. Whereupon the kyng somewhat chaunged in colour, asked him in his anger, why he had put him in his booke after that sorte. I have put you in my booke (quod the Jester) bicause you have plaied the verie foole, to give the bestowing of so moche money to a straunger, whom you shall never see againe. And what if he come againe (quod the Kyng) and bryng the horses with hym, have I then plaied the foole? Well (quod the Jester) so sone as he is come, I will then put out your name out of my booke, and put his name in your place. For then I must needes take hym to bee a more foole then you are, a greate deale. But til he come, you shalbe in my boke, God willing.

Pleasaunte sporte made by rehearsynge of a whole matter.

The nature and whole course of a matter being largelye set oute with a comelye behavoure doth much delite the hearers, and geveth good cause of greate pastime. And this difference is betwene a jeste in a word, and a jest utterde in a longe tale. That whiche is still deliteful, with what wordes or nature of a longe tale: that which loseth his grace by alteration of a worde, is conteyned in the nature of a woorde. They that can lively tell pleasaunt tales and merye dedes done, and set theim oute as well with gesture as with voyce, leavynge nothynge behynde, that maye serve for beautifiynge of their matter: are mooste mete for thys purpose, wherof assuredlye there are but fewe. And whatsoever he is that canne aptelye tell his tale, and wyth countenaunce, voyce, and gesture, so temper his reporte, that the hearers maye styll take delyte: him counte I a man worthye to be hyghlye estemed. For undoubtedlye no man can dooe anye suche thinge, excepte they have a great mother wytte, and by experience confirmed suche their comelines, wherunto by nature they were most apte. Many a man readeth histories, heareth fables, seeth worthye actes done even in this our age, but few can set them out accordingly, and tel them lively, as the matter selfe requireth to be told. The kindes of delitinge in this sorte are divers: wherof I will set forth many, as hereafter they shall folowe.

Sporte moved by tellinge olde tales.

If there by any olde tale or straunge history wel and wittely applied to some man living, al men love to hear it of life. As if one wer called Arthur, some good felow that [Page v2v] were well acquainted wyth kynge Arthures boke, and the knightes of his rounde table, woulde wante no matter to make good sporte, and for a nede woulde dubbe him knyght of the rounde table, or els prove him to be one of his kynne, or els (whiche were muche) prove him to be Arthure hym selfe. And so likewise of other names, mery panions would make madde pastime.

Oftentimes the deformitie of a mans bodye geveth matter enoughe to be ryght merye, or els a picture in shape lyke an other man, will make some to laughe right hartely. One being greved with an other man, saide in his anger, I will set the oute in thy coloures, I will shewe what thou arte. The other beinge therwith muche chafed, shewe (quod he) what thou canste: with that he shewed him, (pointinge with his finger) a man with a bottell nose, blobbe cheaked, and as redde as a Bouchers bowle, even as like the other manne, as anie one in all the worlde coulde be. I neede not to saye that he was angrye. An other good felowe beinge merelye disposed, called his acquaintaunce unto him and said: Come hither I saie, and I wil shewe thee as verye a lowte as ever thou sawest in all thy lyfe before, with that he offered him at his commynge a stele glasse to loke in. But surelye I thynke he loked awrye, for if I hadde bene in hys case, I woulde have tolde him that I espied a muche greater lowte, before I sawe the glasse.

In augmentynge or diminishinge without all reason, we geve good cause of muche pastyme. As Diogenes seynge a pretye towne, havinge a greate payre of Gates at the cominge in: Take hede quode he, you menne of this towne, lest your towne runne out of your gates. That was a marveylous bygge Gate I trow, or els a wonderfull little towne, where suche passage shoulde be made.

A Frier disposed to tell misteries, opened to the People that the soule of man was so little, that a leven thousande might daunce upon the nayle of his thumbe. One marveylinge much at that, I praye you master Frier quod he, wher shall the piper stande then, when suche a number shall kepe so small a roume. [Page v3r]

Mirthe is moved when upon a trifle or a worde spoken, an unknowen matter and weightye affayre is opened. As if one shoulde finde fault with some mannes sumptuous buildinge, or other suche thinge: whiche hadde found muche favoure at the same mans hande: an other myght saye, well sir, he that builded this house, saved your worship from hanginge when the time was. A necessarie note for him thankefullye to remembre the builder of that house, and not slanderouslye to speake evil of him.

It is a pleasaunt dissembling, when we speake one thin merelye, and thyncke an other earnestlye, or elles when we prayse that which otherwise deserveth disprayse, to the shaming of those that are taken not to be most honest.

As in speakinge of one that is well knowen to be nought, to saye emong all men that are sene to, there is one that lacketh his rewarde. He is the diligentiest felowe in hys callinge of all other, he hath traveyled in behalfe of his countrey, he hath watched daye and night to further his commune weale, and to advaunce the dignitye therof, and shall he go emptye home? Who stode by it at suche a felde, who played the man and cryed, stoppe the thiefe, when suche a man was robbed? Who seeth good rule kept in suche a Can anye here charge him with bawdrye? Whiche of you all dare saye or can say that ever you sawe him dronke, if then these be true, ought not suche to be sene to: and rewarded accordingelye? For praysinge the unworthye, I remember once that our worthy Latimer did set out the devyll for his diligence wonderfullie, and preferred him for that purpose before all the Bishoppes in England. And no doubte, the wicked be more busye and stirrynge, then the children of light be in their generation.

What talke you of suche a man (saythe an other) there is an honest man ye maye be assured. For if a man had neade of one, he is ready at a pynche, his body sweates for honesty, if you come to him in a hotte sommers day, you shal se his honestye in such sort to reeke, that it woulde pitye anye christian soule livinge. He hath more hoenstye with him then he neades, and therfore bothe is able and will lende, where it [Page v3v] plaseth him best. Beware of him above all menne that ever you kenwe. He hathe no felowe, there is none suche, I thinke he wil not live longe, he is so honest a man, the more pitye that suche good felowes shoulde knowe what deathe meaneth. But it maketh no matter, when he is gone, all the worlde will speake of him, hys name shall never dye, he is so well knowen universallye.

Thus we maye mockingelye speake well of him, when there is not a noughtyer felowe wythin all Englande agayne, and even as well sette out his noughtines this way, as thoughe we hadde in verye dede uttered all his noughty conditions plainelye, and without jestinge. Emonge al that ever were pleasaunte in this kinde of delite, Socrates beareth the name, and maye worthelye chalenge prayse. Sir Thomas More with us here in Englande, had an excellent gifte not onely in this kinde, but also in all other pleasaunt delites, whose witte even at this houre is a wonder to al the worlde, and shalbe undoubtedly, even unto the worldes ende. Unto this kinde of di adjoyninge a maner of speache, when wee geve an honest name to an evyll deede. As when I woulde call one accordingly that is of a noughtye behavoure, to saye: And sirrha, you are a marchant in dede: Wher as I thinke a marchauntes name is honest. Some olde felowes when they thinke one to be an heritique, they will saye, he is a gospeller. Some newe felowes when they thinke one a Papist, they wil call him straight a catholique, and be even with him at the landes ende. Contrariwise some will geve an evil name to a good thinge: As a father lovynge his Sonne tenderlye, and havynge no cause to be greved with him, will sometimes saye to him: Come hither sir knave, and the mother merelye beynge disposed, wyll saye to her swete Sonne: Ah you little horesone, wyll you serve me so. Where as I thyncke some womenne that ofte so saye, wil sweare upon a booke they are none suche, and almoste I hadde sayde, I dare sweare for some of theim my selfe, if God hadde not forbidden me to sweare at all.

This Kynde also is pretye, when we gather an other [Page v4r] thinge by a mannes tale, then he woulde gladly we shoulde gather. When Livius Salinator a Romayne capitaine hadde kepte the Castell of Tarentum losinge the towne to Annibal his enemye, and that Maximus therupon had layed siege to the same towne, and gotte it againe by the swerde: then Salinator whyche thus kepte the Castell, desiered him to remember, that throughe his meanes he gotte the towne, Why shoulde I not (quod he) thyncke so? For if you had never lost it, I had never gotte it.

To dissemble sometymes as thoughe wee understode not what one meant, declareth an apte witte, and muche deliteth such as heare it. Diogenes was asked on a time what wyne he loved beste to drincke. Marye (quod he) an other mannes wyne, meanynge that he loved that dryncke beste, that coste him leaste. The same Diogenes likewyse was asked what one shoulde geve hym to lette him have a blowe at his heade. Marye a Helmet quod he.

One Octavius a Libian borne (as witnesseth Macrobius) sayde unto Tullie when he spake hys mynde upon a matter. Sir I heare you not, I praye you speake lowder. No (quod Tullie)? This is marvaile to me, for as I do remember, your eares, are well bored thorowe, meanynge that he was nayled upon a Pillarie, or elles hadde holes made in his eares, whyche myght well serve (as Tullie jested) to receive open ayre.

An other, beyng sore offended upon some cause with a felowe, who had loste his eares for good cause, saied in his heate. I will handle thee like a knave, seest thou now. And heaping wordes upon wordes, woulde gladly belike that the partie should have caried them awaie, and well remembred them, and therefore saied fumouselie unto hym, dooest thou heare me? Upon that, one that stode by, saied to this angrie Gentilman. I doubt sir, that this Pillerie felowe doeth not heare you at all. For as you remember he loste his eares of late, how can he heare, that hath no eares at all. With that, the Gentilmannes anger, was altered to mirthe and laughter, and so thei all departed.

When Metellus toke muster and required Cesar to be there, not abiding that he should be absent, thoughe his eyes greved him, and said: What man do you se nothing at all? Yes marye quod Cesar, as evil as I se, I can se a lordship of yours (the whiche was .iiii. or .v. miles from Rome) declaringe that his building was over sumptuous, and so howge withall (muche above his degree) that a blind man myght almost se it. Nowe in those dayes overcostlye building was generally hated, because men sought by suche meanes to get fame and beare rul in the commune weale.

The like also is of one Nasica who when he came to the Poet Ennius, and askinge at the gates if Ennius were at [Page v4v] home, the maide of the house, beinge so commaunded by her master, made aunswere that he was not within. And when he perceyved that she so saide by her maisters commaundemente, he wente straight his waye, and saide no more.

Nowe shortelye after when Ennius came to Nasica and called for him at the dore, Nassica cried out alowde and sayde, Sirrha, I am not at home? I heare the speake. Do not I knowe thy voyce? Then (quod Nasica) Ah shamelesse man that thou arte, when I sought the at thy home, I did beleve thy maide when she said thou wast not at home, and wilte not thou beleve me when I tel thee myne owne selfe that I am not at home?

It is a pleasaunte hearynge, when one is mocked with the same that he bryngeth. As when one Q. Opimus havinge an evill name for hys light behavoure had saide to a pleasaunte man Egilius that semed to be wanton of living, and yet was not so: Ah my swete darling Egilia, when wilt thou come to my house swete wenche, with thy rocke and thy spindle? I dare not in good faith (quod he,) mi mother hath forbidde me to come to anye suspected house where evil rule is kepte.

An Eremite of Italie, professyng a merveilous straighte life, and eschewyng the Citee, dwelte in deserte, where he made himself a Cave, wrought by his owne handes, with spade and shovell, and coveryng thesame with boughes, and yearth, laie there in his couche or cabine, livyng in contemplacion, as one that utterlie had forsaken the worlde, wherupon he came in greate credite with the people, and especiallie with the women of that Toune, as by nature women are more apte to beleve, and readier given to Supersticion then men are. Afterwardes it appered that this Eremites holinesse, was altogether counterfeite, and he founde a verie leude manne. For it was knowen and well proved, that he had the companie of diverse Gentilwomen in that Citee, and therefore beeyng examined openlie, and grevouslie rebuked, he confessed that he had thuse of diverse ladies there. Whereupon a Register, that ooke the note of all their names, beyng moche greeved with his filthie behaviour, especiallie bicause he had used so many, saied thus. Ah thou vile man. Is there any other, with whom thou hast been acquainted? Saie on beast, and shame the devil. The poore Eremite beeyng wonderfullie rebuked of every bodie, and marveilous sorie of soche his folies privelie committed, and openlie knowen. Said to the Register in this wise. Sir, seyng I am charged to saie the truth, and that the holie mother Church willeth me to leave nothing unrehearsed, that the rather upon my plain confession, I maie the soner have absolucion: In good faithe master Register (quoth he) I dooe not remember any other, savyng your wife onely, who was the firste and the laste that I have touched, sinse I made my Grave, and therfore if it please you to put her into your booke also, you maie boldlie doe it. For surely, she was verie lovyng to me. With that the Register in a greate heate stode up, and castyng his Penne out of his hande, would have been at the Eremite, rather then his life. The people laughted hartely, to see the Register that was so hastie before, to charge the simple Eremite with his wanton folies, to be in soche sorte touched with his wives defaulte. And many then there (as yong menne be in soche cases forward) would in any wise, that the Register should have written his wives name, in his owne book, ad eternam rei memoriam.

Those jestes are bitter whiche have a hid understanding in them, wherof also a man maye gather muche more then is spoken. A honelye felowe made his woful lamentation to Diogenes in most pitiful sorte, because his wife had hanged her selfe upon a Figge tree, hopinge to finde some comforte at his hande. But Diogenes hearinge this straunge deede, For the love of God (quod he) geve me some slippes of that tree, that I might set them in some orcharde. The frute liked him well, and belyke he thought that suche slippes woulde have bene as good to dispatche noughtye womene, as lime twigges are thought mete to catch wild birdes withal.

An Archideacon, beyng nothinge so wise as he was welthy, nor yet so learned, as he was worshipfull, asked a yonge man once, whether he hadde a good witte, or no. Yes mary sir (quod he) your wytte is good inoughe if you kepe it still, and sue it not, for everye thinge as you knowe is the worsse for the wearinge. Thou sayest even truth (quod he) for that [Page x1r] is the matter that I never used preachng. For it is nothyng byt a waistyng of witte, and a spendyng of wynde. And yet if I woulde preache, I thynke I could do as wel as the best of them. Yea sir (quod he) but yet I would ye should not prove it for feare of strainyng your selfe to muche: Why? Doest thou feare that (quod he?) nay thou maist be assured, I wil never preache so long as I lyve, God beeyng my good Lorde. There are over many Heretiques, for good meanyng men to speake any thyng now a daies. You saie even truth (quoth the young man) and so went forthe, but to tel al, I had neede to have tyme of an other worlde, or at the lest to have breathe of an other bodie.

An unlearned Oratour made an Oration on a tyme, thynkyng that he had with his wel doyng delited muche al men, and moved them to mercie and pitie, and therfore sittyng doune, he asked one Catulus if he had not moved the hearers to mercie. Yes marie (quoth he) and that to great mercie and pitie bothe, for I thynk there is none here so hard harted, but thought your oration very miserable, and therfore nedeful to be greatly pitied.

Churlishe aunsweres, lyke the hearers some tymes very well. When the father was cast in judgement, the sonne seyng hym wepe: Why wepe you father? (quoth he) To whome his father aunswered: What? Shall I syng I praie the, seeyng by a lawe I am condempned to dye. Socrates lykewyse beeyng moned of his wyfe because he shoulde dye an innocent and gilelesse in the lawe: Why for shame woman (quod he) wilt thou have me to dye giltie and deservyng. When one had falne into a ditche, an other pitiyng his fall, asked hym, and said: Alas how got you into that pit? Why, Gods mother (quoth the other) doest thou aske me how I gotte in, nay tel me rather in the mischief how I shal gette out.

There is an other contrarie unto this kynd, when a man suffereth wrong, and geveth no sharpe answere at al. As when Cato was stroken of one that caried a chest (some saie a long powle) when the other said, after he had hit hym: Take hede sir I pray you: why (quod Cato) doest thou cary any thyng els.

Folie and lacke of naturall wit, or els wante of honestie geve good matter of myrthe often tymes. When Scipio beyng [Page x1v] Pretor had apoincted unto a certaine Siciliane, one to be his lawyer that was of a good house, and had an evill witte, litle better than half a foole: I praie you (quoth the Sicilian to Scipio) appoint this lawier for myne adversarie, and let me have none at al hardely.

In speakyng against an evil man, and wishyng somewhat thereupon, a jest may seme delitefull. When an evill man had accused many persons, and none toke any harme by hym but rather were acquited from tyme to tyme, and taken the sooner for honest men: Now would to Christes passion (quod a naughtie fellow) that he were myne accuser, for then should I bee taken for an honest man also, through his accusacion. Demonides havyng crooked feete, lost on a tyme bothe his shoone, wherupon he made his praier to God that his shoone might serve his feete that had stolne them away. A shrewde wishe for hym that had the shoone, and better never weare shoone, than steale them so dearely.

Thynges gathered by conjecture to seeme otherwise than they are, delite muche the eares being wel applied together. One was charged for robbyng a Churche, and almost evidently proved to be an offendour in that behaulfe, the saied man to save hymself harmelesse, reasoned thus: Why (quod he) how should this be, I never robbed house, nor yet was ever faultie in any offence besides, how then shoulde I presume to robbe a Churche? I have loved the Churche more than any other, and wil lovers of the Churche robbe the Churche? I have geven to the Churche, howe happeneth that I am charged to take from the Churche havyng ever so good mind to church dignitie? Assure your selves thei passed litle of the Churche, that would aventure to robbe the Churche. Thei are no Churche men, they are masterlesse men, or rather S. Niclas Clarkes, that lacke livyng, and goyng in procession, takes the Churche to be an Hospitall for waie fairers, or a praie for poore and nedie beggers: but I am not suche man.

Thynges wantyng, make good pastyme beyng aptely used. Alacke, alacke, if suche a one had somewhat to take to, and were not past grace: he would doe well enough without all doubt. I warrant hym, he wantes nothyng saieth an other [Page x2r] of a covetouse man but one thyng, he hath never enough.

Suche a man hath no fault, but one, and if that were amended, all were well: what is that quoth an other? In good (faith) he is nought.

To geve a familiar advise in the waie of pastyme, deliteth muche the hearers. When an unlerned lawyer had been hourese and almost lost his voice with overlong speakyng, one Granius gave him counsel to drynke swete wine could, so sone as he came home. Why (quod he) I shall lose my voice, if I do so. Marie (quod he) and better do so, then undo thy client and lose his matter altogether.

But emong all other kyndes of delite there is none that so muche comforteth and gladdeth the hearer, as a thyng spoken contrarie to thexpectation of other. Augustus Emperour of Rome seeyng a handsome young man there, whiche was muche like unto hymselfe in contenaunce, asked hym if ever his mother was in Rome, as thoughe he had been his bastard. No forsooth (quod he) but my father hath been here very often: with that themperour was abashed, as though the emperours own mother had been an evil woman of her body.

When an unlearned Phisicion (as England lacketh none suche) had come to Pausanias a noble Jentleman, and asked him if he were not troubled muche with sicknes. No sir (quod he) I am not troubled at al, I thancke God, because I use not thy counsaill. Why doe ye accuse me (quod the Phisicion) that never tryed me? Mary (quod Pausanias) if I had ones tryed the, I shoulde never have accused the. For then I had been deade, and in my grave many daies agone.

An English Phisicion ridyng by the way, and seyng a great company of men gatherd together, sent his man to know what the matter was, whereupon his man understandyng that one there was appointed to suffer for killyng a man: came ridyng backe in al post haste, and cried to his master, long before he came at him: Get you hence sir, get you hence for Gods love. What meanes thou (quod his master). Mary (quod the servaunt) yonder man shal dye for killyng of one man, and you I dare saye, have kilde a hundreth menne in your daies: Gette you hence therefore for Gods love, if you love your selfe.

An Italian having a sute here in England, to Tharchebishoppe of Yorke that hten was, and commyng to Yorke Toune at the tyme, when one of the Prebendaries there, brakehis breade, as thei terme it, and thereupon made a solemne longe diner, the whiche perhappes began at aleven, and continued welnighe till fower in the after noone, at the whiche diner this Bishop was: It so fortuned that as thei were sette, the Italian knockte at the Gate, unto whom the Porter perceiving his errande, answered, that my lorde Bishop was at diner. The Italian departed, and retourned betwixte twelve and one, the Porter answered, thei were yet at diner, he came againe at twoo of the Clocke, the Porter tolde him, thei had not halfe dined: he came at three a clocke, unto whom the Porter in a heate, answered never a worde, but churlishely did shutte the gates upon him. Whereupon others tolde the Italian, that there was no speaking with my Lorde, almoste all that daie, for the solemne diner sake. The Gentilman Italian, wonderyng moche at soche a long sitting, and greatlie greved, bicause he could not then speak with the Bishoppes grace, departed streight towardes London, and leavyng the dispatche of his matters, with a dere frende of his, toke his journey towardes Italie. Three yeres after, it happened that an Englisheman came to Rome, with whom this Italian by chaunce falling acquainted, asked him if he knewe the Bishop of Yorke. The Englisheman saied, he knewe him right well. I praie you tell me (quod the Italian) hath that Bishoppe yet dined? The Englishe manne moche marveilyng at his question, could not tell what to saie. The Italian up and tolde him all, as I have saied before, whereat thei bothe laughed hartelie. [Page x2v]

Examples bee innumerable that serve for this purpose.

A man may by hearyng a loude lye, pretely mocke the lye by reportyng a greater lye. When one beyng of a lowe degre and his father of meane welthe, had vaunted muche of the good house that his father kepte, of two Beefes spent wekelie, and halfe a score Tunne of wyne dronke in a yeare, an other good fellowe hearyng hym lye so shamefully: Indeede (quod he) Beefe is so plentiful at my master your fathers house that an Oxe in one daie is nothyng, and as for wyne. Beggers that come to the doore are served by whole gallodnes. And as I remember your father hath a spryng of wyne in the middest of his Court, God continue his good house kepyng.

Oftentymes we may graunt to an other, the same that they will wil not graunt to us. When a base born felowe whose parentes were not honest, had charged Lelius that he did not live accordyng to his auncesters: yea, but thou doest live (quoth Lelius) accordyng to thy elders.

One beeyng a jentleman in byrthe, and an unthriftie in condicions, called an other man in reproche begger and slave. In dede Sir (quoth the poore man) you are not begger borne, but I feare me ye wil dye one.

An other lykewyse called Diogenes varlet and caitif, to whome Diogenes aunswered in this wyse. In dede suche a one have I been as thou now art, but suche a one as I now am, shalt thou never be.

Salust beeyng a jentleman borne, and a man of muche welth, and yet rather by birthe, noble: than by true dealyng, honest: envied muche the estimacion whiche Tullie had emong al men, and said to hym before his face: Thou art no jentleman borne, and therefore not meete to beare Office in this commune weale: In dede (quod Tullie) my nobilitie begynnes in me, and thyne dothe ende in the. Meanyng thereby that though Salust were borne noble, yet he were lyke to dye wretched, whereas Tullie beeyng borne both poore, and base, was lyke to dye with honour, because of his vertue, wherein chefely consisteth nobilitie.

There is a pleasaunt kynde of dissemblyng when twoo meetes together, and the one cannot well abyde the other: [Page x3r] and yet they both outwardely strive to use pleasaunt behaviour, and to show muche courtesie: yea to contende on bothe partes, whiche should passe other in usyng of faire wordes, and makyng lively countenaunces: sekyng by disemblyng, the one to deceive the other.

When we see a notable lye utterde, we checke the offendour openly with a pleasaunt mocke. As when one Vibius Curius did speake muche of his yeares and made hym selfe to be much younger then he was: (quoth Tullie) why than master Vibius as farre as I can gather by my reckenyng, when you and I declamed together last, you were not then borne by al likelyhoode, if that be true whiche you saie.

When Fabia Dolobella said to thesame Tullie that she was but thirtie yeres of age (as women by their good willes would never be olde) I thynke so (quoth Tullie) for I have heard you saie no lesse, .xx. yeres ago.

A souldiour that thought his estimacion stoude moste in the vertue of his hande gunne, made a marveilouse braggue of it, and said he was able to showte leavel a great deale farther than any one there would beleve hym to saye truth: wherpon he called for his man to beare witnesse of the same, and asked hym whether it were so, or no. In deede (quod his man) you say truth, but then you muste remember Sir, you had the wynde with you when you shotte so farre. Belyke he thought, there woulde never come suche a wynde again.

Of disposicion and apte orderyng of thynges.

I have travailed hetherto in teachyng the right way to fynde meete matter for every cause, usyng suche Arte as my slender witte coulde beste yelde. And now, nexte and immediatly after invention, I thinke meete to speake of framyng and placyng an Oration in order, that the matter beeyng aptely sattelde, and couched together: might better please the hearers, and with more ease be learned of all men. And the rather I am earnest in this behaulfe, because I knowe that al thynges stande by order, [Page x3v] and without order nothyng can be. For by an order wee are borne, by an order wee lyve, and by an order wee make our end. By an order one ruleth as head, and other obey as members. By an order Realmes stande, and lawes take force. Yea by an order the whole workes of nature and the perfite state of al the elementes have their appointed course. By an order we devise, we learne, and frame our dooynges to good purpose. By an order the Carpenter hath his Squyre, his rule, and his Plummet. The Tailour his mette Yarde, and his measure: The Mason is Former, and his Plaine, and every one accordyng to his callyng frameth thynges thereafter. For though matter be had, and that in greate plentie: yet al is to no purpose, if an order be not used. As for example: What availeth Stoone, if Masons doe not worke it? What good dothe clothe, if Tailours take no measure, or do not cutte it out? Though Tymber be had for makyng a Shippe, and al other thynges necessarie, yet the shippe shal never be perfite, till worke men begynne to set to their handes, and joyne it together. In what a comelie order hath God made man, whose shape is not thought perfite, if any parte be altered? Yea al folke would take hym for a monster, whose feete should occupie the place of his handes. An army never getteth victorie, that is not in araie, and sette in good roder of battail. So an Oration hath litle force with it, and dothe smally profite, whiche is utterede without all order. And needes must he wander, that knowes not howe to goe, neither can he otherwyse chouse, but stumble: that gropyng in the darke, can not tel where he is: Yea he must nedes both leave muche unspoken, repeate often, thynges spoken before, not knowing what, nor wher to speake best: that geves hym selfe rather to take the chuance of fortune, than to folowe the right way of advised counsell. What shoulde a man do with a weapon that knoweth not howe to use it? What though one have mountaines of golde, what availeth hym to have suche heapes, if he cannot tel how to bestow them? It is not enough to have learnyng, but it is al to use learnyng. Therefore because this parte of bestowyng matter, and placyng it in good order, is so necessarie: I will showe [Page x4r] what the learned have saied in this behaulfe so muche as I shall thynke nedeful.

Disposicion what it is.

Disposicion (as Tullie doth define it) is a certaine bestowyng of thynges, and an apte declaryng, what is meete for every parte, as tyme and place do beste require.

Dividyng of Disposicion.

There are two kyndes of disposyng, and placyng of matter. The one is when we folowe the appointed rule of Rethorique, the whiche nature doth almost teache us: The other is wholy fassioned by the discretion of hym that makes the Oration.

Rethorique doeth teache us, and nature also leadeth us thereunto, first to speake somwhat before we open our matter, after that to tell the cause of our entent, settyng forthe the matter plainly that al may understand it, then to prove our owne cause by good reason, and to confute all suche thinges as are contrarie to our purpose: last of al, to gather the whole in a somme, concludyng the matter briefely, and so to make an ende. Nowe to place those reasons, whiche shoulde both serve to confirme and to confute, and to tel in what parte of the Oration it were best to use this reason, and that reason, that the rather wee might prove, teache, and perswade: a right wyse man had nede to take this matter in hande. For even as the tyme, the place, the judge, and the matter it selfe shal geve cause: so must a wyse body take his advantage. Sometymes it shalbe expedient to use no preface at al, or els when the matter is wel knowne, it will be good to leave the matter untolde, and streight to seeke the confirmacion, usyng some stronge reason for the same purpose. Yea sometymes it may do good to neglecte the naturall order, and begynne firste to prove the cause, and afterwarde to tell it better, than it was tolde before. If the judge, or the hearers shalbe weried with other reportes before, it is beste to goe to the matter, and prove [Page x4v] it out of hande with as briefe reasons, and as strong as can be gatherde possible. And in provyng of our matters, we had nede evermore rather to waie our reasons, than to nomber them, and thynke not that then we shall doe beste, when we have the most, but then looke to doe beste, when we have the most, but then looke to doe best, when we have the strongest. And first of al the strongest should be used, and the other placed in the middest of the Oration, the whiche beeyng heaped together wil make a good mustar. And yet this also would be learned, whereas we used the best reasons at the first, we shoulde also reserve some that were lyke good, for the later end: that the hearers might have them freshe in their remembraunce, when they shoulde geve judgement. The slender reasons that can do lesse good, and yet not all, (for some may better be omitted) woulde bee placed in the middest (as I saied) that bothe they might bee lesse marked, or beeyng heaped there together, they might doe more good, especially when bothe weightie reasons went before, and weightie reasons also, folowed after. Now a wyse man that hath good experience in these affaires, and is able to make hym selfe a Rhetorique for every matter, will not bee bounde to any precise rules, nor kepe any one order, but suche onely as by reason he shall thynke best to use, beeyng maister over Arte, rather then Arte shoulde be maister over hym, rather makyng Art by witte, than confoundyng witte by Arte. And undoubtedly even in so doyng, he shal do right wel, and contente the hearers accordyngly. For what mattereth whether we folowe our Booke, or no, if wee folowe witte, and appoint our selfe an order, suche as may declare the truthe more plainely? Yea some that be unlearned and yet have right good wittes: will devise with theim selves, without any Booke learnyng, what they wil saie, and how muche they wil say, appointyng their order, and partyng it into thre, or foure partes, or more, if neede be, suche as they shal thynke especial pointes, and most meete to bee touched. Whose doynges as I can wel like, and muche commende them for thesame: so I would thynke them muche more able to do muche better: if thei either by learning folowed a paterne, or els knewe the preceptes, whiche leade us to right order. [Page y1r] Rules wer therfore geven, and by muche observacion gathered together, that those whiche could not see Arte his in another mannes doynges, should yet se the rules open, all in an order set together: and therby judge the rather of their doynges, and by earnest imitacion, seke to resemble suche their invencion. I cannot deny but that a right wise man unlearned, shall doo more good by his naturall witte, then twentie of these common wittes, that want nature to help arte. And I know that rules wer made first by wise men, and not wise men made by rules. For these preceptes serve onely to helpe our nede, suche as by nature have not suche plentifull giftes. And as for other, unto whom nature is more favorable, thei are rather put the soner in remembraunce, that suche lessons are, then so taught as though thei never knewe theim, or els never would use them. And therfore a certain learned man, and of muche excellencie, beeyng asked what was suche a figure, and suche a trope in Rhetorique: I cannot tell (quoth he) but I am assured, if you loke in the boke of myne oracions, you shall not faile but finde theim. So that though he knewe not the name of suche and suche figures, yet the nature of them was so familiar to his knowlege, that he had thuse of them, whensoever he had nede. Nowe though this man could well thus doo, beyng of suche notable understandyng, yet it were foly that all should folowe his waie, whiche want so good a wit. And I thinke even he himself, should not have lost by it neither, if he had seen that in a glasse, whiche he often used to do without knowlege. Man is forgetfull, and there is none so wise, but counsaill maie dooe hym good. Yea, he shall dooe muche better, that knoweth what arte other men have used, what invencion thei have folowed, what order thei have kept, and how thei have best doen in every part. If he like not theirs, he may use his awne, and yet none dooeth so evill (I thynke) but some good maie be got by hym. The wise therfore wil not refuse to heare: and the ignoraunt for want, had nede to seke a will.

Thende of the .ii. boke.

3. The third boke.

Of apte chusyng and framyng of wordes and sentences together, called Elocucion.

And now we are come to that parte of Rhetorique, the whiche above al other is most beautifull, wherby not onely wordes are aptly used, but also sentences are in right order framed. For whereas Invencion, helpeth to finde matter, and Disposicion serveth to place argumentes: Elocucion getteth wordes to set furthe invencion, and with suche beautie commendeth the matter, that reason semeth to bee clad in purple, walkyng afore, bothe bare and naked. Therfore ! d aptly utter bothe owrdes and matter, and in his talke can use suche composicion, that he maie appere to kepe an uniformitie, and (as I might saie) a nomber in the uttering of his sentence. Now an eloquent man beyng smally learned, can do muche more good in perswading, by shift of wordes, and mete placyng of matter: then a greate learned clerke shalbe able with great store of learnyng, wantyng wordes to set furth his meanyng. Wherfore I muche marvaile that so many seke the only knowlege of thynges, without any mynd to commende or set furthe their entendement: seyng none can knowe either what thei are, or what thei have, without the gift of utterance. Yea, bryng them to speake their mynde, and enter in talke with suche as are said to be learned, and you shal finde in them suche lacke of utterance, that if you judge theim [Page y2r] by their tongue, and expressyng of their mynde: you must nedes saie thei have no learnyng. Wherin me thinkes thei do, like some riche snudges, that havyng great wealth, go with their hose out at heeles, their shoes out at toes, and their cotes out at bothe elbowes. For who can tell, if suche men are worth a grote, when their apparel is so homely, and al their behavior so base? I can call them by none other name, but slovens, that maie have good geare, and nether can, nor yet will ones weare it clenly. What is a good thyng to a manne, if he neither knowe thuse of it, nor yet (though he knowe it) is able at all to use it? If we thinke it comelinesse, and honestie to set furthe the body with handsome apparell, and thynke theim worthie to have money, that bothe can and will use it accordyngly: I cannot otherwise se, but that this part deserveth praise, whiche standeth wholy in settyng furthe matter by apte wordes and sentences together, and beautifieth the tongue with greate chaunge of colours, and varietie of figures.

Foure partes belongyng to Elocucion.

i. Plainnesse. ii. Aptenesse. iii. Composicion. iiii. Exornacion.

Emong al other lessons, this should first be learned, that we never affect any straunge ynkehorne termes, but so speake as is commonly received: neither sekyng to be over fine, nor yet livyng over carelesse, usyng our speache as most men do, and ordryng our wittes, as the fewest have doen. Some seke so farre for outlandishe Englishe, that thei forget altogether their mothers language. And I dare swere this, if some of their mothers were alive, thei were not able to tell, what thei say, and yet these fine Englishe clerkes, wil saie thei speake in their mother tongue, if a man should charge them for counterfeityng the kynges English. Some farre jorneid jentlemen at their returne home, like as thei love to go in forrein apparell, so thei wil pouder their talke with oversea language. He that cometh lately out of France, wil talke Frenche English, and never blushe at the matter. Another choppes in with Englishe Italianated, and applieth the Italian phrase, to our Englishe speaking, the whiche is, as if an Oratour that professeth to utter his minde in plaine Latine, would needes speake Poetrie, and farre fetched colours of straunge antiquitie. The lawyer wil store his stomack with the [Page y2v] pratyng of Pedlers. The Auditour in makyng his accompt and rekenyng, cometh in with sise sould, and cater denere, for vi.s. iiii.d. The fine Courtier wil talke nothyng but Chaucer. The misticall wise menne, and Poeticall Clerkes, will speake nothyng but quaint proverbes, and blynd allegories, delityng muche in their awne darkenesse, especially, when none can tell what thei dooe saie. The unlearned or foolishe phantasticall, that smelles but of learnyng (suche felowes as have seen learned men in their daies) will so latine their tongues, that the simple cannot but wonder at their talke, and thynke surely thei speake by some Revelacion. I knowe them that thynke Rhetorique, to stande wholy upon darke woordes, and he that can catche an ynke horne terme by the taile, hym thei compt to bee a fine Englishe man, and a good Rhetorician. And the rather to set out this folie, I will adde here suche a letter, as Willyam Sommer himself, could not make a better for that purpose. Somme will thinke and swere it to, that there was never any suche thyng writte, well I wil not force any man to beleve it, but I will saie thus muche, and abide by it to, the like have been made heretofore, and praised above the Monne.

A letter divised by a Lincolneshire man, for a voide benefice, to a gentilman that then waited upon the lorde Chancellour, for the tyme beyng.

Ponderyng, expendyng, and revolutyng with my self your ingent affabilitee, and ingenious capacitee, for mundane affaires: I cannot bu celebrate and extolle your magnificall dextertee, above all other. For how could you have adepted suche illustrate prerogative, and dominicall superioitee, if the fecunditee of your ingenie had not been so fertile, and wounderfull pregnaunt. Now therfore beeyng accerfited, to suche splendent renoume, an dignitee splendidious: I doubt not but you will adiuvate suche poore adnichilate orphanes, as whilome ware condisciples with you, and of antique familiaritie in Lincoln shire. Emong whom I beeyng a Scholasticall panion, obtestate your sublimitee to extoll myne infirmitee. There is a sacerdotall dignitee in my native countrey, contiguate to me, where I now contemplate: whiche your worshipfull benignitee, could sone impetrate for me, if it would like you to extend your scedules, and collaude me in them to the right honorable lorde Chauncellor, or rather Archigrammacion [Page y3r] of Englande. You knowe my literature, you knowe the pastorall promocion, I obtestate your clemencie, to invigilate thus muche for me, accordyng to my confidence, and as you know my condigne merites, for suche a compendious livyng. But now I relinquishe to fatigate your intelligence with any more frivolous verbositie, and therfore he that rules the climates be evermore your beautreux, your fortresse, and your bulwarke. Amen.

Dated at my Dome, or rather Mansion place, in Lincolnshire, the penulte of the moenth sextile. Anno Millimo, quillimo, trillimo. Per me Johannes Octo.

What wise man readyng this letter, will not take him for a very Caulfe, that made it in good earnest, and thought by his ynkepot termes, to get a good personage. Doeth wit reste in straunge wordes, or els standeth it in wholsome matter, and apt declaryng of a mannes mynd? Do we not speake, because we would have other to understand us, or is not the tongue geven for this ende, that one might know what another meaneth? And what unlearned man can tell, what half this letter signifieth? Therfore, either we must make a difference of Englishe, and saie some is learned Englishe, and other some is rude Englishe, or the one is courte talke, the other is countrey speache, or els we must of necessitee, banishe al suche affected Rhetorique, and use altogether one maner of language. When I was in Cambrige, and student in the kynges College, there came a man out of the toune, with a pinte of wine in a pottle pot, to welcome the provost of that house, that lately came from the court. And because he would bestow his present like a clerke, dwellyng emong the schoolers: he made humbly his thre curtesies, and said in this maner. Cha good even my good lorde, and well might your lordship vare: Understandyng that your lordeship was come, and knowyng that you are a worshipfull Pilate, and kepes a bominable house: I thought it my duetie to come incantivantee, and bryng you a potell a wine, the whiche I beseche your lordeship take in good worthe. Here the simple man beyng desirous to amende his mothers tongue, shewed hymself not to bee the wisest manne, that ever spake with tongue.

Another good felowe in the countrey, beyng an officer, and Maiour of a toune, and desirous to speake like a fine learned man, havyng just occasion to rebuke a runnegate felow, said [Page y3v] after this wise in a greate heate. Thou yngram and vacacion knave, if I take thee any more within the circumcision of my dampnacion: I will so corrupte thee, that all vacacion knaves shall take ilsample by thee.

Another standyng in muche nede of money, and desirous to have some helpe at a jentlemans hand, made his complaint in this wise. I praie you sir be so good unto me, as forbeare this halfe yeres rent. For so helpe me God and halidome, we are so taken on with contrary Bishoppes, with revives, and with Southsides to the kyng, that al our money is cleane gone. These wordes he spake for contribucion, relief, and subsidie. And thus we see that poore simple men are muche troubled, and talke oftentymes, thei kowe not what, for lacke of wit and want of Latine and Frenche, wherof many of our straunge woordes full often are derived. Those therefore that will eschue this foly, and acquaint themselfes with the best kynd of speache, muste seke from tyme to tyme, suche wordes as are commonly received, and suche as properly maie expresse in plain maner the whole conceipte of their mynde. and looke what woordes wee best understande, and know what thei meane: thesame should sonest be spoken, and firste applied to the utteraunce of our purpose.

Now whereas wordes be received, aswell Greke as Latine, to set furthe our meanyng in thenglishe tongue, either for lacke of store, or els because wee would enriche the language: it is well doen to use them, and no man therin can be charge for any affectacion, when all other are agreed to folowe thesame waie. There is no man agreved, when he heareth (letters patentes) and yet patentes is latine, and signifieth open to all men. The Communion is a felowship, or a commyng together, rather Latine then Englishe: the Kynges prerogative, declareth his power royall above all other, and yet I knowe no man greved for these termes, beeyng used in their place, nor yet any one suspected for affectacion, when suche generall wordes are spoken. The folie is espied, when either we will use suche wordes, as fewe man doo use, or use theim out of place, when another might serve muche better. Therfore to avoyde suche folie, we maie learne of that most [Page y4r] excellent Orator Tullie, who in his thirde booke, where he speaketh of a perfect Oratoure, declareth under the name of Crassus, that for the choyse of wordes, foure thinges should chiefly be observed. First, that suche wordes as we use, shuld be proper unto the tongue, wherein wee speake, again, that thei be plain for all men to perceive: thirdly, that thei be apt and mete, moste properly to sette out the matter. Fourthly, that woordes translated from one significacion to another, (called of the Grecians, Tropes) bee used to beautifie the sentence, as previous stones are set in a ryng, to commende the golde.

Aptnesse what it is.

Suche are thought apt wordes, that properly agre unto that thyng, whiche thei signifie, and plainly expresse the nature of thesame. Therfore thei that have regard of their estimacion, do warely speake, and with choyse, utter woordes moste apte for their purpose. In weightie causes, grave wordes are thought moste nedefull, that the greatnesse of the matter, maie the rather appere in the vehemencie of their talke. So likewise of other, like order muste be taken. Albeit some, not onely do not observe this kynde of aptnes, but also thei fall into muche fondnesse, by usyng wordes out of place, and appliyng theim to diverse matters without all discrecion. As thus. An ignorant felowe comyng to a jentlemannes place, and seyng a greate flocke of shepe in his pastour, saied to

Of Composicion.

When we have learned usuall and accustomable wordes to set furthe our meanyng, we ought to joyne them together [Page y4v] in apt order, that the eare maie delite, in hearyng the harmonie. I knowe some English men, that in this poynct have suche a gift in the Englishe, as fewe in Latine have the like, and therfore, delite the wise and lerned so muche, with their pleasaunt composicion: that many rejoyce, when thei maie heare suche, and thynke muche learnyng is gotte, when thei maie talke with suche. Composicion therefore, is an apte joynyng together of wordes in suche order, that neither the eare shal espie any jerre, nor yet any man shalbe dulled with overlong drawing out of a sentence, nor yet muche confounded with myngelyng of clauses, suche as are nedelesse, beyng heaped together without reason, and used without nomber. For, by suche meanes the hearers will be forced, to forgette full oft, what was saied first, before the sentence be halfe ended: or els bee blynded with confoundyng of many thynges together. Some again will bee so shorte, and in suche wise curtall their Sentences, that thei had nede to make a commentarie immediatly of their meanyng, or els the moste that heare them, shalbe forced to kepe counsaill.

Some will speake oracles, that a man cannot tell, whiche waie to take theim, some will be so fine, and so Poeticall with all, that to their semyng, there shall not stande one heire amisse, and yet every body els shall thinke them meter for a ladies chamber, then for an earnest matter, in any open assemblie.

Some wil rove so muche, and bable so farre without order, that a manne would thynke, thei had a greate love, to heare themselfes speake.

Some repeate one woorde so often, that if suche woordes could be eaten, and chopte in so ofte, as thei are uttered out, thei would choke the wildest throte in all England. As thus. If a man knewe, what a mans life wer, no man for any mannes sake, would kill any man, but one man would rather help another man, considryng man is borne for man, to help man, and not to hate man. What man would not be choked, if he chopt al these men at ones into his mouth, and never dronke after it? Some use overmuche repeticion of some one letter, as pitiful povertie praieth for a peny, but puffed presumpcion, passeth not a poynct, pamperyng his panche, with pestilent pleasure, procuring [Page z1r] his passe porte to poste it to Hell pytte, there to be punished with paines perpetuall. Some will so sette their wordes that they muste be fayne to gape after everye worde spoken, endinge one worde with a vowell, and beginninge the next wyth an other, whyche undoubtedlye maketh the talke to seme mooste unpleasaunte. As thus. Equitie assuredlye everye injurye avoydeth. Some will set the carte before the horse, as thus. My mother and my father are both at home, even as thoughe the good man of the house ware no breaches, or that the graye Mare were the better Horse. And what thoughe it often so happeneth (God wotte the more pitye) yet in speakinge at the leaste, let us kepe a natural order, and set the man before the woman for maners sake.

An other cominge home in haste after a long journey, sayeth to hys manne: Come hither sir knave, helpe me of with my bootes and my spurres. I praye you sir geve him leave firste to plucke of youre spurres, are he meddle wyth your bootes, or els your man is like to have a madde pluckinge. Who is so folyshe as to saye the counsayle and the kynge, but rather the Kinge and his counsayle, the father and the sonne, and not contrary. And so likewise in al other, as they are in degree firste, evermore to set them formost.

The wise therfore talkinge of divers worthye menne together, will firste name the worthiest, and kepe a decent order in reportynge of their tale. Some ende their sentences all alike, makyng their talke rather to appeare rimed meter then to seme playne speache, the whiche as it muche deliteth beynge measurablye used, so it muche offendeth when no meane is regarded. I hearde a preacher delityng much in thys kynd of composition, who used so often to ende his sentence with wordes like unto that whiche wente before, that in my judgemente, there was not a dosen sentences in hys whole sermon, but they ended all in ryme for the most part. Some not best disposed, wished the Preacher a Lute, that with his rimed sermon he myght use some pleasaunt melodye, and so the people myghte take pleasure divers wayes, and daunce if they liste. Certes there is a meane, and no reason to use any one thinge at alltimes, seynge nothinge deliteth [Page z1v] (be it never so good) that is alwayes used.

Quintilian likeneth the coloures of Rhetorique to a mannes eye sighte. And nowe (quod he) I woulde not have all the bodye to be full of eyes, or nothinge but eyes: for then the other partes shoulde wante their due place and proporcion. Some overthwartelye sette their woordes, placynge some one a myle frome his felowes, not contented with a playne and easye composition, but seke to sette wordes they can not tell howe, and therfore one not likynge to be called and by printe published Doctoure of Phisike, would neades be named of Phisike Doctour, wherin appeared a wonderfull composition (as he thought) straunge undoubtedlye, but whether wise or no, lette the learned sitte in judgement upon that matter.

An other. As I rose in the mornynge (quod one) I mette a carte full of stones emptye. Belike the manne was fastinge, when the carte was full, and yet we see that throughe straunge composition this sentence appeareth darke.

Some will tell one thinge .xx. times, nowe in, nowe out, and when a man would thinke they had almost ended, they are ready to beginne againe as freshe as ever they were. Suche vayne repetitions declare bothe wante of witte, and lacke of learninge. Some are so homely in all their doynges, and so grosse for their invention, that they use altogether one maner of trade, and seke no varietie to eschewe tediousnes.

Some burden their talke with nedelesse copye, and will seme plentifull, when they shoulde be shorte. An other is so curious and so fine of his tongue, that he can not tell in all the worlde what to speake. Everie sentence semeth commune, and everye worde generallye used, is thought is to be folyshe, in his wise judgemente. Some use so manye interpositions bothe in their talke and in their writinge, that they make their sayinges as darke as hell. Thus whan faultes be knowen, they may be avoyded: and vertue the soner may take place, when vice is forsene, and eschewed as evill.

When wee have learned apte woordes and usuall Phrases to sette forthe oure meanynge, and can orderlye place them without offence to the eare, [Page z2r] we maye boldelye commende and beautifie our talke wyth divers goodlye coloures, and delitefull translations, that oure speache maye seme as bryghte and previous, as a ryche stone is fayre and orient.

Exornation is a gorgiousse beautifiynge of the tongue with borowed wordes, and chaung of sentence or speache, with muche varietie. Firste therfore (as Tullie saythe) an Oration is made to seme ryghte excellente by the kinde selfe, by the colour and juice of speache. Ther are .iii. maner of styles or enditinges, the great or mighty kind, when we use great wordes, or vehement figures:

The smal kinde, when we moderate our heate by meaner wordes, and use not the most stirring sentences:

The lowe kinde, when we use no Metaphores, nor translated wordes, nor yet use any amplifications, but go plainelye to worke, and speake altogether in commune wordes. Nowe in all these three kindes, the Oration is muche commended, and appeareth notable, when wee kepe us styll to that style, whiche wee firste professed, and use suche wordes as seme for that kinde of writinge most convenient.

Yea, if we minde to encrease, or diminish: to be in a heate, or to use moderation: to speake pleasauntly, or speake gravelye: to be sharpe, or to be softe: to talke lordlye, or to speake finelie: to waxe auncient, or familiar (which al are comprehended under one of the other three:) we muste ever make oure wordes apte and agreable to that kinde of stile, whiche we firste ganne to use. For as frenche hodes do not become Lordes: so Parliament Robes are unfitting for Ladies. Comelines therfore must ever be used, and all thinges observed that are most mete for every cause, if we loke by attemptes to have our desire.

There is another kind of Exornacion that is not egually sparpled throughout the whole oration, but is so dissevered and parted, as starres stand in the firmament, or floures in a garden, or prety divised antiques in a clothe of Araise.

What a fygure is.

A figure is a certaine kinde, either of sentence, oration, or worde, used after some new or straunge wise, muche unlike to that, which men communely use to speake. [Page z2v]

The division of Fygures.

There are thre kindes of figures, the one is when the nature of wordes is chaunged from one signification to an other called a Trope of the Grecians: The other serveth for woordes when they are not chaunged by nature, but onely altered by speaking, called of the Grecians a Scheme: The third is when by deversity of invention, a sentence is manye wayes spoken, and also matters are amplified by heapynge examples, by dilatynge argumentes, by comparinge of thynges together, by similitudes, by contraries, and by divers other like, called by Tullie Exornacion of sentences, or coloures of Rhetorique.

By all which Figures, everye Oration maye be muche beautified, and without the same, not one can attaine to be counted an Oratoure, thoughe his learninge otherwise be never so greate.

Of the fyrste use of Tropes.

When learned men and wise menne gan firste to enlarge their tongue, and sought with greate utteraunce of speache to commende causes: they founde full ofte muche wante of wordes to set out their meanynge. And therfore remembrynge thinges of like nature unto those wherof they spake: they used suche wordes to expresse their minde, as were most like unto other. As for example. If I shoulde speake against some notable Pharisee, I might use translation of wordes in this wise: Yonder man is of a croked judgment, his wyttes are clowdie, he liveth in deepe darkenes, dusked altogether wyth blynde ignoraunce, and drowned in the raginge sea, of bottomeles superstition. Thus is the ignoraunte set out, by callinge hym croked, clowdye, darke, blinde, and drownde in superstition. All whiche wordes are not proper unto ignoraunce, but borowed of other thinges, that are of lyke nature unto ignoraunce. For the unskilfull man hath his wytte set oute of [Page z3r] order, as a mannes bodye is set out of joynte, and therupon it maye be sayde to be croked. Likewyse he maye be called clowdye, for as the clowdes kepe the Sunne shinynge from us, so dothe his Ignoraunce kepe him blindefolde from the true understandinge of thinges. And as when the eyes are oute, no manne can see anye thinge: so when perfecte judgemente is wantinge, the truthe can not be knowen. And so likewise of all other. Thus as necessitye hath forced us to borowe wordes translated: so hath time and practice made theim to seeme moost pleasaunt, and therfore thei are muche the rather used. Yea, when a thynge full ofte can not be expreste by an apte and mete woorde, we do perceyve (when it is spoken by a woorde translated) that the likenes of that thynge whiche appeareth in an other worde, muche lighteneth that, which we woulde most gladly have perceyved.

And not onely do menne use translation of wordes (called Tropes) for nede sake, when thei can not finde other: but also when they maye have mooste apte wordes at hande, yet wyll they of a purpose use translated wordes. And the reason is this. Menne counte it a poynte of witte to passe over suche woordes as are at hande, and to use suche as are farre fetcht and translated: or elles it is, because the hearer is led by cogitacion upon rehearsall of a Metaphore, and thinketh more by remembraunce of a word translated, then is there expreslye spoken: or elles because the whole matter semeth by a similitude to be opened: or last of al, bicause every translation is commenly, and for the most part referred to the senses of the body, and especially to the sense of seing, which is the sharpest and quickest above all other. For when I shal saye that an angrye manne fometh at the mouthe, I am brought in remembraunce by this translation to remember a bore, that in fightyng useth muche foming, the whiche is a fowle and lothelye sighte. And I cause other to thinke that he brake pacience wonderfully, when I set out his rage comparable to a bores fominge.

An other beinge offended wyth checkes geven, will seye, I marvaile sir what you meane to be ever snarringe at me, wherein is declared a brutishenes, consideringe he speaketh [Page z3v] biting wordes, as muche without reason and as uncomelye, as a dogge dothe, when he snarreth, the whiche wee see is nothing semely. There is nothing in all the worlde, but the same maye have the name of some other worde, the whiche by some similitude is lyke unto it. Notwithstandinge there ought muche warenesse to be used in chosyng of wordes translated, that the same be not unlike that thing, wherunto it is applied, nor yet that the translation be uncomely or suche as may geve occasion of any uncleane meaning.

A Trope.

A Trope is an alteration of a word or sentence from the proper signification to that whych is not proper.

The division of Tropes.

Tropes are either of a word, or of a longe continued speche or sentence.

Tropes of a worde are these.

A Metaphore or translation of wordes. A worde makinge. Intellection. Abusion. Transmutation of a word. Transumption. Chaunge of a name. Circumlocution.

Tropes of a longe continued speache or sentence are these.

An Allegorie, or inversion of wordes. Mountinge. Resemblinge of thinges. Similitude. Example.

What is a Metaphore.

A Metaphore is an alteration of a woorde from the proper and naturall meanynge, to that whiche is not proper, and yet agreeth therunto, by some lykenes that appeareth to be in it. [Page z4r]

An Oration is wonderfullye enriched, when apte Metaphores are gotte and applied to the matter. Neither can anye one perswade effectuouslye, and winne men by weyght of his Oration, withoute the helpe of woordes altered and translated.

The diversitye of translations.

Firste we alter a worde from that which is in the minde, to that which is in the bodye. As when we perceyve one that hath begiled us, we use to saye: Ah sirrha, I am gladde I have smelled your oute. Beinge greved with a matter, we saye communelye we can not digest it. The Lawyer receiving money more then neadeth oftentimes, will saye to his Client wythout any translation. I fele you wel, when the pore man thinketh that he doth well understand his cause, and will helpe him to some good ende. For so, communelye we saye, when we knowe a mans minde in anye thinge. This kinde of mutation is muche used, when we talke earnestlye of any matter.

>From the creature wythout reason, to that whyche hathe reason.

The seconde kinde of translation is, when we goo from the creature wythout reason to that whiche hathe reason, or contrarye from that whiche hathe reason, to that whiche hath no reason. As if I shoulde saye, such an unreasonable brawler, did nothinge elles but barke like a dogge, or like a Foxe. Women are saide to chatter, churles to grunte, boyes to whyne, and yonge men to yell. Contrariwise, we call a Foxe false, a Lyon proude, and a Dogge flatteringe.

>From the lyvynge to that whyche hath no lyfe.

>From the livynge to the not livynge, we use many translations. As thus. You shall praye for al men dispersed throughoute the face of the earthe. The arme of a tree. The syde of a Bancke. The lande cryeth for vengeaunce. From the not livinge to the not living: Hatred buddeth emonge malicious men, his wordes flowe out of his mouthe. I have a whole worlde of business.

In observing the worke of Nature in al several substaunces [Page z4v] we maye finde translations at wyll, then the whiche nothinge is more profitable for anye one that myndeth by hys utteraunce to stirre the hartes of menne either one waye or other.

A worde makinge called of the Grecians Onomatopeia is when we make wordes of our owne mynde, suche as be derived from the nature of thinges. As to call one Patche or Cowlson, whom we see to do a thinge folyshelye, because these two in their time were notable foles. Or when one is lustye to saye Taratauntara, declaringe therby that he is as lustye, as a Trumpette is delitefull, and styrringe: or when one woulde seme galaunte, to crye hoyghe, whereby also is declared courage. Boyes beynge greved will saye some one to an other, Sir I wyll cappe you, if you use me thus, and withholde that frome me whyche is myne owne: meanynge that he will take his cappe from him. Againe, when we see one gaye and galaunte, we use to saye, he courtes it. Quod one that reasoned in divinitie wyth his felowe, I like well to reason, but I can not chappe these textes in scripture, if I shoulde dye for it: meaning that he coulde not tell in what chapiter thinges were conteyned, althoughe he knewe full well that there were suche sayinges.


Intellection called of the Gretians, Synecdoche, is a Trope, when wee gather or Judge the whole by the parte, or party, by the whole. As thus. The king is come to London, meaning therby that other also be come with him. The Frenche man is good to kepe a Forte, or to skyrmishe on horsebacke, wherby we declare the Frenshmen generally. By the whole the part, thus. Al Cambridge sorowed for the deathe of Bucer, meaninge the most parte. All Englande rejoyseth that pilgrimage is banished, and Idolatrye for ever abolished: and yet all England is not glad, but the most part.

The like phrases are in the Scripture, as when the Magians came to Jerusalem, and asked where he was that was [Page aa1r] borne Kyng of the Jewes. Herode starte up beeyng greatly troubled, and al the citie of Jerusalem with hym, and yet al the Citie was not troubled, but the most part. By the signe we understande the thynge signified, as by an Ivie garlande, we judge there is wyne to sel. By the signe of a Beare, Bul, Lyon, or any suche, wee take any house to be an Inne. By eatyng breade at the Communion, wee remember Christes death, and by Faith, receive hym spiritually.


Abusion, called of the Grecians Catachresis, is when for a certaine proper woorde we use that whiche is most nighe unto it: As in callyng some water, a fishe ponde, though there be no fisshe in it at all: or elles when we saie, here is long talke, and small matter. Whiche are spoken unproperly, for we cannot measure, either talke, or matter by length, or breadth.

Transmutacion of a worde.

Transmutacion helpeth much for varietie, the whiche is when a woorde hath a proper signification of the owne, and beyng referred to an other thyng, hath an other meanyng, the Grecians cal it Metonymia, the whiche is diverse waies used. When we use the aucthor of a thyng, for the thyng selfe. As thus. Put upon you the Lord Jesus Christe, that is to say, be in livyng suche a one, as he was. The Pope is banished England, that is to saie, al his superstition, and Hypocrisie, either is, or shoulde be gone to the Devill by the Kynges expresse will, and commaundement. Againe when that whiche doeth conteyne, is used for that whiche is conteined. As thus. I have dronk and hoggeshead this weeke: Heaven may rejoyce, and hell may lament, when olde men are not covetouse. Contrarywise, when the thyng conteined is used for the thyng conteinyng. As thus. I praie you come to me, that is to say, come to my house. Fourthely, when by the efficient cause, the effecte is streight gatherde thereupon. As thus. The Sonne is up, that is to saie, it is day. This felowe is good with a long bowe, that is to saie, he shouteth wel. [Page aa1v]


Transumption is, when by digrees wee go to that, whiche is to be shewed. As thus: Suche a one lyeth in a darke doungeon, now in speaking of darkenesse, we understand closenesse, by closenesse, we gather blackenesse, and by blackenesse, we judge depenesse.

Chaunge of name.

Chaunge of a name, is when for the propre name, some name of an office, or other calling is used. As thus: the Prophete of God saith: Blessed, are they whose synnes be not imputed unto them, meanyng David. The Poete saieth: It is a vertue, to eschew vice, wherein I understande Horace.


Circumlocution is, a large description either to sette forth a thyng more gorgeouslie, or els to hyde it, if the eares cannot beare the open speakyng: or when with fewe wordes we cannot open our meanyng, to speake it more largely. Of the first thus. The valiaunt courage of mightie Scipio subdued the force of Carthage and Numantia. Henry the fifte, the most puissaunt Kyng of Englande, with seven thousand men toke the Frenshe Kyng prisoner with al the flower of nobilitie in Fraunce. Of the seconde. When Saule was easyng hymselfe upon the grounde, David toke a peece of his garment, tooke his weapon that laie by hym, and might have slaine hym. Suche a one defiled his bodie with suche an evill woman. For the thirde parte, the large commentaries written, and the Par

What is an Allegorie.

An Allegorie is none other thyng, but a Metaphore used throughout a whole sentence, or Oration. As in speakyng against a wicked offendour, I might say thus. Oh Lorde, his nature was so evill, and his witte so wickedly bente, that he ment to bouge the shippe, where he hymselfe sailed, meanyng that he purposed the destruction of his owne countrie. It is evill puttyng strong wine into weake vesselles, that is to say it is evill trustyng [Page aa2r] some women with weightie matters. The English Proverbes gatherde by Jhon Heywood helpe wel in this behaulf, the whiche commenly are nothyng elles but Allegories, and darcke devised sentences. Now for the other fower figures, because I mynde hereafter to speake more largely of them, and Quintilian thynketh them more meete to be placed emong the figures of Exornacion, I wil not trouble the reader with double inculcation, and twyse tellyng of one tale.

Of Schemes, called otherwyse sentences of a worde and sentence.

I might tary a longe tyme in declaryng the nature of diverse Schemes, whiche are woordes or sentencies altered, either by speakyng, or writyng, contrarie to the vulgare custome of our speache without chaungyng their nature at all: but because I knowe the use of the figures in word is not so great in this our tongue, I wil run them over with asmuche haste as I can.

The division of Schemes.

Straunge usyng of any worde or sentence contrarie to our daiely wont, is either when we adde, or take away a sillable, or a word, or encrease a sentence by chaunge of speache contrarie to the commune maner of speakyng.

Figures of a worde.

Those be called figures of a word, when we chaunge a worde, and speake it contrarie to our vulgare and daily speache. Of the whiche sorte, there are sixe in nomber.

i. Addition at the first. ii. Abstraction from the first. iii. Interlacyng in the middest. iiii. Cuttyng from the middest. v. Addyng at the ende. vi. Cuttyng from the end.

Of Addition. As thus. He did all to berattle hym. Wherein appereth that a sillable is added to this worde (rattle.) Here is good nale to sel, for good ale. [Page aa2v] Of Abstraction from the first, thus. As I romed al alone, I ganne to thynke of matters greate. In which sentence, (ganne) is used, for beganne.

Interlacyng in the middest. As. Relligion, for religion.

Cuttyng from the middest. Idolatrie, for Idololatrie.

Addyng at the end. Hasten your busines, for Haste your businesse.

Cuttyng from the end. A faire may, for maide.

Thus these figures are shortely sette out, and as for the other Schemes, whiche are utterde in whole sentences, and expressed by varitie of speache: I wil set them forth at large emong the coloures and ornamentes of Elocution, that folowe.

Of coloures and ornamentes to commende and sette forth an Oration.

Now, when we are able to frame a sentence handsomly together, observyng number and kepyng composition, suche as shal lyke best the eare, and do know the use of Tropes, and can applie them to our purpose: than thornamentes are necessarie in an Oration, and sentences woulde bee furnished with moste beautifull figures. Therfore to thende that they may be knowne, suche as most commende and beautifie an Oration: I wil set them forthe here in suche wise as I shal best be able, folowyng the order whiche Tullie hath used in his Booke made of a perfite Oratour.

Restyng upon a poyncte.

When wee are earnest in a matter, and feele the weight of our cause, wee rest upon some reason, whiche serveth best for our purpose. Wherin this figure appereth most, and helpeth muche to set forthe our matter. For if we stil kepe us to our strongest holde, and make ofte recourse thither, though we be dryven through bytalke to go from it nowe and than: we shall force them at length, either to avoide our strong defence, or elles to yelde into our handes.

An evident, or plaine settyng forthe of a thyng as though it were presently doen.

aa3r This Figure is called a description, or an evident declaration of a thyng, as though we saw it even now doen. An example. If our enemies shal invade, and by treason wynne the victorie, we al shal dye every mothers sonne of us, and our Citie shalbe destroied sticke and stoone. I see our children made slaves, our daughters ravished, our wifes caried away, the father forced to kil his owne sonne, the mother her daughter, the sonne his father, the sucking child slaine in the mothers bosome, one standyng to the knees in anothers bloude, Churches spoiled, houses pluckte doune, and al set in fier rounde about us, every one cursyng the day of their birth, children criyng, women wailyng, and olde men passyng for very thought, and every one thynkyng hymselfe most happy that is first ridde out of this worlde, suche will the crueltie be of our enemies, and with suche horrible hatred wil they seeke to dispatche us. Thus where I might have said, we shal al be destroied and saie no more, I have by description sette the evill forth at large. It muche availeth to use this figure in diverse matters, the whiche whosoever can do, with any excellent gift, undoubtedly he shal muche delite the hearers. The circumstaunces wel considered in every cause, geve muche matter for the plaine opening of the thyng. Also similitudes, examples, comparisons from one thyng to another, apte translactions, and heaping of allegories and all suche figures as serve for amplifiyng, do muche commende the lively settyng forthe of any matter. The miseries of the Courtiers lyfe might well be described by this kind of figure. The commoditie of learnyng, the plasure of plowe men, and the care that a Kyng hath. And not onely are matters set out by description, but men are painted out in their colours, yea buildynges are set forth, Kyngdomes, and Realmes are portured, places, and tymes are described. The Englishe man for feedyng, and chaung of apparel: The Duytche man for drynkyng: The Frenche man for pryde and inconstaunce: The Spanyard for nymblenes of bodie, and muche disdaine: The Italian for great witte and pollicie: The Scottes for boldenes, and the Boeme for stubbornesse. [Page aa3v]

Many people are described by their degree as a man of good yeres is compted sober, wise and circumspect: a young man wilde, and carelesse: a woman bablyng, inconstant, and redy to beleve al that is tolde her.

By vocation of life, a souldiour is counted a greate bragger, and a vaulter of hymselfe: a Scholer simple: a ruffed coate, sadde and sometymes craftie: a courtier, flatteryng: a citezen, jentle.

In describing of persons there ought alwaies a commelinesse to be used, so that nothyng be spoken whiche may be thought is not in them. As if one shall describe Henry the sixth, he might cal hym jentle, milde of nature, ledde by perswasion, and redy to forgeve, carelesse for wealthe, suspectynge none, merciful to al, fearefull in adversitie, and without forecast to espie his misfortune. Again for Richarde the thirde I might bryng hym in, cruell of harte, ambiciouse by nature, enviouse of mynde, a depe dissembler, a close man for weightie matters, hardie to revenge, and feareful to lose his high estate, trustie to none, liberal for a purpose, castyng still the worst, and hoping ever the best. By this figure also we imagine a talke for some one to speake, and according to his person we frame the Oration. As if one should bryng in noble Henry the .viii. of most famouse memorie to enveigh againt rebelles, thus he might order his Oration. What if Henry theight were alyve, and sawe suche rebellion in this Realme, would not he say thus, and thus? Yea me thynkes I heare hym speake even now. And so set forthe suche wordes as we would have hym to saie.

Some tymes it is good to make God, the Countrie, or some one towne to speake, and loke what we woulde say in our owne person, to frame the whole tale to them. Suche varietie doth muche good to avoide tediousnenes, for he that speaketh al in one sort though he spake thinges never so wittely shal sone wery his hearers. Figures therfore wer invented to avoide sacietie, and cause delite: to refresh with pleasure and quicken with grace, the dulnesse of mans braine. Who wil loke of a whit waul an houre together, where no workemanship is at al? Or who wil eate stil one kinde of meate, and [Page aa4r] never desire chaunge? Certes as the mouthe is daintie: so the wit is tickle, and wil sone lothe an unsavery thing.

A stop, of half tellyng of a tale.

A Stoppe is, when we breake of our tale before we have told it. As thus. Thou that art a young man of suche towardnes havyng suche frendes to plaie me suche a parte, wel, I will saie no more, God amende all that is amisse. Or thus. Dothe it become the to be, shal I tel al, Naie I wil not for very shame.

A close understandyng.

A close understandyng is, when more may be gatherd than is openly exprest. A naughtie fellowe that used muche robbery, founde hym selfe greeved that the great Oratour Demosthenes spent so muche oyle wherby he watched from tyme to tyme in compassyng matters for the commune weale: In dede (quoth) Demosthenes darke nightes are best for they purpose, meanyng that he was a great robber in the night. One also beeyng set in a heate, because another had contraried hym for the choise of meates, was muche more greved when he gave hym this taunt. You may boldely (quod he) speake for fishe eatyng, for my maister your father hath many a time and ofte wipt his nose upon his sleeve, meanyng that his father was a fishemonger.

Shorte sentences.

Then shorte clauses, or sentences are used when we speake at a worde, parte of our minde, and next after speake as briefely againe, usyng to make almost every worde a perfite sentence. As thus. The man is sore wounded, I feare me he will dye. The Phisicions mistrust hym: the partie is fledde, none persueth: God sende us good lucke.

Abatyng, or lessenyng of a thyng.

We make our doynges appere lesse, when with wordes we extenuate and lessen thesame. As when one had geven his fellowe a sound blowe, beyng rebuked for the same, saied he scante touched hym. Likewise, when two have fought together, to say that the one had his legge prickte with a sworde, when perchaunce he had a great wounde. [Page aa4v] Wittie jestyng.

Many pleasaunt jentlemen are well practised in merie conceited jestes, and have both suche grace and delite therin, that they are wonderfull to beholde, and better were it to be sharpely chidde of diverse other, then pleasauntly taunted by any of them. When a jentleman of great landes and small witte had talked largely at a supper, and spake wordes scant worth the hearyng, an other beeyng muche greeved with his foolie, saied to hym: Sir I have taken you for a plaine meanyng jentleman, but I know nowe, there is not a more deceiptfull bodie in al Englande: with that, other beyng greeved with the young jentlemans foolie, boldely began to excuse hym for deceipt, and therfore said, he was to blame to charge hym with that fault, consideryng his nature was simple, and few can say that ever he was craftie. Wel quoth thother, I must nedes say he is deceiptful, for I toke hym heretofore for a sober wittie young man, but now I perceive, he is a foolish bablyng felowe, and therfore I am sure he hath deceived me like a false craftie child, as he is: with that they al laughed, and the jentleman was muche abashed. But as touchyng sharpe tauntes, I have largely declared them in place, where I treated of laughter.

Digression, or swarvyng from the matter.

We swarve sometymes from the matter upon just consideracions, makyng the same to serve for our purpose as wel as if we had kepte the matter stil. As in makng an invective against rebelles, and largelye setting out the filth of their offence, I might declare by the way of a digression, what a noble countrie England is, how great commodities it hath, what trafike here is used, and howe muche more nede other Realmes have of us, than we have neede of them. Or when I shal geve evidence, or rather declame against an hainouse Murtherer, I may digresse from the offence doen, and enter in prayse of the deade man, declaryng his vertues in moste ample wyse, that the offense doen, may be thought so muche the greater, the more honest he was that hath thus been slaine. [Page bb1r] Notwithstandyng, this would be learned, that (when we make any suche digression) thesame maie well agre to the purpose and be so set out, that it confounde not the cause, or darken the sense of the matter devised.


Proposicion is a short rehersall of that, wherof we mynde to speake. I will tell you (quoth one) there is none hath a worse name then this felowe, none hath been so often in trouble, he maie be fautelesse, but I can hardely beleve it, there are enow that will testifie of his naughtinesse, and avouche his evill demeanour to bee suche, that the like hath not been hard heretofore.

An over passage to another matter.

When we go from one matter to another, we use this kynde of phraise. I have tolde you the cause of all this evill, nowe I will tell you a remedy for thesame. You have heard of justificacion by faith onely, now you shall here of the dignitee of workes, and how necessary thei are for every christian body.

Of commyng again to the matter.

When wee have made a digression, wee maie declare our returne, and shewe that whereas wee have roved a litle, we will now kepe us within our boundes. In this kynd of digression, it is wisedome not to wander over farre, for feare wee shall werie the hearers, before we come to the matter again. I knew a preacher, that was a whole houre out of his matter, and at length remembryng hymself, saied, well, now to the purpose, as though al that, whiche he had spoken before, had been litle to the purpose, whereat many laughed, and some for starke wearinesse wer fain to go awaie.

Iteratyng and repeatyng thynges said before.

When a man hath largely spoken his mynd, he may repeate in fewe wordes, the somme of his saiyng. As if one should be charged with felonie, that is a man of welth and honestie, he might thus gather his mynd together after a long tale told. First I wil prove there is no cause that I should steale, again that I could not possible at suche a [Page bb1v] tyme steale, and last, that I stole not at all.

The conclusion, or lappyng up of matter.

The conclusion, is an apt knittyng together of that, whiche we have said before. As thus. If reason can perswade, if examples maie move, if necessitee maie helpe, if pitee maie provoke, if daungers foreseen, maie stirre us to be wise: I doubte not but you will rather use sharpe lawes, to represse offendours, then with dissolute negligence, suffer all to perishe.

Mountyng above the truthe.

Mountyng above the truthe, is when we do set furthe thynges excedyngly and above all mennes expectacion, meanyng onely that thei are very great. As thus, God promised to Abraham, that he wold make his posteritee, egual with the sandes of the yearth. Now it was not so said, that there should be so many in deede, but that the nomber should bee infinite. For, whether we shall understande those, to bee the children of Abraham, that came of his stocke in fleshe, or els take them for the children of Abraham, that have the faithe of Abraham: wee shall never prove the nomber of men, to bee eguall with the sandes of the sea, though wee could reken all that have been, from the beginnyng of the worlde. Therfore in this speache, wee must understande there is a mountyng, called of the Grecians hyperbole: we use this figure muche in English. As thus. He is as swift as a swallowe, he hath a belly as bigge as a barrell, he is a giaunt in makyng. The whole Temmese is litle enough to serve hym, for wasshyng his handes. In all whiche speaches wee mounte evermore a great deale, and not meane so as the wordes are spoken.

Askyng other, and answeryng our self.

By askyng other, and answeryng to the question our self, we muche commende the matter, and make it appere very pleasant. If I would rebuke one that hath committed a robberie, I might saie thus. I wonder what you ment to commit suche felonie. Have you not landes? I knowe you have. Are not your frendes worshipfull? Yes assuredly. Wer you not beloved of them? No doubt you were. Could you have wanted any thyng that thei had? If you would have eaten gold, you might have had it. Did not thei alwayes [Page bb2r] bidde you seke to them, and to none other? I knowe thei did. What evill happe had you then, to offende in suche sorte, not goyng to your frendes, whiche would not se you want, but sekyng for that, whiche you should not have, endaungeryng your self by untrue dealyng, to fele the power and strength of a law, when otherwise you might have lived in savegard?

The like kynd of writyng is also used, when we make another body to speake, and yet not aske them any question at al. As when D. Haddon had comforted the duchesse of Suffolkes grace for her children, and had said thei wer happly gone because thei might have fallen hereafter, and loste that worthy name, whiche at their death thei had: at last he bringeth in the mother, speakyng motherlike, in her childrens behalfe of this sort, and answereth still to her saiynges. But al these evilles wherof you speake (quoth she) hadde not chaunced: Yet suche thynges doo chaunce. Yet not alwayes: Yet full ofte. Yet not to al: yet to a great many. Yet thei had not chaunced to myne: Yet wee knowe not. Yet I might have hoped: Yet better it had been to have feared.

Snappishe askyng.

We doo aske oftentymes, because we would knowe: we do aske also, because we woulde chide, and sette furthe our grief with more vehemencie, the one is called Interrogatio, the other is called Percontatio. Tullie enveighyng against Catiline, that Romaine rebell, beginneth his oracion chidingly, questionyng with Catiline of this sort. How long (Catiline) wilt thou abuse our sufferaunce? How long will this rage and madnesse of thine go aboute to deceive us?

Dissemblyng or close jestyng.

When we jest closely, and with dissemblyng meanes, grigge our felowe, when in wordes wee speake one thyng, and meane in hart another thyng, declaryng either by our countenaunce, or by utteraunce, or by some other waie, what our whole meanyng is. As when we se one bostyng himself, and vain glorious, to hold him up with ye and naie, and ever to ad more to that, whiche he saieth. As I knowe one that saied hymself, to be in his awne judgement [Page bb2v] one of the best in all Englande, for triyng of metalles, and that the counsaill hath often called for his helpe, and cannot want hym for nothyng. In deede (quod another) Englande had a sore losse, if God should call you. Thei are all Bungelers in comparison of you, and I thynke the best of theim, maie thanke you for all that he hath: but yet sir your cunnyng was suche, that you brought a shillyng to nyne pence, naie to sixe pence, and a grote to two pence, and so gave hym a frumpe, even to his face, because he sawe hym so folishe. A glorious jentleman that had twoo servauntes, and belike would be knowen not onely to have them, but also to have mo, said in the presence of a worshipfull man, I mervaile muche where all my servauntes are? Marie sir (quod one) that thoughte to hitte hym home: thei wer here al two, even now. Thus he closly mockt hym, and worthely. For, the nomber is not greate, that standeth upon .ii., and (all) is to muche, when we speake of so fewe.


Doubtfulnesse is then used, when we make the hearers beleve, that the weight of our matter causeth us to doubte, what were best to speake. As when a kyng findeth his people unfaithfull, he maie speake in this wise. Before I begin, I doubt what to name ye. Shal I call you subjectes? You deserve it not. My frendes ye are not. To cal you enemies wer overlitle, because your offence is so greate. Rebelles you are, and yet that name doeth not fully utter your folie. Traitors I maie call you, and yet you are worse then traitors, for you seke his death, who hath geven you life. Thoffence is so great, that no man can comprehend it. Therfore I doubt what to call you, except I should call you by the name of theim all. Another. Whether shall I speake, or holde my peace? If I speake, you will not heare, if I holde my peace, my conscience condempneth my silence.


Distribucion, is when we apply to every body, suche thynges as are due unto them, declaryng what every one is in his vocacion. It is the duetie of a Kyng, to have an especially care over his whole realme. It is thoffice of his nobles, to cause the kynges will [Page bb3r] to be fulfilled, and with all diligence to further his Lawes, and to se justice doen every where.

It is the part of a subject, faithfully to do his princes commaundement, and with a willyng hart to serve him at al nedes.

It is thoffice of a bishop to set furthe Gods worde, and with all diligence to exhort men to al godlinesse. It is an husbandes duetie to love his wife, and with jentle meanes to rule her. It is the wifes office, humbly to submit her self to her husbandes will. Servauntes should be faithfull to their maistres, not onely for feare of a law, but also for conscience sake. Masters should use their servauntes accordyngly, paiyng theim that, whiche is due unto them. A father should bryng up his children in the feare of God. Children should reverence their fathers with all submission. It is also called a distribucion, when we divide the whole, into severall partes, and saie we have foure poynctes, whereof we purpose to speake, comprehendyng our whole talke within compasse of thesame.


Correccion, is when we alter a woorde or sentence, otherwise then we have spoken before, purposyng therby to augment the matter, and to make it appere more vehement. Tullie against Verres, geveth a good example. We have broughte before you my Lordes, into this place of judgement, not a thefe, but an extorcioner and violent robber, not an aduouterer, but a ravisher of maides, not a stealer of church goodes, but an errant traitor, bothe to God and all godlinesse: not a common ruffin, but a moste cruell cut throte suche as if a man should rake hell for one, he could not finde the like. Again, if one would enveigh against bacbiters, after this sort. Thou hast not robbed hym of his money, but thou hast take awaie his good name, whiche passeth all worldly goodes, neither hast thou slaundered thyne enemie, but thyne awne brother, and frende, that meant thee well, and hath doen thee pleasures: nay thou hast not slandred him, but thou hast slain hym. For a man is halfe hanged, that hath lost his good name. Neither hast thou killed him with the sword, but poysoned hym with thy tongue, so that I maie call it rather an enchanting, then a murther. Neither hast thou killed one man [Page bb3v] alone, but so many as thou hast brought out of charite, with thy moste venemous bacbityng. Yea, and last of al, thou hast not slain a man, but thou has slain Christe in his members, so muche as laie in thee to do. But of this figure I have spoken heretofore, where I wrote of amplificacion.


Rejeccion is then used, when we lay suche faultes from us, as our enemies would charge us with all, saiyng it is foly to thynke any suche thyng, muche more to speake it: or els to saie, suche a mannes worde is no slaunder, or it nedeth not to talke of suche toyes. Or thus. Who wold thinke that I would doo suche a deede? Or is it like that I would do suche a dede? Antony charged Tully, that he was the occasion of civill battaill. Nay (quod Tullie) it is thou, it is thou manne and none other, that settes Ceasar on worke, to seke the slaughter of his countrey.

A Buttresse.

A Buttresse is a sense made for that, whiche we purpose to hold up, or go about to compasse. As thus. I hope my lordes, bothe to perswade this man by reason, and to have your judgement in this matter. For wheras it is a sore thyng to be justly accused, for breaking frendship, then assuredly if one be wrongfully slandred, a man had nede to loke about him.

A familiar talke, or communicacion used.

Communicacion is then used, when we debate with other, and aske questions, as though we loked for an answer, and so go through with our matter, leavyng thejudgement therof to their discrecion. As thus. What thinke you in this matter? Is there any other better meanes to dispatche the thyng? What would you have doen, if you were in thesame case? Here I appeale to your awne conscience, whether you would suffer this unpunished, if a man should do you the like displeasure.

Descripcion of a mannes nature, or maners.

We describe the maners of men, when we set them furthe in their kynd what thei are. As in speakyng against a coveteous man, thus. There is no suche pinche peny of live, as this good felowe is. He will not lose the paryng of [Page bb4r] his nailes. His heire is never rounded, for sparyng of money one paire of shoen serveth hym a .xii. moneth, he is shod with nailes like a horse. He hath been knowen by his cote this .xxx. winter. He spent ones a grote at good ale, beyng forced thorowe companie, and taken short at his worde, whereupon he hath taken suche conceipt sins that tyme, that it hath almost cost hym his life. Tullie describeth Piso for his naughtines of life, wonderfully to heare, yea, worse then I have setfurth this covetoeous man. Read the Oracion against Piso, suche as be learned.


Errour is, when wee thinke muche otherwise then the truth is. As when we have conceived a good opinion of some one man, and are often deceived, to saie, who would have thought, that he ever would have doen so. Now of all menne upon yearth, I would have least suspected hym. But suche is the world. Or thus. You thinke suche a man a worthy personage, and of muche honestie, but I wil prove, that he is muche otherwise: a man would not thynke it, but if I do not prove it, I will geve you my hedde.

Mirthe makyng.

I have heretofore largely declared, the waies of mirth making, and therfore I litle nede to renue them here in this place.

Anticipacion, or Prevencion.

Anticipacion, is when we prevent those wordes, that another would saie, and disprove theim as untrue, or at least wise, answere unto them. A Godly Preacher enveighed earnestly against those, that would not have the Bible to bee in Englishe, and after earnest probacion of his cause, saied thus: but me thynkes I heare one saie. Sir, you make muche a dooe, aboute a litle matter, what were we the worse, if we had no scripture at al? To whom he answered: the scripture is left unto us by Goddes awne will, that the rather we might knowe his commaundementes, and life therafter al the daies of our life. Sometymes this figure is used when we saie, we will not speake this or that, and yet doo notwithstandyng. As thus. Suche a one is an Officer, I will not saie a briber. Righte is hyndered throughe mighte, [Page bb4v] I will not saie, overwhelmed. Thus in saiyng we will not speake, we speake our mynde after a sort, notwithstandyng.

A Similitude.

A Similitude is a likenesse when .ii. thynges, or mo then two, are so compared and resembled together, that thei bothe in some one propertie seme like. Oftentymes brute beastes, and thynges that have no life, minister greate matter in this behalfe. Therefore those that delite to prove thynges by similitudes, must learne to knowe the nature of diverse beastes, of metalles, of stones and al suche, as have any vertue in them, and be applied to mannes life. Sometymes in a worde appereth a similitude, whiche beyng dilated helpeth wel for amplificacion. As thus. You strive against the streme, better bowe then breake. It is evill runnyng against a stone wall. A man maie love his house wel, and yet not ride upon the ridge. By all whiche, any one maie gather a similitude, and enlarge it at pleasure. The proverbes of Helwode helpe wonderfull well for this purpose. In comparyng a thyng from the lesse to the greater, Similitudes helpe well to set out the matter. That if we purpose to dilate our cause hereby with poses and sentences, wee maie with ease talke at large. This shall serve for an example. The more previous a thyng is, the more diligently should it bee kepte, and better hede taken to it. Therfore tyme, (consideryng, nothyng is more precious) should warely bee used, and good care taken, that no tyme bee lost, without some profite gotten. For if thei are to be punished, that spende their money, and waist their landes, what folie is it, not to thynke theim worthie muche more blame, that spend their tyme (whiche is the chifest treasure that God geveth) either idely, or els ungodly? For what other thyng doeth mannne lose, when he loseth his tyme, but his life? And what can bee more deare to man, then his life? If wee lose a litle money, or a ryng of golde with a stone in it, we compt that greate losse. And I praie you, when wee lose a whole daie, whiche is a good porcion of a manes life, shall wee not compte that a losse, consideryng though our money bee gone, wee maie recover thesame again, but tyme lost can never be called backe again. Again when we lose [Page cc1r] our money, some bodye getteth good by it, but the losse of time turneth to no mannes avayle. There is no man that loseth in anye other thynge, but some bodye gayneth by it, savynge onely in the losse of time. Yea, it hathe saved the lyfe of some, to lose al that they hadde. For riches be the occasion sometimes of muche mischiefe in this lyfe, so that it were better sometymes wastefullye to spende, then warely to keepe: by the losse of time, no man hath profited him selfe any thing at all. Besides this, the better and more precious a thing is, the more shame to spend it fondly. Though men kepe their goodes never so close, and locke them up never so fast, yet often times, either by some mischaunce of fyre, or other thinge, they are lost, or els desperate Dickes borowes nowe and then againste the owners wille, all that ever he hathe. And now though the owner be undone, yet is he not therfore dishonest, considerynge honestye standeth not in wealthe or heapes of money: But the losse of tyme, seynge it happeneth throughe our owne folye, not onelye dothe it make us wretches, but also causeth menne to thinke that wee are paste all grace. A wonderfull kynde of infamie, when the whole blame shall reste upon none other mannes necke, but upon his onelye that suffereth all the harme. Wyth money a manne maye bye lande, but none can gette honestie of that pryce: and yet with well usinge of tyme, a manne not onely might get him muche worshippe, but also myghte purchase himself a name for ever. Yea, in a smal time a man might get greate fame, and live in muche estimation. By losinge of money wee lose little elles: by losynge of time, wee lose all the goodnes and gyftes of GOD, whiche by laboure might be hadde.

Thus a Similitude myghte be enlarged by heapynge good sentences, when one thinge is compared wyth an other, and a conclusion made therupon.

Emonge the learned menne of the Churche, no one useth this figure more then Chrisostome, whose writynges the rather seme more pleasaunte and swete. For similitudes are not onely used to amplifie a matter, but also to beautifie the same, to delite the hearers, to make the matter playne, [Page cc1v] and to shewe a certaine majestye wyth the reporte of suche resembled thinges, but because I have spoken of similitudes heretofore in the boke of Logique, I will surcesse to talke anye further of this matter.


He that myndeth to perswade muste neades be well stored with examples. And therfore muche are they to be commended whiche searche Chronicles of all ages, and compare the state of our elders, with this presente time. The historye of Goddes boke to the christian is infallible, and therfore the rehearsall of suche good thinges as are therin conteyned, move the faythfull to all upright doinge and amendmente of their lyfe. The Ethnicke aucthoures styrre the hearers, beynge well applyed to the purpose. For when it shall be reported that they whiche hadde no knowledge of God, lived in a brotherlye love, one towardes an other, detested adoutrye, banished perjures, hanged the unthanckefull, kepte the ydle withoute meate, tyll they laboured for their livyng, suffered none extorcion, exempted Brybers frome bearynge rule in the commune Weale: the Christians muste neades be ashamed of their evyll behaviour, and studye muche to passe those, whiche are in callynge muche under theim, and not suffer that the ignoraunte and Paganes lyfe, shall countervayle the taughte chyldren of God, and passe the Christians so much in good livynge, as the Christians passe theim in good learninge. Uneguall examples commende muche the matter. I call theim uneguall, when the weaker is brought in againste the stronger, as if chyldren be faythfull, much more ought menne to be faythfull. If womenne be chaste, and undefiled: menne shoulde muche more be cleane, and wythoute faulte. If an unlearned manne wyll do no wronge, a learned man and a preacher muste muche more be uprighte, and live without blame. If an housholder will deale justlye with his servauntes, a Kynge muste muche the rather deale justelye with his subjectes. [Page cc2r]

Examples gathered out of histories and used in this sort, helpe muche towardes perswasion. Yea, brute beastes minister greate occasion of righte good matter, considerynge manye of theim have shewen unto us, the paternes and ymages of divers vertues.

Doves seyng an hauke, gather all together, teachynge us none other thing, but in adversitie to sticke one to another.

Craynes in the nyght have their watche, warninge us never to be carelesse, for if their watche, warninge us never to be carelesse, for if their watche faile them, they al never leave tyll they have killed that one Crayne, teachyng us that no traytours are worthye to live upon earth. The watche for his safegarde, and because he woulde not slepe: holdeth a stone in his fote, the which falleth from him, when he beginneth to waxe heavy, and so he kepeth him selfe styll wakyng. Wherby wee maye learne that all menne in their vocation shoulde be right ware and watchfull. The Henne clocketh her chickens, feadeth them, and kepeth theim from the Kyte. Womenne must clocke their children, bring them up well, and kepe them from evill happe. Nowe I myght in speakinge of some odious vyce, largelye sette oute some example belonginge to the same, and compare it with other by heapinge of Chronicles, and matchinge of thynges together.

The unthankefull in this age (whereof there is no small number) can not have enoughe saide againste theim. And therfore I am minded to saye somewhat againste theim, to the utter abhorrynge of all suche unkynde dealynge. For he that is unthankeful, and for herty love, sheweth cankard hatred: wanteth all other Vertues, that are required to be in manne. The chiefe perfection and the absolute fulfillyng of the Lawe, standeth in the lover which manne oweth first to God, and nexte to his neighboure. Lette a manne have fayth that he may be able to translate mountaines (as saint Paule sayeth:) yea, let him have never so good qualities, or be he never so politique a manne for the saufegarde of his Countrey, be he never so wise, so ware, and so watchful: yet if he wante Love, he is nothynge elles but as a soundinge brasse, or a tinckelinge Cymbal. [Page cc2v]

Nowe he that is churlishe and unthankefull, muste neades wante love, and therfore wanteth he all other goodnes. The Persians therfore seyng the greatenes of this offence and that where it rested, all vyces for ever were banished: provided by a law th unthankefulnes. And yet I can not see but they deserve rather an exquisite kynde of Deathe (suche as fewe have sene, or fewe have felte) then to suffer lyke Deathe with other, that have not like offended wyth them.

But nowe because this offence is an evill most odious, and the principal occasion of all other mischiefe, I will set forthe three notable examples, the one of a Dragon, the seconde of a Dogge, and the thirde of a Lyon (whiche all thre in thankefulnes, if that be true whiche is reported of theim, wonderfullye exceaded,) and the rather I seke to set theim oute, that the wycked herebye maye well knowe what they theim selves are, when bruite Beastes shall sette theim al to schole.

There was a manne (as Plinie writeth) whiche fostered up a yong Dragon, who seynge the same beaste to waxe wonderfull greate, feared to kepe his Dragon anye longer within his house, and therfore he put him out into a wylde Foreste. It happened afterwarde that the same manne traveylinge on hys journey throughe the Foreste, was besette with thieves. And nowe beynge in this distresse, and lokinge for none other ende but deathe, made (as lothe to departe) a grete showte and an outcrye: strayghte upon whose noyse, and at the knowledge of his voyce, the Dragon came to him in all the haste possible. Wherupon the theves beinge greatelye afrayed, ranne cleane awaye to save theim selves harmeles. Thus throughe the thanckefulnes of a Dragon, this mans life was saved.

The dogge of the Romaine Fulvius is more wonderful. This Fulvius traveylinge by the waye, was slayne wyth slaves that laye in wayte for him. Hys Dogge seynge his master deade, laye by him for the space of two dayes. Wherupon when the manne was missinge, and searche made for him: they founde him dead, with his Dogge liynge by him. [Page cc3r]

Some marveylinge to see the Dogge lye there by hys deade master, stroke him, and woulde have driven him from the deade corse, and coulde not: some seynge suche kindenes in the Dogge, and pitiynge him that he should lye there without meate, two or thre dayes before: cast him a pece of flesh, wherupon the Dogge strayghte caried the meate to his masters mouthe, and would not eate anye whitte him selfe, thoughe he hadde forborne meate so longe before. And last of all, when this deade bodye shoulde be caste into the river, (according to the maner of the Romaines) the Dogge leapt in after, and holdynge up his maister so longe as he coulde, did chose rather to dye with him, then to live without him.

The Lyon (wherof Appian the Grammarian doth speake) is also straunge for his kindenes, and almost incredible. A servaunte that hadde runne awaye from his master, and hidde him selfe for feare in a cave, within a greate woodde, toke a thorne out of a Lions fote, whiche then came to him for succour as he lay there. Now when he had done, the lion to requite his good turne, brought suche meate to the cave, as he coulde kyll in the woode. The whiche meate the Servaunte rostynge against the Sunne, (beynge in the mooste hotte countrey of all Affrica) did eate from time to time. At length yet being werye of suche a lothesome lyfe, he left the cave, and came abrode, by meanes wherof he was taken again, and beinge a slave to his master (who hadde power of life and death over him) he was condempned to be cast to the wylde beastes at Rome, there to be devoured of a Lyon. The pore caytife stode pitifullye in the sighte of thousandes, ever lokinge when he sholde be devoured. It happened at thesame time, when this felow was thus adjudged to dye: that the same Lyon was taken, whose foote he healed in the wood. When the Lyon was putte to him, he came firste very terribly towarde this felowe, and immediatly knowyng what he was, stode styll, and at length fauned gently upon him. The felow at firste being amased, began to take harte unto him afterwardes, as halfe knowing him likewise, and thus they began bothe to take acquaintaunce thone of thother, and played together a good space withoute all daunger, wherupon [Page cc3v] the people beynge amased, muche wondered at the straungenes of this thinge. And standinge thus astonied, they sente to knowe of the slave, what this matter shoulde meane. Unto whom this poore wretche opened the whole thynge altogether, even as it happened. When the people hearde this, they not onely rejoysed much at the sight therof, but also they made earnest request to his Master for his lyfe. His master marveylinge as muche as anye of them, at suche an unwonte kyndenes: gave him not onelye hys life, but also his fredome. And nowe to the ende he myght have somewhat whereupon to lyve, the people gave hym a fee for terme of his lyfe. The felowe by and by gotte him a linne and a coler, and caried the Lyon up and downe the citye in suche sorte, as huntesmenne carye a Greyhounde, or a Spaniell, the people styll wonderynge, and sayinge ever as he came bye: Beholde a manne that hath cured a Lyon, behold a Lyon that hath saved a man.

The whiche example, the more straunge it is, the more ashamed maye they be that are unnaturall, and maye learne kindenes of a bruite Beaste. For suche menne beynge overcome with kindnes by Beastes, are worsse then Beastes, and more mete rather to be tormented with Devils, then to live with men.

Of enlargynge examples by copye.

And now because examples enriched by Copy, helpe muche for Amplification: I will geve a taste, howe these and suche lyke Histories maye be encrased. And for the better handelynge of theim, nedefull it is to marke well the circumstaunces: that beynge well observed and compared together on bothe parties, they maye the rather be enlarged.

As thus. That whiche bruite Beastes have doone, shalt thou being a man seme not to have done? They shewed them selves natural, and wilt thou appeare unnaturall? Nay they overcame nature, and wilte thou be overcome of them? They became of beastes in bodye, men in nature, and wilt thou become of a manne in bodye, a Beaste in nature?

They beinge withoute reason, declared the propertye of [Page cc4r] reasonable creatures, and wilte thou beinge a man endued wyth reason, appeare in thy doynges altogether unreasonable? Shall Dogges be thankeful: and menne, yea, christian menne wante suche a vertue? Shall wormes shewe suche kindenes: and menne appearre gracelesse? It had ben no matter if they had bene unthankefull: but man can never escape blame, seinge God hathe commaunded, and Nature hathe graffed this in all menne: that they shoulde do to other, as they woulde be done unto. Agayne, they for meate onelye shewed them selves so kinde: and shal man for so many benefites received, and for suche goodnes shewed, requite for good will, evil dedes: for hartie love, deadlye hatred: for vertue, vyce: and for life geven to him, yelde death to other? Nature hath parted man and beast: and shall man in nature be no manne? Shamed be that wretche that goeth agaynst nature, that onelye hath the shape of a man, and in nature is worse then a beast. Yea, worthye are all suche rather to be torne with devils, then to live with men. T

The saiynge of Poets and all their fables are not to be forgotten, for by them we may talke at large, and winne men by perswasion, if wee declare before hande, that these tales were not fayned of suche wise menne without cause, neither yet continued untyll this tyme, and kepte in memorie without good consideration, and therupon declare the true meanynge of all suche writinge. For undoubtedlye there is no one tale emonge al the Poetes, but under the same is comprehended some thinge that perteyneth eyther to the amendemente of maners, to the knowledge of trueth, to the settynge forthe of Natures woorcke, or elles to the understandinge of some notable thynge done. For what other is the paynefull travayle of Ullisses discribed so largelye by Homere, but a lively picture of mans miserie in this life. And as Plutarche sayth: and likewise Basilius Magnus: In the Iliades are described strengthe and valeantenes of the bodye: In Odissea is set forthe a lyvelye Paterne of the minde. [Page cc4v]

The Poetes were wise men, and wished in harte the redresse of thinges, the whiche when for feare they durst not openly rebuke, thei didde in coloures paynte theim oute, and tolde menne by shadowes what they shoulde do in good south: or els because the wycked were unworthy to heare the truth, they spake so, that none myght understande, but those unto whom they pleased to utter their meaninge, and knewe them to the menne of honeste conversation.

We reade of Danae the fayre damosel, whom Juppiter tempted full ofte, and coulde never have his pleasure, tyll at langthe he made it raine golde, and so as shee sate in her chimney, a greate deale fell upon her lappe, the whyche shee toke gladly, and kepte it there: within the which gold Juppiter him selfe was comprehended, wherby is none other thynge elles signified, but that women have bene, and wyll be overcome with money.

Likewise Juppiter fanseinge the fayre maide Isis could not have his will, till he turned him selfe into a fayre whyte Bull, hwiche signified that beautie may overcome the best.

If a manne woulde speake agaynst covetous Caytifes, can he better shewe what they are, then by settynge forthe the strange plague of Tantalus, who is reported to be in Hell, havinge water comminge styll to his chynne, and yet never able to drynke: and apple hangyng before his mouthe, and yet never able to eat?

Icarus woulde nedes have wynges and flye contrary to nature, wherupon when he hadde them sette together with waxe, and joyned to his syde, he mounted up into the ayre. But so sone as the sunne hadde somewhat heated him, and his waxe began to melte, he fel downe into a greate River, and was drowned out of hande, the whiche water was ever after called by his name. Now what other thing dothe this tale shewe us, but that everye man should not meddle with thinges above his compasse.

Midas desiered that whatsoever he touched, the same might be golde: wherupon when Juppiter hadde graunted him his bounde: his meate, drinke, and al other thinges turned into gold, and he choked with his one desire, as al covetouse [Page dd1r] men lightely shalbe, that can never bee content when they have enough.

What other thyng are the wonderfull labours of Hercules, but that reason shoulde withstande affection, and the spirite for ever should fight, against the fleshe? We Christians had like fables heretofore of joyly felowes, the Images wherof were set up (in Gods name) even in our Churches. But is any man so mad to thynk that ever there was suche a one as S. Christofer was paincted unto us? Mary God forbid. Assuredly when he lived upon earth were other houses builded for hym, then we have at this tyme, and I thynke tailers were muche troubled to take measure of him for makyng his garmentes. He might be of kynne to Garganteo, if he were as bigge as he is set forthe in Antwerpe. But this was the meanyng of our elders (and the name self doth signifie none other) that every man should beare Christ upon his backe, that is to say, he should love his brother as Christe loved us, and gave his body for us: he shoulde travaile through hunger, colde, sorowe, sickenes, deathe, and al daungers with al sufferaunce that might be. And whether should he travaile? To the everlivyng GOD. But how? In darkenes? No forsouth, by the light of his word. And therfore Sainct Christofer beyng in the Sea, and not well able to gette out (that is to say beyng almost drouned in synne, and not knowyng whiche waie best to escape) an Heremite appered unto hym with a lanterne and a light therein, the whiche dothe signifie none other thyng to the Christian but the true woorde of God, whiche lighteneth the hartes of men, and geveth understandyng to the youngelinges (as the Prophet doth saie). Againe, Sainct George he is set on horsebacke and killeth a Dragon with his speare, whiche Dragon woulde have devoured a virgine, whereby is none other thyng ment but that a Kyng and every man unto whom thexecution ofjustice is committed, should defende the innocent against the ungodly attemptes of the wicked, and rather kill suche devilles by marcial law, than suffer the innocentes to take any wrong. But who gave our clargie any suche aucthoritie that those monsters shoulde bee in Churches as laye mens [Page dd1v] Bookes? God forbadde by expresse worde to make any graven Image, and shal we be so bolde to breake Gods wil for a good entent, and call these Idolles laie mens Bookes? I could talke more largely of examples, and heape a nomber here together, aswell of Ethnike Aucthours, as of other here at home: but for feare I should be tediouse, these for this tyme shal suffise.

Of Fables.

The feigned fables, such as are attributed unto brute beastes, would not be forgotten at any hand. For not onely they delite the rude and ignoraunt, but also they helpe muche for perswasion. And because suche as speake in open audience have ever moe fooles to heare them than wise men to geve judgement: I would thynke it not amisse, to speake muche accordyng to the nature and fansie of the ignoraunt, that the rather thei might be wonne through fables, to learne more weightie and grave matters. For al men cannot brooke sage causes, and auncient collacions: but wil lyke earnest matters the rather, if some thing be spoken there emong agreyng to their natures. The multitude (as Horace doth say) is a beast, or rather a monster that hath many heades and therefore like unto the diversitie of natures, varietie of invencion must alwaies be used. Talke altogether of moste grave matters, or depely searche out the ground of thynges or use the Quiddities of Dunce to sette forth Gods misteries: and you shal see the ignoraunt (I warrant you) either fal a slepe, or elles bid you farewel. The multitude must needes be made mery: and the more foolish your talke is, the more wise wil they counte it to be. and yet it is no foolishnesse, but rather wisedome to wynne men by tellyng of fables to heare of Gods goodnesse. Undoubtedly fables well sette forthe, have doen muche good at diverse tymes, and in diverse commune weales. The Romaine Menenius Agrippa allegyng upon a tyme a fable of the conflicte made betwixt the partes of a mans bodie, and his belie: quieted and marveilouse stirre that was lyke to ensewe and pacified the uprore of sediciouse rebelles, whiche els thought for ever to destroy their countrie. Themistocles perswaded the Athenians not to chaunge [Page dd2r] their Officers, by rehersyng the fable of a scabbed foxe. For (quoth he) when many flees stode feedyng upon his rawe fleshe, and had wel fedde themselves, he was contented at anothers persuasion, to have them slapte away: whereupon their ensewed suche hungry flees afterwardes, that the sorie foxe beyng al alone was eaten up almost to the harde boone, and therefore cursed the tyme that ever he agreed to any suche evil counsel. In lyke maner (quoth Themistocles) if you will chaunge Officers, the hungry flees will eate you up one after another, whereas now you live beyng but onely bi hereafter, because they are filled, and have enough, that heretofore suckte so muche of your bloud.

Now likewyse as I gave a lesson how to enlarge and example, so may fables also in lyke sorte be sette out, and augmented at large by Amplification. Thus muche for the use of fables. Againe, sometymes feined Narrations and wittie invented matters (as though they were true in deede) helpe wel to set forwarde a cause, and have great grace in them, beyng aptely used and wel invented. Luciane passeth in this pointe: and Sir Thomas More for his Eutopia can soner be remembred of me, then worthely praised of any according as the excellencie of his invencion in that behaulf doth most justly require.


Digestion is an orderly placyng of thynges, partyng every matter severally. Tullie hath an example hereof in his oration whiche he made for Sextus Roscius Amarinus. There are three thynges (quod Tullie) whiche hynder Sextus Roscius at this tyme, the accusacion of his adversaries, the boldenes of them, and the power that they beare. Eruscus his accuser hath taken upon hym to forge false matter, the Roscians kinsfolke have boldly adventured, and wil face out their doynges, and Chrosogonus here, that most can do, wil presse us with his power.

A whisht, or a warnyng to speake no more.

A Whisht, is when we bid them holde their peace that have least cause to speake, and can do litle good with their talkyng. Diogenes beeyng upon the Sea emong [Page dd2v] a number of naughtie packes in a greate storme of wether, when diverse of these wicked felowes cried out for feare of drownyng, some with fained prayour to Juppiter, some to Neptune, and every one as they beste fantaised the goddes above: whishte (quod diogenes) for by Gods mother, if God hym selfe knowe you be here, you are lyke to be drowned every mothers sonne of you. Meanyng that they were so nought, and so fainedly made their prayour to false Godes without mynde to amende their naughtie lyfe, that the lyvyng God woulde not leave them unpunished though they cried never so fast. Wee use this figure likewyse, when in speakyng of any man: we saie, whisht, the woulfe is at hand: when the same man cometh in the meane season, of whome we spake before.


Contrarietie is, when our talke standeth by contrarie wordes, or sentences together. As thus wee mighte despraise some one man, he is of a straunge nature as ever I sawe, for to his frende he is churlishe, to his foe he is jentle: geve him faire wordes, and you offende hym: checke hym sharpely, and you wynne hym. Let hym have his will, and he will flye in your face: kepe hym shorte, and you shal have hym at commaundement.

Freenesse of speache.

Freenesse of speache, is when wee speake boldely, and without feare, even to the proudest of them, whatsoever we please, or have list to speake. Diogenes herein did excel, and feared no man when he sawe just cause to saie his mynde. This worlde wanteth suche as he was, and hath over many suche, as never honest man was, that is to say, flatterers, fawners, and southers of mennes saiynges.

Stomake grief.

Stomake grief, is when we will take the matter as hote as a tost. We nede no examples for this matter, hote men have to many, of whom they may be bould and spare not, that fynde them selves a colde. Some tymes [Page dd3r] we entreate earnestly and make meanes by praier to wynne favour. Somtymes we seke favour by speakyng well of the companie present. As. Thorowe your helpe my lordes this good deede hath been done. Sometymes we speake to hurte our adversaries, by settyng forth their evil behavior. Some tymes we excuse a fault, and accuse the reporters. Sometymes we wishe unto God for redresse of evil. Sometimes we curse the extreme wickednes of some past-good roisters. In al whiche I thynke neither examples neede, nor yet any rehersal had been greately necessarie, considering al these come without any great learnyng, saving that for apt bestowing, judgment is right nedeful.

Of figures in sentencies, called Schemes.

When any sentence upon the placyng, or settyng of wordes, is said to be a figure: thesaid is alwaies called a Scheme, the whiche wordes beyng altered, or displaced, the figure streight doth lose his name, and is called no more a scheme. Of this sorte there be diverse, suche as hereafter folowe.


Doublettes, is when we reherse one and thesame worde twise together. An wretche, wretche, that I am. Tullie against Catiline inveighyng sore against his traiterouse attemptes, saith after a long rehersed matter, and yet notwithstandyng all this notouriouse wickedness: the man liveth stil, liveth? Nay mary he cometh into the counsel house whiche is more. An other: Darest thou showe thy face, thou wretched theef, thou theefe I saie to thyne owne father, darrest thou looke abrode? Thus the ofte repeatyng of one worde doth muche stirre the hearer, and makes the worde seeme greater, as though a sworde were ofte digged and thrust twise, or thrise in one place of the bodie.

Alteryng parte of a worde.

Alteryng parte of a word, is when we take a letter, or sillable from some word, or els adde a letter, or sillable to a worde. As thus. William Somer seyng muche a do for accomptes makyng, and that the Kynges majestie of [Page dd3v] most worthie memorie Henry theight wanted money suche as was due unto hym: And plase your grace (quod he) you have so many frauditours, so many conveiers, and so many deceivers to get up your money, that they get al to themselves. Whether he said true, or no, let God judge that. It was unhappely spoken of a foole, and I thynke he had some Scholemaister: he shoulde have saied Auditours, Surveyours, and Receavours.


Repetition is when we begynne diverse sentencies one after another with one and thesame worde. As thus: When thou shalt appere at the terrible daie of judgement before the high majestie of God, where is then thy richesse? Where is then thy deintie faire? Where is then thy great band of men? Where are then thy faire houses? Wher are then al thy landes, pastures, parkes, and forestes? I might saie thus of our soveraine lord the Kynges majestie that now is. Kyng Edwarde hath overthrowen idololatrie: Kyng Edwarde hath bannished superstition: Kyng Edward by Gods helpe hath brought us to the true knowelge of our creation: Kyng Edwarde hath quieted our consciencies, and laboured that al his people should seeke healthe by the death and Passion of Christ alone.


Conversion is an ofte repeatyng of the last worde, and is contrarie to that which went before. When just dealing is not used: welth goeth away, fryndship goeth away, truth goeth awaie, all goodnes (to speake at a worde) goeth awaie. Where affections beare rule, there reason is subdued, honestie is subdued, good wil is subdued, and al thinges els that withstande evil, for ever are subdued.


Comprehension, is when bothe the above rehersed figures are in one kynd of speakyng used, so that bothe one first worde must ofte be rehersed, and likewise al one last worde. What winneth the hartes of men? Liberalitie. What causeth men to adventure their lifes, and dye willyngly in defence of their masters? Liberalitie. What continueth [Page dd4r] the state of a Kyng? Liberalitie. What becometh a woman best, and first of al? Silence. What seconde? Silence. What third? Silence. What fourth? Silence. Yea if a man whould aske me til dowmes day, I would stil crie, silence, silence, without the whiche no woman hath any good gifte, but having thesame, no doubt she must have many other notable giftes, as the whiche of necessitie do ever folow suche a vertue.


Progression standeth upon contrarie sentences which answere one another. If we would rebuke a naughty boie, we might with commendyng a good boie, say thus. What a boie art thou in comparison of this fellow here. Thou sleapes: he wakes: thou plaies: he studies: thou art ever abrode: he is ever at home: thou never waites: he stil doth his attendaunce: thou carest for no body: he doeth his dutie to al men: thou doest what thou canst to hurt al, and please none: he doth what he can, to hurte none, and please all.

Lyke endyng, and lyke fallyng.

Then the sentences are said to ende lyke, when those wordes do end in like sillables, which do lacke cases. Thou lives wickedly, thou speakes naughtely. The rebelles of Northfolke (quoth a most worthie man that made an invective against them) through slaverie, slew Nobilitie: in dede miserably, in fashion cruelly, in cause devilishly.

Sentencies also are said to fal like, when diverse wordes in one sentencie ende in lyke cases, and that in ryme. By great travaile is got muche availe, by earnest affection, men learne discrecion.

These .ii. kyndes of Exornacion are then most delitefull when contrarie thynges are repeated together: when sentencies are turned, and letters are altered. Of the first this may be an example: Where learnyng is loved, there labour is estemed: but wher sleuth is thought solace, there rudens taketh place. A Kyng is honoured, that is a Kyng in dede. Wil you drink or you go, or wil you go or you drinke. There is a diffrence betwixt an horsemilne, and a milnehorse. He is a [Page dd4v] meter man to drive the Carte, than to serve in the Courte. Through labour cometh honour, through ydell lyvyng foloweth hangyng. Diverse in this our tyme delite muche in this kynd of writyng, whiche beeyng measurably used, deliteth muche the hearers, otherwyse it offendeth, and werieth mens eares with sacitie. S. Augustine had a goodly gifte in this be haulf, and yet some thinkes he forgot measure, and used overmuche this kynde of figure. Notwithstandyng the people were suche where he lived, that they toke muche delite in rimed sentences, and in Orations made ballade wise. Yea thei were so nyce and so waiwarde to please, that excepte the Preacher from tyme to tyme coulde ryme out his Sermon, they woulde not long abide the hearyng. Tacitus also sheweth that in his tyme, the judges and sergeauntes at the lawe were driven to use this kind of phrase both in their writyng, and also in their speakyng. Yea great lordes would thynk themselfes contempned, if learned men (when they spake before them) sought not to speake in this sorte. So that for the flowyng stile, and ful sentence, crepte in mynstrelles elocution, talkyng matters altogether in rime, and for weightiensse and gravitie of wordes, succeded nothyng els but wantonnesse of invencion. Tullie was forsaken, with Livie, Cesar, and other: And Apulius, Ausonius, with suche mynstrell makers were altogether folowed. And I thynke the Popes heretofore (seeyng the peoples folie to be suche) made al our Hymnes and Anthemes in rime, that with the singyng of men, plaiyng of organnes, ringyng of belles, and rimyng of Hymnes, and Sequencies, the poore ignoraunt might thinke the Harmonie to be heavenly, and verely beleve that the Angels of God made not a better noise in heaven. I speake thus muche of these two figures, not that I thinke folie to use them (for thei are pleasaunt and praise worthie) but my talke is to this end, that thei shoulde neither onely, nor chefely be used, as I know some in this our time do overmuche use them in their writynges. And overmuche (as al men know) was never good yet. Yea a man may have overmuche of his mothers blessyng if she wil never leave blessyng. Therefore a measure is best, yea even in the best thynges. And thus farre for these .ii. figures. [Page ee1r]

Egual members.

Eguall members are suche, when the one halfe of the sentence answereth to the other, with just proporcion of nomber, not that the sillables of necessitee, should be of just nombre, but that the eare might judge them, to bee so eguall, that there maie appere small difference. As thus. Lawe without mercie, is extreme power, yet men thorowe folie, deserve suche justice. Learnyng is daungerous, if an evill man have it. The more noble a manne is, the more jentle he should be. Isocrates passeth in this behalfe, who is thought to write altogether in nomber, kepyng just proporcion in framyng of his sentence.

Like emong themselfes.

Sentences are called like, when contraries are set together, and the firste taketh asmuche as the other folowyng: and the other folowyng taketh asmuche a waie, as that did, whiche went before. As thus. Lust hath overcome shamefastenesse, impudencie hath overcome feare, and madnesse hath overcome reason. Or els sentences are said to be like emong themselfes, when every part of one sentence is eguall, and of like weight one with another. As thus. Is it knowen, tried, proved, evident, open, and assured that I did suche a deede? Another. Suche riote, Dicyng, Cardyng, pikyng, stealyng, fighting, ruffines, queanes and harlottes, must nedes bryng hym to naught.


Gradacion is when we reherse the worde that goeth nexte before, and bryng another woorde thereupon that encreaseth the matter, as though one should go up a paire of staiers, and not leave til he come at the toppe. Or thus. Gradacion is when a sentence is dissevered by degrees, so that the worde, whiche endeth the sentence goyng before, doeth begin the nexte. Labour getteth learnyng, learnyng getteth fame, fame getteth honour, honour getteth blesse for ever. Another. Of slouthe cometh pleasure, of pleasure cometh spendyng, of spendyng cometh whoryng, of whoryng cometh lacke, of lacke cometh thefte, of thefte cometh hangyng, and there an ende for this world. [Page ee1v]


That is called regression, when we repeate a worde eftsones, that hath been spoken, and rehersed before, whether thesame bee in the beginnyng, in the middest, or in the letter ende of a sentence.

In the beginnyng, thus. Thou art ordeined to rule other, and not other to rule thee.

In the middest thus. He that hath money, hath not geven it, and he that hath geven money, hath not his money still: but he that hath geven thankes, hath thankes still, and he that hath them still, hath geven them notwithstandyng.

In the latter ende, thus. Manne must not live to eate, but eate to live. Man is not made for the Sabboth, but the Sabboth is made for man. If man do any filthy thyng, and take pleasure therein: the pleasure goeth awaie, but the shame tarieth still. If manne do any good thyng with pain, the paines go awaie, but the honestie abideth still.

Wordes loose.

Wordes louse are suche, which as are uttred without any addicion of conjuncions, suche as knitte woordes and sentences together. As thus. Obeye the Kyng, feare his lawes, kepe thy vocacion, doo right, seke rest, like well a litle, use all menne, as thou wouldest thei should use thee.

Out criyng.

Out criyng is when with voyce we make an exclamacion. Oh Lorde, O God, O worlde, O life, O maners of menne? O death, where is thy styng? O hell where is thy victorie?

Oft usyng of one worde in diverse places.

Can he have any mannes harte in hym, or deserveth he the name of a man, that cruelly killeth a poore innocent man, who never thought hym harme.

A cause geven to a sentence uttered.

I feare not myne adversarie, because I am not giltie. I mistrust not the Judges, because thei are juste, the quest will not cast me, the matter is so plain.

A cause geven to thynges contrary. [Page ee2r]

Better it were to rule, then to serve: For, he that ruleth, liveth: because he is free. But he that serveth, cannot be saied to live. For where bondage is, there is no life properly.


Take your pleasure for a tyme, and do what you list, a tyme will come when accompt shalbe made. When thynges cannot be, that we would have, we should will that, whiche we can have. Pacience is a remedy for every disease.

A doubtyng.

Shall I call hym foole, or shall I call hym varlet, or both? Another. What made hym to commit suche a robberie? Lacke of money, or lacke of wit, or lacke of honestie? I doubte whether to call hym a foolishe knave, or a knavishe foole. When muche matter was here in Englande, for callyng the Pope, supreme hedde of the Churche (quoth a Spanyarde, that whilome was of the Popes courte in Rome) you doubt muche here in England, whether the Pope be hedde of the churche or no, and greate variaunce there is emonges you, at the whiche foly of yours I doo muche marvaill, for we doubte muche at Rome, whether he be a member of the Churche at all, or no.


Reckenyng, is when many thynges are nombred together. There is no streat, no house, no man, no child, no shop, no lodgyng in all this toune, but he hath been in it. There is no stone, no Diamond, no Saphire, no Rubie, no Christall, no Turcasse, no Emerode, but he knoweth theim perfectly. By this figure we may enlarge that, by rehersyng of the partes, whiche was spoken generally, and in fewe wordes. This maie be an example. Suche a jentle man beyng an unthrifte, hath spent all that ever he had. Thus the sentence maie be amplified, if we shew particularly what he had, and tell severally how he spent it. Loke what enheritaunce came to him (whiche was no small thyng) by the death of his awn kinne, and his wifes kinsfolk: What dower soever he had by mariage of his wife, which by report was very greate thyng: Whatsoever he got by executorship: Whatsoever the kinges [Page ee2v] Majestie gave hym. What booties soever he gotte in warre fare, looke what money he had, what plate, what apparell, what householde stuffe, what lande and Lordeshippes, what Shepe, goodes, Parkes, and Medowes, yea, whatsoever he had, moveable, or unmoveable, his house, and all that ever he had: he hath so spent in fewe daies, so wasted it, and made suche havocke of all together, emong the beaastly compagnie of filthy queanes, emong abhominable harlottes, with banquetyng from daie to daie, with sumpteous reare suppers, with drinkyng in the nighte, with daintees and delicates, and all suche swete delites, with Dicyng, Cardyng, and all maner of gamenyng: that he hath now left neither crosse nor crucifixe, no not a dodkin in all the worlde, to blesse hymself with al. Thus these wordes (he hath spent all his goodes in riot) are dilated, and sette furthe at large, by rehersyng severally every thyng, one after another.

Reasonyng a matter with our selfes.

Then wee reason the matter with our selfes, when we aske questions of our selfes, and answere thereunto. As thus. Howe came this good felowe by all that he hath? Did his father leave hym any lande? Not a foote. Did his frendes geve hym any thyng? Not a grote. Hath he served in any vocacion, to heape up so muche wealth? None hath lived more idlely. Doeth he not leane to some noble man? Yea, but he never received more then .iiii. marke wages. How then cometh he by all that ever he hath, livyng without labour, havyng no frendes to helpe hym, havyng so litle to take unto by all outwarde apparaunce, and spendyng so liberally, and owyng no man a grote in all the worlde? Assuredly, it cannot be otherwise, but that he cometh naughtily by moste of that, whiche he hath. Another. Seyng thou art so basely favoured, and hast no witte at al, what meanest thou to vaunte thy self so muche, and to make suche bragges as thou doest. What doeth make thee to waxe so proude? Thy stocke wherof thou diddest come? Why manne, thei are very base folke. Thyne awne wealth? Tushe, thou are as poore as [Page ee3v] Job. Thy learnyng? Marie thou never camst yet where any learnyng did growe. Thy beautie? Nowe in good sothe, a worse favoured manne can there not be upon yearth again. Thy witte? Now God he knoweth, it is as blounte as may bee. What other thyng then, is all this thy braggyng, but plain madnesse.

Resemblyng of thynges.

Resemblyng of thynges, is a comparyng of likenyng of looke, with looke, shape, with shape, and one thyng with another. As when I see one in a greate heate, and fiersely set upon his enemie, I might saie, he lette flee at hym like a Dragon. Or thus. He lookes like a Tyger, a man would thinke he would eate one, his countenaunce is so ougle. He speakes not, but he barkes like a Dogge: he whettes his tethe like a Bore, he beates the grounde with his foote, like a greate Horsse: he is as raumpyng as a Lion. By this figure called in Latine Imago, that is to saie an Image, we mighte compare one manne with another, as Salust compareth Ceasar and Cato together, or we mighte heape many men together, and prove by large rehersall, any thyng that we would, the whiche of the Logicians is called induccion.

Answeryng to our self.

We are saied to answere our self, when wee seme to tell our self, what we will do. Phedria in Terence beyng muche troubled and out of quiet, because he was not received of his woman, but shutte out of dores, when he was moste willyng to se her, made as though he would not come to her afterwardes, nor yet se her at all, when she did moste jently sende for hym. And therfore beyng in his anger, thus he saied: Well, what shall I dooe? Shall I not go, not even now when she sends for me, of her awne accorde? Or shall I be ofsuche a nature, that I cannot abide the despitefulnesse of harlottes? She hath shutte me out, she called me again. Shal I go to her? Naie I will not, though she entreate me never so faire.

Order. [Page ee3v]

Order is of twoo sortes, the one is, when the worthier is preferred, and set before. As a man is sette before a woman. The seconde is, when in amplificacion, the weightiest wordes are sette last, and in diminishyng, thesame are sette formoste. With what looke, with what face, with what harte dare thou do suche a dede?

Brief describyng, or circumscripcion.

Circumscripcion, is a briefe declaryng of a thyng. As thus. He is free, that is subject to no evil. It is a vertue to eschewe vice.

There are diverse other coloures of Rhetorique, to commende and set furthe a sentence, by chaunge of wordes, and muche varietee of speache, but I had rather offende in speakyng to litle, then deserve rebuke in saiyng to muche. Forasmuche as close silence maie soner be pardoned, then immoderate bablyng can want just blame, and therfore thus an ende.

Of memorie.

As I have labored to set out thother partes of Rhetorique, in suche ample wise as I thought moste nedefull, so it standeth me in hande, not to slacken myne endevor, now that I am come to speake of memorie. For, though man have understandyng and judgement, whiche is one parte of wisedome: yet wantyng a remembraunce to apply thynges aptly, when tyme and place shall best require: he shal do but small good with al his understandyng. And therfore it is said not without reason, that thesame is memorie to the mynde, that life is to the body. Now then what els must thei do that esteme reason, and love knowlege, but cherishe the memorie from tyme to tyme, as an especially and sovereigne preservative, against thinfeccion of cankard oblivion. The faulkners saie, it is the first poyncte of haukyng to hold faste. And yet I cannot thinke otherwise, but that in al good learnyng also, it is best and moste expedient, evermore to hold fast. For, what availe good thynges, if we cannot kepe theim, if wee receive theim in at one eare, and let theim out as fast again at the other eare? A good thriftie man will gather his goodes together, in tyme of plentie, and laie theim out again in tyme of [Page ee4r] nede: and shall not an Oratour have in store good matter, in the cheste of his memorie, to use and bestowe in tyme of necessitee? I doubte not, but all men desire to have, a good remembraunce of thynges, the whiche what it is, how it is divided, and howe it maie bee preserved, I will shewe in as fewe woordes as I can.

What is memorie.

Memorie is the power retentive of the mynde, to kepe those thinges, whiche by mannes wit are conceived, or thus. Memorie is the power of the mind that conteineth thynges received, that calleth to mynde thynges past, and renueth of freshe, thynges forgotten.

The place of memorie.

The Phisicians declare, that in the former parte of the hed, lieth the common sense, the whiche is therfore so called, because it geveth judgement, of al the five outwarde senses, onely when thei are presently occupied aboute any thyng. As when I heare a thyng, or see a thyng, my common sense judgeth, that then I doe heare, or se thesame. But the memorie called the Threasure of the mynde, lieth in the hynder parte, the whiche is made moste perfect by temperatnesse, and moderacion of qualitees in the brain. For where humours excede or want, there must nedes ensue muche weakenesse of remembraunce. Children therefore beyng over moyst, and olde menne over drie, have never good memories. Again, where over muche cold is, and extreme moysture, there is ever muche forgetfulnesse. Therfore it availeth greatly, what bodies we have, and of what constitucion thei bee compacte together. For suche as bee hotte and moyste, do sone conceive matters, but thei kepe not long. Again, thei that bee colde and drie, dooe hardely conceive, but thei kepe it surely, when thei ones have it. And the reason is this, heate beyng chief qualitee, dooeth drawe thynges unto it (as we maie se by the Sonne) the whiche notwithstandyng are sone after dissipated and resolved. Again, who hath seen a print made in water of any yerthly thing? Then though heat and moysture together, drawe thynges unto them, yet [Page ee4v] plainly) thei cannot long hold theim. But when the brain is cold and drie, thynges are therfore the faster holden, because it is the propertie of colde and drought, to thicken all thynges, and to harden theim faste together, as we see the water through coldenesse, is congeled, and softe thynges are frosen oftentymes, almoste as harde as a stone. So that moysture, through heate beyng chief qualitee, doth drawe: and drought through coldnesse, whiche is chief contrary to heate, dooeth harden and make thynges fast together. But now how dooe wee knowe, that the memorie resteth in the latter parte of the hedde? No doubte, experience hath proved, and confirmed this to be moste true. For, there hath been some, that beyng hurt in that place, have utterly forgot their awne name. I do remember one man, that (beeyng hurte in that place, at the insurreccion of the Lincolne Shire men, .xv. yeres past) could not devise the makyng of some Letters, in his Crosse rowe, when he tooke penne and ynke, to write to his frende, whereas before that tyme, he wrote bothe faste and faire, and was learned in the Latine. And therefore when he wrote, he would stande musyng a greate while, before he could call to his remembraunce, howe he used to make a .P. a .G. or suche another letter, whereupon diverse muche marveiled what he would have, or what he ment at the first tyme. For beyng greved, and willing to aske help, he could not utter his meanyng, for lacke of remembraunce, and yet his tongue served hym well otherwise, to utter whatsoever came in his hedde.

The division of memorie.

Memorie is partly naturall, and partly artificiall. Naturall memorie is, when without any preceptes or lessons, by the onely aptenesse of nature, we beare awaie suche thynges as wee heare. Wherein some heretofore, did muche excell, and greatly passe all other. As Themistocles, who had so good a memorie, that when one proffered to teache hym the arte of memorie, naye by saincte Marie (quoth he) teache me rather the arte of forgettyng. Declaryng thereby that his memorie was passyng good, and that it was more pain for hym, to forgette suche thynges, as he would not kepe, then hard to remember suche [Page ff1r] thinges as he would knowe.

Mithridates also hadde suche an excellente memorie, that whereas he was Lorde and ruler over .xxii. straunge countries that spake divers speaches one from an other: he was able to talke wyth everye one of theym in their owne countrey language. Likewyse Cyrus Kynge of the Persians, havinge a greate armye of menne, knewe the names of all his Souldiours.

Cyneas Ambassadoure for kinge Pyrrhus, called everye one by his name that was in the Parliamente house at Rome, the seconde daye after he came thither, the number of them beyng foure times as many as they be, that belonge unto the Parliament here in Englande.

Julius Cesar is reported that he coulde reade, heare, and tel one what he should write, so fast as his penne could runne, and endite letters hym selfe altogether at one time.

Thus we see that naturallye menne have hadde wonderfull memories, as contrarywise there have bene hearde of as straunge forgetfull wittes. Some hathe not knowen his right hande from his lefte. An other hath forgotte his owne name. An other hath caried his knyfe in his mouth, and hath runne rounde aboute the house sekinge for it. An other hath tolde a tale halfe an houre together, and immediatly after hath forgotte what he spake al that while.

Cicero telleth of one Curio, that where as he woulde make a devision of three partes, he woulde either foget the thirde, or make up a fourthe, contrarye to his firste purpose and entente.

This I remember beinge a boye, that where as a preacher hadde taken upon him to set forthe the .xii. Articles of our beliefe, he coulde not in all the worlde finde oute paste nine. So that he was fayne to saye, he was assured there was twelve, where soever the other thre were become, and he doubted not but the hearers knew theim better then he did, and therfore he woulde for his parte saye no more, but commit them all to God, and those nine (thought he) were enoughe for him at that time, to set forthe and expounde for [Page ff1v] their understandinge.

Nowe the best meane bothe to mende an evil memory and to preserve a good, is firste to kepe a diet, and eschewe surfites, to slepe moderatelye, to accompanye with woman rarelye, and laste of all to exercise the witte with cunnynge of manye thinges without Booke, and ever to be occupied with one thinge or other. For even as by laboure the witte is whetted, so by lithernes the witte is blunted.

But nowe concerning the other kinde of memorye called artificial, I had nede to make a long discourse, considering the straungenesse of the thinge to the English eare, and the hardnes of the matter, to the ignoraunte and unlearned. But firste I will shew from whence it hath beginning, and upon what occasion it was first invented, before I adventure to declare the preceptes that belonge unto the same.

The firste founder of the arte of Remembraunce.

The invention of this Arte is fatherde upon Simonides, for when the same manne (as the fable recordeth) had made in behalfe of a triumphant Champion called Scopas, for a certaine summe of money a Ballade, suche as was then wonte to be made for Conquerours: he was denied a place of his rewarde, because he made a digresseion in his songe (whiche in those dayes was customablye used) to the praise and commendation of Castor and Pollox (who were then thoughte being Twinnes, and gotte by Juppiter to be Goddes) of whom the Champion willed him to aske a porcion, because he hadde so largelye set forthe their worthye doynges. Nowe it chaunced, that where as there was made a great feast to the honour of the same Victorye, and Simonides had bene placed there as a geiste, he was sodainely called from the table, and told that there was two yonge men at the dore, and bothe on horsebacke, whiche desiered moste earnestlye to speake with him oute of hande. But when he came out of the dores, he sawe none at all, notwithstanding, he was not so sone out, and his fote on the thresholde, but the Parlour fell downe immediatlye upon theim al that were there, and so crusshed their bodies [Page ff2r] together, and in such sorte, that the kinsfolke of those whiche were deade, comming in, and desierous to burie them every one according to their calling, not onely could they not perceive them by their faces, but also they coulde not discerne them by any other marke of any parte in all their bodies. Then Simonides well remembringe in what place everye one of theim did sitte, tolde theim what every one was, and gave them their kinsfolkes carkases, so many as were there. Thus the arte was first invented. And yet (thoughe this be but a fable) reason might best thus muche into our heades, that if the like thinge had bene done, the like remembraunce might have ben used. For who is he that seeth a dosen sit at a table whom he knoweth verye well, can not tell, after they are all risen, where every one of them did sitte before? And therefore be it that some man invented this tale: the matter serveth well our purpose, and what nede we any more?

What thinges are requisite to get the Arte of Memorie.

They that wyll remember manye thinges and rehearse them together out of hande: muste learne to have places, and digest Images in them accordingly.

A Place what it is.

A place is called anye rowme apt to receive thinges.

An Image what it is.

An Image is any picture or shape, to declare some certayne thing therby. And even as in waxe we make a print with a seale, so we have places where lively pictures must be set. The places must be greate, of small distaunce, not one like an other, and evermore the fifte place must be made notable above the rest, havinge alwayes some severall note from the other, as some antique, or a hande pointing, or suche like, that the rather havinge a greate number of places, we might the better knowe where we are, by the remembraunce of suche notable and straunge places. And thus havynge theim well appoyncted, wee muste kepe theim freshe in oure memorye, and never chaunge them, but use them styll, whatsoever we have to saye. But the ymages we may chaunge as the matter shal geve just cause, usinge suche as shall serve beste for the knowledge of thinges. [Page ff2v]

The whiche Images muste be sette forthe as thoughe they were stirring, yea they must be sometimes made raumping, and last of all, they muste be made of thinges notable, suche as maye cause earnest impression of thinges in our mind. As a notable evill favoured man, or a monstruous horse, suche as sainte Georges horse was wonte to be, or any such like, helpe well for remembraunce.

i. The places of Memory are resembled unto Waxe and Paper. ii. Images are counted lyke unto letters or a Seale. iii. The placing of these Images, is like unto wordes written. iiii. The utteraunce and using of them, is like unto readynge.

And therfore as we do reserve paper, and yet chaunge our writynge, putting out wordes as occasion shal serve, and settinge other in their rowme: so may we do for the Images invented, chaunge our pictures ofte, and reserve the papers still. Some gather their places and ymages oute of the crosse rowe, beginninge everye letter with the name of some Beaste, and so go thorowe the whole, makyng in every beaste fyve severall places, where the impression of thinges shalbe made, that is to saye, in the Heade, the Bealye, in the Taile, in the former parte of the legges, and also in the hinder part. So that bi this meanes, there shall be gathered, an hundreth and fiftene places.

Some againe will set their places in his heade or bodye with whom they speake. As to make the nose, the eyes, the forheade, the heere, the eares, and other partes, to serve for places. And for makinge places in anye house, churche, or other rowme, this lesson is also geven, that wee enter oure firste places alwaies upon the right hande, never returning backe, but goynge on styll as I might saye in a circuite, til we come to that place where we first beganne. But first before the Images be invented, the places muste be learned [Page ff3v] perfitelye, and therfore one geveth counsayle that we should go into some solitary place where no company is, and there make our places, walking up and downe foure or five times and callyng styll to our remembraunce what and where the places are. And not onely to do this once or twise, but to laboure in it two or thre dayes at severall times, until we shal be able to tel our places upon our fingers endes.

And now to make this harde matter somewhat plaine, I will use an example. My frende (whom I toke ever to be an honest manne) is accusedof thefte, of aduoutrie, of ryot, of manslaughter, and of treason, if I woulde kepe these wordes in my remembraunce, and rehearse them in order as they were spoken, I muste appoynte five places, the whiche I hadde neade to have so perfectlye in my memorye, as coulde be possible. As for example, I will make these in my chamber. A dore, a windowe, a presse, a bedsteade, and a chimney. Now in the dore, I will set Cacus the thefe, or some suche notable verlet. In the windowe I will place Venus. In the presse I will put Apitus that famous glutton. In the bedsteade I will set Richard the thirde kinge of England, or some like notable murtherer. In the chimney I wil place the blacke Smythe, or some other notable traytoure. That if one repete these places, and these Images twise or thrise together, no doubte, though he have but a meane memorie, he shal carye awaye the wordes rehearsed with ease. And like as he maye do with these five woordes, so maye he do wyth five score, if he have places freshe in hys remembraunce, and do but use him selfe to this trade one fortenight together.

Therfore thoughe it seme straunge and folyshe to them that knowe it not, yet the learned have taken this waye, and doubte not but marvayles maye be done, if one have places readye made for the purpose, and have them freshe in his remembraunce. For what other thinge els do they that appoynt ymages in certaine places made for that purpose, but write (as a manne woulde saye) upon Paper, that which is spoken unto them? What maketh the olde manne (that for lacke of naturall heate and moisture, scante knoweth hys [Page ff3v] right hande from his lefte) remember in the morning where he layed his purse all nyght, but the beddes heade, whyche lyghtlye is the appoynted place for all mennes purses, especiallie such as be wayfairers, and have but little store. Shall some gentilman playe blyndefolde at the chesse, and can not a learned man be able to rehearse up a score or two of straunge names together? A Neteherde havinge the charge and kepynge of .xviii. score heade of beastes in a wyld Fenne, that belonge to divers menne, will not onelye tell, who be the owners of al suche cattell, but also he wil shew a manne twise a weeke where anye one is feading, and if he wante one amonge the whole, he will tell immediatly what it is, and whose it is that is wantynge. Then fonde are they that counte the Arte of Memorye so harde, seynge they will neither prove the hardenes of it, nor yet blowshe at the matter, when they see pore neteherdes go so farre beyonde them. Howe many thinges dothe Memorie conteine marveylous to beholde, and muche more would, if we were not altogether slouthful, and as carelesse to kepe, as we are to gette, good thinges I meane, not goodes of thys world. Everye Artificer hath through exercise and laboure, and artificiall memorye, savynge the learned man onely, who hath most nede of it above all other.

When we come to a place where we have not bene many a daye before, we remembre not onely the place it selfe, but by the place, we call to remembraunce manye thinges done there. Yea sometimes a window maketh some remember that they have stollen in their daies some thing out of it. Sometimes a chimney telleth them of manye late drinkinges and sittinges up by the fire. Sometimes a bedstead putteth them in remembraunce of many good morowes, sometimes a dore, and sometimes a parler. Thus we se places even without images, helpe oft the memorye, muche more then shall we remembre, if we have both places and Images.

But nowe because I have halfe weried the reader with a tedious matter, I will harten him agayne wyth a merye tale. At the time of rebellion in Northfolke, there was a priest emong al other adjudged to dye upon a gibet in a grene [Page ff4r] place, a little from the hyghe waye side. This Prieste seinge the place of his laste ende, stode a whyle musinge wyth him selfe, and saide to the companye there. Now Lord God what a thinge is this. It comes to my remembraunce nowe that aboute fourtene yeres paste, I was merye here upon thys Bancke wyth an other Prieste, and wallowynge me dowen upon the grasse, I said these wordes: Haec requies mea in seculum seculi, hic habitabo quoniam elegi eam. The whiche Sentence beynge a Psalme of David, is nothinge els in Englishe, But this is my restynge place for ever and ever, here shall be my dwellynge, because I have chosen it. And nowe (quod he) I finde it to be over true, so that I thinke it be Goddes wyl I should dye, and therfore I take it in good worthe, and thus I desire you al to praye for me. Thus we see that the place brought hym in remembraunce of a sentence spoken .xiiii. yeres before.

Therfore this knowledge is not to be neglected, no thoughe we do contemne it, yet we have the use of it. For if we be fully disposed to remember a thing, we do call up the memorye, and styrre it to mynde thynges like thereunto. As if one be called Wingefeld, and I feare to forget this name, I might remembre the winge of a byrde, and a grene feld to walke in. Sometymes we remember the whole, by kepyng in mynde some parte of a word. As when one is called Crowcroft, I myght by remembring of a Crowe, the rather mind his name.

Notwithstanding ther be some (emong whom is Erasmus) which like not this arte of Memorie, but saye it rather hindereth, then helpeth a mans wit. And yet Tullie the greatest Oratour emong the Romaynes, did wel alowe it, and proved it good by a naturall reason. For where as we knowe some thinges (sayeth he) onelye by understandynge, and some by the sence of seynge, those we kepe best in our mindes whiche we knowe by sight, and have marked with our eyes. As for example. When I se a Lyon, the ymage therof abideth faster in my mind, then if I should heare some report made of a Lyon. Emong all the senses, the eye sightis most quicke, and conteineth the impression of thinges more assuredly, then any of the other senses do. [Page ff4v]

And the rather when a manne bothe heareth and seeth a thinge (as by artificiall memorye he dothe almoste se thinges livelye) he dothe remember it muche the better. The sight printeth thinges in a mannes memorye, as a seale doth prynte a mannes name in waxe. And therfore heretofore Images were sette up for remembraunce of Sainctes, to be laye mennes bokes, that the rather by seinge the Pictures of suche menne, they might be stirred to folowe their good livynge. The whiche surely hadde bene well done, if God had not forbidden it. But seinge thinges muste be done not of a good entente, but even as God hath commaunded, it is well doone that suche Idolles are cleane taken oute of the churche. Marye for this purpose wherof we nowe write, they woulde have served gayly well. Thus the arte is sone tolde, but the practise of it is all. And therfore if one desire to excell herein, let him take paynes to gather his places together, and kepe them well in remembraunce, provinge by halfe a score, how he shall be able to use a hundreth. And no doubte, but time and exercise shall make him perfecte.

For the beste arte of memorye that can be, is to heare muche, to speake muche, to reade muche, and to write much. And exercise it is that dothe all, when we have saide al that ever we can.

Of Pronunciation.

Pronunciation is an apte orderinge bothe of the voyce, countenaunce, and all the whole bodye, accordynge to the worthines of suche woordes and mater as by speache are declared. The use hereof is suche for anye one that liketh to have prayse for tellynge his tale in open assemblie, that having a good tongue, and a comelye countenaunce, he shalbe thought to passe all other that have the like utteraunce: thoughe they have muche better learning. The tongue geveth a certayne grace to everye matter, and beautifieth the cause in like maner, as a swete soundynge Lute muche setteth forthe a meane devised Ballade. Or as the sounde of a good instrumente styrreth the hearers, and moveth muche delite, so a cleare soundyng voice comforteth muche our deintie eares, with muche swete melodie, and causeth us to alowe the matter rather for the reporters sake, then the reporter, for the matters sake. Demosthenes therfore, that famouse Oratour beyng asked what was the chiefest point in al Oratorie, gave the chiefe and onely praise to Pronunciation, being demaunded, what was the seconde, and the thirde, he still made answere, Pronunciation, and would make none other aunswere, till they lefte askyng declaryng hereby that Arte without utteraunce can dooe nothyng, utteraunce without Arte can dooe right muche. And no doubte that man is in outwarde apparaunce halfe a good Clarke, that hath a cleane tongue, and a comely gesture of his bodie. Aeschines lykewyse beyng banished his countrie through Demosthenes, when he had redde to the Rhodians his owne Oration, and Demosthenes aunswere thereunto, by force wherof he was bannished, and all they marveiled muche at the excellencie of the same: then (quoth Aeschines) you would have marveiled muche more if you had heard hymselfe speake it. Thus beyng cast in miserie and bannished for ever, he could not but geve suche great reporte of his most deadly and mortal ennemy.

The partes of Pronunciation.

Pronunciation standeth partely in fashionyng the tongue, and partely in framyng the gesture.

The tongue, or voice is praise worthie, ifthe utteraunce be audible, strong, and easie, and apte to order as we liste. Therfore they that mynde to geette praise in tellyng their minde in open audience must at the first beginnyng speake somwhat heated, rise with their voice, as the tyme and cause shal best require. Thei that have no good voices by nature, or cannot wel utter their woordes, must seeke for helpe elswhere. Exercise of the bodie, fastyng, moderacion in meate, and drynke, gaping wyde, or singyng plaine song, and counterfeityng those that do speake distinctly, helpe muche to have a good deliveraunce. Demosthenes beeyng not able to pronounce [Page gg1v] the first letter of that Arte whiche he professed, but would say, for, Rhethorique, Letolike, used to put litle stones under his tongue, and so pronounced, whereby he spake at lengthe so plainely as any man in the worlde coulde doe. Musicians in England have used to put gagges in childrens mouthes that they might pronounce distinctely, but nowe with the losse and lacke of Musicke, the love also is gone of bringyng up children to speake plainely. Some there be that either naturally, or through folie have suche evill voices and suche lacke of utteraunce, and suche evil gesture, that it muche defaceth all their doynges. One pipes out his woordes so small through defaulte of his wynde pype, that ye woulde thinke he whisteled. An other is so hource in his throte, that a man woulde thynke he came lately from scouryng of harnesse. An other speakes, as though he had Plummes in his mouthe. An other speakes in his throte, as though a good Ale crumme stacke fast. An other ratles his wordes. An other choppes his wordes. An other speakes, as though his wordes had neede to be heaved out with leavers. And other speakes as though his wordes shoulde be weyed in a ballaunce. An other gapes to fetche wynde at every thirde woorde. This man barkes out his Englishe Northrenlike with Isay, and thou ladde. An other speakes so finely, as though he were brought up in a Ladies Chamber. As I knew a Priest that was as nice as a Nonnes Henne, when he would saie Masse, he woulde never saie Dominus vobiscum, but Dominus vobicum. In like maner as some now wil say, the Commendementes of God, blacke vellet, for Commaundementes and blacke velvet. Some blowes at their noistrelles. Some sighes out their wordes. Some synges their sentencies. Some laughes altogether, when they speake to any bodie. Soem gruntes lyke a Hogge. Some cackels lyke a Henne, or a Jacke Dawe. Some speakes as thoughe they shoulde tel a tale in their sleeve. Some cries out so loude, that they would make a mans eares ake to heare them. Some coughes at every worde. Some hemmes it out. Some spittes fier, they talke so hotely. Some makes a wrie mouthe, and so they wreste out their wordes. Some whynes lyke a Pig. [Page gg2r] Some suppes their wordes up as a poore man doth his porage. Some noddes their head at every sentence. An other winckes with one iye, and some with both. This man frowneth alwaies when he speakes. An other lookes ever as though he were mad. Some cannot speake, but thei must go up and doune, or at the lest be stirryng their feete as though they stode in a cockeryng Bote. An other wil daies, who loked in lyke sorte when he redde to Scholers, whome one thought to disppoint of suche his constant lookes: and therefore against the nexte daie he painted the Devil with hornes upon his heade in the selfe same place where the Reader was wont alwaies to looke, the whiche straunge monster when the reader sawe, he was half abashed, and tunred his face an other way. Some pores upon the grounde, as though thei sought for pynnes. Tullie telles of one Theophrastus Tauriscus, who is saide to declaime arsee versee. Some swelles in the face and filles their chekes ful of wynde, as though they would blow out their woordes. Some settes forthe their lippes two ynches good beyonde their teeth. Some speakes in their teeth altogether. Some leates their wordes fall in their lippes, scant openyng theim when they speake. There are a thousand suche faultes emong menne bothe for their speache, and also for their gesture, the whiche if in their yong yeres they be not remedied, they will hartely be forgotte when they come to mans state. But the rather that these faultes may be redressed: I have partly declared heretofore the righte use of utteraunce, and nowe I mynde by Goddes helpe to shewe the right use of gesture.

What is gesture.

Gesture is a certaine comely moderacion of the countenaunce, and al other partes of mans body, aptely agreeyng to those thynges whiche are spoken. That is wee shall speake in a pleasaunt matter, it is meete that the loke also should be chereful, and al the gesture stirryng [Page gg2v] thereafter. The heade to be holden upright, the forehead without frownyng, the browes without bendyng, the nose without blowyng, the iyes quicke and pleasaunt, the lippes not laid out, the tethe without grennyng, the armes not muche cast abrode, but comely set out, as time, and cause shal best require: the handes somtymes opened, and sometimes holden together, the fingers pointyng, the brest laid out, and the whole body stirryng altogether with a seemely moderacion. By the whiche behaviour of our body after suche a sorte, we shal not onely delite men with the sight, but perswade them the rather the truth of our cause.

Q. Hortensius had suche delite to use comely gesture, and had suche grace in that behaulfe: that I doubt whether men had a greater desier to see hym, than they had to heare hym. His countenaucne so wel agreed with his wordes, and his woordes were so meete for his countenaunce, that not onely he did please the judgement of his hearers, and contented their mynde: but also he pleased their iyes, and delited their eares, so muche as could be wished.

Tullie saith well: the gesture of man, is the speache of his bodie, and therfore reason it is, that lyke as the speache must agree to thematter, so must also the gesture agree to the mynde. For, the iyes are not geven to man onely to se, but also to shewe, and set forthe the meanyng of his mynde, even as unto a Bore are geven briselles: to a Lyon, the taile: to a horse, his eares: whereby their inclinacions and soubdeine affections are sone espied. When we see a man loke redde in the iyes, his browes bent, his teeth bytyng his upper lip, we judge that he is out of pacience. Therefore as we ought to have good regarde for the utteraunce of our wordes, so we ought to take hede that our gesture be comely, the whiche bothe beyng wel observed, shal encrease fame and gette estimacion universally. [Page gg3v]

But heare an end. And now as my wil hath been earnest to doe my beste: so I wishe that my paines may bee taken hereafter. And yet what needes wishyng, seeyng the good will not speake evill, and the wicked can not speake well. Therfore beyng staied upon the good, and assured of their jentle bearyng with me: I feare none, because I stande upon a saufe grounde.