The Virginia house-wife: method is the soul of management

The Virginia House-wife
Method is the Soul of Management
Washington: Printed by Davis and Force, (Franklin's Head,) Pennsylvania Avenue. 1824.


The difficulties I encountered when I first entered on the duties of a House-keeping life, from the want of books sufficiently clear and concise, to impart knowledge to a Tyro, compelled me to study the subject, and by actual experiment, to reduce every thing, in the culinary line, to proper weights and measures. This I found not only to diminish the necessary attention and labour, but to also be economical; for, when the ingredients employed, were given in just proportions, the article made, was equally good. The government of a family, bears a Liliputian resemblance to the government of a nation. The contents of the Treasury must be known, and great care taken to keep the expenditures from being equal to the receipts. A regular system must be introduced [Page x] into each department, which may be modified until matured, and should then pass into an inviolable law. The grand arcanum of management lies in three simple rules:—“Let every thing be done at the proper time, keep every thing in its proper place, and put every thing to its proper use.” If the mistress of a family will every morning examine minutely, the different departments of her household, she must detect errors in their infant state, when they an be corrected with ease. But a few days' growth gives them gigantic strength, and Disorder, with all her attendant evils, are introduced. Early rising is also essential to the good government of a family. A late breakfast deranges the whole business of the day, and throws a portion of it on the next, which opens the door for confusion to enter. The greater part of the following receipts have been written from memory, where they were impressed by long continued practice. Should they prove serviceable [Page xi] to the young inexperienced housekeeper, it will add greatly to that gratification which an extensive circulation of work will be likely to confer. M. RANDOLF. Washington, January, 1824.


Prepare your brine in the middle of October, after the following manner: Get a thirty gallon cask, take out one head, drive in the bung and put some pitch on it, to prevent leaking. See that the cask is quite tight and clean. Put into it one pound of salt-petre, powdered, fifteen quarts of salt, and fifteen gallons of cold water; stir it frequently, until dissolved, throw over the cask a thick cloth, to keep out the dust: look at it often and take off the scum. These proportions have been accurately ascertained—fifteen gallons of cold water will exactly hold, in solution, fifteen quarts of good clean Liverpool salt, and one pound of salt-petre : this brine will be strong enough to bear up an egg: if more salt be added, it [Page 14] will fall to the bottom without strengthening the brine, the water being already saturated. This brine will cure all the beef, which a private family can use in the course of the winter, and requires nothing more to be done to except occasionally skimming the dross that rises. It must be kept in a cool, dry place. For salting your beef, get a molasses hogshead and saw it in two, that the beef may have space to lie on; bore some holes in the bottom of these tubs, and raise them on one side about an inch, that the bloody brine may run off.

Be sure that your beef is newly killed—rub each piece very well with good Liverpool salt—a vast deal depends upon rubbing the salt into every part—it is unnecessary to put salt-petre on it; sprinkle a good deal of salt on the bottom of the tub. When the beef is well salted, lay it in the tub, and be sure you put the fleshy side downward.—Put a great deal of salt on your beef after it is packed in the tub; this protects it from animals who might eat, if they could smell, it, and does not waste the salt, for the beef can only dissolve a certain portion. You [Page 15] must let the beef lie in salt ten days, then take it out, brush off the salt and wipe it with a damp cloth; put it in the brine with a bit of board and weight it to keep it under. In about ten days, it will look red and be fit for the table, but it will be red much sooner when the brine becomes older. The best time to begin the salt beef is the latter end of October, if the weather be cool, and from that time have it in succession. When your beef is taken out of the tub, stir the salt about to dry, that it may be ready for the next pieces. Tongues are cured in the same manner.


The best pieces for this purpose are the thin briskets, or that part of the plate which is farthest from the shoulder of the animal, the round and rib pieces, that are commonly used for roasting. These should not be cut with long ribs, and the back-bones must be sawed off as close as possible, that the pieces may lay flat in the dish. About the middle of February, select your beef from an animal, well fatted with corn, and which, when killed, [Page 16] will weigh one hundred and fifty per quarter—larger oxen are always coarse.—Salt the pieces as directed, let them lie one fortnight, then put them in brine, where they must remain three weeks, take them out at the end of the time, wipe them quite dry, rub them over with bran, and hang them in a cool, dry, and, if possible, dark place, that the flies may not get to them : they must be suspended, and not allowed to touch any thing. It will be necessary, in the course of the summer, to look them over occasionally, and after a long wet season, to lay them in the sun a few hours. Your tongues may be dried in the same manner: Make a little hole in the root, run a twine through it and suspend it. These dried meats must be put in a good quantity of water, to soak the night before they are to be used. In boiling, it is absolutely necessary to have a large quantity of water, to put the beef in while the water is cold, to boil steadily, skimming the pot, until the bones are ready to fall out; and, if a tongue, till the skin peels off with perfect ease : the skin must also be taken from the beef. The housekeeper who will buy good [Page 17] ox beef, and follow these directions exactly, may be assured of always having delicious beef on her table. Ancient prejudice has established a notion, that meat killed in the decrease of the moon, will draw up when cooked. The true cause of this shrinking, may be found in the old age of the animal, or in its diseased state, at the time of killing. The best age is from three to five years.

Few persons are aware of the injury they sustain, by eating the flesh of diseased animals. None but the Jewish butchers, who are paid exclusively for it, attend to this important circumstance. The best rule for judging that I have been able to discover, is the colour of the fat. When the fat of beef is a high shade of yellow, I reject it. If the fat of veal, mutton, lamb, or pork, have the slightest tinge of yellow, I avoid it as diseased. The same rule holds good when applied to poultry.


Hogs are in the highest perfection, from two and a half to four years old, and make [Page 18] the best bacon, when they do not weigh more than one hundred and fifty or sixty at farthest: They should be fed with corn, six weeks, at least, before they are killed, and the shorter distance they are driven to market, the better their flesh will be. To secure them against the possibility of spoiling, salt them before they get cold: take out the chine or back-bone from the neck to the tail, cut the hams, shoulders and middlings; take the ribs from the shoulders, and the leaf fat from the hams: have such tubs as are directed for beef, rub a large table-spoonful of salt petre on the inside of each ham, for some minutes, then rub both sides well with salt, lay the hams with the skin downward, and put a good deal of salt between each layer; salt the shoulders and middlings in the same manner, but with less salt-petre if necessary: cut the jowl or chop from the head, and rub it with salt and salt-petre. You should cut off the feet just above the knee-joint; take off the ears and noses, and lay them in a large tub of cold water for souse. When the jowls have been in salt two weeks, hang them up [Page 19] to smoke—do so with the shoulders and middlings at the end of three weeks, and the hams at the end of four. If they remain longer in salt they will be hard. Remember to hang the hams and shoulders with the hocks down to preserve the juices. Make a good smoke every morning, and be careful not to have a blaze; the smoke-house should stand alone, for any additional heat will spoil the meat. During the hot weather, beginning the first of April, it should be occasionally taken down, examined, rubbed with hickory ashes, and hung up again.

The generally received opinion that salt-petre hardens meat, is entirely erroneous:—it tends greatly to prevent putrefaction, but it will not make it hard; neither will laying in brine for five or six weeks in cold weather, have that effect, but remaining in salt too long, will certainly draw off the juices, and harden it. Bacon should be boiled in a large quantity of water, and a ham is not done sufficiently, till the bone on the under part comes off with ease. New bacon requires much longer boiling than that which is old. [Page 20]


Let all the pieces you intend to souse, remain covered with cold water twelve hours; then wash them out, wipe off the blood, and put them again in fresh water; soak them in this manner, changing the water frequently, and keeping it in a cool place, till the blood is drawn away; scrape and clean each piece perfectly nice, mix some meal with water, add salt to it, and boil your souse gently, until you can run a straw into the skin with ease. Do not put too much in the pot for it will boil to pieces and spoil the appearance. The best way is, to boil the feet in one pot, the ears and noses in another, and the heads in a third; these should be boiled till you can take all the bones out; let them get cold, season the insides with pepper, salt, and a little nutmeg; make a tight roll, sew it up close in a cloth, and press it lightly. Mix some more meal and cold water, just enough to look white; add salt, and one fourth of vinegar; put your souse in different pots, and keep it well covered with this mixture, and closely stopped. It will be necessary to renew this liquor, every two or three weeks. Let your [Page 21] souse get quite cold after boiling, before you put it in the liquor, and be sure to use pale coloured vinegar, or the souse will be dark. Some cooks singe the hair from the feet, etcetera, but this destroys the colour:—good souse will always be white.


The best method for preserving herrings, and which may be followed with ease, for a small family, is to take the brine left of your winter stock for beef, to the fishing place, and when the seine is hauled, to pick out the largest herrings, having roes, and throw them alive into the brine; let them remain twenty-four hours, take them out and lay them on sloping planks, that the brine may drain off; have a tight barrel, put some coarse allum salt in the bottom, then put in a layer of herrings—take care not to bruise them; sprinkle over it allum salt and some salt-petre, then fish salt and salt-petre, till the barrel is full; keep a board over it. Should they not make brine enough to cover them in a few weeks, you must add some, for they will be [Page 22] rusty if not kept under brine. The proper time to salt them is when they have been up the rivers long enough to fatten: the scales will adhere closely to a lean herring, but will be loose on a fat one—the former is not fit to be eaten. Do not be sparing of salt when you put them up. When they are to be used, take a few out of brine, soak them an hour or two, scale them nicely, pull off the gills, and the only entrail they have will come with them; wash them clean and hang them up to dry. When to be broiled, take half a sheet of white paper, rub it over with butter, put the herring in, double the edges securely, and broil, without burning, it. The brine the herrings drink in before they die, has a wonderful effect in preserving their juices:—When one or two years old, they are equal to anchovies.


Take a piece of thin brisket or plate, cut out the ribs nicely, rub it on both sides well with two large spoonfuls of pounded salt-petre; pour it on a gill of molasses and a [Page 23] quart of salt; rub them; both in; put it in a vessel just large enough to hold it, but not tight, for the bloody brine must run off as it makes, or the meat will spoil. Let it be well covered top, bottom, and sides, with the molasses and salt. In four days you may boil it, tied up with a cloth, with the salt, &c. about it: when done, take the skin off nicely, and serve it up. If you have an ice-house or refrigerator, it will be best to keep it there.—A fillet or breast of veal, and a leg or rack of mutton, are excellent done in the same way.


In roasting butcher's meat, be careful not to run the spit through the nice parts: let the piece lie in water one hour, then wash it out, wipe it perfectly dry, and put it on the spit. Set it before a clear, steady, fire; sprinkle some salt on it, and when it becomes hot, baste it for a time with salt and water; then put a good spoonful of nice lard into the dripping-pan, and when melted, continue to baste with it. When your meat, of whatever kind, [Page 24] has been down some time, but before it begins to look brown, cover it with paper, and baste on it; when it is nearly done, take off the paper, dredge it with flour, turn the spit for some minutes very quickly, and base all the time to raise a froth—after which, serve it up. When mutton is roasted, after you take off the paper, loosen the skin and peel it off carefully, then dredge and froth it up. Beef and mutton must not be roasted as much as veal, lamb, or pork; the last two must be skinned in the manner directed for mutton.—You may pour a little melted butter in the dish with veal, but all the others must be served without sauce, and garnished with horse-radish, nicely scraped. Be careful not to let a particle of dry flour be seen on the meat—it has a very ill appearance. Beef may look brown, but the whiter the other meats are, the more genteel are they, and if properly roasted, they may be perfectly done, and quite white. A loin of veal, and hind quarter of lamb, should be dished with the kidneys uppermost; and be sure to joint every thing that is to be separated at table, or it will be impossible to carve neatly. For [Page 25] those who must have gravy with these meats, let it be made in any way they like, and served in a boat. No meat can be well roasted, except on a spit turned by a jack, and before a steady clear fire—other methods are no better than baking. Many cooks are in the habit of half-boiling the meats to plump them as they turn it, before they are spitted, but it destroys their fine flavour. Whatever is to be boiled, must be put into cold water with a little salt, which will cook them regularly. When they are put in boiling water, the outer side is done too much before the inside gets heated. Nice lard is much better than butter for basting roasted meats, or for frying. To choose butcher's meat, you must see that the fat is not yellow, and that the lean parts are of a fine close grain, a lively colour, and will feel tender when pinched. Poultry should be well covered with white fat; if the bottom of the breast bone be gristly, it is young, but if it be a hard bone it is an old one. Fish are judged by the liveliness of their eyes, and bright red of their gills. If the weather should become close and damp, while there is a large supply [Page 26] of provisions in the house, the best way to preserve them is to wash each piece in a quantity of cold water, wipe it perfectly dry with a cloth, and rub some dry bran over it, then hang it in the coolest place. This must be done every morning till the weather changes. Beef and mutton will keep much longer than veal, lamb, or pork. Poultry may be preserved in the same manner, by having a little mop to scour the inside, and another to wipe it dry; but as they are more difficult to keep than butcher's meat it would be best to dress them when there is much danger of their spoiling, and either them cold, or recook them some other way. Dredge every thing with flour before it is put on to boil, and be sure to add salt to the water.

Fish, and all other articles for frying, after being nicely prepared, should be laid on a board and dredged with flour or meal mixed with salt: when it becomes dry on one side, turn it, and dredge the other. For broiling, have very clear coals, sprinkle a little salt and pepper over the pieces, and when done, dish them, and pour over some melted butter and chopped parsley—this is for broiled veal, [Page 27] wild fowl, birds, or poultry: Beef-steaks and mutton chops require only a table-spoonfull of hot water to be poured over. Slice an onion in the dish before you put in the steaks or chops, and garnish both with rasped horse-raddish. To have viands served in perfection, the dishes should be made hot, either by setting them over hot water, or by putting some in them, and the instant the meats are laid in and garnished, put on a pewter dish cover. A dinner looks very enticing, when the steam rises from each dish on removing the covers, and if it be judiciously ordered, will have a double relish. Profusion is not elegance—a dinner justly calculated for the company, and consisting for the greater part of small articles, correctly prepared, and neatly served up, will make a much more pleasing appearance to the sight, and give far greater gratification to the appetite, than a table loaded with food, and from the multiplicity of dishes, unavoidably neglected in the preparation, and served up cold.

There should always be a supply of brown flour kept in readiness to thicken brown gravies, [Page 28] which must be prepared in the following manner:—Put a pint of flour in a Dutch oven, with some coals under it; keep constantly stirring it until it is uniformly of a dark brown, but none of it burnt, which would look like dirt in the gravy. All kitchens should be provided with a saw for trimming meat, and also with larding needles.


Take the hind shin of beef, cut off all the flesh of the leg-bone which must be taken away entirely, or the soup will be greasy.—Wash the meat clean and lay it in a pot, sprinkle over it one small table-spoonful of pounded black pepper, and two of salt; three onions the size of a hen's egg, cut small, six small carrots scraped and cut up, two small turnips pared and cut into dice; pour on three quarts of water, cover the pot close, and keep it gently and steadily boiling five hours, which will leave about three pints of clear soup; do not let the pot boil over, but take the scum carefully, as it rises.—When it has boiled four hours, put in a small [Page 29] bundle of thyme and parsley, and a pint of celery cut small, or a tea-spoonful of celery seed pounded. These latter ingredients, would lose their delicate flavour if boiled too much. Just before you take it up brown it in the following manner:—Put a small table-spoonful of nice brown sugar into an iron skillet, set it on the fire and stir it till it melts and looks very dark, pour into it a ladle full of the soup, a little at a time stirring it all the while. Strain the browning and mix it well with the soup; take out the bundle of thyme and parsley, put the nicest pieces of meet in your tureen, and pour on the soup and vegetables, put in some toasted bread cut in dice, and serve it up.


Get eight pounds of coarse lean beef—wash it clean and lay it in your pot, put in the same ingredients as for the shin soup, with the same quantity of water, and follow the process directed for that. Strain the soup through a sieve and serve it up clear with nothing more than toasted bread [Page 30] in it, two table-spoonsful of mushroom catsup will add a fine flavour to the soup.


Take the nicest part of the thick brisket of beef about eight pounds, put it into a pot with every thing directed for the other soup; make it exactly in the same way, only put it on an hour sooner that you may have time to prepare the bouilli, after it has boiled five hours take out the beef, cover up the soup and set it near the fire that it may keep hot. Take the skin off the beef, have the yelk of an egg well beaten, dip a feather in it and wash the top of you beef, sprinkle over it the crumb of stale bread finely grated, put in a Dutch oven previously heated, put the top on with coals enough to brown, but not burn the beef; let it stand nearly an hour and prepare your gravy thus:—Take a sufficient quantity of soup and the vegetables boiled in it; add to it a table-spoonful of red wine, and two of mushroom catsup, thicken with a little bit of butter and a little brown flour: make it very [Page 31] hot, pour it in your dish, and put the beef on it. Garnish it with green pickle, cut in thin slices, serve up the soup in a tureen with bits of toasted bread.


Put into a pot three quarts of water, three onions cut small, one spoonful of black pepper pounded, and two of salt, with two or three slices of lean ham; let it boil steadily two hours; skim it occasionally, then put into it a shin of veal, let it boil two hours longer; take out the slices of ham, and skim off the grease if any should rise, take a gill of good cream, mix with it two table-spoonsful of flour very nicely, and the yelks of two eggs beaten well, strain this mixture, and add some chopped parsley; pour some soup on by degrees, stir it well, and pour it into the pot continuing to stir until it has boiled two or three minutes to take off the raw taste of the eggs. If the cream be not perfectly sweet, and the eggs quite new, the thickening will curdle in the soup. For a change, you may put a dozen ripe tomatas [Page 32] in, first taking off their skins, by letting them stand a few minutes in hot water, when they may be easily peeled. When made in this way, you must thicken it with the flour only. Any part of the veal may be used, but the shin or knuckle is the nicest.


Put on two quarts of oysters, with three quarts of water, three onions chopped up, two or three slices of lean ham, pepper and salt; boil it till reduced one half, strain it through a sieve, return the liquid into the pot, put in one quart of fresh oysters, boil it till they are sufficiently done, and thicken the soup with four spoonsful of flour, two gills of rich cream, and the yelks of six new laid eggs beaten well; boil it a few minutes after the thickening is put in. Take care that it does not curdle, and that the flour is not in lumps: serve it up with the last oysters that were put in. If the flavour of thyme be agreeable you may put in a little, but take care that it does not boil in it long enough to discolour the soup. [Page 33]


Put on three gills of barley, three quarts of water, a few onions cut up, six carrots, scraped and cut in dice, an equal quantity of turnips cut small: boil it gently two hours, then put in four or five pounds of the rack or neck of mutton, a few slices of lean ham, with pepper and salt; boil it slowly, two hours longer, and serve it up. Tomatas are an excellent addition to this soup.


Take one quart of split peas, or Lima beans which are better, put them in three quarts of very soft water with three onions chopped up, pepper and salt; boil them two hours; wash them well and pass them through a sieve; return the liquid into the pot, thicken it with a large piece of butter and flour, put in some slices of nice salt pork, and a large tea-spoonful of celery-seed pounded; boil it till the pork is done, and serve it up; have some toasted bread cut into dice and fried in butter, which must [Page 34] be put in the tureen before you pour in the soup.


Make it exactly as you do the dried pea soup, only in place of the celery-seed, put a handful of mint chopped small, and a pint of young peas which must be boiled in the soup till tender; thicken it with a quarter of a pound of butter, and two spoonsful of flour.


Get two double handsful of young ochra, wash and slice it thin, add two onions chopped fine, put it into a gallon of water at a very early hour in an earthen pipkin, or very nice iron pot: it must be kept steadily simmering, but not boiling: put in pepper and salt. At 12 o'clock, put in a handful of Lima beans, at half past one o'clock, add three cimlins cleaned and cut in small pieces, a fowl, or knuckle of veal, a bit of bacon or pork that has been boiled, and six tomatas, with the skin taken off when nearly [Page 35] done; thicken with a spoonful of butter, mixed with one of flour. Have rice boiled to eat with it.


Cut up two hares, put them into a pot with a piece of bacon, two onions chopped, a bundle of thyme and parsley which must be taken out before the soup is thickened, add pepper, salt, pounded cloves, and mace, put in a sufficient quantity of water, stew it gently three hours, thicken with a large spoonful of butter, and one of brown flour with a glass of red wine; boil it a few minutes longer, and serve it up with the nicest parts of the hares. Squirrels make soup equally good, done the same way.


Chop up twelve large onions, boil them in three quarts of milk and water equally mixed, put in a bit of veal or fowl, and a piece of bacon, with pepper and salt. When the [Page 36] onions are boiled to pulp, thicken it with a large spoonful of butter mixed with one of flour. Take out the meat, and serve it up with toasted bread cut in small pieces in the soup.

(The only way in which they are eatable.)

Put the fowls in a coop and feed them moderately for a fortnight; kill one and cleanse it, cut off the legs and wings, and separate the breast from the ribs; which, together with the whole back, must be thrown away, being too gross and strong for use. Take the skin and fat from the parts cut off which are also gross. Wash the pieces nicely and put them on the fire with about a pound of bacon, a large onion chopped small, some pepper and salt, a few blades of mace, a handful of parsley cut up very fine, and two quarts of water if it be a common fowl or duck—a turkey will require more water. Boil it gently for three hours, tie up a small bunch of thyme, and let it boil in it half an hour, then take it out. Thicken your soup with a large [Page 37] spoonful of butter rubbed into two of flour, the yelks of two eggs, and half-pint of milk. Be careful not to let it curdle in the soup.

(An excellent Dish for those who have not imbibed a
needless prejudice against those delicious Fish.)

Take two large or four small white catfish that have been caught in deep water, cut off the heads, and skin and clean the bodies, cut each in three parts, put them in a pot with a pound of bacon, a large onion cut up, a handful of parsley chopped small, some pepper and salt, pour in a sufficient quantity of water, and stew them till the fish is quite tender and not broken, beat the yelks of four fresh eggs, add to them a large spoonful of butter, two of flour, and half a pint of rich milk, make all these warm and thicken the soup, take out the bacon, and put some of the fish in your tureen, put in the soup, and serve it up.


Take four large bunches of asparagus, [Page 38] scrape it nicely, cut off one inch of the tops, and lay them in water, chop the stalks and put them on the fire with a piece of bacon, a large onion cut up, and pepper and salt, add two quarts water, boil them till the stalks are quite soft, then pulp them through a sieve, and strain the water to it, which must be put back in the pot; put into it a chicken cut up, with the tops of asparagus which had been laid by, boil it until these last articles are sufficiently done, thicken with flour, butter, and milk, and serve it up.


Take the bone from a round of beef, fill the space with a forcemeat made of the crumbs of a stale loaf, four ounces of marrow, two heads of garlic chopped with thyme and parsley, some nutmeg, cloves, pepper, and salt, mix it to a paste with the yelks of four eggs beaten, stuff the lean part of the round with it, and make balls of the remainder; sew a fillet of strong linen wide enough to keep it round and compact, put it in a vessel just sufficiently large to hold it, add a pint [Page 39] of red wine, cover it with sheets of tin or iron, set in a brick oven properly heated, and bake it for three hours; when done, skim the fat from the gravy, thicken it with brown flour, add some mushroom and walnut catsup, and serve it up garnished with forcemeat balls fried. It is still better when eaten cold with sallad.


Bone a brisket of beef, and make holes in it with a sharp knife about an inch apart, fill them alternately with fat bacon, parsley, and oysters, all chopped small and seasoned with pounded cloves and nutmeg, pepper and salt, dredge it well with flour, lay it in a pan with a pint of red wine and a large spoonful of lemon pickle; bake it three hours, take the fat from the gravy and strain it; serve it up garnished with green pickles.


Cut slices from a fat rump of beef six inches [Page 40] long and half an inch thick, beat them well with a pestle, make a forcemeat of bread crumbs, fat bacon chopped, parsley, a little onion, some shred suet, pounded mace, pepper and salt; mix it up up with the yelks of eggs, and spread a thin layer over each slice of beef, roll it up tight and secure the rolls with skewers, set them before the fire, and turn them till they are a nice brown, have ready a pint of good gravy thickened with brown flour and a spoonful of butter, a gill of red wine with two spoonsful of mushroom catsup, lay the rolls in it and stew them till tender: garnish with forcemeat balls.


Take out as much of the bone as can be done with a saw, that it may lie flat in the dish, stuff it with forcemeat made as before directed, lay it in a pot with two quarts of water, a pint of red wine, some carrots and turnips cut in small pieces and strewed over it, a head of cellery cut up, a few cloves of garlic, some pounded cloves, pepper and salt, stew it gently till sufficiently done, skim the fat [Page 41] off, thicken the gravy and serve it up; garnish with little bits of puff paste nicely baked, and scraped horse radish.


Cut a few slices of beef six inches long, two or three wide, and one thick, lard them with bacon, dredge them well, and make them a nice brown before a brisk fire; stir them half an hour in a well seasoned gravy, put some stewed sorrel or spinage in the dish, lay on the beef, and pour over a sufficient quantity of gravy; garnish with fried balls.


Take a rib roasting piece that has been hanging days or a fortnight, bone it neatly, rub some salt over it and roll it tight, binding it around with twine, put the spit through the inner fold without sticking it in the flesh—skewer it well and roast it nicely; when nearly done, dredge and froth it, garnish with scraped horse radish. [Page 42]


Get a nice flank of beef, rub it well with a large portion of salt petre and common salt, let it remain ten days, then wash it clean, take off the outer and inner skin with the gristle, spread it on a board and cover the inside with the following mixture: parsley, sage, thyme, chopped fine, pepper, salt, and pounded cloves, roll it up, sew a cloth over it and bandage that with tape, boil it gently five or six hours, when cold lay it on a board without undoing it, put another board on the top with a heavy weight on it, let it remain twenty-four hours, take off the bandages, cut a thin slice from each end, serve it up garnished with green pickle and sprigs of parsley.


Select a fine fat round weighing about twenty-five pounds, take three ounces saltpetre, three of brown sugar, one ounce of cloves, half an ounce of alspice, a large nutmeg, and a quart of salt, pound them all together very fine, take the bone out, rub it well with this [Page 43] mixture on both sides, put some of it at the bottom of a tub just large enough to hold the beef, lay it in and strew the remainder on the top, rub it well every day for two weeks, and spread the mixture over it; at the end of this time wash the beef, bind it with tape to keep it round and compact, filling the hole where the bone was, with a piece of fat, lay it in a pan of convenient size, strew a little suet over the top and pour in a pint of water, cover the pan with a coarse crust and a thick paper over that, it will take five hours baking; when cold take off the tape. It is a delicious relish at twelve oclock, or for supper, eaten with vinegar, mustard, oil, or sallad. Skim the grease from the gravy and bottle it; it makes an excellent seasoning for any made dish.


Mince cold roast beef, fat and lean, very fine, add chopped onion, pepper, salt, and a little good gravy, fill scollop shells two parts full, and fill them up with potatoes mashed smooth with cream, put a bit of butter on the top, and set them in an oven to brown. [Page 44]


The best part of the beef for steaks, is the seventh and eight ribs, the fat and lean are better mixed, and it is more tender than the rump if it is kept long enough; cut the steaks half an inch thick, beat them a little, have fine clear coals, rub the bars of the grid-iron with a cloth dipped in lard before you put it over the coals, that none may drip to cause a bad smell, put no salt on till you dish them, broil them quick, turning them frequently; the dish must be very hot, put some slices of onion in it, lay in the steaks, sprinkle a little salt, and pour over them a spoonful of water and one of mushroom catsup, both made boiling hot, garnish with scraped horse raddish, and put on a hot dish cover. Every thing must be in readiness, for the great excellence of a beef steak lies in having it immediately from the gridiron.


Cut slices of raw beef, put them in a stew pan with a little water, some catsup, a clove of garlic, pepper and salt, stew them till done, [Page 45] thicken the gravy with a lump of butter rubbed into brown flour. A hash may be made of any kind of meat that has been cooked, but it is not so good, and it is necessary to have a gravy prepared and seasoned, and keep the hash over the fire only a few minutes to make it hot.


Cut nice steaks and stew them till half done, put a puff paste in the dish, lay in the steaks with a few slices of boiled ham, season the gravy very high, pour it in the dish, put on a lid of paste and bake it.


Cut off the flank and take the bone out, then take slices the size of the fillet and half an inch thick, beat two yelks of eggs light, and have some grated bread mixed with pepper, salt, pounded nutmeg and chopped parsley; beat the slices a little, lay them on a board and wash the upper side with the egg, cover it thick with the bread crumbs, press them on [Page 46] with a knife, and let them stand to dry a little, that they may not fall off in frying, then turn them gently, put egg and crumbs on in the same manner, put them into a pan of boiling lard, and fry them a light brown; have some good gravy ready, season it with teaspoonful of curry powder, a large one of wine, and one of lemon pickle, thicken with butter and brown flour, drain every drop of lard from the cutlets, lay them in the gravy, and stew them fifteen or twenty minutes; serve them up garnished with lemon cut in thin slices.


Take the best end of a rack of veal, cut it in cops with one bone in each, leave the small end of the bone bare two inches, beat them flat, and prepare them with eggs and crumbs as the cutlets, butter some half-sheets of white paper, wrap one round each chop, skewer it well, leaving the bare bone out, broil them till done, and take care the paper does not burn; have nice white sauce in a boat. [Page 47]


Boil a half pint of pearl barley in salt and water till quite tender, drain the water from it and stir in a piece of butter, put it in a deep dish, and lay it on the barley, pour some parsley and butter over it.


Take the bone out of the fillet, wrap the paper around and sew it, make a forcemeat of bread crumbs, the fat of bacon, a little onion chopped, parsley, pepper, salt, and a nutmeg pounded, wet it with the yelks of eggs, fill the place from which the bone was taken, make holes around it with a knife and fill them also, and lard the top, put it in a Dutch oven with a pint of water, bake it sufficiently, thicken the gravy with butter and brown flour, add a gill of wine and one of mushroom catsup, and serve it garnished with forcemeat balls fried.


They may be made of the nice part of the [Page 48] rack, or cut from the fillet, rub a little salt and pepper on them and fry them a light brown, have a rich gravy seasoned with wine and any kind of catsup you chuse, with a few cloves of garlic and some pounded mace, thicken it, put the collops in and stew them a short time, take them out strain the gravy over and garnish with bunches of parsley fried crisp, and thin slices of middling of bacon curled around a skewer and boiled.


Take the bone out of the fillet and cut thin slices the size of the leg, beat them flat, rub them with the yelk of an egg beaten, lay on each piece a thin slice of boiled ham, sprinkle salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, chopped parsley bread crumbs over all, roll them up tight and secure them with skewers, rub them with egg and roll them in bread crumbs, lay them on a tin dripping pan and set them in an oven, when brown on one side turn them, and when sufficiently done, lay them in a rich highly seasoned gravy made of proper thickness, stew them till tender, garnish with forcemeat balls and green pickles sliced. [Page 49]


Separate the joints of the brisket, and saw off the sharp ends of the ribs, trim it neatly and half roast it; put it in a stew pan with a quart of good gravy seasoned with wine, walnut, and mushroom catsup, a tea-spoonful of curry powder and a few cloves of garlic, stew it till tender, thicken the gravy and garnish with sweet breads nicely broiled.


Cut slices from the fillet an inch thick and six inches long, lard them with slips of lean middling of bacon, bake them a light brown, stew them in well seasoned gravy, made as thick as rich cream, serve them up hot and lay round the dish sorrel stewed with butter, pepper, and salt, till quite dry.

A loin of veal must always be roasted; the fillet or leg may be dressed in various ways, the knuckle or knee is proper for soup or for boiling; these are the pieces that compose the hind quarter. In the fore quarter, the breast and rack admit variety in cooking; the shoulder and neck are only fit for soup. [Page 50]


Have the head nicely cleaned, divide the chop from the scull, take out the brains and tongue, and boil the other parts till tender, take them out of the water and put into it a knuckle of veal or four pounds of lean beef, three onions chopped, thyme, parsley, a teaspoonful of pounded cloves, the same of mace; salt, and cayenne pepper, to your taste, boil these things together till reduced to a pint, strain it and add two gills of red wine, one of mushroom and one of walnut catsup, thicken it with butter and brown flour; the head must be cut in small pieces and stewed a few minutes in the gravy; put a paste round the edge of a deep dish, thre folds one on the other, but none on the bottom, pour in the meat and gravy, and bake it till the paste is done; pick all strings from the brains, pound them, and add grated bread, pepper, and salt, make them in little cakes with the yelk of an egg, fry them a nice brown, boil six eggs hard, leave one whole and divide the others exactly in two, have some bits of paste nicely baked; when the head is take from the oven, lay the whole egg in the middle, and dispose [Page 51] the others, with the brain cakes and bits of paste, tastily around it. If it be wanted as soup, do not reduce the gravy so much, and after stewing the head, serve it in a tureen with the brain cakes and forcemeat balls fried in place of the eggs and paste. The tongue should be salted and put in brine; they are very delicate, and four of them boiled and pealed, and served with four small chickens boiled, make a handsome dish, either cold or hot, with parsley and butter poured over them.


Clean and divide it as for the turtle, take out the brains and tongue, boil it tender, take the eyes out whole, and cut the flesh from the skull in small pieces; take some of the water it was boiled in for gravy, put to it salt, cayenne pepper, a grated nutmeg, with a spoonful of lemon pickle; stew it till it is well flavoured, take the jowl or chop, do not take out the bone, but saw off the lower part with the teeth, cover it with bread crumbs, chopped parsley, pepper and salt, set it in an oven to brown, thicken the gravy with the yelks [Page 52] of two eggs and a spoonful of butter rubbed into two of flour, stew the head in it a few minutes, put it in the dish, and lay the grilled chop on it; garnish it with brain cakes and broiled sweet breads.


After cleaning it nicely, saw the bone down the middle of the scull, but do not separate the head, take out the brains and tongue, boil it tender enough to remove the bones, which must be take entirely out; lay it on a board, have a good quantity of chopped parsley seasoned with mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, spread a layer of this, then one of thick slices of ham, another of parsley and one of ham, roll it up tight, sew a cloth over it and bind that round with tape, boil it half an hour and when cold press it; it must be kept covered with vinegar and water, and is very delicious eaten with sallad or oil and vinegar.


Take the heart and liver from the harslet and cut off the windpipe, boil the lights very [Page 53] tender, and cut them in small pieces, take as much of the water they were boiled in as will be sufficient for gravy, add to it a large spoonful of white wine, one of lemon pickle, some grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt, with a large spoonful of butter mixed with one of white flour, let it boil a few minutes and put in the minced lights, set it by till the heart and liver are ready, cut the ventricle out of the heart, wash it well, lard it all over with narrow slips of middling, fill the cavity with good forcemeat, put it in a pan on the broad end that the stuffing may not come out, bake it a nice brown, slice the liver an inch thick and broil it, make the mince hot, set the heart upright in the middle of the dish, pour it around, lay the broiled liver on, and garnish with bunches of fried parsley; it should be served up extremely hot.


Boil the feet till very tender, cut them in two and put out the large bones, have half a pint of good white gravy, add to it a spoonful of white wine, one of lemon pickle, and [Page 54] some salt with a teaspoonful of curry powder, stew the feet in it fifteen minutes, and thicken it with the yelks of two eggs, a gill of milk, a large spoonful of butter, and two of white flour, let the thickening be very smooth, shake the stewpan over the fire a few minutes, but do not let it boil lest the eggs and milk should curdle.


Prepare them as for the fricasee, dredge them well with flour and fry them a light brown, pour parsley and butter over and garnish with fried parsley and butter over and garnish with fried parsley.

Directions for cleaning calve's head and feet, for those who live in the country and butcher their own meats. As soon as the animal is killed, have the head and feet taken off, wash them clean, sprinkle some pounded rosin all over the hairs, then dip them in boiling water, take them instantly out, the rosin will dry immediately, and they may be scrapped clean with ease, the feet should be soaked in water three or four days, changing it daily, this will make them very white. [Page 55]


Boil the sweetbreads tender, stew the oysters, season them with pepper and salt, and thicken with cream, butter, the yelks of eggs and and flour, put a puff paste at the bottom and around the sides of a deep dish, take the oysters up with an egg spoon, lay them in the bottom and cover them with the sweetbreads, fill the dish with the gravy, put a paste on the top and bake it. This is the most delicious pie that can be made. The sweetbread of veal is the most delicious part, and may be broiled, fried, or dressed in any way, and is always good.


As soon as it is taken out cut it open length-way, empty it of its contents and wash it in several changes of warm water, rub it with salt and let it remain two or three days, then wash it, stretch it on slender sticks and dry them in the shade; when as dry as parchment, which it will resemble, put it in paper bags and keep it in a dry place, it will remain good two years. [Page 56]

50. LAMB.

The fore quarter should always be roasted and served with mint sauce in a boat, chop the mint small and mix it with vinegar enough to make it liquid, sweeten it with sugar.

The hind quarter may be boiled or roasted, and requires mint sauce; it may also be dressed in various ways.


Cut the shank bone from the hind quarter, separate the joints of the loin, lay it in a pan with the kidney uppermost, sprinkle some pepper and salt, add a few cloves of garlic, a pint of water and a dozen large ripe tomatas with the skins taken off, bake it but do not let it be burnt, thicken the gravy with a little butter and brown flour.


Separate the leg from the loin, cut off the shank and boil the leg; divide the loin in chops, dredge and fry them a nice brown, lay the leg in the middle of the dish and put the [Page 57] chops around, pour over parsley and butter, and garnish with fried parsley.

The leg cut into steaks and the loin into chops will make a fine fricassee, or cutlets.


Clean them very nicely, and boil them till tender, take off the flesh from the head with the eyes, also mince the tongue and heart which must be boiled with the head, split the feet in two, put them with the pieces from the head and the mince, into a pint of good gravy seasoned with pepper, salt, and tomata catsup, or ripe tomatas, stew it till tender, thicken the gravy and lay the liver cut in slices and broiled over it; garnish with crisp parsley and bits of curled bacon.


The saddle should always be roasted and garnished with scraped horse raddish. See general observations on roasting. Mutton is in the highest perfection from August until Christmas, when it begins to delicne in goodness. [Page 58]


Cut off the shank, wrap the flank nicely round and secure it with skewers, dredge it well with flour, and put it on the fire in a kettle of cold water with some salt and three or four heads of garlic, which will give it a delicately fine flavour; skim it well and when nearly done take it from the fire and keep it hot and closely covered, that the steam may finish it; have carrots well boiled to put in the dish under it, or turnips boiled, mashed smooth and stewed with a lump of butter and salt, lay the mutton on, and pour over it, butter melted with some flour in it, and a cup full of capers with some of the vinegar; shake them together over the fire till hot before you pour it on.


Prepare it as for boiling, be very careful in spitting it, cover it with paper and follow the directions for roasting, serve it up garnished with scraped horse raddish.


Take the flank off but leave all the fat, cut [Page 59] out the bone, stuff the place with a rich forcemeat, lard the top and sides with bacon, put it in a pan with a ping of water, some chopped onion and cellery cut small, a gill of red wine, one of mushroom catsup and a teaspoon of curry powder, bake it and serve it up with the gravy, garnish with forcemeat balls fried.


Cut off the flank, take out the bone, and cut it in large slices half an inch thick, sprinkle some salt and pepper and broil it, pour over it nice melted butter with capers; a let cut in the same way and dressed as directed for veal cutlets is very fine. It is also excellent when salted as beef, and boiled, served up with carrots or turnips.

A shoulder of mutton is best when roasted, but may be made into cutlets or in a harrico.


Take the nicest part of the rack, divide it into chops with one bone in each, beat them flat, sprinkle salt and pepper on them, and broil the nicely; make a rich gravy out of [Page 60] the inferior parts, season it well with pepper, a little spice, and any kind of catsup you chuse; when sufficiently done, strain it and thicken it with butter and brown flour, have some carrots and turnips cut into small dice and boiled till tender, put them in the gravy, lay the chops in and stew them fifteen minutes; serve them up garnished with green pickle.


Cut the rack as for the harrico, broil them, and when dished, put over them a gravy made with two large spoonfuls of boiling water, one of mushroom catsup, a small spoonful of butter and some salt, stir it till the butter is melted, and garnish with horseradish scraped.


Separate the joints of the brisket, and saw off the sharp ends of the ribs, dredge it with flour, and boil it; serve it up covered with onions—see onion sauce.


Prepare the breast as for broiling, brown [Page 61] it nicely in the oven, have a rich gravy well seasoned and thickened with brown flour, stew the mutton in it till sufficiently done, and garnish with forcemeat balls fried.


Prepare it as before, score the top, wash it over with the yelk of an egg, sprinkle some salt, and cover it with bread crumbs, bake it and pour caper sauce in the dish. It may also be roasted, the skin taken off and frothed nicely, serve it up with good gravy, and garnish with currant jelly cut in slices.

The neck of mutton is fit only for soup; the liver is very good when broiled.


Put it in cold water with some salt, and boil it till tender; serve it up covered with onion sauce.


Wash and clean ten heads of celery, cut off the green tops and take off the outside stalks, cut the heads in thin slices, boil them tender in a little milk, just enough for gravy, [Page 62] add salt, and thicken it with a spoonful of butter and some white flour; boil the shoulder and pour the sauce over it.


Cut the loin in four pieces, take off the skin, rub each piece with salt, wash them with the yelk of an egg, and cover them thickly with bread crumbs, chopped parsley, pepper and salt; wrap them up securely in paper, put them on a bird spit, and roast them; put a little brown gravy in the dish, and garnish with pickle.


The pig must be very fat, nicely cleaned, and not too large to lie in the dish; chop the liver fine and mix it with crumbs of bread, chopped onion and parsley, with pepper and salt, make it into a paste with butter and an egg, stuff the body well with it and sew it up, spit it and have a clear fire to roast it; baste with salt and water at first, then rub it frequently with a lump of lard wrapped in a piece of clean Linen; this will make it much more crisp when basting it from the dripping pan. When the pig is done, take off the [Page 63] head, separate the face from the chop, cut both in half and take off the ears, take out the stuffing, split the pig in two parts lengthway, lay it in the dish with the head, ears, and feet, which have been cut off, placed on each side, put the stuffing in a bowl with a glass of wine and as much dripping as will make it sufficiently liquid, put some of it under the pig, and serve the rest in a boat.


This is the name given in the southern states to a fat young hog, which, when the head and feet are taken off, and it is cut into four quarters, will weigh six pounds per quarter. Take a fore quarter, make several incisions between the ribs, and stuff it with rich forcemeat; put it in a pan with a pint of water, two cloves garlic, pepper, salt, two gills of red wine, and two of mushroom catsup, bake it and thicken the gravy with butter and brown flour; it must be jointed and the ribs cut across before it is cooked, or it cannot be carved well; lay it in the dish with the ribs uppermost; if it be not sufficiently brown, add a little sugar to the gravy; garnish with balls. [Page 64]


Joint it for the convenience of carving, roast it before a brisk fire; when done, take the skin off, dredge and froth it, put a little melted butter with some caper vinegar over it, or serve it with mint sauce.


Take the skin from the hind quarter, and cut it in pieces, prepare them in the way directed for veal cutlets, make a little nice gravy with the skin and the scraps of meat left, thicken it with the butter and brown flour, and season it in any way you like.


Rub a hind quarter with salt petre and common salt, let it lie ten days, then boil it, and put either carrots or parsneps under it.


Take out the brains and boil the head till quite tender, cut the heart and liver from the harslet, and boil the feet with the head; cut all the meat from the head in small pieces, mince the tongue and chop the brains small, take some of the water the head was boiled [Page 65] in, season it with onion, parsley, and thyme, all chopped fine, add any kind of catsup, thicken it with butter and brown flour, stew the whole in it fifteen minutes, and put it in the dish; have the heart roasted to put in the middle, lay the broiled liver around, and garnish it with green pickle.


Boil a small leg of pork that has been sufficiently salted, score the top and serve it up; the pudding must be in a separate dish; get the small delicate peas, wash them well, and tie them in a cloth, allowing a little room for swelling, boil them with the pork, then mash and season them, tie them up again and finish boiling it; take care not to break the pudding in turning it out.


Take the neck chine, rub it well with salt, lay it in a pan, put it in a pint of water, and fill it up with sweet potatoes nicely washed, but not peeled, cover it close and bake it till done; serve it up with the potatoes, put a little gravy in the dish. [Page 66]


Boil it well, take off the skin, and cover the top thickly with bread crumbs, put it in an oven to brown, and serve it up.


Take a well smoked ham, wash it very clean, make incisions all over the top two inches deep, stuff them quite full with parsley chopped small and some pepper, boil the ham sufficiently; do not take off the shin. It must be eaten cold.


Split the feet in two, dredge them with the flour and fry them a nice brown; have some well seasoned gravy thickened with brown flour and butter, stew the feet in it a few minutes.


Take the tender pieces of fresh pork, chop them exceedingly fine, chop some of the leaf fat, and put them together in the proportion of three pounds of pork to one of fat, season it very high with pepper and salt, add a small [Page 67] quantity of dried sage rubbed to a powder, have the skins nicely prepared, filled them and hang them in a dry place. Sausages are excellent made into cakes and fried, but will not keep so well as in skins.


Catch the blood as it runs from the hog, stir it continually till cold to prevent its coagulating, when cold thicken it with boiled rice or oatmeal, add leaf fat chopped small, pepper, salt and any herbs that are liked, fill the skins and smoke them two or three days; they must be boiled before they are hung up, and prick them with a fork to keep them from bursting.


Get a piece of sturgeon with the skin on the piece next to the tail, scrape it well, cut out the gristle, and boil it about twenty minutes to take out the oil; take it up, pull off the large scales, and when cold, stuff it with forcemeat, made of bread crumbs, butter, chopped parsley, pepper and salt, put it in a dutch oven just large enough to hold it, with a pint and a half of water, a gill of red wine, [Page 68] one of mushroom catsup, some salt andpepper, stew it gently till the gravy is reduced to the quantity necessary to pour over it; take up your sturgeon carefully, thicken the gravy with a spoonful of butter rubbed into a large one of brown flour; see that it is perfectly smooth when you put it in the dish.


The tail piece is the best; skin it and cut off the gristle, cut it into slices about half an inch thick, sprinkle over them pepper and salt, dredge them with flour, and fry them a nice light brown; have ready a pint of good gravy, seasoned with catsup, wine, and a little pounded cloves, and thickened with brown flour and butter; when the cutlets are cold, put them into the gravy and stew them a few minutes; garnish the dish with nice forcemeat balls and parsley fried crisp.


Cut them as for the cutlets, dredge them and fry them nicely; dish them quickly lest they get cold, pour over melted butter with chopped parsley, and garnish with fried parsley. [Page 69]


Leave the skin on, which must be nicely scraped, take out the gristle, rub it with salt and let it lie an hour, then put it on in cold water with some salt and a few cloves of garlic; it must be dredged with flour before it is put into the water, skim it carefully, and when dished, pour over it melted butter with chopped parsley, a large spoonful of mushroom catsup, one of lemon pickle, and one of pepper vinegar; send some of it to table in a sauce boat; the sturgeon being a dry fish, rich sauce is necessary.


The shad is a very indifferent fish unless it be large and fat; when you get a good one prepare it nicely, put some force meat inside and lay it at full length in a pan, with a pint of water, a gill of red wine, one of mushroom catsup, a little pepper, vinegar, salt, a few cloves of garlic, and six cloves; stew it gently till the gravy is sufficiently reduced; there should always be a fish-slice with holes to lay the fish on, for the convenience of dishing without breaking it; when the fish is taken [Page 70] up, slip it carefully into the dish; thicken the gravy with butter and brown flour, and pour over it.


Get a nice fat shad, fresh from the water, that the skin may not crack in boiling, put it in cold water on a slice, in a kettle of proper length, with a glass of pale vinegar, salt, a little garlic, and a bundle of parsley; when it is done, drain all the water from the fish, lay it in the dish, and garnish with scraped horse radish; have a sauce boat of nice melted butter, to mix with the different catsups as taste shall direct.


Fill the cavity with good forcemeat, sew it up and tie it on a board of proper size, cover it with bread crumbs, with some salt and pepper, set it before the fire to roast; when done on one side, turn it, tie it again, and when sufficiently done, pull out the thread, and serve it up with butter and parsley poured over it. [Page 71]


Separate one side from the backbone, so that it will lie open without being split in two, wash it clean, dry it with a cloth, sprinkle some salt and pepper on it, and let it stand till you are ready to broil it; have the grid-iron hot and well greased, broil it nicely, and pour over it melted butter.


The best part of the rock is the had and shoulders; clean it nicely, put it into the fish kettle with cold water and salt, boil it gently and skim it well; when done, drain off the water, lay it in the dish, and garnish with scraped horse radish; have two boats of butter nicely melted with chopped parsley, or, for a change, you may have anchovy butter; the roe and liver should be fried and served in separate dishes. If any of the rock be left it will make a delicious dish next day; pick it in small pieces, put it in a stew pan with a gill of water, a good lump of butter, some salt, a large spoonful of lemon pickle and one of pepper vinegar, shake it over the fire till perfectly hot, and serve it up. It is almost equal to stewed crab. [Page 72]


Clean the fish nicely, but do not take out the roes, dry them on a cloth, sprinkle some salt, and dredge them with flour, lay them separately on a board, when one side is dry, turn them, sprinkle salt and dredge the other side; be sure the lard boils when you put the fish in and fry them with great care; they should be a yellowish brown when done. Send melted butter or anchovy sauce in a boat.


Select the largest oysters, drain off their liquor, and wash them in clean water; pick out the pieces of shells that may be left, put them in a stew pan with water proportioned to the number of oysters, some salt, blades of mace, and whole black pepper; stew them a few minutes, then put them in a pot, and when cold, add as much pale vinegar as will give the liquor an agreeable acid.


Take the white channel catfish, cut off their heads, skin and clean them, cut them in pieces four inches long, put as many as will [Page 73] be sufficient for a; dish into a stew pan with a quart of water, two onions, and chopped parsley; let them stew gently till the water is reduced to a pint, take the fish out and lay them on a dish, cover them to keep them hot, rub a spoonful of butter into one of flour, add a large tea-spoonful of curry powder, thicken the gravy with it, shake it over the fire a few minutes, and pour it over the fish; be careful to have the gravy smooth.


Take out the gills and the blood from the bone, wash the head very clean, rub over it a little salt, then lay it on your fish plate; throw in the water a good handful of salt, with a glass of vinegar, then put in the fish, and let it boil gently half an hour; if it is a large one, three quarters; take it up very carefully, strip the skin nicely off, set it before a brisk fire, dredge it all over with flour, and baste it well with butter; when the froth begins to rise, throw over it some very fine white bread crumbs; you must keep basting it all the time to make it froth well; when it is a fine light brown, dish it up, and garnish it with a [Page 74] lemon cut in slices, scraped horse radish, barberries, a few small fish fried and laid round it, or fried oysters, cut the roe and liver in slices, and lay over it a little of the lobster out of the sauce in lumps, and then serve it up.


Take a lobster, if it be alive, stick a skewer in the vent of the tail, (to keep the water out,) throw a handful of salt in the water; when it boils, put in the lobster and boil it half an hour; it if has spawn on it, pick them off, and pound them exceedingly fine in a marble mortar, and put them into half a pound of good melted butter, then take the meat out of the lobster, pull it in buts and put in your butter, with a meat spoonful of lemon pickle, and the same amount of walnut catsup, a slice of lemon, one or two slices of horse radish, a little beaten mace, salt and cayenne to your taste, boil them in a minute, then take out the horse radish and lemon, and serve up in your sauce boat.

N.B. if you cannot get lobsters, you may make shrimp; cockle, or muscle sauce the same way; if there can be no shell fish got [Page 75] you then may add two anchovies cut small, a spoonful of walnut liquor, a large onion stuck with cloves, strain and put it in the sauce boat.


Steep your salt fish in water all night, with a glass of vinegar; it will take out the salt, and make it taste like fresh fish; the next day boil it; when it is enough, take off the skin, pull it in fleaks into your dish, then pour egg sauce over it, or parsnips boiled and beat fine, with butter and cream; send it to the table on a water plate, for it will soon grow cold.


Boil four eggs hard, first half chop the white, then put in the yelks and chop them both together, but not very small, put them into half a pound of good melted butter, and let it boil up, then pour it on the fish.


Steep your sounds as you do the salt cod, and boil them in a large quantity of milk and water; when they are very tender and white, take them up and drain the water out and [Page 76] skim them, then pour the egg sauce boiling hot over them and serve them up.


Gut and scale your fish, wash and dry them well with a clean cloth, dredge them with flour, fry them in lard until they are a light brown, and then put them in a stew pan with a pint of water and one pint of red wine, a meat spoonful of lemon pickle, the same of walnut catsup, a little mushroom powder and cayenne to taste, a large onion stuck with cloves, and a stick of horse radish; cover your pan close up to keep in the steam, let them stew gently over a stove fire till the gravy is reduced to just enough to cover your fish in the dish, then take the fish out and put them on the dish you intend for the table; set the gravy on the fire, and thicken it with flour and a large lump of butter, boil it a little , and strain it over your fish; garnish them with pickled mushrooms and scraped horse radish, and send them to the table.


Clean the eels and cut off their heads, dry them and [Page 77] them and turn them round on your fish plate, boil them in salt and water, and make parsley sauce for them.


Skin and wash your eels, then dry them with a cloth, sprinkle them with pepper, salt, and a little dried sage, turn them backward and forward, and skewer them; rub a grid-iron with beef suet, broil them a nice brown, put them on a dish with good melted butter, and lay around fried parsley.


When you have skinned and cleansed your eels as before, rub them with the yelk of an egg, strew over them; bread crumbs, chopped parsley, sage, pepper, and salt; baste them; well with butter, and set them in a dripping pan; serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce.


When the oysters are opened, put them in a bowl and wash them; out of their own liquor, put some in the scollop shells, strew [Page 78] over them a few bread crumbs, and lay a slice of butter on them, then more oysters, bread crumbs, and a slice of butter on the top; put them into a dutch oven to brown, and serve them up in the shells.


Take a quarter of a hundred of large oysters, beat the yelks of two eggs, add to it a little nutmeg and a blade of mace pounded, a spoonful of flour, and a little salt; dip in the oysters and fry them a light brown; if you choose you may add a little parsley shred fine. They are a proper garnish for calveshead, or most made dishes.


Take little round loaves, cut off the top, scrape out all the crumbs, then put the oysters into a stew pan with the crumbs that came out of the loaves, a little water, and a good lump of butter; stew them together ten or fifteen minutes, then put in a spoonful of good cream, fill your loaves, lay the bit of crust carefully on again, set them in the oven to crisp. Three are enough for a side dish. [Page 79]


Chop a few sage leaves and two onions very fine, mix them with a good lump of butter, a teaspoonful of pepper and two of salt, put it in the goose, then spit it, lay it down, and dust it with flour; when it is thoroughly hot, baste it with nice lard; if it be a large one, it will require an hour and a half, before a good clear fire; when it is enough, dredge and baste it, pull out the spit, and pour in a little boiling water.


Pare, core, and slice some apples, put them in a sauce pan, with as much water as will keep them from burning, set them over a very slow fire, keep them close covered till reduced to a pulp, then put in a lump of butter, and sugar to your taste, beat them well, and send them to the table in a china bowl.


Scald and draw your ducks, put them in warm water for a few minutes, then take them out and put them in an earthen pot; pour over them a pint of boiling milk, and let [Page 80] them lie in it two or three hours; when you take them out, dredge them well with flour, and put them in a copper of cold water; put on the cover, let them boil slowly twenty minutes, then take them out and smother them with onion sauce.


Boil eight or ten large onions, change the water two or three times while they are boiling, when enough, chop them on a board to keep them a good colour, put them in a sauce pan with a quarter of a pound of butter and two spoonful of thick cream, boil it a little, and pour it over the ducks.


When you have drawn the ducks, shread one onion and a few sage leaves, put them into the ducks with pepper and salt, spit and dust them with flour, and baste them with lard: if your fire be very hot, they will roast in twenty minutes, and the quicker they are roasted the better they will taste; just before you draw them, dust them with flour, and baste them. Get ready some gravy made of [Page 81] the gizzards and pinions, a large blade of mace, a few pepper corns, a spoonful of catsup, and a tea-spoonful of lemon pickle; strain it and pour it on the ducks, and send the onion sauce in a boat.


Grate a loaf of bread, chop a score or more of oysters fine, add nutmeg pepper and salt to your taste, mix it up into a light forcemeat with a quarter of a pound of butter, a spoonful or two of cream, and three eggs; stuff the craw with it, and make the rest into balls and boil them, sew up the turkey, dredge it well with flour, put it in a kettle of cold water, cover it, and set it over the fire; as the scum begins to rise, take it off, let it boil very slowly for half an hour, then take off your kettle and keep it close covered; if it be of a middle size, let it stand in in the hot water half an hour, the steam being kept in will stew it enough, make it rise, keep the skin whole, tender, and very white; when you dish it, pour on a little oyster sauce, lay the balls round, and serve it up with the rest of the sauce in a boat. [Page 82]

N.B. Set on the turkey in time, that it may stew as above; it is the best way to boil one to perfection. Put it over the fire to heat, just before you dish it up.


As you open the oysters, put a pint into a bowl, wash them out of their own liquor, and put them in another bowl; when the liquor has settled, put it off into a sauce pan, with a little white gravy and a a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, thicken it with flour and a good lump of butter, boil it three or four minutes, put in a spoonful of good cream, add the oysters, keep shaking them over the fire till they are quite hot, but don't let them boil, for it will make them hard and appear small.


Make the forcemeat thus: take the crumbs of a loaf of bread, a quarter of a pound of beef suet shread fine, a little sausage meat or veal scraped and pounded fine, nutmeg, pepper, and salt to your taste, mix it lightly with three eggs, stuff the craw with it, spit it, and lay it down a good distance from the fire, [Page 83] which should be clear and brisk, dust and baste it several times with cold lard, it makes the froth stronger than basting it with the hot out of the dripping pan, and makes the turkey rise better; when it is enough, froth it up as before, dish it and pour on the same gravy as for the boiled turkey, or bread sauce; garnish with lemon and pickles, and serve it up; if it be of a middle size, it will require one hour and a quarter to roast.


Cut the crumb of a loaf of bread in thin slices and put it in cold water, with a few pepper corns, a little salt and onion, then boil it till the bread is quite soft, beat it well, put in a quarter of a pound of butter, two spoonful of thick cream, and put it in a bowl.


Dust the fowls well with flour, put them in a kettle of cold water, cover it close, set it on the fire; when the scum begins to rise, take it off, let them boil very slowly for twenty minutes, then take them off cover them close, and the heat of the water will stew them [Page 84] enough in half an hour; it keeps the skin whole, and they will be both whiter and plumper than if they had boiled fast; when you take them up, drain them, and pour over them white sauce or melted butter.


Take a scrag of veal, the necks of fowls, or any bits of mutton or veal you have, put them in a sauce pan with a blade or two of mace, a few black pepper corns, one anchovy, a head of celery, a bunch of sweet herbs, a slice of the end of a lemon, put in a quart of water, cover it close, let it boil till it is reduced to half a pint, strain it, and thicken it with a quarter of a pound of butter mixed with flour, boil it five or six minutes, put in two spoonsful of pickled mushrooms, mix the yelks of two eggs with a cup full of good cream and a little nutmeg, put it in the sauce, keep shaking it over the fire but don't let it boil.


Take the fowls when they are ready dressed, put them down to a good fire, dredge, [Page 85] and baste them well with lard; they will be near an hour in roasting; make a gravy of the necks and gizards, strain it, put in a spoonful of brown flour; when you dish them, pour on the gravy, and serve them up with egg sauce in a boat.


Boil four eggs for ten minutes, chop half the whites, put them with the yelks, and chop them both together, but not very fine, put them into a quarter of a pound of good melted butter, and put it in a boat.


Put the chickens in scalding water; as soon as the feathers will slip off, take them out, or it will make the skin hard and break; when you have drawn them, lay them in skimmed milk for two hours, and truss and dust them well with flour, put them in cold water, cover them close, set them over a very slow fire, take off the scum, let the boil slowly for five or six minutes, take them off the fire, keep them close covered in the water for half an hour, it will stew them enough: when you [Page 86] are going to dish them, set them over the fire to make them hot, drain them, and pour over white sauce made the same way as for the boiled fowls.


When you kill young chickens, pluck them very carefully, truss and put them down to a good fire, dredge and baste them with lard; they will take a quarter of an hour in roasting; froth them up, lay them on the dish, pour butter and parsley on, and serve them up hot.


Pluck, but don't draw them, put them on a small spit, dredge them and baste them well with lard, toast a few slices of bread, put them on a clean plate, and set it under the birds while they are roasting; if the fire be good, they will take about ten minutes; when you draw them, lay them upon the toasts on the dish, pour melted butter round them, and serve them up


When the ducks are ready dressed, put [Page 87] in them a small onion, pepper, salt, and a spoonful of red wine; if the fire be good, they will roast in twenty minutes; make gravy of the necks and gizzards, a spoonful of red wine, half an anchovy, a blade or two of mace, one onion, and a little cayenne pepper, boil it till it is wasted to half a pint, strain it through a hair sieve, and pour it on the ducks; serve them up with onion sauce in a boat; garnish the dish with raspings of bread.


Scald the pigeons, draw them, take the craw out, wash them in several waters, cut off the pinions, turn the legs under the wings, dredge them and put them in soft cold water, boil them slowly a quarter of an hour, dish them up, pour over them good melted butter, lay round a little brocoli in bunches, and send butter and parsley in a boat.


When you have dressed your pigeons as before, roll a good lump of butter in chopped parsley, with pepper and salt, put it in your pigeons, spit, dust and baste them, if the fire be good, they will roast in twenty minutes; [Page 88] when they are enough, lay round them bunches of asparagus, with parsley and butter for sauce.


Lard them with slips of bacon, put them on a skewer, tie it to the spit at both ends, dredge and baste them, let them roast ten minutes, take the crumb of half a loaf of bread, with a piece of butter the size of a walnut, put it in a stew pan and shake it over a gentle fire till they are a light brown, lay them between your birds, and pour over them a little melted butter.


When you have cased the rabbits, skewer them with their heads straight up, the forelegs brought down, and the hind-legs straight, boil them three quarters of an hour at least, then smother them with onion sauce, made the same as for boiled ducks, and serve them up.


When you have cased the rabbits, skewer their heads with their mouths open upon their [Page 89] backs, stick their fore-legs into their ribs, skewer the hind legs double, then make a pudding for them of the crumb of half a loaf of bread, a little parsley, sweet marjorum and thyme, all shread fine, nutmeg, salt, and pepper to your taste, mix them up into a light stuffing, with a quarter of a pound of butter, a little good cream and two eggs, put it into the body and sew them up; dredge and baste them well with lard, roast them near an hour, serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce, chop the livers and lay them in lumps round the edge of the dish.


Wash and pick the head very nicely, having taken out the brains and tongue, prepare a good quantity of forced meat, with veal and suet well seasoned, fill the hole of the head with this forced meat, skewer and tie it together upon the spit, and roast it for an hour and a half. Beat up the brains with a little sage and parsely shread fine, a little salt, and the yelks of two or three eggs; boil the tongue and peel it and cut it into large dice, and fry that and the brains, and also some of the forced [Page 90] meat and make up into balls, with slices of bacon. Let the sauce be strong gravy, with oysters, mushrooms, capers, and a little white wine thickened.


Boil the head till the meat is almost enough for eating; then cut it in thin slices, take three quarters of a pint of good gravy, and add half a pint of white wine, half a nutmeg, two anchovies, a small onion stuck with cloves, and a little mace; boil these up in the liquor for a quarter of an hour, then strain it and boil it up again; put in the meat, with salt to your taste, let it stew a little, and if you choose it, you may add some sweet breads, and make some forced meat balls with veal; mix the brains with the yelks of eggs, and fry them to lay for a garnish. When the head is ready to be sent in, stir in a bit of butter.


Divide the calf's head, wash it clean, and having the yelks of two eggs well beaten, was the outside of the head all over with them, and on that strew raspings of bread [Page 91] sifted, pepper, salt, nutmeg, and mace powdered; also the brains cut in pieces and dipped in thick butter, then cover the head with bits of butter, pour into the pan some white wine and water, with as much gravy, and cover it close. Let it be baked in a quick oven, and when it is served up, pour on some strong gravy, and garnish with slices of lemon, red beet root pickled, fried oysters and fried bread.


Take a fresh calf's liver, and having made a hole in it with a large knife run in lengthways, but not quite through, have ready a forced meat, or stuffing made of part of the liver par-boiled, fat of bacon minced fine, and sweet herbs powdered; add to these some grated bread and spice finely powdered, with pepper and salt. With this stuffing fill the hole in the liver, which must be larded with fat bacon, and then roasted, flouring it well, and basting with butter till it is enough. This is to be served up hot, with gravy sauce having a little wine in it. [Page 92]


Having prepared the fowls, rub the insides with salt, pepper and a little powder of cloves, put a shalot or two with a lump of butter in the body of each, then lay them in a pan that will just hold them, putting butter under and over them; cover them with vinegar and water, and add pepper, salt, whole cloves, lemon peal, and a bunch of sweet herbs; then cover the pan close and let them stew three or four hours, pass the liquor through a sieve, pour it over the ducks, and serve them up hot with a garnish of lemon sliced, and raspings of fried bread. The same way may teal, widgeons, &c. be dressed.


The ducks must be singed, picked, and drawn, mince the livers with a little scraped bacon, some butter, green onions, sweet herbs and parsley, seasoned with salt, pepper, and mushrooms; these being all minced together, put them into the bodies of the ducks, and roast them, covered with slices of bacon and wrapped up in paper; then put a little gravy, the juice of an orange, a few shallots minced, [Page 93] in a stew pan, and shake in a little pepper; when the ducks are roasted, take off the bacon, dish them, and pour your sauce with the juice of oranges over them, and serve them up hot.


Stuff the ducks as before, cut the roots off small onions, blanch them in scalding water, then pick and put them into a stew pan with a little gravy, set them over a gentle fire, and let them simmer; when they are done, thicken them with cream and flour, and when they are roasted, dish them, and pour a ragout of onions over them, and serve them up hot.


Cut two chickens as for fricasee, wash them clean, and put them in a stew pan with as much water as will cover them, sprinkle them with a large spoonful of salt, and let them boil till tender, covered close all the time, and skim them well; when boiled enough, take up the chickens, and put the liquor of them into a pan, then put half a pound of fresh butter in the [Page 94] pan, and brown it a little; put into it two cloves of garlick and a large onion sliced, and let these all fry till brown, often shaking the pan; then put in the chickens, and sprinkle over them two or three spoonfuls of curry powder; then cover the pan close and let the chickens do till brown, often shaking the pan; then put in the liquor the chickens were boiled in, and let all stew till tender; if acid is agreeable, squeeze the juice of a lemon or orange in it.


Take half a pound of rice, wash it clean in salt and water, then put it into two quarts of boiling water, and boil it briskly twenty minutes; then strain it in a colander and shake it into a dish, but do not touch it with your fingers nor with a spoon.

Beef, veal, mutton, rabbits, fish &c. may be curried and sent to table with or without the dish of rice.

Curry powder is used as a fine flavoured seasoning for fish, fowl, steaks, chops, veal cutlets, hashes, minces, alamodes, turtle soup, and in all rich dishes, gravies, sauce, &c. &c. [Page 95]

135. A SEA PIE.

Lay at the bottom of a small Dutch over some slices of boiled pork or salt beef, then potatoes and onions cut in slices, salt, pepper, thyme and parsley shread fine, some crackers soaked, and a layer of fowls cut up, or slices of veal; cover them with a paste not too rich, put another layer of each article, and cover them with a paste until the oven is full; put a little butter between each layer, pour in water till it reaches the top crust, to which you must add some wine, catsup of any kind you pleas, and some pounded cloves; let it stew until there is just gravy enough left; serve it in a deep dish and pour the gravy on.


Pour half a pound of butter or dripping boiling hot into quart of flour, add as much water as will make it a paste, work it and roll it well before you use it. It is quite a savoury paste.


Take a an equal quantity of each, let the ocra be young, slice it, and skin the tomatas, [Page 96] put them into a pan without water, add a lump of butter, an onion chopped fine, some pepper and salt, and stew them one hour.


Gather young pods of ocra, wash them clean, and put them in a pan with a little water, salt and pepper, stew them till tender, and serve them with melted butter. They are very nutritious and easy of digestion.


Boil two or three pounds of tripe, cut it in pieces, and put it on the fire with a knuckle of veal and a sufficient quantity of water, part of a pod of pepper, a little spice, sweet herbs according to your taste, salt, and some dumplins; stew it till tender, and thicken the gravy with butter and flour.


Take 2 lbs. beef, 1 lb mutton, a chicken or half a pullet, and a small piece of pork; put them into a pot with very little water, and set it on the fire at ten o'clock to stew gently; [Page 97] you must sprinkle over it an onion chopped small, some pepper and salt, before you pour in the water; at half after twelve, put into the pot two or three apples or pears peeled and cut in two, tomatas with the skin taken off, cimblins cut in pieces, a handful of mint chopped, lima beans, snaps, and any kind of vegetable you like, let them all stew together till three o'clock; some cellery tops cut small and added at half after two, will improve it much.


Peel the skin from ripe tomatas, put them in a pan with a spoonful of melted butter, some pepper and salt, shred cold meat or fowl, put it in and fry it sufficiently; put slices of butter in a frying pan, add some salt and a small portion of parsley, break in six eggs, stir them quickly for a few minutes, and serve them up.


Get a round of beef, lard it well, and put it in a Dutch oven; cut the meat from a shin of beef or any coarse piece in thin slices, put [Page 98] round the sides and over the top some slices of bacon, salt, pepper, onion, thyme, parsley, cellery tops, or seed pounded, and some carrots cut small, strew the pieces of beef over, cover it with water, let it stew very gently till perfectly done, take out the round, strain the gravy, let it stand to be cold, take off the grease carefully, beat the whites of four eggs, mix a little water with them, put them to the gravy, let it boil till it looks clear, strain it, and when cold, put it over the beef.


Cut the fish in pieces six inches long, put it in a pot with onion, parsley, thyme, mushrooms, a little spice, pepper and salt, and red wine to wet it completely, set it on a quick fire and reduce it one third, thicken with a spoonful of butter and two of flour, put it in a dish with bits of bread fried in butter, and pour the gravy over it.


Beat ten eggs very light, add to them a quart of rich milk, with a quarter of a pound [Page 99] of butter melted, and some pepper, and salt, stir in as much flour as will make a thin good batter; take four young chickens, and after cleaning them nicely, cut off the legs, wings, &c. put them all in a sauce pan, with some salt and water and a bundle of thyme of parsley, boil them till nearly done, then take the chicken from the water and put it in the batter, pour it in a deep dish and bake it.


Take any kind of firm fish, cut it in pieces six inches long, sprinkle salt and pepper over each piece, cover the bottom of a small Dutch oven with slices of salt pork about half boiled, lay in the fish, strewing a little chopped onion between cover with crackers that have been soaked soft in milk, pour over it two gills of wine and two of water, put on the top of the oven and stew it gently about an hour; take it out carefully and lay it in a deep dish, thicken the gravy with a little flour and a spoonful of butter, add some chopped parsley, boil it a few minutes, and pour it over the fish; serve it up hot. [Page 100]


Put a large spoonful of butter in a quart of water, wet your corn meal with cold water in a bowl, add some salt, and make it quite smooth, then put it in the buttered water when it is hot, let it boil, stirring it continually till done; as soon as you can handle it, make it into a ball and let it stand till quite cold, then cut it in thin slices, lay them in the bottom of a deep dish so as to cover it, put on it slices of cheese, and on that a few bits of butter, then mush, cheese, and butter, until the dish is full, put on the top thin slices of cheese, put the dish in a quick oven; twenty or thirty minutes will bake it.


Boil as much macaroni as will fill your dish, in milk and water till quite tender, drain it on a sieve, sprinkle a little salt over it, put a layer in you dish, then cheese and butter as in the polenta, and bake it in the same manner.


Beat two or three fresh eggs quite light, [Page 101] make them into a stiff paste with flour, knead it well and roll it out very thin, cut it in narrow strips, give them a twist, and dry them quickly on tin sheets. It is an excellent ingredient in most soups, particularly those that are thin. Noodles are made in the same manner, only instead of strips, they should be cut in tiny squares and dried. They are also good in soups.


Take some veal, fat and lean, and some slices of boiled ham, chop them very fine, and season it with salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, and a small quantity of parsley and thyme minced very fine; make some paste, cover the bottoms of small moulds, fill them with the meat, put thin lids on, and bake them crisp; five is enough for a side dish.


Boil eighteen eggs, separate the yelks and whites and cut them in dice, pour over them a sauce a-la-creme, (see eggs a-la-creme, page 104,) add a little grated bread, mix all well together, and let it get cold; put in some [Page 102] salt and pepper, make them into cakes, cover them well on both sides with grated bread, let them stand an hour, and fry them a nice brown; dry them a little before the fire, and dish them while quite hot.


Break six eggs, beat the yelks and whites separately till very light, then mix them, add four table spoonsful of powdered sugar and a little grated lemon peel, put a quarter of a pound of butter in a pan, when melted, pour in the eggs and stir them; when they have absorbed the butter, turn it on a plate previously buttered, sprinkle some powdered sugar, set it in a hot Dutch oven, and when a little brown, serve it up for a dessert.


Put a pint of water and a lump of butter the size of an egg into a sauce pan, stir in as much flour as will make a thick batter, put it on the fire, and stir it continually till it will not stick to the pan; put it in a bowl, and when cold, add three quarters of apound of grated cheese, mix it well, then break in two [Page 103] eggs, beat them; well, then two more until you put in six; when it looks very light, drop it in small lumps on buttered paper, bake it in a quick oven till a delicate brown; you may use corn meal instead of flour, for a change.


Cut some slices of bread tolerably thick and toast them slightly, bone some anchovies, lay half of one on each toast, cover it well with grated cheese and chopped parsley mixed, pour a little melted butter on, and brown it with a salamander; it must be done on the dish you send it to table in.


Cut the fish in pieces the thickness of our hand, wash it and dry it in a cloth, sprinkle on some pepper and salt, dredge it with flour, and fry it a nice brown; when it gets cold, put it in a pot with a little chopped onion between the layers, take as much vinegar as will cover it, mix with it some oil, pounded mace, and whole black pepper, pour it on and stop the pot closely. This is a very convenient [Page 104] article, as it makes an excellent and ready addition to a dinner or supper. When served up, it should be garnished with green fennel or parsley.


The best sturgeons are the small ones, about four feet long without the head, and the best part is the one next to the tail. After the sturgeon is split through the back bone, take a piece with the skin on, which is essential to its appearance and goodness, cut off the gristle, scrape the skin well, wash it, and salt it; let it lie twenty-four hours, wipe off the salt, roll it and tie it around with twine, put it on in a good deal of cold water, let it boil till you can run a straw easily into the skin, take it up, pull off the large scales, and when cold, put it in a pot, and cover it with one part vinegar and two of salt and water; keep it closely stopped, and when served, garnish with green fennel.


Boil twelve eggs just hard enough to allow you to cut them in slices, cut some crusts of [Page 105] bread very thin, put them in the bottom and round the sides of a moderately deep dish, place the eggs in, strewing each layer with stale bread grated and some pepper and salt.


Put a quarter of a pound of butter with a large table spoonful of flour rubbed well into it, in a sauce pan, add some chopped parsley, a little onion, salt, pepper, nutmeg, and a gill of creme; stir it over the fire until it begins to boil, then pour it over the eggs, cover the top with grated bread, set it in a Dutch oven with a heated top, and when a light brown, send it to table.


Take two good heads of cabbage, cut out the stalks, boil it tender with a little salt in the water, have ready one large spoonful of butter and a small one of flour rubbed into it, half a pint of milk, with pepper and salt, make it hot, put the cabbage in after pressing out the water, and stew it till quite tender.


Boil the fish tender, pick it from the bones, [Page 106] take an equal quantity of Irish potatoes, or parsnips boiled and chopped, and the same of onions well boiled, add a sufficiency of melted butter, some grated nutmeg, pepper, and salt, with a little brandy or wine, rub them in a mortar till well mixed; if too stiff, liquify it with cream of thickened milk, put paste in the bottom of a dish, pour in the fish and bake it. For change, it may be baked in the form of patties.


Take cold fowl or fresh meat of any kind, with slices of ham, fat and lean, chop them together very fine, add half as much stale bread grated, salt, pepper, grated nutmeg, a teaspoonful of made mustard, a table spoonful of catsup, and a lump of butter; knead all well together till it resembles sausage meat, make them in cakes, dip them in the yelk of an egg beaten, cover them thickly with grated bread, and fry them a light brown.


Break six or eight eggs in a dish, beat them a little, add parsley and chives chopped small, with pepper and salt, mix all well together. [Page 107] put a piece of butter in a pan, let it melt over a clear fire till nearly brown, pour in the eggs, stir it in, and in a few minutes it will be done sufficiently; double it, and dish it quite hot.

162. GASPACHA—Spanish.

Put some soft biscuit or toasted bread in the bottom of a sallad bowl, put in a layer of sliced tomatas with the skin taken off, and one of sliced cucumbers, sprinkled with pepper, salt, and chopped onion; do this until the bowl is full, stew some tomatas quite soft, strain the juice, mix in some mustard and oil, and pour over it; make it two hours before it is eaten.


Peel the skins from a dozen large tomatas, put four ounces butter in a frying pan, add some salt, pepper, and a little chopped onion, fry them a few minutes, add the tomatas and chop them while frying; when nearly done, break in six eggs, stir them quickly, and serve them up. [Page 108]


Chop twenty-four anchovies, bones and all, ten shallots, a handful of scraped horse radish, four blades of mace, one quart of white wine, one pint of anchovy liquor, one pint of claret, twelve cloves, and twelve pepper corns; boil them together till reduced to a quart, then strain it off into a bottle for use. Two spoonsful will be sufficient for a pound of butter.


Take a gill of claret, with as much water, some grated bread, three heads of shallots, a little whole pepper, mace, grated nutmeg, and salt; let them stew over the fire, then beat it up with butter, and put it under the wild fowl, which being little roasted, will afford gravy to mix with this sauce.


Boil the livers, and shred them very small, shred two eggs not boiled very hard, a large spoonful of grated white bread, some broth, sweet herbs, two spoonsful of white wine, one of vinegar, a little salt, and some butter; stir all together, and take care the butter does not oil. [Page 109]

167. GRAVY.

Take a rasher or two of bacon and lay it at the bottom of a stew pan, putting either veal, mutton, or beef, cut in slices, over it; then add some sliced onions, turnips, carrots, celery, a little thyme, and allspice. Put it in a little water, and set it on the fire, drawing it till it be brown at the bottom, which you will know from the pan's hissing; then pour boiling water over it, and stew it an hour and a half; but the time must be regulated by the quantity. Season it with salt.


Take half a pound of veal, and half a pound of suet cut fine and beat in a marble mortar or wooden bowl; add a few sweet herbs shred fine, a little mace pounded fine, a small nutmeg grated, a little lemon peel, some pepper and salt, and the yelks of two eggs; mix them well together, and make them into balls and long pieces, then roll them in flour, and fry them brown. If they are for the use of white sauce, do not fry them, but put them in a sauce pan of hot water, and let them boil a few minutes. [Page 110]


Pour boiled onions over your ducks or rabbits prepared in this manner; peel some onions and boil them in plenty of water, then change the first water and boil them two hours. Take them up and put them in a colander to drain, and afterwards chop them on a board; then put them in a sauce pan, sprinkle a little flour over them, and put in a large piece of butter, with a little milk or cream, Set them over the fire, and when the butter is melted they will be done enough. This is a sauce for mutton.


Boil a little mace and a whole pepper long enough to take out the strong taste of the spice; then strain it off, and melt three quarters of a pound of butter in it. Cut the lobster in very small pieces, and stir it in, with anchovy, till it is tender.


Wash half a pint of shrimps very clean, and put them in a stew pan with a spoonful of anchovy liquor, and a pound of thick melted [Page 111] butter; boil it up for five minutes, and squeeze in a half a lemon. Toss it up and put it in a sauce boat.


Scald a pint of oysters, and strain them through a sieve; then wash some more in cold water and take off their beards; put them in a stew pan and pour the liquor over them. Then add a large spoonful of anchovy liquor, half a lemon, two blades of mace, and thicken it with butter rolled in flour. Put in half a pound of butter, and boil it till it is melted; take out the mace and lemon, and squeeze the lemon juice into the sauce; boil it and stir it all the time, and put it in a boat.


Wash and pare a large bunch of celery very clean, cut it into little bits, and boil it softly till it is tender. Add half a pint of cream, some mace, nutmeg, and a small piece of butter rolled in flour; then boil it gently. This is a good sauce for roasted or boiled fowls, turkeys, partridges or any other game. [Page 112]


Clean and wash one quart of fresh mushrooms, cut them in two, and put them into a stew pan, with a little salt, a blade of mace, and a little butter. Stew them gently for half an hour, and then add a pint of cream and the yelks of two eggs beat very well; keep stirring it till it boils up, and then squeeze in a half a lemon. Put it over the fowls or turkies; or you may put it on a dish, with a piece of fried bread first buttered, then toasted brown, and just dipped into boiling water. This is a very good sauce for white fowls of all kinds.


Plain butter melted thick, with a spoonful of walnut pickle or catsup, is a very good sauce; but you may put as many things as you choose into sauces.


Nothing is more simple than this process, and nothing is so generally done badly. Keep a quart tin sauce pan with a cover to it exclusively for this purpose; weigh one quarter [Page 113] of a pound of good butter, rub into it two teaspoonsful of flour; when well mixed, put it in the sauce pan with one table spoonful of water, and a little salt; cover it, and set the sauce pan in a larger one of boiling water, shake it constantly till completely melted and beginning to boil. If the pan containing the butter be set on coals, it will oil the butter and spoil it. This quantity is sufficient for one sauce boat. A great variety of delicious sauces can be made, by adding different herbs to melted butter, all of which are excellent to eat with fish, poultry, or boiled butchers meat. To begin with parsley—wash a large bunch very clean, pick the leaves from the stems carefully, boil them ten minutes in salt and water, drain them perfectly dry, mince them exceedingly fine, and stir them in the butter when it begins to melt. When herbs are added to butter, you must put two spoonsful of water instead of one. Chervil, young fennel, burnet, tarragon, and cress, or pepper grass, may all be used, and must be prepared in the same manner as the parsley.


Is made by mixing a sufficient quantity of [Page 114] capers, and adding them to the melted butter, with a little of the liquor from the capers. Where capers cannot be obtained, pickled nasturtiums make a very good substitute, or even green pickle minced and put with the butter.

178. Oyster Catsup.

Get fine fresh oysters, wash them in their own liquor, put them in a marble mortar with salt, pounded mace, and cayenne pepper, in the proportions of one ounce salt, two drachms mace, and one of cayenne to each pint of oysters, pound them together, and add a pint of white wine to each pint; boil it some minutes, and rub it through a sieve; boil it again, skim it, and when cold, bottle, cork, and seal it. This composition gives a fine flavour to white sauces, and if a glass of brandy be added, it will keep good for a considerable time.


Pound two gills of celery seed, put it into a bottle, and fill it with strong vinegar; shake it every day for a fortnight, then strain it and keep it for use. It will impart a pleasant flavour [Page 115] of celery to any thing with which it is used. A very delicious flavour of thyme may be obtained, by gathering it when in full perfection; it must be picked from the stalks; a large handful of it put into a jar, and a quart of vinegar or brandy poured on it, cover it very close, next day take all the thyme out, put in as much more, do this a third time, then strain it; bottle and seal it securely. This is greatly preferable to the dried thyme commonly used, during the season when it cannot be obtained in a fresh state. Mint may be prepared in the same way. The flavour of both these herbs must be preserved by care in the prepartion; if permitted to stand more than twenty hours in the liquor they are infused in, a coarse and bitter taste will be extracted, particularly from mint.


To have this delicate dish in perfection, the lettuce, pepper grass, chervil, cress, &c. should be gathered early in the morning, nicely picked, washed, and laid in cold water, which will be improved by adding ice; just before dinner [Page 116] is ready to be served, drain the water from your salad, cut it into a bowl, giving the proper proportions of each plant; prepare the following mixture to pour over it: boil two fresh eggs ten minutes, put them in water to cool, then take the yelks in a soup plate, pour on them a table spoonful of cold water, rub them with a wooden spoon until they are perfectly dissolved, then add two table spoonsful of oil; when mixed, put in a teaspoonful of salt, one of powdered sugar, and one of made mustard; when all these are united and quite smooth, stir in two table spoonsful of common, and two of tarragon vinegar; put it over the salad, and garnish the top with the whites of the eggs cut into rings, and lay around the edge of the bowl young scallions, they being the most delicate of the onion tribe.


Wash them, but do not pare or cut them unless they are very large; fill a sauce pan half full of potatoes of equal size, (or make them so by dividing the larger ones,) put to them as much cold water as will cover them [Page 117] about an inch; they are sooner boiled, and more savoury than when drowned in water; most boiled things are spoiled by having too little water, but potatoes are often spoiled by having too much; they must merely be covered, and a little allowed for waste in boiling, so that they may be just covered when done. Set them on a moderate fire till they boil, then take them off, and set them by the fire to simmer slowly till they are soft enough to admit a for; (place no dependence on the usual test of their skin's cracking, which, if they are boiled fast, will happen to some potatoes when they are not half done, and the inside is quite hard,) then pour off the water, (if you let the potatoes remain in the water a moment after they are done enough, they will become waxy and watery,) uncover the sauce pan, and set it at such a distance from the fire as will secure it from burning; their superfluous moisture will evaporate, and the potatoes will be perfectly dry and mealy. You may afterwards place a napkin, folded up to the size of the sauce pan's diameter, over the potatoes, to keep them dry and mealy till wanted. This method of managing potatoes, [Page 118] is, in every respect, equal to steaming them; and they are dressed in half the time.


Peel large potatoes, slice them about a quarter of an inch thick, or cut them in shavings round and round, as you would peal a lemon; dry them well in a clean cloth, and fry them in lard or dripping. Take care that your fat and frying-pan are quite clean; put it on a quick fire, watch it, and as soon as the lard boils and is still, put in the slices of potatoes, and keep moving them till they are crisp; take them up and lay them to drain on a sieve; send them up with very little salt sprinkled on them.


When the potatoes are thoroughly boiled, drain and dry them perfectly, pick out every speck, and rub them through a colander into a clean stew pan: to a pound of potatoes put half an ounce of butter, and a table spoonful of milk; do not make them too moist; mix them well together. When the potatoes are getting old and specked, and in [Page 119] frost weather, this is the best way of dressing them, you may put them into shapes, touch them over with yelk of egg, and brown them very slightly before a slow fire.


Prepare some onions by putting them through a sieve, and mix them with potatoes: in proportioning the onions to the potatoes, you will be guided by your wish to have more or less of their flavour.


Wash and dry your potatoes, (all of a size,) and put them in a tin Dutch oven, or cheese toaster; take care not to put them too near the fire, or they will get burned on the outside before they are warmed through. Large potatoes will require two hours to roast them. To save time and trouble, some cooks half boil them first.


Half boil large potatoes, drain the water from them, and put them into an earthen dish, or small tin pan, under the meat that is roasting, [Page 120] and baste them with some of the dripping, when they are browned on one side, turn them and brown the other; send them up around the meat, or in a small dish.


Mix mashed potatoes with the yelk of an egg, roll them into balls, flour them, or cover them with egg and bread crumbs, fry them in clean dripping, or brown them in a Dutch oven. They are an agreeable vegetable relish, and a supper dish.


Are boiled and dressed in the various ways we have just before directed for potatoes. They should be covered with thick melted butter, or a nice white or brown sauce.


Pick cabbages very clean, and wash them thoroughly, then look the carefully over again; quarter them if they are very large; put them into a sauce pan with plenty of boiling water, if any skum rises, take it off, put a large spoonful of salt into the sauce [Page 121] pan, and boil them till the stalks feel tender. A young cabbage will take about twenty minutes, or half an hour; when full grown, nearly an hour; see that they are well covered with water all the time, and that no dirt or smoke arises from stirring the fire. With careful management, they will look as beautiful when dressed as they did when growing. Some cooks say, that it will ameliorate the flavour of strong old cabbages to boil them in two waters, i.e. when they are half done, to take them out, and put them into another sauce pan of boiling water.

190. SAVOYS.

Are boiled in the same manner; quarter them when you send them to table.


The receipt written for cabbages will answer as well for sprouts, only they will be boiled enough in fifteen minutes.


Set a stew pan with plenty of water on the [Page 122] fire, sprinkle a handful of salt in it, let it boil and skim it; then put in the asparagus prepared thus: scrape all the stalks till they are perfectly clean, throw them into a pan of cold water as you scrape them; when they are all done, tie them in little bundles, of a quarter of a hundred each, with bass, f you can get it, or tape; cut off the stalks at the bottom, that they may be all of a length; when they are tender at the stalk, which will be in from twentyt o [Note: sic] thirty minutes, they are done enough. Great care must be taken to watch the exact time of their becoming tender; take them just at that instant, and they will have their true flavour and colour; a minute or two more boiling destroys both. While the asparagus is boiling, toast a round of a loaf of bread, about half an inch thick, brown it delicately on both sides; dip it lightly in the liquor the asparagus was boiled in, and lay it in the middle of a dish; pour some melted butter on the toast, and lay the aspargus upon it; let it project beyond the asparagus, that the company may see there is a toast. Do not pour butter over them, but send some in a boat. [Page 123]

193. SEA KALE.

Is tied up in bundles, and dressed in the same way as asparagus.


Choose those that are close and white, and of a middle size, trim off the outside leaves, cut off the stalk flat at the bottom, let them lie in salt and water an hour before you boil them. Put them in boiling water with a handful of salt in it, skim it well, and let it boil slowly till done, which a small one will be in fifteen minutes, a large one in twenty, and take it up the moment it is enough; a few minutes longer boiling will spoil it.


Are not so much used as they deserve to be; they are dressed in the same way as parsnips, only neither scraped nor cut till after they are boiled; they will take from an hour and a half to three hours in boiling, according to their size; to be sent to the table with salt fish, boiled beef, &c. When young, large, and juicy, it is a very good variety, an excellent garnish, and easily converted into a very cheap and pleasant pickle. [Page 124]


Are to be cooked just in the same manner as carrots; they require more or less time, according to their size, therefore match them in size, and you must try them by thrusting a fork into them as they are in the water; when this goes easily through, they are done enough; boil them from an hour to two hours, according to their size and freshness. Parsnips are sometimes sent up mashed in the same way as turnips, and some cooks quarter before they boil them.


Let them be well washed and brushed, but not scraped; an hour is enough for young spring carrots; grown carrots must be cut in half, and will take from an hour and a half to two hours and a half. When done, rub off the peels with a clean coarse cloth, and slice them in two or four, according to their size. The best way to try if they are done enough, is to pierce them with a fork.


Peel off half an inch of the stringy outside, [Page 125] full grown turnips will take about an hour and a half of gentle boiling; if you slice them, which most people do, they will be done sooner; try them with a fork, and when tender, take them up, and lay them on a sieve till the water is thoroughly drained from them; send them up whole; to very young turnips, leave about two inches of green top.


When they are boiled quite tender, squeeze them as dry as possible, put them into a sauce pan, mash them with a wooden spoon, and rub them through a colander; add a little bit of butter, keep stirring them till the butter is melted and well mixed with them, and they are ready for table.


Are the shoots, which grow out, (in the spring,) from the old turnip roots. Put them into cold water an hour before they are dressed; the more water they are boiled in the better they will look; if boiled in a small quantity of water, they will taste bitter; when the water boils, put in a small handful [Page 126] of salt, and then your vegetables; they are still better boiled with bacon in the Virginia style; if fresh and young they will be done in about twenty minutes; drain them on the back of a sieve, and put them under the bacon.


Cut off the stalk end first, and then turn to the point and strip off the strings; if not quite fresh, have a bowl of spring water, with a little salt dissolved in it, standing before you, as the beans are cleansed and trimmed, throw them in; when all are done, put them on the fire in boiling water with some salt in it; when they have boiled fifteen or twenty minutes, take one out and taste it; as soon as they are tender, take them up, and throw them into a colander to drain. To send up the beans whole, when they are young, is much the best method, and their delicate flavour and colour is much better preserved. When a little more grown, they must be cut across, in two, after stringing; and for common tables, they are split, and divided across; but those who are nice, do not use them at such a growth as to require splitting. [Page 127]


Soak the in cold water, wash them; well, then put them into plenty of boiling water, with a handful of salt, and let them boil gently till they are tender, which will take an hour and a half, or two hours; the surest way to know when they are done enough, is to draw out a leaf; trim them and drain them on a sieve, and send up melted butter with them; which some put into small cups so that each guest may have one.


The kind which bears flowers around the joints of the stalks, must be cut into convenient lengths for the dish, scrape the skin from the stalk, and pick out any leaves or flowers that require to be removed; tie it up in bunches, and boil it as asparagus; serve it up hot with melted butter poured over it. The brocoli that heads at the top like cauliflowers, must be dressed in the same manner as the cauliflower.

204. PEAS.

To have them in perfection, they must be quite young, gathered early in the morning, [Page 128] kept in a cool place, and not shelled until they are to be dressed; put salt in the water, and when it boils, put in the peas; boil them quick twenty or thirty minutes, according to their age; just before they are taken up, add a little mint chopped very fine, drain all the water from the peas, put in a bit of butter, and serve them up quite hot.


Peel as many small turnips as will fill a dish; put them into a stew pan with some butter and a little sugar, set them over a hot stove, shake them over a hot stove, shake them about, and turn them till they are a good brown; pour in half a pint of rich high seasoned gravy, stew the turnips till tender, and serve them with the gravy poured over them. [Page 129]


Let them be young and fresh gathered, string them and cut them in long thin slices, throw them in boiling water for fifteen minutes; have ready some well seasoned brown gravy, drain the water from the beans, put them in the gravy, stew them a few minutes, and serve them garnished with forcemeat balls; there must not be gravy enough to float the beans.


This is the smallest and most delicate species of the Windsor bean. Gather them in the morning when they are full-grown, but quite young, and do not shell them till you are going to dress them. Put them into boiling water, have a small bit of middling, (flitch,) of bacon, well boiled, take the skin off, cover it with bread crumbs, and toast it; lay this in the middle of the dish, drain all the water from the beans, put a little butter with them, and pour them round the bacon. When the large Windsor beans are used, it is best to put them into boiling water until [Page 130] the skins will slip off, and then make them into a puree as directed for turnips—they are very coarse when plainly dressed.


Like all other spring and summer vegetables, they must be young and freshly gathered: Boil them till tender, drain them, add a little butter, and serve them up. These beans are easily preserved for winter use, and will be nearly as good as fresh ones.—Gather them on a dry day, when full grown, but quite young: have a clean and dry keg, sprinkle some salt in the bottom, put in a layer of pods, containing the beans, then a little salt, do this till the keg is full; lay a board on, with a weight to press them down; cover the keg very close, and keep it in a dry cool place—they should be put up as late in the season, as they can be with convenience. When used, the pods must be washed, and laid in fresh water all night; shell them next day, and keep them in water till you are going to boil them; when tender [Page 131] serve them up with melted butter in a boat. French beans (snaps) may be preserved in the same manner.


The cabbage growing at the top is not good; cut the root in slices an inch thick, peel off the rind, and boil the slices in a large quantity of water, till tender; serve it up hot, with melted butter poured over it.


The purple ones are best, get them young and fresh, pull out the stem, and parboil them to take off the bitter taste; cut them in slices an inch thick, but do not peel them, dip them in the yelk of an egg and cover them with grated bread, a little salt and pepper, when this has dried, cover the other side in the same way; fry them a nice brown. They are very delicious, tasting much like soft crabs. The egg plant may be dressed in another manner, scrape the rind and parboil them, cut a slit from one end to the other, take out the seeds, fill the space with a rich forcemeat, [Page 132] and stew them in well seasoned gravy, or bake them, and serve up with gravy in the dish.


Get one of good colour and seven or eight inches in diameter; cut a piece off the top, take out all the seeds, wash and wipe the cavity, pare the rind off, and fill the hollow with good forcemeat, put the top on and set it in a deep pan to protect the sides; bake it in a moderate over, put it carefully in the dish without breaking, and it will look like a handsome mould. Another way of cooking potato pumpkin is to cut it in slices, pare off the rind, and make a puree as directed for turnips.


Take those that are nearly of the same size that they may be done equally, wash them clean, but do not peel them, boil them till tender, drain the water off and put them on tin sheets in a stove for a few minutes, to dry. [Page 133]


Wash and wipe them, and if they be large cut them in two lengths; put them at the bottom of a stew-pan, lay over some slices of boiled ham, and on that, one or two chickens cut up with pepper, salt, and a bundle of herbs; pour in some water and stew them till done, then take out the herbs, serve the stew in a deep dish, thicken the gravy, and pour over it.


Cut them across without peeling, in slices half an inch thic broil them on a griddle, and serve them with butter in a boat.


Great care must be used in washing and picking it clean; drain it and throw it into boiling water—a few minutes will boil it sufficiently; press out all the water, put it in a stew-pan with a piece of butter, some pepper and salt, chop it continually with a spoon till it is quite dry; serve it with poached eggs or without as you please. [Page 134]

216. SORREL.

Is dressed as the spinach, and if they be mixed in equal proportions, improve each other.


Get a fine head of cabbage, not too large, pour boiling water on, and cover it till you can turn the leaves back, which you must do carefully; take some of those in the middle of the head off, chop them fine, and mix them with rich force-meat; put this in and replace the leaves to confine the stuffing; tie it in a cloth and boil it; serve it up whole with a little melted butter in the dish.


Gather young squashes, peel, and cut them in two; take out the seeds, and boil them till tender; put them into a colander, drain off the water, and rub them with a wooden spoon through the colander; then put them into a stew-pan with a cupful of cream, a small piece of butter, some pepper and salt, stew them, stirring very frequently until dry. This is the most delicate way of preparing squashes. [Page 135]


The crooked neck of this squash is the best part. Cut it in slices an inch thick, take off the rind and boil them with salt in the water; drain them well before they are dished, and pour melted butter over—serve them up very hot.

The large part, containing the seeds, must be sliced and pared, cut it in small pieces and stew it till soft, with just water enough to cover it, pass it through a sieve and stew it again, adding some butter, pepper, and salt; it must be dry, but not burnt. It is excellent when stewed with pork chops.


There are many varieties of these peas, the smaller kind are the most delicate.—Have them young and newly gathered, shell and boil them tender, pour them in a colander to drain; put some lard in a frying-pan, when it boils, mash the peas, and fry them in a cake of light brown; put it in the dish with the crust uppermost, garnish with thin bits of fried bacon. They are very nice when fried whole, so that each pea [Page 136] is distinct from the other, but they must be boiled less, and fried with great care. Plain boiling is a very common way of dressing them.


Boil them separately, and mix them in the proportions you like; add butter, pepper and salt, and either stew them or fry them in a cake.


Scrape and wash the roots, put them into boiling water with salt; when done, drain them and place them in the dish without cutting them up. They are a very excellent vegetable, but require nicety in cooking; exposure to the air, either in scraping or after boiling, will make them black.


Boil a pint of rice quite soft, with a teaspoonful of salt, mix with it while hot a large spoonful of butter, and spread it on a dish to cool; when perfectly cold, add a pint of rice flour and half a pint of milk, beat them all together till well mingled. Take the middle part of the head of a barrel, make it quite clean, wet it, and put on the mixture about an inch thick, smooth with a spoon and baste it with a little milk, set the board aslant before clear coals; when sufficiently baked, slip a thread under the cake and turn it, baste and bake that side in a similar manner, split it and butter while hot. Small homony boiled and mixed with rice flour, is better than all rice, [Page 139] and if baked very thin, and afterwards toasted and buttered, it is nearly as good as cassada bread.


Boil half a pint of rice in water till tender, pour off the water and add a pint of milk with two eggs beaten well stirred into it, boil all together two or three minutes, serve it up hot, and eat it with butter, sugar, and nutmeg. It may be sweetened and cooled in moulds, turned out in a deep dish, and surrounded with rich milk, with raspberry marmalade stirred into it, and strained to keep back the seeds, or the milk may be seasoned with wine and sugar.


The salt should always be washed from butter, when it is to be used in any thing that has sugar for an ingredient, and also from that which is melted to grease any kind of mould for baking, otherwise, there will be a disagreeable salt taste on the outer side of the article baked. Raisins should be stoned and cut in two, and have some flour sifted over them, [Page 140] stir them gently in the flour, and take them out free from lumps; the small quantity that adheres to them will prevent their sticking together, or falling in a mass to the bottom. Eggs must be fresh, or they will not beat well; it is better to separate the yelks from the whites always, though it is a more troublesome process, but for some things it is essential to do so; when they are to be mixed with milk, let it cool after boiling, or the eggs will poach, and only set it on the fire a few minutes to take off the raw taste of the eggs, stirring it all the time. Currants require washing in many waters to cleanse them; they must be picked and well dried, or they will stick together. Almonds should be put in hot water till the skins will slip off, which is called blanching; they must always be pounded with rose or orange water, to prevent their oiling. When cream is used, put it in just before the mixture is ready; much beating will decompose it. Before a pudding or cake is begun, every ingredient necessary for it must be ready; when the process is retarded by neglecting to have them prepared, the article is injured. [Page 141] The oven must be in a proper state, and the paste in the dishes or moulds ready for such things as require it. Promptitude is necessary in all our actions, but never moreso than when engaged in making cakes and puddings. When only one or two eggs are to be used, cooks generally think it needless to beat them; it is an error; eggs injure everything unless they are made light before they are used. Cloths for boiling puddings should be made of German sheeting; an article less thick will admit the water and injure the pudding.


Sift a quart of flour, leave out a little for rolling the paste, make up the remainder with cold water into a stiff paste, knead it well, and roll it out several times; wash the salt from a pound of butter, divide it into four parts, put one of them on the paste in little bits, fold it up, and continue to roll it till the butter is well mixed; then put another portion of butter, roll it in the same manner; do this till all the butter is mingled with the paste, touch it very lightly with the hands in making, bake it in a [Page 142] moderate oven, that will permit it to rise, but will not make it brown. Good paste must look white and as light as a feather.


Boil either calves or hogs feet till perfectly tender, rub them through a colander, when cold, pass them through again, and it will come out like pearl barley; take one quart of this, one of chopped apples, the same of currants, washed and picked, raisins, stoned and cut, of good brown sugar, suet, nicely chopped, and cider, with a pint of brandy; add a tea-spoonful of pounded mace, one of cloves and of nutmegs; mix all these together intimately. When the pies are to be made. [Note: sic] take out as much of this mixture as may be necessary, to each quart of it add a teaspoonful of pounded black pepper, and one of salt; this greatly improves the flavour, and can be better mixed with a small portion than with the whole mass. Cover the moulds with paste, put in a sufficiency of mince-meat, cover the top with citron, sliced thin, and lay on it a lid garnished around [Page 143] with paste cut in fanciful shapes. They may be eaten either hot or cold, but are best when hot.


Boil four calf's feet, that have been nicely cleaned and the hoofs taken off; when the feet are boiled to pieces, strain the liquor through a colander, and when cold, take all the grease off and put the jelly in a skillet, leaving the dregs which will be at the bottom. There should be from four feet, about two quarts of jelly; pour into it one quart of white wine, the juice of six fresh lemons strained from the seeds, one pound and a half of powdered loaf sugar, a little pounded cinnamon and mace, and the rind thinly pared from two of the lemons; wash eight eggs very clean, whip up the whites to a froth, crush the shells and put with them, mix it with the jelly, stir it on the fire, stir it occasionally till the jelly is melted, but do not touch it afterwards. When it has boiled till it looks quite clear on one side, and the dross accumulates on the other, take off carefully the thickest part of the dross, and pour [Page 144] the jelly in the bag; put back what runs through, until it comes quite transparent; then set a pitcher under the bag, and put a cover all over to keep out the dust—the jelly looks much prettier when it is broken to fill the glasses. The bag should be made of cotton or linen, and be suspended in a frame made for the purpose. The feet of hogs make the palest coloured jelly, those of sheep are a beautiful amber colour when prepared.


Make a quart of flour into puff paste; when done, divide it into three parts of unequal size; roll the largest out square and moderately thin, spread over it a thin layer of marmalade, leaving a margin all round about an inch broad; roll the next largest in the same manner, lay it on, cover that with marmalade, leaving a margin; then roll the smallest, and put it on the other two, spreading marmalade; fold it up, one fold over the other, the width of your hand, press the ends together, tie it in a cloth securely, and place it in a kettle of boiling water, [Page 145] where it can lie at length without doubling; boil it quickly, and when done, pour melted butter with sugar and wine in the dish.


Boil a quart of milk with a stick of cinnamon, sweeten it to your taste; when cold, take out the cinnamon and add six eggs, well beaten; put it in cups, set them in water and make it boil till the custards are done.—Grate nutmeg on them.


Boil one pound of sweet potatos very tender, rub them while hot through a colander, add six eggs, well beaten, three quarters of a pound of powdered sugar, three quarters of butter, and some grated nutmeg and lemon-peel, with a glass of brandy; put a paste in the dish, and when the pudding is done, sprinkle the top with sugar, and cover it with bits of citron. Irish potato pudding is made in the same manner, but is not so good. [Page 146]


Blanch a pound of sweet almonds, pound them in a mortar with rose-water; whip the whites of seven eggs to a strong froth, put in one pound of powdered sugar, beat it some time, then put in the almonds, mix them well, and drop them on sheets of paper buttered; sift sugar over and bake them quickly. Be careful not to let the get discoloured.


Boil a quart of milk, and make it into a thick batter, with arrow root; add six eggs, half a pound of butter, the same of pounded sugar, half a nutmeg, and a little grated lemon-peel; put a paste in the dish, and bake it nicely; when done, sift sugar over it, and stick slips of citron all over the top.


Wash half a pound of sago in several waters; put it on to boil in a quart of milk, with a stick of cinnamon; stir it very frequently for it is apt to burn: when it becomes quite thick, take out the cinnamon, [Page 147] stir in half a pound of butter, and an equal quantity of sugar, with a gill of wine; when cold, add six eggs and four ounces of currants that have been plumped in hot water: bake it in a paste.


Beat six eggs, add six spoonsful of milk and six of flour, butter some cups, pour in the batter and bake them quickly; turn them out, and eat them with butter, sugar, and nutmeg.


Boil half a pound of rice in milk, until it is quite tender; beat it well with a wooden spoon to mash the grains; add three quarters of a pound of sugar, and the same of melted butter; half a nutmeg, six eggs, a gill of wine, and some grated lemon-peel; put a paste in the dish and bake it. For change, it may be boiled, and eaten with butter, sugar, and wine. [Page 148]


Take a pound of the best flour, sift it, and make it up before sunrise, with six eggs beaten light; a large spoonful of good yeast, and as much milk as will make it the consistence of bread; let it rise well; knead into it a half a pound of butter, put in a grated nutmeg, with one and a half pounds of raisins stoned and cut up; mix all well together, wet the cloth, flour it, and tie it loosely, that the pudding may have room to rise. Raisins for puddings or cakes should be rubbed in a little flour, to prevent their settling to the bottom—see that it does not stick to them in lumps.


Put a pound of sweet almonds in hot water till the skin will slip off them; pound them with a little orange flower, or rose water, to keep them from oiling; mix with them four crackers, finely pounded, or two gills of rice flour; six eggs, a pint of cream, a pound of sugar, half a pound of butter, and four-table-spoonsful of wine; put a nice paste in the bottom of your dish, garnish [Page 149] the edges, pour in the pudding, and bake in a moderate oven.


Beat sixteen eggs, add to them a quart of milk, a nutmeg, half a pound of flour, a pound of melted butter, a pound of sugar, and two gills of wine; take care the flour be not in lumps; butter the pan for the first pancake, run them as thin as possible, and when coloured, they are done; do not turn them, but lay them carefully in the dish, sprinkling powered sugar between each layer; serve them up hot. This quantity will make four dozen pancakes.


Put two quarts of milk on the fire; when it boils, pour in half a pint of white wine; strain the curd from the whey, and pound in a mortar, with six ounces of butter, and half a pound of loaf sugar, and half a pint of rice flour, or as much crackers, beaten as fine as flour; six eggs made light, and half a grated nutmeg; beat all well together and bake them in saucers in a moderate [Page 150] oven; turn them out carefully in your dish; stick thin slices of citron in them, and pour on rich melted butter, with sugar and wine.


Grate the rind from six fresh lemons, squeeze the juice from three, and strain in it; beat the yelks of sixteen eggs very light; put to them sixteen table-spoonsful of powdered loaf sugar, not heaped up; add the grated rind and the juice, with four crackers finely pounded; beat it till light, put a puff pastry in your dish, pour the pudding in, and bake it in a moderate oven; it must not be very brown.


Grate the crumb of a stale loaf, and pour on it a pint of boiling milk, let it stand an hour, then beat to a pulp; add six eggs, well beaten, half a pound of butter, the same of powdered sugar, half a nutmeg, a glass of brandy, and some grated lemon-peel; put a paste in the dish and bake it. [Page 151]


Beat six eggs very light; sift into them a pound of loaf sugar powdered, and a light pound of flour, with half a grated nutmeg and a glass of brandy; beat all together very well; and a pint of cream, pour it in a deep dish and bake it; when done, sift some powdered sugar over it.


Beat seven eggs very light, mix with them a pint of cream, and nearly as much spinach juice, with a little juice of tansey; add a quarter of a pound of powdered crackers or pounded rice made fine, a glass of wine, some grated nutmeg, and sugar; stir it over the fire to thicken, pour it into a paste and bake it.


Beat six eggs very light, add half a pint of milk, 6 oz. flour, 8 oz. grated bread, 12 oz. suet, chopped fine, a little salt: when it is beat well mix in 18 oz. preserved cherries or damsins; bake or boil it. Make a sauce of melted butter, sugar, and wine. [Page 152]


Put a crust in the bottom of a dish, put on it a layer of ripe apples pared and sliced thin, then a layer of powdered sugar; do this alternately till the dish is full; put in a few tea-spoonsful of rose-water and some cloves; put on a crust and bake it.


Take well-flavoured apples, bake, but don't burn them; rub them through a sieve, take one pound of the apples, so prepared, mix with it, while hot, half a pound of butter, and half a pound of powdered sugar; the rinds of two lemons, grated, and when cold, add six eggs, well beaten; put a paste in the bottom of a dish, and pour in the apples; half an hour will bake it; sift a little sugar on the apples when baked.


Make up a pint of flour at sun-rise, exactly as you do for bread; see that it rises well; have a large pot of water boiling, and half an hour before the puddings are to go to table, make the dough in balls, the size of a [Page 153] goose-egg; throw them in the water and boil them quickly, keeping the pot covered. they [Note: sic] must be torn asunder, as cutting will make them heavy; eat them with powdered sugar, butter, and grated nutmeg.


Wash a pint of small homony very clean, and boil it tender, add an equal quantity of corn meal, make it into a batter with eggs, milk, and a piece of butter; bake it like batter cakes on a griddle, and eat it with butter and molasses.


Beat six eggs very light, add a pint of rich milk, pare some apples, or peaches, slice them thin, make the eggs and milk into a tolerably thick batter with flour, add a small cup of melted butter, put in the fruit, and bake it in a deep dish; eat with sugar, butter, and nutmeg.


Boil one quart of milk, mix in it two gills and half of corn very smoothly, seven [Page 154] eggs well beaten, a gill of molasses, and a good piece of butter; bake it two hours.


Mix one quart of corn meal with three quarts of milk, take care it be not lumpy, add three eggs and a gill of molasses; it must be put on at sunrise, to eat at three o'clock; the great art in this pudding is tying the bag properly, as the meal swells very much.


Stew a fine sweet pumpkin till soft and dry, rub it through a sieve, mix with the pulp six eggs quite light, a quarter of a pound of butter, half a pint of new milk, some pounded ginger and nutmeg, a wine glass of brandy, and sugar to your taste. Should it be too liquid, stew it a little dryer; put a paste round the edges and in the bottom of a shallow dish or plate, pour in the mixture, cut some thin bits of paste, twist them and lay them across the top and bake it nicely.


Pare and core the apples, and if you prefer [Page 155] it, cut them in four, wash them clean, and put them in a pan with water and sugar enough to cover them; add cinnamon, and lemon peal which has been previously soaked, scraped on the inside, and cut in strings; boil them gently until the apples are done, take them out in a dish, boil the syrup to a proper consistency, and pour it on them.


Stew any kind of fruit, and season it an any way you like best; fry some slices of bread in butter, put them, while hot, in the bottom and round the sides of a dish which has been rubbed with butter, put in your fruit, and lay slices of bread on the top; bake it a few minutes, turn it carefully into another dish, sprinkle on some powdered sugar, and glaze it with a salamander.


Pare some apples and cut them in thin slices, put them in a bowl, with a glass of brandy, some white wine, a quarter of a pound of pounded sugar, a little cinnamon finely powdered and the rind of a lemon [Page 156] grated; let them stand some time, turning them over frequently; beat two eggs very light, add one quarter of a pound of flour, a tablespoonful of melted butter, and as much cold water as will make a thin batter; drip the apples on a sieve, mix them with the batter, take one slice with a spoonful of butter to each fritter, fry them quick, of a light brown, drain them well, put them in a dish, sprinkling sugar over each, and glaze them nicely.


Put a piece of butter the size of an egg into a pint of water, let it boil a few minutes, thicken it very smoothly with a pint of flour, let it remain a short time on the fire, stir it all the time that it may not stick to the pan, pour it in a wooden bowl, add five or six eggs, breaking one and beating it in, then another, and so on till they are all in and the dough quite light, put a pint of lard in a pan, let it boil, make the fritters small, and fry them of a fine amber colour.


Cut your bread of a convenient size, pour [Page 157] on it some white wine, and let it stand a few minutes, drain it on a sieve, beat four eggs very light, add four spoonsful of wine, beat all well together, have your lard boiling, dip the bread in the egg, and fry it a light brown; sprinkle sugar on each and glaze them.


Put a lump of butter the size of an egg into a quart of water, make it sufficiently thick with corn meal and a little salt; it must be mixed perfectly smooth, stir it constantly till done enough.


Beat eight eggs very light, add to them twelve ounces of flour, and one pound of sugar; when perfectly light, drop them on tin sheets, and bake them in a quick oven. [Page 158]


To one pound of flour, add half a pound of sugar, half a pound of butter, some mace and nutmeg powdered, and a glass of brandy or wine; wet it with milk, and when well kneaded, roll it thin, cut it in shapes, and bake it quickly.


One measure of jelly, one of cream, and half of one of wine; boil it fifteen minutes over a slow fire, stirring all the time, sweeten it, and add a spoonful of orange flour or rose water; cool it in a mould, turn it in a dish, and pour around it cream seasoned in any way you like.

263. RUSK.

Rub half a pound of sugar into three pounds of flour, sift it, pour on half a pint of good yeast, beat six eggs, add half a pint of milk, mix all together, and knead it well; if not soft enough, add more milk; it should be softer than bread; make it at night; in the morning, if well risen, work in six ounces of [Page 159] butter, and bake it in small rolls; when cold, slice it, lay it on tin sheets, and dry it in the oven.


Three quarts of flour, three quarters of a pound of brown sugar, a large spoonful of pounded ginger, one teaspoonful of powdered cloves, sift it, melt half a pound of butter in a quart of rich molasses, wet the flour with it, knead it well, and bake it in a slack oven.


Mix three large spoonsful of pounded ginger with three quarts of flour, sift it, dissolve three teaspoonsful of pearl ash in a cup of water, and pour it on the flour; melt half a pound of butter in a quart of molasses, mix it with the flour, knead it well, cut it in shapes, and bake it.


Take two pounds of the nicest brown sugar, dry and pound it, put it into three quarts of flour, add a large cup full of powdered ginger and sift the mixture; wash the salt out of [Page 160] a pound of butter, and cream it; have twelve eggs well beaten, work into the butter first the mixture, then the froth from the eggs, until all are in and it is quite light, add a glass or brandy; butter shallow moulds, pour it in, and bake in a quick oven.


Dry half a pound of good brown sugar, pound it and mix it with two pounds of flour and sift it; add two spoonsful of yeast, and as much new milk as will make it like bread; when well risen, knead in half a pound of butter, make in cakes the size of a half dollar, and fry them a light brown in boiling lard.


Take three pounds of flour, one and a half of pounded sugar, a teaspoonful of cloves, one of mace and one of ginger all finely powdered, pass the whole through a sieve; put to it four spoonsful of good yeast and twelve eggs, mix it up well, and if not sufficiently soft, add a little milk; make it up at night, and set it to rise; when well risen, knead into it a pound [Page 161] of butter and two gills of brandy; have ready two pounds of raisins stoned, mix all well together, pour it into a mould of proper size, and bake it in an oven heated as for bread; let it stand till thoroughly done, and do not take it from the mould until quite cold.


Wash the salt from a pound of butter and rub it till it is soft as cream, have ready a pound of flour sifted, one of powdered sugar, and twelve eggs well beaten; put alternately into the butter, sugar, flour, and the froth from the eggs; continuing to beat them together till all the ingredients are in, and the cake quite light; add some grated lemon peel, a nutmeg, and a gill of brandy; butter the pans and bake them. This cake makes an excellent pudding if baked in a large mould, and eaten with sugar and wine. It is also excellent when boiled, and served up with melted butter, sugar, and wine.


Take twelve fresh eggs, put them in the scale and balance them with sugar; take [Page 162] out half and balance the other half with flour; separate the whites from the yelks, whip them up very light, then mix them and sift in, first sugar, then flour, till both are exhausted; add some grated lemon-peel, bake them in paper cases or little tin moulds. This, also, makes an excellent pudding, with butter, sugar, and wine for sauce.


Have the following articles prepared before you begin the cake; four pounds of flour dried and sifted; four pounds of butter washed to free it from salt; two pounds of loaf sugar pounded, a quarter of a pound of mace, the same of nutmegs powdered; wash four pounds of currants clean, pick and dry them, blanch one pound of sweet almonds, and cut them in very thin slices, stone two pounds of raisins, cut them in two, and strew a little flour over, to prevent their sticking together, and two pounds of citron sliced thin; break thirty eggs, separating the yelks and whites; work the butter to a cream with your hand, put in, alternately, [Page 163] flour, sugar, and the froth from both whites and yelks, which must be beaten separately, and only the froth put in. When all are mixed, and the cake looks very light, add the spice, with half a pint of brandy, the currants and almonds; butter the mould well, pour in part of the cake, strew over it some raisins and citron, do this until all is in: set it in a well heated oven, when it has risen, and the top is coloured, cover it with paper; it will require three hour's baking—it must be iced.


Beat twelve eggs light, add to them one pound of flour, and one of powdered sugar; continue to beat all together till perfectly light; bake it in long pans, four inches wide, with divisions, so that each cake, when done, will be four inches long, and one and a half wide.


Cream one pound of butter, add a pound of powdered sugar, with a pound and a half of flour, six eggs, a grated nutmeg, and a [Page 164] gill of brandy; work it well, roll it thin, and cut it in shapes; put them on tin sheets, and bake without discolouring them.


Prepare them as directed for pound cake, add raisins and currants, bake them in small tin shapes, and ice them.


Put four ounces of sugar with three quarters of a pound of flour, make it up with two spoonsful of yeast, and half a pint of milk; when well risen, work into it four ounces of butter, make it into small buns, and bake them in a quick oven; do not burn them.


Beat eight eggs very light, add to them a pound of flour sifted, and a pound of powdered sugar; when it looks quite light, put in a pound of suet finely shread, a pint of milk, a nutmeg grated and a gill of brandy; mix with it a pound of currants, washed, picked, and dried, tie it in a thick cloth, and boil it steadily eight hours. [Page 165]

277. Marrow pudding.

Grate a large loaf of bread, and pour on the crumbs s pint of rich milk boiling hot; when cold, add four eggs, a pound of beef marrow sliced thin, a gill of brandy with sugar and nutmeg to your taste; mix all well together, and either bake or boil it; when done, stick slices of citron over the top.


Cut a loaf of bread as thin as possible, put a layer of it in the bottom of a deep dish, strew on some slices of marrow or butter, with a handful of currants or stoned raisins, do this till the dish is full; let the currants or raisins be at the top; beat four eggs, mix with them a quart of milk that has been boiled a little and become cold, a quarter of a pound of sugar, and a grated nutmeg; pour it in and bake it in a moderate oven; eat it with wine sauce.


Boil a quart of milk, and when cold, mix with it yelks of eight eggs; stir them together over the fire a few minutes, sweeten it [Page 166] to your taste, some slices of savoy cake in the bottom of a deep dish, and pour on the custard; whip the whites of the eggs to a strong froth, lay it lightly on the top, sift some sugar over it, and hold a salamander over it until it is a light brown; garnish the top with raspberry marmalade, or any kind of preserved fruit.


Take a skimmed milk that has only acquired a moderately acid taste, put it in an upright wooden vessel with a machine for drawing it off, place it in a tub, and pour hot water in the tub till it rises nearly as high as the milk in the vessel; cover the whole with a cloth to keep in the heat. In a few hours the milk separates into two parts; the upper part assuming the consistency of thick cream, that has very much the appearance of good cream, only moderately acid; the other portion that remains is a thin watery liquid, which is of a pungent acid taste, and may be easily drawn off. The cream is then fit for use. Much of the goodness of this depends upon the skill of the maker, as it is greatly affected by various [Page 167] circumstances, particularly by the degree of heat to which it is subjected, and the acidity of the milk. It is eaten with sugar and nutmeg, and considered a great delicacy.


When you find the barrel of flour a good one, empty it into a chest or box made for the purpose, with a lid that will shut close; it keeps much better in this manner than when packed in a barrel, and even improves by lying lightly; sift the quantity you intend to make up, put into a bowl three quarters of a pint of cold water to each quart of flour, with a large spoonful of yeast, and a little salt, to every quart; stir into it just as much of the flour as will make a thin batter, put half the remaining flour in the bottom of a tin kettle, pour the batter on it, and cover it with the other half; stop it close, and set it where it can have a moderate degree of warmth. When it has risen well, turn it into a bowl, work in the dry flour and knead it some minutes, return it into the kettle, stop it, and give it moderate heat. In the morning, work it a little, make it into rolls, and bake it. In [Page 168] the winter, make the bread up at three o'clock, and it will be ready to work before bed time. In summer, make it up at five o'clock. A quart of flour should weigh just one pound and a quarter.


Put half a pound of fresh hops into a gallon of water and boil it away to two quarts, then strain it and make it a thin batter with flour; add half a pint of good yeast, and when well fermented, pour it in a bowl and work in as much corn meal as will make it the consistency of biscuit dough; set it to rise, and when quite like, make it into little cakes, which must be dried in the shade, turning them very frequently; keep them securely from damp and dust. Persons who live in towns, and can procure brewer's yeast will save trouble by using it; take one quart of water, and proceed as before directed.


Take one or more cakes, according to the flour you are to make; pour on a little warm [Page 169] water; when it is dissolved, stir it well, thicken with a little flour, and set it near the fire to rise before it is used. The best thing to keep yeast in, is a small mug or pitcher, with a close stopper, under which must be placed a double fold of linen to make it still closer. This is far preferable to a bottle, and more easily cleaned.


Sift a quart of flour, put to it a little salt, and a large spoonful of yeast; beat the white of a fresh egg to a strong froth, add it, and make the flour up with cold water as soft as you can to allow it to be handled; set it in a moderately warm place. Next morning, beat it well with a spoon, put it on the griddle in a round form, and bake nicely, turning them frequently till done. [Page 170]


Sift a quart of flour, add a little salt, a spoonful of yeast, two eggs well beaten, and half a pint of milk, knead it and set it to rise; next morning, work in an ounce of butter, make the dough into small rolls, and bake them. The top crust should not be hard.


Take a quart of dough from your bread at a very early hour in the morning, break three fresh eggs, separating the yelks from the whites, whip them both to a froth, mix them with the dough, and add gradually milk warm water, till you make a better the thickness of buck wheat cakes; beat it well, and set it to rise till near breakfast time; have the griddle ready, pour on the batter to look quite round; they do not require turning.


Put a little salt, one egg beaten, and four ounces of butter, in a quart of flour; make it into a paste with new milk, beat it for half an hour with a pestle, roll the paste thin, and cut it into round cakes; bake them on a grid-iron and be careful not to burn them. [Page 171]


Boil two cups of small hominy very soft, add an equal quantity of corn meal with a little salt, and a large spoonful of butter; make it in a thin batter with three eggs, and a sufficient quantity of milk, beat all together some time, and bake them on a griddle or in waffle irons. When eggs cannot be procured, yeast makes a good substitute; put a spoonful in the batter, and let it stand an hour to rise.


Take six spoonsful of flour and three of corn meal, with a little salt; sift them and make a thin batter with flour, eggs, and a sufficient quantity of rich milk; bake it in little tin moulds in a quick oven.


Melt as much butter in a pint of milk as will make it rich as cream, make the flour into a paste with this, knead it well, roll it out frequently, cut it in squares, and bake on a griddle.


Rub four ounces of butter into a quart of [Page 172] flour, make it into paste with milk, knead it well, roll it as thin as paper, and bake it to look white.


Rub a piece of butter the size of an egg into a pint of corn meal, make a batter with two eggs and some new milk, add a spoonful of yeast, set by the fire an hour to rise butter little pans and bake it.


Boil and mash a potato, rub into it as much flour as will make it like bread, add spice and sugar to your taste, with a spoonful of yeast; when it has risen well, work in a piece of butter; bake it in small rolls, to be eaten hot with butter, either for breakfast or tea.


Boil two cups of rice quite soft, make it into a thick batter with two eggs, a spoonful of butter, and some milk; beat it till light, and bake it in waffle irons.


Make a batter of one quart of flour, three [Page 173] eggs, a quart of milk and a gill of yeast; when well risen, stir in a large spoonful of melted butter, and bake them in muffin hoops.


Put half a pound of nice brown sugar into a quart of flour, sift it and make it into a paste with four ounces of butter melted in as much milk as will wet it; knead it till light, roll it tolerably thin, cut it in strips an inch wide, and just long enough to lay in a plate; bake then on a griddle, put them in the plate in rows to checker each other and serve them to eat with chocolate.

297. WAFERS.

Make a very thin batter with eggs, milk, butter, and powdered loaf sugar, to your taste; pour it into wafer-irons, bake them very quick, without browning; roll them as you take them from the irons.


Put a large spoonful of yeast and a little salt into a quart of buck-wheat meal, make it into a batter with cold water; let it rise [Page 174] well and bake it on a griddle; it turns sour very quickly if it be allowed to stand any time after it has risen.


When ice creams are not put into shapes, they should always be served in glasses with handles.


Boil a Vanilla bean in a quart of rich milk until it has imparted the flavour sufficiently;' then take it out, and mix with the milk, eight eggs, yelks and whites, beaten well; let it boil a little longer—make it very sweet, for much of the sugar is lost in the operation of freezing.


Make a quart of rich boiled custard; when cold, pour it on a quart of ripe red raspberries, mash them in it, pass it through a sieve, sweeten and freeze it.


Is made in the same manner; the strawberries [Page 175] must be very ripe and the stems picked out. If rich cream can be procured, it will be infinitely better— the custard is intended as a substitute when cream cannot be had.


Take the nut from its shell, pare it, and grate it very fine; mix it with a quart of cream, sweeten and freeze it. If the nut be a small one, it will require one and a half to flavour a quart of cream.


Scrape a quarter of a pound of chocolate very fine, put it in a quart of milk, boil it till the chocolate is dissolved, stirring it continually; thicken with six eggs. A vanilla bean boiled with the milk, will improve the flavour greatly.


Make a rich soup, (see directions for oyster soup,) strain it from the oysters, and freeze it.


Make calf's foot jelly, not very stiff, freeze it and serve it in glasses. [Page 176]


Get fine soft peaches, perfectly ripe, peel them, take out the stones, and put them in a China bowl; sprinkle some sugar on and chop them very small, with a silver spoon; if the peaches be sufficiently ripe, they will become a smooth pulp; add as much cream or rich milk as you have peaches; put more sugar and freeze it.


Toast two gills of raw coffee till it is a light brown, and not a grain burnt; put it hot from the toaster, without grinding it, into a quart of rich, and perfectly sweet, milk; boil it, and add the yelks of eight eggs: when done, strain it through a sieve, and sweeten it— if properly done, it will not be discoloured. The coffee may be dried and will answer for making in the usual way to drink, allowing more for the quantity of water, than if it had not gone through this process.


Wash ripe quinces, and boil them whole, [Page 177] till quite tender, let them stand to drain and cool; then rub them through a hair sieve; mix with the pulp as much cochineal, finely powdered, as will make it a pretty colour; then add an equal quantity of cream, and sweeten it. Pears or apples, may be used, prepared in the same manner.


Cut the finest citron melons, when perfectly ripe, take out the seeds and slice the nicest part into a China bowl, in small pieces, that will lie conveniently, cover them with powdered sugar, and let them stand several hours, then drain off the syrup they have made, and add as much cream as it will give a strong flavour to, and freeze it. Pine apples may be used in the same way.


Pour hot water on the almonds, and let them stand till the skins will slip off, then pound them fine, and mix them with cream; a pound of almonds, in the shells, will be sufficient for a quart of cream; sweeten and freeze it. The kernels of the common black [Page 178] walnut, prepared in the same way, make an excellent cream.


Pare the yellow rind very thin from four lemons, put them in a quart of fresh cream, and boil it; squeeze and strain the juice of one lemon, saturate it complete with powdered sugar, and when the cream is quite cold, stir it in; take care that it does not curdle—if not sufficiently sweet, add more sugar.


Make a quart of rich lemonade, whip the whites of six fresh eggs to a strong froth; mix them well with the lemonade, and freeze it. The juice of morello cherries, or of currants mixed with water and sugar and prepared in the same way, make very delicate ices.


It is the practice with some indolent cooks, to set the freezer, containing the cream, in a tub with ice and salt, and put it in the ice-house; it will certainly freeze there, but [Page 179] not until the watery particles have subsided, and by the separation destroyed the cream. A freezer should be twelve or fourteen inches deep, and eight or ten wide. This facilitates the operation very much, by giving a larger surface for the ice to form, which it always does on the sides of the vessel; a silver spoon, with a long handle, should be provided for scraping the ice from the sides, as soon as formed, and when then the whole is congealed, pack it in moulds (which must be placed with care, lest they should not be upright,) in ice and salt till sufficiently hard to retain the shape—they should not be turned out till the moment they are to be served. The freezing tub must be wide enough to leave a margin of four or five inches all around the freezer when placed in the middle, which must be filled up with small lumps of ice mixed with salt—a larger tub would waste the ice. The freezer must be kept constantly in motion during the process, and ought to be made of pewter, which is less liable than tin to be worn in holes, and spoil the cream by admitting the salt water. [Page 180]


Make a quart of milk quite hot that it may not whey when baked; let it stand to get cold, and then mix six eggs with it; sweeten it with loaf sugar, and fill the custard cups, put on the covers, and set them in a Dutch oven with water, but not enough to risk its boiling into the cups; do not put on the top of the oven. When the water has boiled ten or fifteen minutes, take out a cup, and if the custard be the consistence of jelly, it is sufficiently done, serve the in the cups, with the covers on, and a tea-spoon on the dish between each cup;—grate nutmeg on the tops when cold.


Put slices of Savoy cake or Naples biscuits at the bottom of a deep dish, wet it with white wine, and fill the dish nearly to the top with rich boiled custard; season half a pint of cream with white wine and sugar, whip it to a froth; as it rises, take it lightly off and lay it on the custard; pile it up high and tastely; decorate it with preserves [Page 181] of any kind, cut so thin as not to bear the froth down by its weight.


Have the bowl nearly full of syllabub, made with white wine and sugar; beat the whites of six new laid eggs to a strong froth, then mix with it raspberry or strawberry marmalade enough to flavour and colour it; lay the froth lightly on the syllabub, first putting in some slices of cake, raise it in little mounds, and garnish with something light.


Season the milk with sugar and white wine, but not enough to curdle it; fill the glasses nearly full, and crown them with whipt cream seasoned.


Pare the rind very thin from four fresh lemons, squeeze the juice and strain it, put them both into a quart of water, sweeten it to your taste, add the whites of six eggs beat to a froth, set it over the fire, and keep stirring until it thickens, but don't let it boil, then pour [Page 182] it in a bowl; when cold, strain it through a sieve, put it on the fire, and add the yelks of the eggs; stir it till quite thick and serve it in glasses.


Is made in the same manner, but requires more juice to give a flavour.


Stir as much raspberry marmalade into a quart of cream as will be sufficient to give a rich flavour of the fruit, strain it and fill your glasses, leaving out a part to whip into froth for the top.


Put one ounce of the best tea in a pitcher, pour on it a table-spoon of water, and let it stand an hour to soften the leaves; then put to it a quart of boiling cream, cover it close, and in half an hour strain it; add four teaspoonsful of a strong infusion of rennet in water, stir it and set it on some hot ashes and cover it; when you find, by cooking a little of it, that it will jelly, pour it into glasses, and garnish with thin bits of preserved fruit. [Page 183]


Wash the sago clean, and put it on the fire with a stick of cinnamon and as much water as will boil it thick and soft; take out the cinnamon and add rich boiled custard till it is of a proper thickness, sweeten it, and serve in glasses or cups with grated nutmeg on the top.


Is made the same way; you may add a little white wine to both, it will give an agreeable flavour.


Pick the stems and blossoms from two quarts of green gooseberries, put them in a stew pan with their weight in loaf sugar and a very little water; when sufficiently stewed, pass the pulp through a sieve, and when cold, add rich boiled custard till it is like thick cream; put it in a glass bowl and lay the frothed cream on the top.


Fill a deep dish with rich milk made warm, [Page 184] set it on hot ashes, and add rennet enough to set it; when it becomes jellied, put the dish on the ice to cool, pour cream on the top, and eat it with powdered sugar and nutmeg. It is a most delicious dish for dessert in summer, but it must not be made too long before it is served, or it will lose its delicacy and become tough; neither must there be too much rennet. The proper quantity can only be ascertained by practice, as some rennet bags are stronger than others.


Put as much rennet into rich milk as will set it; when the curd is formed, take it up carefully with an egg spoon to drain off the when, lay it in a deep dish, and surround it with cream; eat it with powdered sugar. This arcadian dish must be made with judgement, lest the curd be hard.


Break one ounce of isinglass into very small pieces, wash it well, and pour on a pint of boiling water; next morning add a quart of milk, boil it till the isinglass is dissolved, [Page 185] strain it, put in two ounces sweet almonds, blanched and pounded; sweeten it and put it in the mould; when stiff, turn them into a deep dish, and put raspberry cream around them. For a change, stick thin slips of blanched almonds all over the blanc mange, and dress round with syllabub nicely frothed. Some moulds require colouring; for an ear of corn, mix the yelk of an egg, with a little of the blanc mange, fill in the grains of the corn with it, and when quite set, pour in the white, but take care it is not warm enough to melt the yellow: for a bunch of asparagus, colour a little with spinach juice, to fill the green tops of the heads. Fruits must be made the natural colour of what it represents. Cochineal and alkanet root, pounded and dissolved in brandy, make good colouring, but blanc mange should never be served without raspberry cream, or syllabub to eat with it.


Get five small eggs, make a hole at one end and empty the shells, fill them with blanc mange, when stiff and cold, take off [Page 186] the shells; pare the yellow rind very thin from six lemons, boil them in water till tender, then cut them in thin strips to resemble straw, and preserve them with sugar; fill a small deep dish half full of nice jelly, when it is set put the straw on, in form of a nest, and lay the eggs in it. It is a beautiful dish for dessert or supper.


Fill a deep glass dish half full of jelly— have as many small fish-moulds as will lie conveniently in it, fill them with blanc mange; when they are cold, and the jelly set, lay them on it as if going in different directions; put in a a little more jelly, and let it get cold to keep the fish in their places, then fill the dish so as to cover them. The jelly should be made of hog's feet, very light-coloured and perfectly transparent.

331. Little dishes for a second course or supper:

Roast two pheasants in the nicest manner: get a deep dish, the size and form of the one you intend to serve the pheasants in—it [Page 187] must be as deep as a tureen; put in savoury jelly about an inch and a half at the bottom; when that is set and the pheasants cold, lay them on the jelly, with their breasts down; fill the dish with jelly up to their backs, take care it is not warm enough to melt the other, and that the birds are not displaced; just before it is to be served, set it a moment in hot water to loosen it; put the dish on the top, and turn it out carefully.


Truss six partridges neatly, cover them with thin slices of fat bacon, taken from the top of a middling, this keeps them white, and gives a good flavour; they must be wrapped entirely in it; roast them, and when done, take off the bacon; let them get cold, and use jelly as for the pheasants.


Boil as many large white perch as will be sufficient for the dish; do not take off their heads, and be careful not to break their skins; when cold, place them in the dish, and cover [Page 188] them with savoury jelly broken. A nice piece of rock-fish is excellent done in the same way.


Roast two half-grown chickens, cut off the legs and wings, pull the breast from each side entire, take the skin from all the pieces, lay it in the dish, and cover it with jelly.


Put eight or ten pounds of coarse lean beef, or the same quantity of the inferior parts of the fore quarter of veal, into a pot with two gallons of water; a pound of lean salt pork, three large onions chopped, three carrots, a large handful of parsely, and any sweet herb that you choose, with pepper and salt; boil it very gently till reduced to two quarts; strain it through a sieve; next day take off the fat, turn out the jelly, and separate it from the dregs at the bottom; put it on the fire with half a pint of white wine, a large spoonful of lemon pickle, and the whites and shells of four eggs beaten: when it boils clear on one side, run it through the jelly bag. [Page 189]


Bone a small turnkey, put pepper and salt on the inside, and cover it with slices of boiled ham or tongue; fill it with well-seasoned forcemeat, sew it up and boil it:—cover it with jelly.


Turn a bowl on the dish, and put o it, in regular rings, beginning at the bottom, the following ingredients, all minced: anchovies with the bones taken out, the white meat of fowls, without the skin, hard boiled eggs, the yelks and whites chopped separately, parsley, the lean of old ham scraped, the inner stalks of celery; put a row of capers round the bottom of the bowl, and dispose the others in a fanciful manner; put a little pyramid of butter on the top, and have a small glass with egg mixed as for sallad to eat with the salmagundi.


Put some soup or gravy from any of the dishes on the table, into the stew-dish; add a good portion of pepper, vinegar, wine, catsup, [Page 190] and salt; let it be very highly seasoned; broil the legs, liver, and gizzard, of a turkey, the kidney of veal, or any thing you fancy: cut it up in small pieces when broiled, put it in the gravy and stew it at table.


Lay the perch in a deep dish with the heads on; sprinkle salt, pepper, and a little chopped onion over each layer; when they are all in, take as much water as will be sufficient to fill the dish a little more than half full; add a gill of wine, one of catsup, a little lemon pickle, and spice; cover the dish with a tin sheet, set it in the oven, and let it stew gently till done; when it is cold, take out the fish, without breaking, and put them in another dish, with the jelly attached to them.


The preserving pan should be made of bell metal, flat at the bottom, very large in diameter but not deep. It should have a cover to fit closely, and handles at the sides of the pan, for taking it off with ease when the syrup [Page 191] boils to fast. There should also be a large chafingdish with long legs, for the conveneince of moving it to any part of the room. The process is a tedious one, and if the superintendant be not comfortably situated, the preserves cannot be properly managed. A ladle the size of a saucer, pierced, and having a long handle, will be necessary, for taking up the fruit without syrup. When a chafingdish cannot be procured, the best substitute is a brick stove with a grating to burn charcoal. The sugar should be of the best double refined, but if the pure amber coloured sugar house syrup from the West Indies can be got it is greatly superior; it never ferments, and the trouble is very much lessened by having ready made syrup, in which it is only necessary to boil the fruit till clear. All delicate fruit should be done gently and not allowed to remain more than half an hour after it begins to stew, before it is laid on dishes to cool; it must be put into the syrup again for the same time; continue this until it is sufficiently transparent. The advantage of this method is, that the preserves are less liable to boil to pieces, then when done all at one time. It [Page 192] is injudicious to put more in the pan at once than can lie on the bottom without crowding. The pan must be made bright, and nothing permitted to cool in it, lest it should canker. Delicate preserves should be kept in small glasses or pots that will not hold more than one or two pounds, for the admission of air injures them; put letter paper wet with brandy on the preserves, and cover the tops with many folds of soft paper that will tie round closely; keep them in a dry place and expose them occasionally to the sun to check fermentation; fruit for preserving should be in full perfection, but not too ripe.


Get the finest yellow clingstones, pare them, and lay them in a bowl, have their weight of sugar pounded, and sprinkle it over them as they are put in; let them stand two or three hours, put them together with the sugar into the pan, add a little water, and let the peaches remain till thoroughly scalded, take them out with the ladle, draining off the syrup; should there not be enough to cover the peaches, add more water, boil it and skim it, [Page 193] return the fruit, and do them gently till quite clear. Have some stones cracked, blanch the kernels and preserve them with the peaches.


Pare the peaches and cut them in as large slices as possible, have their weight in sugar, and preserve them as the others.


Get yellow soft peaches that are not quite ripe, pare and divide them, scrape the places where the stones lay with a teaspoon, and follow the former directions.


Take the ripest soft peaches, (the yellow ones make the prettiest marmalade,) pare them and take out the stones; put them in the pan with one pound of dry light coloured brown sugar to two of peaches; when they are juicy they do not require water; with a silver or wooden spoon, chop them with the sugar, continue to do this, and let them boil gently till they are a transparent pulp that will be a jelly when cold. Puffs made of this marmalade are very delicious. [Page 194]


Slice them thin, and boil them till clear in a syrup made with half their weight of sugar, lay them on dishes in the sun, and turn them till dry; pack them in pots with powdered sugar sifted over each layer; should there be syrup left, continue the process with other peaches. They are very nice when done with pure honey instead of sugar.

346. PEARS.

The small pears are better for preserving than large one. Pare them and make a syrup with their weight of sugar and a little water, leave the stem on, and stick a clove in the blossom end of each; stew them till perfectly transparent.


Boil the pears till soft; when cold, rub the pulp through a sieve and boil it to a jelly, allowing one pound of sugar to two of pears.


Select the finest and most perfect quinces, lay them on shelves, but do not let them [Page 195] touch each other, keep them till they look yellow and have a fragrant smell; put as many in the preserving pan as can lie conveniently, cover them with water and scald them well, then take out the cores and put them in water, cover the pan and boil them some time, strain the water, add to it the weight of the quinces in pounded loaf sugar, dissolve and skim it, pare the quinces, put them in the pan, and should there not be syrup enough to cover them, add more water; stew them till quite transparent. They will be light colored if kept covered during the process, and red if the cover be taken off. Fill the space the cores occupied with quince jelly before they are put into the pots, and cover them with syrup.


Prepare the quinces as before directed, take off the stems and blossoms, wash them clean, and cut them in slices without paring; fill the pan and pour in water to cover them, stew then gently, putting in a little water occasionally, till they are soft; then pour them into a jelly bag, let all the liquor run through [Page 196] without pressing it, which must be set aside for the best jelly; to each pint of this put a pound of loaf sugar pounded, and boil it to a jelly. The bag may be squeezed for an inferior, but a very nice jelly.


Boil the quinces in water until soft, let them cool, and rub all the pulp through a sieve; put two pounds of it to one of sugar, pound a little cochineal, sift it through a fine muslin, and mix it with the quince to give a colour; pick out the seeds, tie them in a muslin bag, and boil them with the marmalade; when it is a thick jelly, take out the seeds and put it in pots.


The most beautiful cherries to preserve are the carnation, and common red, with short stems; select the finest that are not too ripe; take an equal weight with the cherries of double refined sugar, make it into a syrup, and preserve them without stoning and with the stems on: if they be done carefully, and the “Directions for preserving” [Page 197] closely attended to, the stems will not come off, and they will be so transparent that the stones may be seen.


Take out the stones with a quill over a deep dish, to save the juice that runs from them; put to the juice, a pound of sugar for each pound of cherries, weighed after they are stoned; boil and skim the syrup, then put in the fruit and stew till quite clear.


Stone them and save the juice; weigh the cherries and allow one pound of good brown sugar to three of the fruit; boil it with the juice, put the cherries in, stew them fifteen or twenty minutes, take them out, drain the syrup, and lay the cherries in dishes to to dry in the sun; keep the syrup to pour over, a little at a time, as it dries on the cherries, which must be frequently turned over; when all the syrup is used, put the cherries away in pots, sprinkling a little powdered loaf sugar between the layers. They make excellent pies, puddings, and charlottes. [Page 198]


To each pound of ripe red, or English raspberries, put one pound of loaf sugar; stir it frequently, and stew till it is a thick jelly.


Get the largest strawberries before they are too ripe; have the best loaf sugar, one pound to each of strawberries; stew them very gently, taking them out to cool frequently, that they may not be mashed;—when they look clear, they are done enough.


Is made in the same manner as the raspberry, and is very fine to mix with cream, for blanc mange, puffs, sweet-meat puddings, &c. &c.


Select young gooseberries, make a syrup with one pound of loaf sugar, to each of fruit; stew them till quite clear, and the syrup becomes thick, but do not let them be [Page 199] mashed. They are excellent made into tarts; do not cover the pan while they are stewing.


Take freshly gathered apricots, not too ripe; to half their weight of loaf sugar, add as much water as will cover the fruit, boil and skim it; then put in the apricots, and let them remain five or six minutes; take them up without syrup, and lay them on dishes to cool; boil the syrup till reduced one half: when the apricots are cold, put them in bottles and cover them with equal quantities of syrup and French brandy. If the apricots be cling-stones, they will require more scalding.


Get yellow soft peaches, perfectly free from defect, and newly gathered, but not too ripe; place them in a pot and cover them with cold weak lie, turn over those that float frequently, that the lie may act equally on them; at the end of an hour, take them out, wipe them carefully and with a soft cloth, to get off the down and skin, and lay [Page 200] them in cold water; make a syrup as for the apricots, and proceed in the same manner, only scald the peaches more.


Get the short stemmed bright red cherries, in bunches; make a syrup with equal quantities of sugar and cherries, scald the cherries, but do not let the skins crack, which they will do if the fruit be too ripe.


Select those that are free from blemish, make a syrup with half their weight of sugar, and preserve them in the same manner as directed for apricots—green gages. The large amber, and blue plums are also excellent done in the same way.


Grate the yellow rind from two dozen fine fresh lemons, quarter them, but leave them whole at the bottom, sprinkle salt on them, and put them in the sun every day until dry; then brush off the salt, put them in a pot with one ounce of nutmegs and one of mace [Page 201] pounded, a large handful of horse radish scraped and dried, two dozen cloves of garlic, and a pint of mustard seed; pour on one gallon of strong vinegar, tie the pot close, put a board on, and let it stand three months; strain it, and when perfectly clear bottle it.


Gather a peck of tomatas, pick out the stems, and wash them; put them on the fire without water, sprinkle on a few spoonsful of salt, let them boil steadily an hour, stirring them frequently, strain them through a colander, and then through a sieve; put the liquid on the fire with half a pint of chopped onions, a quarter of an ounce of mace broke into small pieces, and if not sufficiently salt, add a little more, one tablespoonful of whole black pepper, boil all together until just enough to fill two bottles; cork it tight.—Make in August.


Gather full grown tomatas while quite green, take out the stems and stew them till soft, rub them through a sieve, put the pulp on the fire seasoned highly with pepper, salt, [Page 202] and pounded cloves; add some garlic and stew all together till thick; it keeps well, and is excellent for seasoning gravies, &c. &c.


Prepare it in the same manner, mix some loaf sugar with the pulp, and stew until it is a still jelly.


Get one dozen pods of pepper when ripe, take out the stems, and cut them in two; put them in a kettle with three pints of vinegar, boil it away to one quart and strain it through a sieve. A little of this is excellent in gravy of every kind, and gives a flavour greatly superior to black pepper; it is also very fine when added to each of the various catsups for fish sauce.


Take the flaps of the proper mushrooms from the stems, wash them, add some salt, and crush them; then boil them some time, strain them through a cloth, put them on the fire again with salt to your taste, a few [Page 203] cloves of garlic, and a quarter of an ounce of cloves pounded, to a peck of mushrooms; boil it till reduced to less than half the original quantity, bottle and cork it well.


Pick the tarragon nicely from the stem, let it lie in a dry place forty-eight hours, put it in a pitcher, and to one quart of the leaves put thre pints of strong vinegar; cover it close, and let it stand a week; then strain it, and after standing in the pitcher till quite clear, bottle it and cork it closely.


One ounce turmerick, one do. coriander seed, one do. cummin seed, one do. white ginger, one of nutmeg, one of mace, and one of cayenne pepper; pound all together, and pass them through a fine sieve; bottle and cork it well; one teaspoonful is sufficient to season any made dish.


Gather them full grown, but quite young; take off the green rind, and slice them tolerably thick; put a layer in a deep dish, strew [Page 204] over it some chopped onion and salt, do this until they are all in; sprinkle salt on the top, let them stand six hours, put them in a colander, when all the liquor has run off, put them in a pot, strew a little cayenne pepper over each layer, and cover them with strong cold vinegar; when the pot is full, pour on some sweet oil and tie it up close.


Gather the melons a size larger than a goose egg, put them in a pot, pour boiling salt and water made strong upon them, and cover them up; next day, cut a slit from the stem to the blossom end, and take out the seeds carefully, return them to the brine, and let them remain in it eight days; then put them in strong vinegar for a fortnight, wipe the insides with a soft cloth, stuff them and tie them, pack them in a pot with the slit uppermost, strew some of the stuffing over each layer, and keep them covered with the best vinegar.


Wash a pound of white race ginger very clean, pour boiling water on it, and let it stand [Page 205] twenty-four hours; slice it thin, and dry it; one pound of horse radish scraped and dried, one pound of mustard seed washed and dried, one pound of chopped onion, on ounce mace, one of nutmeg pounded fine, two ounces of turmeric, and a handful of whole black pepper; make these ingredients into a paste with a quarter of a pound of mustard and a large cup of sweet oil; put a clove of garlic to each mango.


One pound of ginger sliced and dried, one of horse radish scraped and dried, one of mustard seed washed and dried, one ounce long pepper, an ounce of mace and one of nutmegs finely pounded; put all these ingredients in a pot, pour two gallons of strong vinegar on, and let it stand twelve months, stirring it very frequently. When this vinegar is used for the pickles, put two gallons more vinegar, with some mace and nutmegs, and keep it for another year. The articles for the yellow pickle must be scalded, dried, and soaked a fortnight in plain vinegar with some turmeric [Page 206] in it; then put them in a pot, and pour on the prepared vinegar, mixing some turmeric with it. The green pickles should be made green by pouring boiling salt and water on them every morning for several days, and covering them close to keep in the steam; as they become green, put them in vinegar and turmeric, and at the end of the fortnight, put them in a pot, and cover them with the prepared vinegar, adding some turmeric. When the prepared vinegar is poured from the ingredients, do it very carefully, that it may be quite clear. Pickles keep much better when the vinegar is not boiled. The turmeric should be mixed up with oil, and made thin with vinegar before it is put into the pickle pot. Should the green pickles at any time loose their colour, it may be restored by adding a little more turmerick. All pickles are best when they are one or two years old.


Get white onions that are not too large, cut the stem close to the root with a sharp knife, put them in a pot of, pour on boiling salt and water to cover them, stop the pot closely, [Page 207] let them stand a fortnight, changing the salt and water every three days; they must be stirred daily, or those that float will become soft; at the end of this time, take off the skin and the outer shell, put them in plain cold vinegar with a little turmeric. If the vinegar be not very pale, the onion will not be of a good colour.


Gather the berries when full grown, but young, put them in a pot, pour boiling salt and water on, and let them stand three or four days; then drain off the water, and cover them with cold water, and cover them with cold vinegar; add a few blades of mace and whole grains of black pepper.


Cut them in nice bunches as soon as they are fully formed; they must be young and tender: pour boiling salt and water on them, cover with a thick cloth and pewter plate, to keep in the steam; repeat this every day till they are a good green, then put them in cold vinegar, with mace and whole pepper; [Page 208] mix a little turmeric with a small portion of oil, and stir it into the vinegar; it will make the pods of a more lively green. They are very pretty for garnishing meats.


The walnuts should be gathered when the nut is so young that you can run a pin into it easily; pour boiling salt and water on and let them be covered with it nine days, changing it every third day; take them out and put them on dishes in the air for a few minutes, taking care to turn them over; this will make them black much sooner; put them in a pot, strew over some whole pepper, cloves, a little garlic, mustard seed, and horse radish scraped and dried, cover them with strong cold vinegar.


Gather the large bell pepper when quite young, leave the seeds in and the stem on, cut a slit in one side, between the large veins, to let the water in; pour boiling salt and water on, changing it every day or three weeks—you must keep them closely stopped; [Page 209] if, at the end of this time, they be a good green, put them in pots and cover them with cold vinegar and a little turmeric; those that are not sufficiently green, must be continued under the same process till they are so. Be careful not to cut through the large veins, as the heat will instantly diffuse itself through the pod.


Gather the walnuts as for pickling, and keep them in salt and water the same time; then pound them in a marble mortar; to every dozen walnuts, put a quart of vinegar; stir them well every day for a week, then put them in a bag and press all the liquor through; to each quart, put a tea-spoonful of pounded cloves, and one of mace, with six cloves of garlic; boil it fifteen or twenty minutes and bottle it.


Gather them while the shell is soft; green them with salt and water, as before directed; [Page 210] when a good green, soak them in plain vinegar for a fortnight, and put them in the yellow pickle-pot.


Pour boiling salt and water on, and cover them close; next day take them out, dry them, and after standing in vinegar, put them with the yellow pickle. The intention of keeping all pickles in plain vinegar, previous to their being put in the prepared pot, is to draw off the water with which they are saturated, that they may not weaken the vinegar of the pot. The best way to dry all articles for yellow pickle, is to take advantage of a clear hot day, and put them in full sun-shine, on a table covered with a soft thick cloth, pinning the corners round the table, to prevent its blowing up over the articles; the cloth absorbs the moisture, and by turning them frequently on a dry place, they become white, and of course take the colour of the turmeric better: one day of clear hot sun-shine is sufficient to prepare them for the first vinegar. [Page 211]


To three gallons of water, put three pounds of sugar and four ounces of race ginger, washed in many waters to cleanse it; boil them together for one hour, and strain it through a sieve; when luke-warm, put it in a cask, with three lemons cut in slices, and two gills of beer yeast; shake it well and stop the cask very tight; let it stand a week to ferment, and if not clear enough to bottle, it must remain until it becomes so; it will be fit to drink in ten days after bottling.

383. ORGEAT, A necessary Refreshment at all parties.

Boil two quarts of milk with a stick of cinnamon, and let it stand to be quite cold, first taking out the cinnamon; blanch four ounces of the best sweet almonds, pound them in a marble mortar with a little rose-water; mix them well with the milk, sweeten it to your taste, and let it boil a few minutes only, lest the almonds should be oily; strain it through a very fine sieve, till quite smooth and free from the almonds; serve it up either cold or luke-warm in glasses with handles. [Page 212]


Gather ripe morello cherries, pick them from the stalk, and put them in an earthen pot, which must be set into an iron pot of water; make the water boil, but take care that none of it gets into the cherries; when the juice is extracted, pour it into a bag made of tolerably thick cloth which will permit the juice to pass, but not the pulp of your cherries; sweeten it to your taste, and when it becomes perfectly clear, bottle; put a gill of brandy into each bottle before you pour in the juice, cover the corks with rosin. It will keep all summer in a dry cool place, and is delicious mixed with water.


Gather full ripe currants on a dry day, pick them from the stalks, and weigh them; then crush them with your hands, leaving none whole; for every two pounds of currants put one quart of water, stir all well together, and let it stand three hours, and strain the liquor through a sieve; then, for every three pounds of currants, put one pound of powdered loaf sugar, stir it till the sugar is dissolved, boil it, [Page 213] and keep skimming it as long as any scum will rise; let it stand sixteen hours to cool before you put it in the cask; stop it very close. If the quantity be twenty gallons, let it stand three weeks before you bottle it; if it be thirty gallons, it must remain a month; it should be perfectly clear when drawn off; put a lump of sugar in each bottle, cork it well, and keep it in a cool place, or it will turn sour. This is a pleasant and cheap wine, and if properly made, will keep good for many years. It makes an agreeable beverage for the sick, when mixed with water.


Get equal quantities of morello and common black cherries, fill your cask, and pour on (to a ten gallon cask) one gallon of boiling water; in two or three hours, fill it up with brandy, let it stand a week, then draw off all, and put another gallon of boiling water, and fill it again with brandy; at the end of the week, draw the whole off, empty the cask of the cherries, and pour in your brandy with water to reduce the strength; first dissolving one pound of brown sugar in each [Page 214] gallon of your mixture. If the brandy be very strong, it will bear water enough to make the cask full.


Gather leaves from fragrant roses without bruising, fill a pitcher with them, and cover them with French brandy; next day, pour off the brandy, take out the leaves, and fill the pitcher with fresh ones, and return the brandy; do this till it is strongly impregnated, then bottle it; keep the pitcher closely covered during the process. It is better than distilled rose water for cakes, &c.


Gather ripe clingstone peaches, wipe off the down, cut them to the stone in several places, and put them in a cask; when filled with peaches, pour on as much peach brandy as the cask will hold, let it stand six or eight weeks, then draw it off, put in water until reduced to the strength of wine; to each gallon of this, add one pound of good brown sugar, dissolve it, and pour the cordial into a cask just large enough to hold it; when perfectly clear it is fit for use. [Page 215]


To each quart or ripe red raspberries, put one quart of best French brandy, let it remain about a week, then strain it through a sieve or bag, pressing out all the liquid; when you have got as much as you want, reduce the strength to your taste with water, and put a pound of powdered loaf sugar to each gallon; let it stand till refined. Strawberry cordial is made the same way. It destroys the flavour of these fruits to put them on the fire.


Put a quart of ripe red raspberries in a bowl; pour on them a quart of strong well-flavoured vinegar, let them stand 24 hours, strain them through a bag, put this liquid on another quart of fresh raspberries, which strain in the same manner, and then on a third quart; when this last is prepared, make it very sweet with pounded loaf sugar; refine and bottle it. It is a delicious beverage mixed with iced water.


Pick the mint early in the morning, while [Page 216] the dew is on it, and be careful not to bruise it; pour some water over it and drain it; put two handsful into a pitcher with a quart of French brandy, cover it and let it stand till next day; take the mint carefully out, and put in as much more, which must be taken out next day; do this the third time; then put three quarts of water to the brandy, and one pound of loaf sugar powdered; mix it well together, and when perfectly clear, bottle it.


Mix your mead in the proportion of 36 oz. of honey to four quarts of warm water; when the honey is completely held in solution, pour it into a cask. When fermented, and become perfectly clear, bottle and cork it well. If properly prepared, it is a pleasant and wholesome drink, and in summer, particularly, grateful on account of the large quantity of carbonic acid gas, which it contains. Its goodness, however, depends greatly on the time of bottling, and other circumstances, which can only be acquired by practice. [Page 217]


Cut six fresh lemons in thin slices, put them into a quart and a half of milk, boil it until the whey is very clear, then pass it through a sieve; put to this whey, one and a half quarts of French brandy, and three pounds of powdered loaf sugar; stir it till the sugar is dissolved; let it stand to refine, and bottle it: pare some of the yellow rind of the lemons very thin, and put a little in each bottle.


Boil a handful of hops, and twice as much of the chippings of sassafras root, in ten gallons of water; strain it, and pour in, while hot, one gallon of molasses, two spoonsful of the essence of spruce, two spoonsful of powdered ginger, and one of pounded allspice; put it in a cask: when sufficiently cold, add half a pint of good yeast; stir it well, stop it close, and when fermented and clear, bottle it, and cork it tight.


Put five quarts of hops, and five of wheat [Page 218] bran, into fifteen gallons of water; boil it three or four hours, stran it, and pour it into a cask with one head taken out; put in five quarts of molasses, stir it till well mixed, throw a cloth over the barrel; when moderately warm, add a quart of good yeast, which must be stirred in; then stop it close with a cloth and board. When it has fermented and become quite clear, bottle it:—the corks should be soaked in boiling water an hour or two, and the bottles perfectly clean and well drained.


Get lemons quite free from blemish, squeeze them and strain the juice; to each pint of it, put a pound of good loaf sugar pounded; stir it frequently until the sugar is completely dissolved, cover the pitcher closely, and let it stand till the dregs have subsided, and the syrup is transparent; have bottles perfectly clean and dry, put a wine-glass full of French brandy into each bottle, fill it with syrup, cork it and dip the neck into melted rosin or pitch; keep them in a [Page 219] cool dry cellar—do not put it on the fire, it will destroy the fine flavour of the juice.

Pour water on the peels of the lemons, let them soak till you can scrape all the white pulp off, then boil the peel till soft; preserve them with half their weight of sugar, and keep them for mince-pies, cakes, &c.: they are a very good substitute for citron.


To one measure of sugar, put seven measures of water, moderately warm; dissolve it completely; put it into a cask, stir in yeast, in the proportion of a pint to eight gallons: stop it close, and keep it in a warm place till sufficiently sour.


To one quart of clear honey, put eight quarts of warm water; mix it well together: when it has passed through the acetous fermentation, a white vinegar will be formed, in many respects better than the ordinary vinegar.


Boil two pounds of sugar with four quarts [Page 220] of vinegar, down to a syrup, and bottle it. This makes an excellent beverage when mixed with water, either with or without the addition of brandy. It is nearly equal in flavour of the syrup of lime juice, when made with superior vinegar.


Put a portion of acetate of potash, (sal diureticus,) into a smelling bottle, mix gradually with it half its weight of sulphuric acid, and add a few drops of oil of lavender.


Take lavender, rosemary, sage, wormwood, rue, and mint, of each a large handful; put them in a pot of earthen ware, pour on them four quarts of very strong vinegar, cover the pot closely, and put aboard on the top; keep it in the hottest sun two weeks, then strain and bottle it, putting in each bottle a clove of garlic. When it has settled in the bottle and become clear, pour it off gently; do this until you get it all free from sediment. The proper time to make it is when the herbs are in full vigour, in June. The vinegar is very [Page 221] refreshing in crowded rooms, in the apartments of the sick, and is peculiarly grateful when sprinkled about the house in damp weather.


Put a pint of highly rectified spirits of wine, to one ounce of essential oil of lavender, and two drachms of ambergris; shake them well together and keep it closely stopped.


One pint spirits of wine, one ounce oil of rosemary, and two drachms essence of ambergris.


Take a pound of castile or any other nice old soap, scrap it in small pieces, and put it on the fire with a little water; stir it till it becomes a smooth paste, pour it into a bowl, and when cold, add some lavender water, or essence of any kind, beat it with a silver spoon until well mixed, thicken it will corn meal, and keep it in small pots closely covered, for the admission of air will soon make the soap hard. [Page 222]


Get nice sweet lard that has no salt in it, put in any agreeable perfume, beat it to a cream, and put it in small pots.


Put on the fire any quantity of lie you chuse that is strong enough to bear an egg, to each gallon add three quarters of a pound of clean grease, boil it very fast and stir it frequently; a few good hours will suffice to make it good soap. When you find by cooling a little on a plate that it is a thick jelly and no grease appears, put in salt in the proportion of one pint to three gallons, let it boil a few minutes and pour it in tubs to cool; (should the soap be thin, add a little water to that in the plate, stir it well, and by that means ascertain how much water is necessary for the whole quantity; very strong lie will require water to thicken it after the incorporation is complete; this must be done before the salt is added.) Next day, cut out the soap, melt it, and cool it again; this takes out all the lie, and keeps the soap from shrinking when dried. A strict conformity to these rules will banish [Page 223] the lunar bugbear which has so long annoyed soap makers. Should cracknels be used, there must be one pound to each gallon. Kitchen grease should be clarified in a quantity of water, or the salt will prevent its incorporating with the lie. Soft soap is made in the same manner only omitting the salt. It may also be made by putting the lie and grease together in exact proportions, and placing it under the influence of a hot sun for eight or ten days, stirring it well four or five times a day.


Wash a peck of good wheat and pick it very clean, put it in a tub and cover it with water; it must be kept in the sun, and the water changed every day, or it will smell very offensively. When the wheat becomes quite soft, it must be well rubbed in the hands, and the husks thrown into a another tub; let the white substance settle, then pour off the water, put on fresh, stir it up well, and let it subside; do this every day till the water comes off clear; then pour it off, collect the starch in a bag, tie it up tight, and set it in the sun a few days, then open it and dry the starch on dishes. [Page 224]


Dissolve a piece of allum in strong lie, skim it carefully, mix in it some soap, wash the silver, and dry with a clean cloth.


A quarter of a pound of ivory black, two ounces of sugar candy, a quarter of an ounce of gum tragacanth, pound them all very fine, boil a bottle of porter, and stir the ingredients in while boiling hot.


Wash them in warm water and wipe them till quite dry, then touch them lightly over without smearing the handles, with rotten stone made wet; let it dry on them, and then rub with a clean cloth until they are bright. With this mode of cleaning, one set of knives and forks will serve a family twenty years; they will require the frequent use of a steel to keep them with a keen edge, but must never be put into very hot water, lest the handles be injured. [Page 225]


Have the moulds quite clean, and put very nice wick into them; cut the tallow in small pieces, put it into a tin vessel with a spout to it, set it in boiling water, and stir it until the tallow is melted, then fill the moulds; do not let it boil, for that makes it oily and it will scale off. When the candles are cold, wipe the moulds with a cloth dipped in hot water until they can be drawn with ease.